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Aboard on a ship, train, plane or other vehicle Abroad to or in a foreign country absolute perfect or complete or pure absorb take up mentally abstract a sketchy summary of the main points of an
argument or theory

abundant adj. present in great quantity accent distinctive manner of oral expression access the right to enter;a way of entering or leaving accident anything that happens by chance without
apparent

an

cause;a mishap; especially one causing injury or death accommodation: making or becoming suitable; adjusting
to circumstances

accompany go or travel along with according as reported or stated by,in agreement with account a formal contractual relationship established
provide for regular banking or brokerage or business services

to

accumulate get or gather together accurate conforming exactly or almost exactly to fact or to
a standard or performing with total accuracy

accuse

blame for, make a claim of wrongdoing or

misbehavior against; level a charge against

accustomed in the habit of or adapted to ache a dull persistent pain; feel physical pain achievement the action of accomplishing something acknowledge declare to be true or admit the existence or
reality or truth of

acquire
abstract

come into the possession of something concrete or

action something done; the state of being active activity any specific behavior actual taking place in reality; not pretended or imitated adapt make fit for, or change to suit a new purpose addition the act of adding one thing to another address a sign in front of a house or business carrying the
conventional form by which its location is described

adequate enough to meet a purpose adjust place in a line or arrange so
straight

as to be parallel or

admire feel admiration for admission the act of admitting someone to enter adopt take up and practice as one's own adult a fully developed person from maturity onward

advance
toward a goal

a movement forward, the act of moving forward

advantage adventure
outcome

the quality of having a superior or more

favorable position put at risk; take a risk in the hope of a favorable

advertisement
service

n. a public promotion of some product or

affair afford agency

a vaguely specified concern; a vaguely specified

social event be able to spare or give up an administrative unit of government ;a business

that serves other businesses

agenda a list of matters to be taken up (as at a meeting) agreement the thing arranged or agreed to agriculture a large-scale farming enterprise; the practice of
cultivating the land or raising stock

aid give help or assistance; be of service airline a commercial enterprise that
flights for passengers

provides scheduled

alarm fear resulting from the awareness of danger alcohol a liquor or brew containing alcohol as the

active

agent

Allowance: an amount of money that is given to sb regularly
or for a particular purpose

Alphabet: a set of letters or symbols in a fixed order used for
writing a language

Alter: to make changes to a piece of clothing so that it will fit
you better

Alternative:

any type of treatment that does not use the

usual scientific methods of Western medicine.

Ambassador: an official who lives in a foreign country as
the senior representative there of his or her own country.

Ambition: the desire of determination to be successful, rich,
powerful, etc

Analysis: the detail study of examination of sth in order to
understand more about it; the result of the study

Ancestor: a person in your family who lived a long time ago Ancient: belonging to a period of history that is thousands of
years in the past

Anniversary: a date that is an exact number of years after
the date of an important of special event

Announce:

(sth) (to sb) to tell people sth officially,

especially about a decision, plan, etc.

Anticipate: to expect sth Anxiety :(about/ over sth)

the state of feeling nervous of

worried that sth bad is going to happen

Apology: a word or statement saying sorry for sth that has
been done wrong or that courses a problem.

Apparent:

the way that sb/ sth look on the outside; what

sb/sth seems to be

Appetite: physical desire for food Application: a formal (often written) request for sth, such
as a job, permission to do sth or a place at a college or university.

Appointment: a formal arrangement to meet or visit sb at a
particular time, especially.

Appreciate:
welcome sth

to be grateful for sth that sb has done; to

Approach: sth in distance or time Appropriate: suitable, acceptable
particular circumstances

or correct for the

Approval:

the feeling that sb/sth is good or acceptable; a

positive opinion of sb/sth

Arbitration: the official process of settling an argument or a
disagreement by sb who is not involved

Argument:

a conversation or discussion in which two or

more people disagree, often angrily

Arrange: a person who arranges music that has been written
by sb different.

Arrest: if the police arrest sb, the person is taken to a police
station and kept there because the police believe they may be guilty of a crime

Arrival: an act of coming or being brought to a place Article: a piece of writing about a particular subject
newspaper or magazine

in a

Artificial: made or produced to copy sth natural; not real
Ash:

Assignment: a task or piece of work that sb is given to do,
usually as part of their job or studies

Assist: to help sb to do sth Association: an official

group of people who have joined

together for a particular purpose

Assume: to think or accept that sth is true but without having
proof of it

Assure:

to tell sb that sth is definitely true or is definitely

going to happen, especially when they have doubts about it

Athlete: a person who competes in sports

Atmosphere: the mixture of gases that surrounds the earth Attach: to fasten or join one thing to another. Attack: an act of using violence to try to hurt or kill sb attempt:earnest and conscientious activity intended to do or
accomplish something;

attitude: attractive

a complex mental state involving beliefs and

feelings and values and dispositions to act in certain ways :pleasing to the eye or mind especially through

beauty or charm

audience: a gathering of spectators or listeners at a (usually
public) performance

authority:
decisions

the power or right to give orders or make

automatic: light machine gun available :obtainable or accessible
service

and ready for use or

avoid await award awful

keep away from; keep out of the way of someone or

something look forward to the probable occurrence of a grant made by a law court exceptionally bad or displeasing

