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词汇学


unit 2

word-formation I

contents
?Ⅰ.General

remarks ?Ⅱ.Affixation ?Ⅲ compounding ?Ⅳ.conversion ?Ⅴ.assignment

?. General remarks
?1.Morpheme

and root

?2.The

significance of word formation

1.1 Morpheme and root
?e.g. ? ? ?

?

deinstitutionalization counter-revolutionary Radioimmunoelectrophoresis Psychophysicotherapeutics

1)morpheme
?e.g.

decontextualization

? morphemes,

the smallest unit of language that carries information about meaning or function. ? The morpheme is seen as “the smallest functioning unit in the composition of words”(Crystal 1985). ? A morpheme is the smallest unit of meaning in words ——a unit that cannot further divided without destroying or drastically altering their meaning, whether they are lexical or grammatical.

A sample
? Sci-fi

thriller Limitless has topped the North American film chart as box office takings continue to suffer compared with last year.

1)morpheme
? film,

chart, suffer ... ? Free morpheme, which means a morpheme whose form can be a word by itself.

? “-er”,

“-less”, “-ed","-an"...

?A

morpheme that must be attached to another element is said to be a bound morpheme.

e.g.
?

recollection

? ? ?

idealistic
ex-prisoner

Allomorph
variants of the plurality of “s” make the allomorphs thereof in the following words. ? Map—maps /s/ ? Dog—dogs /z/ ? Watch—watches /iz/ ? Mouse—mice /ai/ ? Ox—oxen /n/ ? Tooth—teeth /i:/ ? Sheep—sheep /Φ/
? the

2)Root
?A

Root is a lexical content morpheme that cannot be analyzed into smaller parts and has more easily specifiable meanings in a word. that is to say, it is that part of the word that is left when all the affixes are removed.
reread unfriendliness

? E.g.
?

2)Root
? Affix:

the collective term for the type of formative that can be used only when added to another morpheme (the root or stem).

1.2 The significance of word formation
? According

to Pyles and Algeo (1982), words produced through affixation constitute 30% to 40% of the total number of new words; compounding yields 28% to 30% of all new words; conversion gives us 26% of the new vocabulary. The rest of the new words come from shortening, amounting to 8% to 10%, together with 1% to 5% of words born out of blending and other means.

1.2 The significance of word formation
? Among

the more recent addition to English, derivation and compounds account for 54.8 percent; conversion for 19.6 percent, and shortening for 18 percent, while new meanings (14.4 percent) and borrowing (7.5 percent) are less prominent (cf. Cannon 1987:279; summarized in Gramley and Patzold 1992:23).

Ⅱ.Affixation/Derivation
? 1.Definition ? Affixation

also Derivation, is the formation of words by adding wordforming or derivational affixes to stems/roots (Derivation is the formation of new words by affixes to stems.). The words formed in this way are called derivatives.

2. Characteristics of derivational affixes in word formation
? 1)词缀来源的多样性 ? Greek

affixes: amphi-, anti-, arch-, auto-, cata-... ? Latin affixes: centi-. counter-, counter- ... ? Romanic: dis-, -able, -eer,... ? Russian affixes: -nik e.g. beatnik; peacenik.

写出表示数目的希腊语前缀和拉丁语前缀
half ? one ? two ? three ? four ? five ? six ? seven ? eight ? nine ? ten
?

hemi- ; ? mono? di? tri? tetra? penta? hexa? hepta? oct? ennea? deca?

semi-, demiunibitriquadricquintsexseptoctnonadeci-

2. Characteristics of derivational affixes in word formation
2)词缀的多义性 ? e.g. deDecriminalize
?

delouse; deoxygenate
deplane; defenestration declass deverbative

e.g.
? ...Poverty

makes life easier for the rich by providing them with cookers, __6__ gardeners, and other workers to perform basic chores when their employers enjoy __7__ more pleasurable activities...

?

——(2012年英语专业八级改错题)

e.g.
?

But such policies seem instead to have created the conditions for even more campus violence. Some college students who previously drank in bars and lounges under the watchful supervision of bouncers (not to mention owners eager to keep their liquor licenses) now retreat to the sanctuary of their fraternity houses and apartments, where they no longer control their behavior their drinking.