awkward

causing inconvenience; lacking grace or skill in

manner or movement or performance

B bachelor : a man who has never been married background: the part of a scene (or picture) that lies behind objects in the foreground baggage: a case used to carry belongings when traveling balance: a state of equilibrium banquet: a ceremonial dinner party for many people bare: completely unclothed bargain: an agreement between parties (usually arrived at
after discussion) fixing obligations of each

barrier: a structure or object that impedes free movement basis: a relation that provides the foundation for something battle: a hostile meeting of opposing military forces in the
course of a war

bear:

give birth (to a newborn); put up with something or

somebody unpleasant

beast: a living organism characterized by voluntary movement beauty: a very attractive or seductive looking woman

behalf: for someone's benefit behavior: manner of acting or conducting yourself belief: any cognitive content held as true bench: a long seat for more than one person beneath: in or to a place that is lower benefit: something that aids or promotes well-being bid: an attempt to get something bill: an itemized statement of money owed for goods shipped
or services rendered

bind: stick to firmly biology: the science that studies living organisms bitter: the property of having a harsh unpleasant taste blame: harass with constant criticism blank: a blank gap or missing part blind: people who have severe visual impairments bold: fearless and daring; clear and distinct bomb: an explosive device fused to denote under
conditions

specific

bonus:

an additional payment (or other remuneration) to

employees as a means of increasing output

border: a line that indicates a boundary bother: something or someone that causes trouble; a source of

unhappiness

boundary: a line determining the limits of an area branch: an administrative division of some larger
complex organization

or more

brand: a name given to a product or service brilliant: of surpassing excellence broadcast: a radio or television show brochure: a small book usually having a paper cover broker: a businessman who buys or sells for another
exchange for a commission

in

budget: a sum of money allocated for a particular purpose bulletin: a brief report especially an official statement issued
for immediate publication or broadcast

burden: an onerous or difficult concern bureau: an administrative unit of government bury: place in a grave or tomb button: a round fastener sewn to shirts and coats etc to fit
through buttonholes

C Cable a telegram sent abroad Calendar a system of timekeeping

that defines the

beginning and length and divisions of the year

Campaign campus
situated

a race between candidates for elective office;

run, stand, or compete for an office or a position n. a field on which the buildings of a university are

cancel a notation cancelling a previous sharp or flat candidate a politician who is running for public office capacity ability to perform or produce capital a seat of government capture the act of forcibly dispossessing an owner
property

of

cargo carpet

goods carried by a large vehicle floor covering consisting of a piece of thick heavy

fabric (usually with nap or pile

cartoon cashier

a humorous or satirical drawing published in a

newspaper or magazine a person responsible for receiving payments for

goods and services (as in a shop or restaurant)

casual natural and unstudied, free-and-easy catalogue a complete list of things; usually
systematically

arranged

cause

events that provide the generative force that is the

origin of something

celebrate
celebration

, celebrate, as of holidays or rites have a

ceremony certainty certificate
stated facts

a formal event performed on a special occasion something that is certain a document attesting to the truth of certain

champion
competition

someone who has won first place in a

channel chapter
and titled

a path over which electrical signals can pass a subdivision of a written work; usually numbered

character

an imaginary person represented in a work of

fiction (play or film or story

charge request for payment of a debt chart a visual display of information
assist navigation by air or sea

,a map designed to

chemistry

the science of matter; the branch of the natural

sciences dealing with the composition of substances and their properties and reactions

chest

the part of the human torso between the neck and the

diaphragm or the corresponding part in other vertebrates

chief a person who is in charge childhood the time of person's life when they are a child church a place for public (especially Christian) worship cigarette finely ground tobacco wrapped in paper; for
smoking

civilization

a society in an advanced state of social

development (e.g., with complex legal and political and religious organizations)

claim demand for something as rightful or due clarify make clear and (more) comprehensible classical : traditional genre of music conforming
musical taste

to an

established form and appealing to critical interest and developed

clerk: a salesperson in a store client : a person who seeks the advice of a lawyer climate: the weather in some location averaged over
long period of time

some

colleague
profession

: a person who is member of your class or

collection: several things grouped together or considered as
a whole

combination

: a collection of things that have been

combined; an assemblage of separate parts or qualities

command
something

: an authoritative direction or instruction to do

comment: a statement that expresses a personal opinion or
belief

commercial:
television

a commercially sponsored ad on radio or

communication: something that is communicated by or
to or between people or groups

compact: a signed written agreement between two or more
parties (nations) to perform some action

compare : qualities that are comparable competent : properly or sufficiently qualified or capable or
efficient

complaint : an often persistent bodily disorder or disease; a
cause for complaining

complicated: difficult to analyze or understand component: an abstract part of something compound: (chemistry) a substance formed by

chemical

union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite

proportion by weight comprehension: an ability to understand the meaning or

importance of something (or the knowledge acquired as a result)

concept:

an abstract or general idea inferred or derived

from specific instances

conclusion:
after consideration

a position or opinion or judgment reached

condition: a state at a particular time conductor : the person who leads a musical group conference: a prearranged meeting for consultation
formal agenda)

or

exchange of information or discussion (especially one with a

conflict:
facts

establish or strengthen as with new evidence or

congress: the legislature of the United States government conscious: intentionally conceived consequence: a phenomenon that follows and is caused
by some previous phenomenon

conserve : fruit preserved by cooking with sugar consideration: the process of giving careful
something

thought to

construction: the act of constructing something consultant: an expert who gives advice consumption: the process of taking food into

the body

through the mouth (as by eating)

continent/: one of the large landmasses of the earth contract: binding agreement between two or more persons
that is enforceable by law

contrast:
compared

the opposition or dissimilarity of things that are

contribute: bestow a quality on conversation: the use of speech for informal exchange of
views or ideas or information etc.