? ?

——2012年英语专业八级英译汉

2. Characteristics of derivational affixes in word formation
? ? ?

?

3)词缀的同义性 e.g. un-, in- ,dis- (not) e.g. unhappy, inarticulate, dissimilar

Prefixes
?

1) Negative prefixes a-/an- amoral, asexual, atheism, anacid, anarchy, disindishonest, discontent, discover, disobey, disagree Incomplete, inconsistent, incorrect, invulnerable, illogical, illegal, impolite, immoral, imbalance, irrational, irregular

nonun-

nonviolent, non-cooperation, nonautomatic, nonadjustable, nonalcoholic uninformative, unexpected, unease, unrest

Prefixation
? ?

?
? ? ?

?
? ? ? ? ?

Order Literate Symmetry Governmental Relevant Productive Believable Vulnerable Sane Related Aligned Mature

? ?

?
? ? ?

?
? ? ? ? ?

Disorder Illiterate Asymmetry Nongovernmental Irrelevant Unproductive Unbelievable Invulnerable Insane Unrelated Nonaligned Immature

Prefixes
?

2) Reversative or privative
deundefrost, deregulation, degeneration, deformed, denationalize undo, unpack, untie, unwrap, unmask

dis- disconnect, dishearten, disinterested

Prefixation
? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Centralize Plane Infect Zip Regulate Possess Pollute

? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Decentralize Deplane Disinfect Unzip Deregulate Dispossess Depollute

Prefixes
?

3) Pejorative prefixes
mismalmisguide, misapplication, misbehavior, mischoice, misgiving maladjustment, maldigestion, malfunction, maldevelopment

pseudo- pseudonym, pseudoscience, pseudoclassic, pseudo-friend

Prefixes
?

4) Prefixes of degree or size
hyper- hyperactive, hypercritical, hyperaggressive, hypercautious ultraminioutultramodern, ultrasecret, ultraclean, ultrasonic minibus, minicamera, miniskirt outdo, outgrown, outlive

over-

overwork, overestimate, overemphasize, overabundance, overburden

under- underdeveloped, underpopulation, undergraduate

super
sub-

supermarket, superpower, superstar
subadult, subtitle, subbreed, subatom

Prefixes
?

5) Prefixes of orientation and attitude
cocounterantiCo-author, co-star, co-prosperity, cooperation Counterexample, counterclaim, counteractive, counterattack, counterculture, countermeasure anti-abortion, anti-art, antiwar, antibacterial, antisocial, anticancer, antibody

pro-

pro-American, pro-revolutionary, pro-Fascism , prostudent, proslavery

Prefixes
?

6) Locative prefixes
foreinterforearm, foreleg, forename, foreword international, intergovernmental, intertwine, interdisciplinary, intercollege

trans- transatlantic, transoceanic, transform, transplant teletelephone, telegram, telecommunication

Prefixes
?

7) Prefixes of time and order
exforepreex-husband, ex-president, ex-colony, ex-convict foresee, foretell, forefather, forewarn premature, prewar, prehistoric, prepay, premarital

post- post-election, postwar, postgraduate, postdoctoral

Prefixes
?

8) Number prefixes
uni-/monounilateral, unicell, unicircuit, unicolor, unicycle, unidimensional, uniform, unipolar, monoxide, monocrystal, monogamy, monologue bicycle, bilingual, bimonthly, dioxide, dialogue, dichotomy, disyllable triangular, triatomic, trimonthly, trilateral, trilingual

bi-/ditri-

multi-/polysemi-

multipurpose, multipolar, multiangular, multilingual, polyatomic, polycrystal, polygamy
semicircle, semiliterate, semivowel, semiannual, semicolony, semiautomatic

Prefixes
?

9) Conversion prefixes
aaloud, asleep, aglow, awash

be-

belittle, bestir, befriend, bewitch

en-

endanger, enforce, enable, embody, embitter, empower

Prefixes
?

10) Miscellaneous prefixes
Extra- Extralinguistic, extraordinary, extraterrestrial
NeoPan…… Neo-classicism,neo-colonialism, neo-fascism, Neolithic Pan-Pacific, Pan-Arabism, Pan-Africanism ………..

Suffixes
?

The classification of suffixes
?

Since suffixes mainly change the word class, we shall group suffixes on a grammatical basis into
1) noun suffixes ? 2) adjective suffixes ? 3) adverb suffixes ? 4) verb suffixes
?

Suffixes
?

①Noun suffixes
?

Noun suffixes may be subdivided into the following five kinds.
Denominal nouns (concrete or abstract) ? Deverbal nouns ? De-adjectival nouns ? Noun and adjective suffixes
?

Suffixes
?

①Noun suffixes Denominal nouns (concrete)
-eer auctioneer, engineer, mountaineer, pamphleteer, profiteer, racketeer -er Londoner, teenager, villager actress, waitress, stewardess, hostess, lioness ess -let booklet, leaflet, piglet, starlet

Suffixes
?

①Noun suffixes
Denominal nouns (abstract) -age -dom -ery/-ry -ism -ship -crasy baggage, luggage, mileage, percentage freedom, kingdom, stardom, officialdom drudgery, slavery, nunnery, nursery, machinery idealism, optimism, individualism, consumerism dictatorship, scholarship, friendship, sportsmanship aristocracy, democracy, meritocracy

-hood
-ful

boyhood, brotherhood, neighborhood, adulthood
handful, mouthful, plateful, tubful

Suffixes
?

① Noun suffixes Deverbal nouns
-ant -ee contestant, inhabitant, assistant, informant interviewee, addressee, appointee, nominee, employee

-er/-or
-ation -ing

driver, employer, interviewer, computer, silencer, accelerator, supervisor, actor, window-shopper
foundation, exploration, nomination, starvation building, dwelling, earnings, savings, clothing, stuffing

-al
-ment -age

refusal, revival, survival, arrival, dismissal
amazement, arrangement, movement, government breakage, coverage, shrinkage, drainage

Suffixes
?

① Noun suffixes

De-adjectival nouns
-ity -ness diversity, equality, rapidity, verbosity, responsibility, actuality, regularity, popularity, respectability accurateness, falseness, kindness, selfishness, happiness, largeness, frankness, unexpectedness, thickness, goodness

Suffixes
?

①Noun suffixes Nouns and adjective suffixes
-ese -(i)an Burmese, Chinese, Cantonese, officialese, journalese Darwinian, republican, Elizabethan, Shakespearean, Indonesian, Russian
communist, pianist, specialist, socialist

-ist

Suffixes
?

② Adjective Suffixes Denominal suffixes
-ed -ful -ish -less -like -ly dogged, rugged, pointed, chocolate-flavored delightful, successful, faithful, meaningful childish, foolish, snobbish, Irish, Turkish homeless, hopeless, merciless, harmless childlike, ladylike, statesmanlike friendly, cowardly, motherly, daily, weekly

-y

milky, sandy, hairy, meaty

Suffixes
?

② Adjective Suffixes Denominal suffixes
-ic (-atic) -ous (-ious, -eous) -al (-ial, -ical) ethnic, economic, historic, problematic ambitious, desirous, marvelous, courageous, erroneous, courteous accidental, professional, residential, musical, philosophical

Suffixes
?

②Adjective Suffixes Deverbal suffixes
-able (-ible, -uble) -ive (-ative, -sive) debatable, drinkable, changeable, perishable, permissible, visible, dissoluble, soluble attractive, reflective, productive, negative, decorative, talkative, affirmative, expansive, explosive, decisive

Suffixes
?

③ Adverb Suffixes
smoothly, personally, extremely, publicly, naturally

-ly

-ward(s)
-wise

downward, eastward, homeward, forward
clockwise, lengthwise, weatherwise, educationwise, taxwise, moneywise

Suffixes
?

④Verb suffixes
Originate, hyphenate Deepen, harden, strengthen, hasten Solidify, modify, beautify, classify, identify Symbolize, computerize, legalize, publicize, specialize

-ate -en -ify -ize(-ise)

2. Characteristics of derivational affixes in word formation
? ?

?