convert

: a person who has been converted to another

religious or political belief

cooperate : work together on a common enterprise of project coordinate :a number that identifies a position relative to an
axis

copyright:

a document granting exclusive right to publish

and sell literary or musical or artistic work

correspondence:

communication by the exchange of

letters ;compatibility of observations

council a meeting of people for consultation courage a quality of spirit that enables you to face danger of
pain without showing fear

craft the skilled practice of a practical occupation

creature
movement

a living organism characterized by voluntary

criminal

someone who has committed (or been legally

convicted of) a crime

crisis an unstable situation of extreme danger or difficulty critical marked by a tendency to find and call attention
errors and flaws

to

cube a three-dimensional shape with six square or rectangular
sides

current occurring in or belonging to the present time curse profane or obscene expression usually of surprise
anger

or

D damage:physical

harm caused to sth which makes it less

attractive,useful or valuable

damp:slightly wet,often in a way that is unpleasant dangerous:likely to injure or harm sb,or to damage
destroy sth

or

dash:an act of going somewhere suddenly and/or quickly database:an organized set of data that is stored in a computer
and can be looked at and used in various ways

dawn:the time of day when light first appears

deadline:a point in time by which sth must be done debate:a formal discussion of an issue at a public metting or
in a parliament.

deceive:to make sb believe sth that is not true decision:a choice or judgement that you make after thinking
about what is the best thing to do

declare:to say sth officially or publicy decorate:to make sth look more attrative by putting things on
it

defect:to win against sb in a war,competition,sport game,etc defense:the act of protecting sb/sth from attack,criticism,ect definition:an explanation of the meaning of a word or
phrase,especially in a dictionary

degree:a unit for measuring angles delegate:a person who is chosen or elected to represent the
views of a group of people and vote and make decisions for them

delivery:the

act of taking goods,letters,ect. To people they

have been sent to

demand:a vary firm requst for sth;sth that sb needs democracy:a system of government in which all the people
of a country can vote to elect their representatives

demonstrate:to show sth clearly by giving poof or evidence density:the quality of being dense;the degree to which sth is
dense

departure:the act of leaving a place depress:to make sb sad and without enthusiasm or hope deposit:a sum of money that is given as the first part
large payment

of a

description:a
sb/sth like

piece of writing or speech that says what

despair:the feeling of having lost all hope destination:a place to which sb/sth is going or being sent detect:to discover or notice sth,especially sth is not easy
see,hear,etc

to

determination:dthe quality that makes you contiue trying
to do sth even when this is difficult

device:an

odject or a piece of equipment that has been

designed to do a particular job

diagram:a simple drawing using lineds to explain where sth
is, how to work,ect

dialect:the form of a language that is spoken in one area with
grammer, words and pronunciation that may be different from other forms of the same language

dictation::the act of speaking or reading aloud so that sb can
write down the words

digital:using a system of receiving and sending informnation
as series of the numbers one and zero, showing that an electronic signal is there or is not there

diplomat:a

person whose job is to represent his or her

country in a foreign country

direction:the
points towards

general position a person or thing moves or

discharge:to give sb official permission to leave a place or
job

discipline:the practice of training people to obey rules and
orders and punishing them if they do not

Discount the act of reducing the selling price of merchandise disease n. an impairment of health or a condition of abnormal
functioning

dismiss bar from attention or consideration dispose give, sell, or transfer to another dispute a disagreement or argument about
important

something

disorder condition in which there is a disturbance of normal
functioning

distinction a discrimination between things as different and
distinct

distort make false by mutilation or addition; as of a message
or story

distribute n. the legal dissolution of a marriage document writing that provides information
information of an official nature)

(especially

domestic n. a servant who is paid to perform menial tasks
around the household

dominate
importance

be larger in number, quantity, power, status or

draft a document ordering the payment of money; drawn by
one person or bank on another

dramatic suitable to or characteristic of drama drift a force that moves something along duration the period of time during which
continues

something

E 1、 2、

earnest very serious and sincere economy the relationship between production,

trade

and the supply of money in a particular country or region

edition efficient editor
magazine,etc.