4)词缀对词性和词义的影响 Firstly, Prefixes do not generally change the word-class of the stem, but only modify its meaning. Secondly, Suffixes have only a small semantic role, their primary function being to change the grammatical function of stems. In other words, they mainly change the word class.

2. Characteristics of derivational affixes in word formation
?
? ?

5)词缀构词能力的差异性
Prefixes: re-, pre-, non-, un-, de-, anti-; e.g. refine(used as an intensive, premedical, nongovernmental, unrest, antimere Suffixes: -er, -ness, -ese, -ist, -ics; e.g. teacher, brightness, Chinese, anarchist, graphics Adj. suffixes: -able, -ish, -like, -ic; e.g. eatable, bookish, godlike, lunatic Verb suffixes: - ise/ize, -ify; e.g. modernize ,dramatize , beautify, basify

? ? ? ? ? ?

2. Characteristics of derivational affixes in word formation
? ? ?

?

6)词缀变化的时代性 e.g. e-,cyber-,ecoall-,audio-,crypto-,mock-, near-,-aholic,buster,-busting, -friendly, -impared, ista...

3.The main types of affixation
?

1)Prefixation: prefixation is the formation of new words by adding prefixes to stems.
2)Suffixation: suffixes are the formation of new words by adding suffixes to stems.

?

实训:用汉语写出下列单词斜体词缀 的意思。
?

1.antibody 2.disengage 3.chronicle 4.audience 5.deforestation 6.expose 7.hemicycle 8.boiler 9.existence 10.intensification 11.dishonest 12.manifold 13.bachelorhood 14.producible 15.Spanish 16.detrain 17.materialism 18.sleepless 19.dissyllable 20.booklet 21.newspaperese 22.machine-wise 23.e-journals 24.cybercrime 25.bioclimatology 26.ecogeographic 27.clockwise 28.Hurricanegate 29.techochemistry 30.microwave

Ⅲ.Compounding
? ?

?

1. Definition of Compounding Compounding is the formation of new words by joining two or more stems. Words formed in this way are called compounds. A compound is a “lexical unit consisting of more than one stem and functioning both grammatically and semantically as a single word” (Quirk et al 1985).

2. Characteristics of compounds
?

1)Phonetic features
2)Semantic features 3)Grammatical features 4)orthographic features

?

?

?

1)Phonetic features
? ? ?

?
?

Compound A grandpiano A greenroom A fat head Green fly
inverted comma

free phrase a grand piano a green room a fat head green fly

?

2)Semantic features
?

a. 固定的语义。
―a green hand‖ ―red meat‖ ―hot dog‖;

? ?

?

? ? ?

?
?

washing machine, home letters, dumb show, scarlet fever, homemaker; Greenback, hangover, big-ticket, offbeat...

?

? ?

2)Semantic features
?

?

?

b.语义关系一般是第一部分限定或修饰第 二部分。 A writing table, A waiting room; a deaf-mute, president elect, water bed, water bird, water bus, waterfall, water closet...

? ? ?

2)Semantic features
?

?

?
? ?

c. 有些复合词运用隐喻、换喻和提喻等 修辞手段产生出来的,形象而生动。 E.g. Light-hearted, snow-white, a turncoat, A head-hunter...

3)Grammatical features
? ?

E.g. The report whitewashed the recent events. Transport most of us to ancient Rome and we’ll find ourselves in a poorhouse or slave barracks.
Indeed, in a survey of over 500 lovers, almost all of them assumed that passionate love is a bittersweet experience.

?

?

4)orthographic features
? ?

E.g. Headstrong, pickpocket, sleepwalk; Shop-steward, ink-pot, script-writer; Mine sweeper, can opener, ironing board...

?

?

3. Formation of compounds
?

1) Noun compounds
Headache, housekeeping, hot line, swimming pool, raindrop, breakdown, biological clock, identity crisis, moon walk, end product, toothache, frost bite.

?

3. Formation of compounds
?

2) Adjective compounds
Weather-beaten rocks, peaceloving people, everlasting friendship, a difficultto-operate machine, a made-up story, an on the spot inspection, taxfree products, fire-proof dress

?