the form in which a book is published doing something well and thoroughly with no

waste of time,money or energy a person who is in charge of a newspaper,

elaborate
detailed way

to explain or describe something in a more

electronic concerned with electronic equipment element a necessary or typical part of something engage to employ somebody to do a particular job enormous huge; extremely large enterprise A company or business enthusiasm A strong feeling of excitement and interest in
something

envelop equipment
activity

A flat paper container used for sending letters in The things that are needed for a particular

equivalent essential
situation

Equal in value,amount,meaning,etc. Something that is needed in a particular

estimate
probably cost

A statement of how much a piece of work will

evolution The gradual development of plants,animals, et over many years,from simple to more complicated forms exception A person or a thing that is not included in a
general statement

excessive exert exhibition

Greater than what seems reasonable To use power;influence to affect

somebody/something A collection of things ,for example works of

art,that are shown to the public

expenditure an amount of money spent experiment a scientific test that is carried out in order to
study what happens and to gain new knowledge

external happening or coming from outside a place extraordinary unexpected,surprising or strange F Facility a building or place that provides a particular service
or is used for a particular industry

factor anything that contributes causally to a result faculty one of the inherent cognitive or perceptual powers of
the mind

failure an act that fails; lack of success

faith

a strong belief in a supernatural power or powers that

control human destiny

familiar well known or easily recognized fancy something many people believe that is false farewell the act of departing politely fashion the latest and most admired style in clothes
cosmetics and behavior

and

fate an event (or a course of events) that will inevitably happen
in the future

fatigue temporary loss of strength and energy resulting from
hard physical or mental work

feasible adj. capable of being done with means at hand and
circumstances as they are

female a person who belongs to the sex that can have babies figure a diagram or picture illustrating textual material finance alternative names for the body of a human being flavor the taste experience when a savoury condiment is taken
into the mouth

forbid keep from happening or arising; make impossible format the general appearance of a publication fortnight n. a period of fourteen consecutive days foundation the basis on which something is grounded

fountain structure from which an artificially produced jet of
water arises

frequency
period

the number of occurrences within a given time

frustrate hinder or prevent (the efforts, plans, or desires) of;
treat cruelly

funeral n. a ceremony at which a dead person is buried or
cremated

G 27、 generation unexpected,surprising or strange 28、

genius

unexpected,surprising or strange

unusually great intelligence,skill or artistic ability 29、 geography the scientific study of the earth's surface,

physical features population etc. 30、 geometry the branch of mathematics that deals with the measurements and relationships of lines angles surfaces and solids 31、 giant an unusually large person,animal or plant

32、 glance to look quickly at something/somebody

33、 glorious very beautiful and impressive 34、 government the group of people who are responsible for controlling a country or a state 35、 grammar the rules in a language for changing the form of words and joining them into sentences 36、 gratitude the feeling of being graceful and wanting to express your thanks 37、 greedy you really need 38、 guarantee a firm promise that you will do wanting more money,power,food,etc. than

something or that something will happen 39、 guidance help or advice is given to somebody, especially by somebody older or with more experience 40、 guilty having done something illegal;being

responsible for something bad that has happened

H Habit an established custom handkerchief a square piece of cloth used for wiping the
eyes or nose or as a costume accessory

harbor a sheltered port where ships can take on or discharge
cargo

hatred the emotion of hate; a feeling of dislike so strong that
it demands action

headquarters (usually plural) the office that serves as the
administrative center of an enterprise

hence (used to introduce a logical conclusion) from that fact
or reason or as a result

hesitate pause or hold back in uncertainty or unwillingness honor a tangible symbol signifying approval or distinction hostile n. troops belonging to the enemy's military forces household n. a social unit living together humor a message whose ingenuity or verbal skill or
incongruity has the power to evoke laughter

I Identification:the
something

act of designating or identifying

ignore :refuse to acknowledge illustration:artwork that helps
attractive

make something clear or

immediate:very close or connected in space or time

immigrant:a

person who comes to a country where they

were not born in order to settle there

implication :something that is inferred (deduced or entailed
or implied)

impose :compel to behave in a certain way impression :a vague idea in which some
placed

confidence is

independence
another or others

:freedom from control or influence of

individual :a human being inevitable:incapable of being avoided or prevented infectious::caused by infection or capable of
infection

causing

inference:the reasoning involved in drawing a conclusion or
making a logical judgment on the basis of circumstantial evidence and prior conclusions rather than on the basis of direct observation

infinite :having no limits or boundaries in time or space or
extent or magnitude

initial :the first letter of a word (especially a person's name injection :the forceful insertion of a substance under pressure innocent :free from evil or guilt

inspire:heighten or intensify installment:a payment of part
regular intervals

of a debt; usually paid at

instance :an occurrence of something instinct :inborn pattern of behavior
specific stimuli

often responsive to

institution :an organization founded and united for a specific
purpose

instruction :a message describing how something is to be
done

instrument :a device that requires skill for proper use integrate :make into a whole or make part of a whole intellectual :a person who uses the mind creatively intelligence :the ability to comprehend; to understand and
profit from experience

intention

:an anticipated outcome that is intended or that

guides your planned actions.

interference:a policy of intervening in the affairs of other
countries

interior :the region that is inside of something interpretation :a mental representation of the meaning or
significance of something

interval :a definite length of time marked off by two instants invade :march aggressively into another's territory by military
force for the purposes of conquest and occupation

investigation
activities

:an inquiry into unfamiliar or questionable

invisible

:impossible

or

nearly

impossible

to

see;

imperceptible by the eye

irrevocable :incapable of being retracted or revoked itinerary:an established line of travel or access J Joint (anatomy) the point of connection between two bones or
elements of a skeleton (especially if it allows motion)

journal

a daily written record of (usually personal)

experiences and observations

judgement an opinion formed by judging something journey the act of traveling from one place to another justify show to be reasonable or provide adequate ground for junior the younger of two men