3. Formation of compounds
?

3) Verb compounds ? Formed by back-formation
? house-keep

from housekeeper ? windowshop from window-shopping ? mass produce from mass production ? hen-peck from hen-pecked ? spoon-feed from spoon-fed.

3. Formation of compounds
?

3)Verb compounds ? Formed by conversion ? to blue-print, to cold-shoulder, to outline, to honeymoon, to snowball, to chain-smoke, to sweet-talk, to job-hop.

实训:将下列复合词译成汉语
? ?



?
? ?

?
? ?

?
?

Fire power Fire brand Fire bomb Fire brigade Fire escape Red alert Red carpet Red meat Red tape Red fish

? ?

?
? ?

?
? ?

?
?

火力 火把,火源 燃烧弹 消防队 太平梯,防火梯 紧急警报 隆重的接待 牛肉 官样文章,繁文缛节 鲑鱼,海

实训:用英语解释下列复合词的意思。
? ?

?

1.pickpocket 3. Off-white 5.brainstorming 7.tenderfoot 9. Quick-freeze

2.housebreaking 4. Sleepwalker 6.self-styled 8.good-looking 10.dragonfly

Ⅳ.Conversion
? ?

1.Definition of conversion Conversion is the formation of new words by converting words of one class to anther class.

2.Features of conversion
? ?

? ? ?

?
?

1) E.g. Hunt, pay, sight, walk, talk... 2)E.g. Blacklist-to blacklist, backup-to backup... 3)E.g.The pig will jump over the stile! What a jump! He is a slow bowler. Slow the car! Mr slow is a popular children’s book.

3.Types of conversion
?

1)Noun-verb conversion
He elbowed his way through the crowd. ? Problems snowballed by the hour. ? The newspaper headlined his long record of accomplishments. ? Kissinger got the plans and helicoptered to Camp David.
?

3.Types of conversion
?

2)Verb-noun conversion
He was admitted to the university after a three-year wait. A small book with a green cover. It is a good buy. He took a close look at the machine.

?

? ? ?

3.Types of conversion
?

3)adjective- noun conversion ? Partial conversion
? ?

?

?

Denoting a quality or a state common to a group of person: the deaf, the blind, the poor, the wounded Denoting peoples of a nation (ending in –sh, -se, -ch): the English, the Chinese, the Danish, the Scotch Denoting a quality in the abstract: a strong dislike for the sentimental, to distinguish the false and the true, from the sublime to the ridiculous Denoting a single person (converted from participles): the accused, the deceased, the deserted, the condemned

3.Types of conversion
?

3)adjective- noun conversion
?

Complete conversion
A native, two natives, a returned native ? He is a natural for the job. ? Tom is one of our regulars, he comes in for a drink about this time every night. ? To them she is not a brusque crazy, but appropriately passionate. ? They are the creatives in the advertising department.
?

3.Types of conversion
? ?
?

3)adjective- noun conversion Miscellaneous
Customs and habits of the ancients, discrimination against Blacks,...

3.Types of conversion
? ?
?

4)adjective-verb conversion e.g.
Hard household chores roughed her hands. Smoke dirtied the air. When the music started, someone dimmed the lights.

?
?

实训:在下列句子中,找出发生词类 转化的词,并指出转化方式。
?

?
?

?

? ? ? ? ? ?

1.His smile could not very well mask his anger. 2.He walked carefully so as not to wet his shoes. 3.To protect the whale from the cold of the arctic seas, nature has provided it with a thick covering of fat called blubber. 4.They are better fed, better housed, and better clothed than ever before. 5.An hour went by and darkness still shrouded everything. 6.The photograph yellowed with age. 7.Mary has a strong dislike for the sentimental. 8.I will take a through train. 9.This book is a must for the students of physics. 10.His talk contains too many ifs and buts.

IV. Assignment:
? ? ?

?

将下列复合词译成汉语。 1.Mouse mat 2. Off-day 3.jumpsuit 4. Parking meter 5.bulletproof 6.outeat 7.stir-fry 8.cross-question 9.chicken-hearted 10.blow-dry


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