K

Knowledge

:the psychological result of perception and

learning and reasoning

knee :hinge joint

in the human leg connecting the tibia and

fibula with the femur

kingdom :a domain in which something is inant

L labor

work, especially physical work; a task or period of

work ;people who work ; having baby; struggle ; work hard; move with difficult

ladder
have broken ,

a piece of equipment for climbing up and down a

wall; a long thin hold in tights or stockings where some threads

launch league

to start an activity ,especially an organized one a group of people ,or nations who have combined

for a particular purpose ; a group of sports teams who all play each other to earn points and find which team is best.

leadership
to be a leader ;

the state or position of being a leader ;the ability

lecture

a talk that is given to a group of people to teach

them about a particular subject, often as part of a university or

college course ; a long angry talk that somebody gives to
one person.

liberation license liquid logical loyal luggage

something /somebody to free a country or a

person form the control of somebody else. to give somebody official permission to

do ,own ,or use something a substance that flows freely ,for example water or

oil ;clear , like water (of an action ,events ,etc.)seeming natural

reasonable or sensible remaining faithful to somebody /something and

supporting them or it. bags ,cases ,etc .that contain somebody’s clothes

and things are traveling

M manufacture

to make a produce goods in large quantities;

to event a story ,an excuse, etc.

marriage the legal relationship between a husband and wife . material a substance that things can be made
from ;connected with money possessions etc. rather than needs of the mind or spirit

mathematics

the science of numbers and shapes ;the

process of calculating using numbers.

mature sensible; fully grown ;no longer young. maximum as large , fast, etc. as is possible ,or the most
that is possible or allowed; the greatest amount ,size, speed, etc. that is possible , recorded, or allowed.

meanwhile while something else is happening ;in the period
of time between two times or two events.

mechanism a set of moving parts in a machine that performs
a task

memorial a statue ,stone, etc. that is built in order to remind
people of an important past event or of a famous person who has died; created or done in order to remember somebody who has died.

military

connected with soldiers or the armed

forces ;solders the armed forces.

minimum minority

the smallest that is possible or allowed;

extremely small. the smaller part of group ;less than half of the

people or things in a large group ;a small group within a community or country that is different because of rate, religion, language, etc.

miracle

an act or event that does not follow the laws of

nature and is believed to be caused by god; a lucky things that happens that you did not expect or think was possible.

miserable very unhappy or uncomfortable mission official job /group ; your duty mixture combination of different things ;a substance made
by mixing other substances together . not very

moderate that is neither very good, large ,hot, etc.
bad, ,small ,cold, etc.

modification
made

the act or process of changing something in

order to improve it or made it more acceptable ; a change that is

moisture

very small drops of water that are present in the

air ,on a surface or in a substance .

monument a building that has special historical importance mortgage a legal agreement by which a bank or similar
organization lends you money to buy a house ,etc. and you pay the money back over a particular number of years; the sum money that you borrow .

multiply

to add a number to itself a particular number of

times; to increase or make something increase very much in number or amount

murder muscle

the crime of killing somebody deliberately; to kill

somebody deliberately and illegally. a piece of body tissue that you tighten and relax

in order to move a particular part of the body.

musician a person who is plays a musical instrument or
writes music, especially as a job.

Naked Narrow Namely National

not wearing any clothes measuring a short distance from one side to the

other, especially in relation to length used to introduce more exact and detailed

information about sth that you have just mentioned connected with a particular nation, shared by a

whole nation

Nation

a country considered as a group of people with the

same language, culture and history, who live in a particular area under one government

Navigation Naturally

the skill or the process of planning a route

for a trip or other vehicle and taking it there in a way that you would expect

Natural existing in nature, not made or caused by humans Navy the part of a country‘s armed forces that fight at sea,
and the ships that it uses

Necessarily Negotiate
discussion

used to say that sth cannot be avoided to try to reach an agreement by formal

Nerve
etc.

any of the long threads that carry messages between

the brain and parts of the body, enabling you to move, feel pain,

Neighborhood
people who live there

a distract or an area of a town, the

Neutral

not supporting or helping either side in a

disagreement, competition, etc

Nevertheless Newsletter
members

despite sth that you have just mentioned a printed report containing news of the

activity of a club or organization that is sent regularly to all its

Noble

having fine personal quality that people admire,

such courage, and care for others

Nonsense Nuclear

ideas, statement or beliefs that you think are

ridiculous or not true using, producing or resulting from nuclear

energy

Nowadays
past

at the present time, in the contrast with the

Numerous Objective Objection Object
alive

exsisting in large numbers sth that you are trying to achieve a reason why you do not like or are opposed to

sth , statement about this a thing that can be seen and touched, but it is not

Oblige to force sb to do sth , by law ,because it is a duty Obligation the state of being forced to do sth because it
is your duty, or because of law, etc.

Occupation a job or profession Occasional happening or done sometimes but not often Offend to make sb feel upset because of sth you say or do
that is rude or embarrassing

Official
of authority

connected with the job of sb who is in a position

Officer
armed forces

a person who is in a position of authority in the

Omit

to not include sth/sb, either deliberately or because

you have forgotten it/ them

Opponent Optimal Opposite Oppose

a person that you are playing or fighting

against in a game, competition ,argument ,etc a feeling that good things will happen and that

sth will be successfu on the other side of a particular area fro sb /sth

and usually facing them to disagree strongly with sb’s plan, policy, and

try to change it or prevent it from succeeding

Opportunity

a time when a particular situation makes it

possible to do or achieve it

Organization a group of people who form a business, club,
together in order to achieve a particular aim

Orientation
particular thing

the type of aims or interests that a person or

an organization has, the act of directing your aims towards a

Orient Outline

to direct sb/sth towards sth,to make or adapt sb/sth

for a particular purpose to give a description of the main facts or points

involved in sth

Outlet Outcome

a way of expressing or making good use of strong

feelings, ideas or energy the result of effect of an action or event

Outstanding extremely good, excellent Outlook the attitude to life and the world of a particular
person, group or cultural

Overlook Pamphlet Paragraph Panel

to fail to see or notice sth a very thin book with a paper cover, containing

information about a particular subject a section of a piece of writing, usually sentences dealing with a single subject

consisting of several

a square or piece of word, glass or mental that forms

part of a larger surface such as a door or wall

Parameter Parallel

something that decides or limits the way in

which sth has done two or more lines that are parallel to each other

are the same distance apart at every point

Parliament Particular Participate
activity

the group the people who are elected to

make and change the laws of a country used to emphasize that you are referring to

one individual person, thing or type of thing and not others to take part in or become involved in an

Participant
event

a person who is taking part in an activity or

Particularly
others

especially, more than usual or more than

Passion

a very strong feeling of love, hatred, anger,

enthusiasm, etc.

Passenger Passive Patient Pause
continuing

a person who is travelling in a car, bus, train,

plane or ship and who is not driving it or working on it accepting what happens or what people do

without trying to change anything or oppose them a person who is receiving medical treatment,

especially in a hospital to stop talking or doing sth for a short time before

Pattern Peculiar

the regular way in which sth happens or is done strange or unusual, especially in away that is

unpleasant or worrying

Perceive Perceptive

to notice or become aware of it having or showing the ability to see or

understand things quickly, especially things that are not obvious

Performance Permissible
particular set of rules

the act of performing a play, concert or

some other form of entertainment acceptable according to the law or a

Permanent

lasting for a long time or for all time in the

future, existing all the time

Phase a stage in a process of change or development Philosophy the study of the nature and meaning of the
universe and of the human life

Phenomenon Picnic Pigeon

a fact or an event in nature or society,

especially one that is not fully understand an occasion when people pack a meal and take it

to eat outdoors, especially in the countryside a fat grey and white bird with short legs, and

common in the city and also live in woods and fields where people shoot them for sport or food

Plain easy to see or understand Plentiful available or existing
numbers

in large amounts or

Pole

a long thin straight piece of wood or metal especially

one with the end placed in the ground, used as a suppo

Possess Poverty Postpone Potential

to have or own sth the state of being poor to arrange for an event, etc.to take place at a

later time or date that can be develop into sth or be developed in

the future

Precious rare and worth o lot of money Precaution sth that is done in advance order to prevent
problems or to avoid danger

Predetermine
not happen by chance

to decide sth in advance so that it does

Precise clear and accurate Preliminary happening before
or event

a more important action

Prejudice

an unreasonable dislike of or preference for a

person, group, custom ,etc ,especially when it is based on their race ,religion, sex ,etc

Preference
sth/sb else

a greater interest in or desire for sb/sth than

Prescription

an official piece of paper on which a

doctor writes the type of medicine you should have, and which enables you to get it from a chemist’s shop/stor

Prescribe Preposition

to tell sb to a particular medicine or have a

particular treatment a word or group of words, such as

in,from ,to ,out of and on behalf of ,used before a noun or pronoun to show place, position ,time or method

Preserve Previous Prevail Primitive
industry, etc.

to keep a particular quality, feature, etc ;to make

sure that sth is kept happening or existing before the event or object

that you are talking about to exist or be very common at a particular time or

in a particular place belonging to a very simple society with no

Prime main; most important; basi Principle a moral rule or a strong belief that influences
your actions

Principal Prisoner Prior

most important; main a person who is kept in prison as a punishment,

or while they are waiting for trial happening or exiting before sth else or before a

particular one

Procedure
correct way

a way of doing sth, especially the usual or

Procession
this way

a line of people or vehicles that move along

slowly, especially as part of a ceremony ;the act of moving in

Profession

a type or job that needs special training or

skill especially one that needs a high level of education

Proficient
practice

able to do sth well because of training and

Progressive
change

in favour of new ideas, modern methods and

Pronounce
particular way

to make the sound of a word or letter in a

Proportion Property Proposal
a suggestion

a part or share of a whole a thing or things that are owned by sb,a

possession or possessions a formal suggestion or plan, the act of making

Prosperity
making money

the state of being successful, especially in

Prosperous Prospectus Psychological

rich and successful a book or printed document that gives

information about a school college, in order to advertise it connected with a person’s mind and the

way in which it works

Provision Province

the act of supplying sb with sth that they need

or want, sth that is supplied one of the areas that some countries are divided

into with its own local government

Purchase the act or process of buying sth Quarantine a period of time when an animal or a person
that has or may have disease is kept away from others in order to prevent the disease from the spreading

Random Rader

done, chosen, without sb deciding in advance

what is going to happen, or without any regular pattern a system that uses radio waves to find the position

and movement of objects, for example planes and ship, when they cannot be seen

Ratio

the relationship between two groups of people or

things that is represented by two numbers showing how much larger one group is than the othe

Realistic

accepting in a sensible way what it is actually

possible to do or achieve in a particular situation

Recognition Reception Recommend Reflect

the act of remembering who is when you

see them, or of identifying what sth is the area inside the entrance of a hotel, an

office building, where guests or visitors go first when they arrive to tell sb that sth is good or useful, or that

sb would be suitable for a particular job, etc to show the image of sb/sth on the surface of sth

such as a mirror, water or glas

Refine

to make a substance pure by taking other

substances out of it

Refresh to make sb feel less tired or less hot Regardless paying no attention, even if the
bad or there are difficulties

situation is

Register to record your sb’s/ sth’s name on an official list Reinforce to make a feeling, an idea, etc stronger Relate show or make a connection between two or more
things

Reluctant
to do

hesitating before doing sth because you do not

want to do it or because you are not sure that it is the right thing

Religious
religion

connected with religion or with a particular

Remedy

a way of dealing with or improving an unpleasant

or difficult situation

Representative Represent Reputation

a person who has been chosen to speak

or vote for sb else or on behalf of a group a member of a group of people and act or

speak on their behalf at an event or a meeting the opinion that people have about what

sb/sth is like ,based on what has happened in the past

Rescue
situation

to save sb /sth from a dangerous or harmful

Resemble not used in the progressive tenses Responsibility a duty to deal with or take care of sb/sth ,
so that you may be blamed if sth goes wrong

Respectively
already

in the same order as the people or things

mentioned to limit the size, amount or range of st to make sth known to sb to change sth completely so that it is the

Restrict Reveal Reverse

opposite of what it was befor

Revolutionary connected with political revolution Revolution an attempt, by a large number of people, to
change the government of a country ,especially by violent action

Ridiculous very silly or unreasonab Ripe fully grown and ready to be eaten Rival a person, company or thing that
another in sport, business

competes with

Routine Route

the normal order and the way in which you

regularly do things a way that you follow to get from one place to

another

Salutation Satellite

something that you say or welcome to or say

hello to sb, the action of welcoming or saying hello to sb an electronic device that is sent into space and

moves around the earth or other planets

Satisfactory good enough for a particular purpose Scale the size or extent of sth, especially when compared
with sth else

Scare
quantities

there is not enough of it it is only available in small

Scan Scatter

to look at every part of sth carefully because you are

looking for a particular thing or person to throw or drop things in different directions so

that they cover an area of ground

Scenic having beautiful natural scener Scholarship an amount of money given
organization to help pay for their education

to sb by an

Scheme Schedule Screw

a plan or system for doing or organizing sth a plan that lists all the work that you have to de

and when you must to do each thing a thin pointed piece of metal like a nail with a raised

spiral, line along it and a line or cross cut into its head

Secretary

a person who is working in an office ,working

for another person ,dealing with letters and telephone calls ,typing ,keeping records ,arranging meetings with people

Senate

one of the two groups of elected politicians who

make laws in some countries ,for example in the US,Australia, Canada and France

Seminar
topic

a class at a university or college when a small

group of students and a teacher discuss or study a particular

Semester Sensible

one of the two periods that the school or college

year is divided into able to make good judgements based on reason

and experience rather than emotion, practical

Severe extremely bad or seriou Settlement an official agreement
between two people or groups

that ends an argument

Shallow

not having much distance between the top or

surface and the bottom

Shareholder
business

an owner of shares in a company or

Sightseeing the activity of visiting interesting buildings and
places as a tourist

Signature
at end of a letter

your name as you usually write it, for example,

Significant
or to be noticed

large or important enough to have an effect

Simultaneous
sth else

happening or done at the same time as

Sketch Skilled Slice
piece

a simple picture that is drawn quickly and does not

have many details having enough ability, experience and knowledge

to be able to do sth well a thin flat piece of food that has been cut off a larger

Smooth

completely flat and even without any lumps,

holes and rough areas

Solid hard or firm,,not in the form of liquid or gas Sophisticated having a lot experience of the world and
knowing about fashion, cultural and other things that people think that are socially important

Specimen
of it is like

a small amount of sth, that shows what the rest

Specification

a detailed description of how it is, or

should be designed or make

Specific detailed and exact Specialize designed or developed for a particular purpose
or area of knowledge

Splendid excellent, very good Spill to flow over the edge of a container by accident, to
make liquid do this

Sphere Spoil Split

a solid figure that is completely round, with evey

point on its surface at an equal distance from the cente to change sth good into sth bad, unpleasant, useless to divide, or to make a group of people divide into

smaller groups that have very different opinions

Stable firmly fixed not likely to move, change or fail Statistics a collection of information shown in numbers Steady developing, growing gradually and in an even and
regular way

Stiff firm or difficult to bend or move Stipulate to state clearly and firmly that sth must be done,
or how it must be done

Stimulate
encourage sb

to make sth develop or become more active, to

Strange

unusual or surprising, especially in a way that is

difficult to understanding

Stretch Struggle

to make sth longer, wider and closer, for example

by pulling it ,to become longer in this way to try very hard to do sth when it is difficult or

when there are a lot of problems

Substance
quanlities

a type of solid .liquid or gas that has particular

Submit

to give a document,

proposal to sb in authority

so that they can study or consider

Submission Substantial Substitute Suffer
lack of sth

the act of accepting that sb has defeated you

and that you must obey them large in a amount, value or important a person or thing that you use or have instead

of the one you normally use or have to be badly affected by a disease, pain sadness, a

Suggestion
think about

an or a plan that you mention for sb else to

Suitable
occasion

right or appropriate for a particular purpose or

Superior
sb/sth else

better in quality than sb/sth else, or greater than

Superficial

not studying or looking at sth thoroughly,

seeing only what is obvious

Supplement
or complete it

a thing that is added to sth else to improve

Surround to be all around sth/sb Suspect to have an idea that sth is probably true or likely
to happen , especially sth bad ,but without having definite proof

Swallow
your stomach

to make food, drink go down your throat into

Suspicion

feeling that sb has done sth wrong, illegal or

dishonest, even though you have no proof

Suspicious Symptom

feeling that sb has done sth wrong, illegal or

dishonest, without having any proof a change in your body or mind that shows you

that you are not healthy

Talent a natural ability to do sth well Telescope a piece of equipment shaped
far away appear larger and neare

like a tube,

containing lenses, that you look through to make object that are

Technical Temper Tender

connected with the practical use of machinery,

methods in science and industry sb become angry very easily kind, gentle and loving

Temporary Territory
country or rulers

lasting or intended to last or be used only for

a short time, not permanent land that is under the control of particular

Terrible
or frightened

very unpleasant, making you very unhappy, upset

Terminal

a building or set of buildings at an airport where

air passengers arrive leave

Thoughtful quiet, because you are thinking Tidy arranged neatly and with everything in order Threaten to say that you will cause trouble, hurt sb, and if
you do not get what you want

Throughout in or into every part of sth Tiny very small in size or amount Tolerant to allow sb to do sth that you do not agree with
or like

Tobacco

the dried leaves of the tobacco plant that are

used for making cigarettes, smoking in a pipe or chewing

Tough having or causing problems or difficulties Transparent allowing you to see through it Treasure a collection of valuable things
gold ,silver and jewellery

such as

Triangle Tunnel

a flat shape with three straight sides, and three

angles, a thing in the shape of a triangle a passage built underground, for example to

allow a road or a railway to go through a hill, under the river

Ultimate happening at the end of a long process Underline to draw a line under a word, sentence. etc Underground under the surface of the ground Undertake to make yourself responsible for sth and start
doing it

Understanding Unexpected
expecting it

the knowledge that sb has about

particular subject or situation it surprises you because you were not

Unique being the only one of this kind Unusual different from what is usual or normal Unprecedented that has never happened, been done or
been known before

Unnecessary not needed, more than is needed Urgent that needs to be dealt with or happen immediatel Utilize to use sth , especially for a practical purpose Utility a service provided for the public, for example an
electricity, water or gas supply

Vacation

one of the periods of time when universities or

courts of law are closed

Valid that is legally or officially acceptable Validity the state of being legally or officially acceptable Various several different Variety several different sorts of the same thing Variable often changing; likely to change Vanish to disappear suddenly and in a way that you can
not explain

Version Verify Venture Vehicle Vertical Violence
sb

a form of sth that is slightly different from an

earlier form or from other forms of the same things to check that sth is true or accurate a business project or activity, especially one that

involves taking risks a thing that is used for transporting people or

goods from one place to another, such as, a car or lorry /truck going straight up or down from a level surface or

from top to bottom in a pictures violent behavior that is intended to hurt or kill

Virtue behavior or attitudes that show high moral standard Virtually almost or very nearly, so that any slight

difference is not important

Virtual Violent

almost or very nearly the thing described, so that

any slight difference is not important involving or caused by physical force that is

intended to hurt or kill sb

Visual of or connected with seeing or sight Visible that can be seen Vocabulary all the words that a person knows or uses Vivid producing very clear pictures in your mind Vital necessary or essential in order for sth to succeed or
exist

Volume Voltage Wander Welfare Whisper Whisky

the amount of space that an object or a substance

fills; the amount of space that a container has. electrical force measured in volts to walk slowly around or a place, often without

any particular sense of purpose or direction the general health, happiness and safety of a

person, an animal or a grou to speak very quietly to sb so that other people

cannot hear what you are saying a strong alcoholic drink made from MALTED

gain. It is sometimes drunk with water or ice.

Widespread
among many people

existing or happening over a large area or

Willing
not doing sth

not objecting to doing sth, having no reason for

Withdraw Withstand Withdrawal
back

to move back or away from a place or situation,

to make sb/sth do this to be strong enough not to be hurt or damaged

by extreme condition, the use of force, etc the act of moving or taking sth away or

Wonderful Wonder to

very good, pleasant or enjoyable think about sth and try to decide what is

true ,what will happen ,what you should do ,etc

Worthy having the qualities that deserve sb /sth Worthwhile important, enjoyable, interesting, etc Worship the practice of showing respect for God or a god,
by saying prayers, singing with others, etc

Writing
speaking, etc.

the activity of writing, in contrast to reading,

Yearly

happening once a year or every year


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