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2014 高考英语阅读理解基础练习题(45)及答案
阅读下列短文,按要求完成下列读写任务 (201*重庆卷)One morning more than thirty years ago,I entered the Track Kitchen, a restaurant where everyone from the humblest(卑微的)to the most powerful came for breakfast.I noticed an empty chair next to an elderly, unshaven man, who looked somewhat disheveled. He was wearing a worn?out hat and was alone.I asked if I might join him.He agreed quietly and I sat down to have my breakfast. We cautiously began a conversion and spoke about a wide rang of things.We never introduced ourselves.I was concerned that he might have no money and not be able to afford something to eat.So as I rose to go back to the counter and buy a second cup of coffee,I asked, “May I get you something ?” “A coffee would be nice.” Then I bought him a cup of coffee,we talked more,and he accepted another cup of coffee.Finally,I rose to leave,wished him well,and headed for the exit.At the door I met one of my friends.He asked, “How did you get to know Mr.Galbreath?” “Who?” “The man you were sitting with.He is chairman of the Board of Churchill Downs.” I could hardly believe it.I was buying,offering a free breakfast,and feeling pity for one of the world's richest and most powerful men! My few minutes with Mr.Galbreath changed my life.Now I try to treat everyone with respect,no matter who I think they are,and to meet another human being with kindness and sincerity. Ⅰ.以约 30 词概括文章大意 ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Ⅱ.根据短文内容选择最佳答案 1.What does the underlined word “disheveled” mean? A.Unfriendly. C.Gentle. B.Untidy. D.Kind.

2.The author bought coffee for the old man because______. A.he thought the old man was poor B.he wanted to start a conversation

C.he intended to show his politeness D.he would like to thank the old man 3.How did the author probably feel after he talked with his friend? A.Proud. C.Surprised. B.Pitiful. D.Regretful

4.What is the message mainly expressed in the story? A.We should learn to be generous. B.It is honorable to help those in need. C.People in high positions are not like what we expect. D.We should avoid judging people by their appearances.

参考答案 Ⅰ【部分】 Feeling pity for a “poor” stranger,the author offered a free breakfast to a rich and powerful man in the Track Kitchen.This experience tells him to treat everyone with respect.(31 words) Ⅱ【部分】 1.解析:词义猜测题。从上文的 unshaven(没有修面的)可知 disheveled 应与 unshaven 的意思接近。综合全文内容可知,这位先生不修边幅,穿着破烂,以致让作者犯了以貌取人 的错误。 所以答案为 B。 答案:B 2.解析:第二段的 I was concerned that he might have no money and not be able to afford something to eat 说明答案为 A。 答案:A 3.解析:推理判断题。根据倒数第二段中的“I could hardly believe it.”可知作者 感到很惊讶。 答案:C 4.解析:本文给人们的启示是:不要以貌取人。 答案:D。

阅读 理解 (共 20 小题;每小题 2 分,满分 40 分) 阅读下列四篇短文,从每题所给的四个选项(A、B、C 和 D)中,选出最佳选项,并 在答题


卡上将该项涂黑。 A My grandparents actively practiced simplicity. They both grew up in very large families and lived through the Great Depression. Saving for a rainy day and avoiding superfluous consuming was their life philosophy. Rather than seeking fulfillment through material items, they chose to spend really simple life together, with family and in nature. Over the years my grandparents noticed dramatic changes in their community. Every year more farmland was destroyed to build larger and larger homes. As real estate prices rose, many of their neighbors sold their little homes and land. Soon theirs were the only small house on the block, surrounded by a sea of mansions. My grandparents built and lived m a small 600-square-foot cottage for most of their adult lives. Lots of family members encouraged my grandparents to expand their little old house. But they didn’t want a bigger place. They loved their little house and were content with what they had. My grandparents avoided consumptive(浪费的)lifestyle by painting and repairing the house themselves. They lived in a small home, but had a huge garden. They loved gardening and planting because it reduced their grocery bill, improved their health, and gave them an excuse to be outside. They also reused and recycled everything. For instance, they had driven the same car for over 15 years and didn’t buy a new one until the old Chevrolet was worn out. Through their example I learned an important lesson: It is possible to live a simple and fulfilling life. My grandparents taught me that living a simple life isn’t about self-deprivation. Instead, it’ s about giving yourself the time, freedom, and money to pursue your dreams. Becoming debt free, downsizing to a smaller home, and going car-lite(减少用车频率)are a few ways to take control of your life and start pursuing your dreams. 26.The underlined word superfluous in Paragraph I is closest in meaning to _____.


A. meaningful 【答案】B

B. unnecessary

C. increasing D. troublesome

【解析】词义猜测题。A。有意义的;B。不必要的,多余的;C。渐增的;D。麻烦的,令人 苦恼的。由“My grandparents avoided consumptive(浪费的)lifestyle”可知他们避免不 必要的消费。故选 B。 27.The community’s changes include all the following EXCEPT that _____ A. the people built more farmland B. the neighbors sold their houses C. the houses became more expensive D. many mansions were built there 【答案】A 【解析】细节理解题。由“Every year more farmland was destroyed to build larger and larger homes.”可知社区的改变不包括建造更多的农田。故选 A。

28.The author’s grandparents didn’t expand their house because _____. A. they didn’t accept the family members' advice B. their house were really new and large enough C. they were satisfied with the house they lived in D. they were too old to do any house-building job 【答案】C 【解析】细节理解题。由“They loved their little house and were content with what they had.”可知原因是他们对自己住的房子很满意。故选 C。 29. Which of the following is a consumptive lifestyle in the grandparents , opinion? A. Repairing the house themselves. B. Planting vegetables in the garden. C. Reusing and recycling things. D. Changing cars in a short time.

【答案】D 【解析】细节理解题。由“For instance, they had driven the same car for over 15 years and didn’t buy a new one until the old Chevrolet was worn out.”可知他们认为在短 时间内换车是浪费的。

30.The author thinks his grandparents, lifestyle is _____. A. unacceptable 【答案】B 【解析】细节理解题。A。不能接受的;B。可赞同的;C。不合理的,不切实际的;D。可以 理 解 的 。 由 “My grandparents taught me that living a simple life isn’t about self-deprivation. Instead, it’ s about giving yourself the time, freedom, and money to pursue your dreams.”可知选 B。 B. approvable C. unreasonable D. understandable

在复习这一部分内容时首先要了解高考对阅读理解题的要求,由于江苏省高考是单独命 题,所以既要关心《英语课程标准》又要参照江苏省普通高中英语课程教学要求(09 年修订) 和考试院对英语高考的具体说明。 《英语课程标准》八级(普通高中毕业要求)在语言技能部分对“读”的目标描述是: 能理解阅读材料中不同的观点和态度; 能识别不同文体的特征; 3. 能通过分析句子结构理解难句和长句; 4. 能在教师的帮助下欣赏浅显的英语文学作品; 5. 能根据学习任务的需要从多种媒体中获取信息并进行加工处理; 6. 除教材外,课外阅读量应累计达到 30 万词以上。 高考对阅读理解的要求 (排列次序应与课标相同)

(建议改为:江苏省考试院英语高考有关说明: )

要求考生能读懂一般性话题的简短文字材料,例如公告、说明、广告以及书、报、杂志中 的简短文章。考生应能:


理解主旨大意; 寻找具体信息; 3. 识别不同文体特征; 4. 根据上下文提供的语境推测生词词义; 5. 作出简单的判断和推理; 6. 理解文章的基本逻辑结构; 7. 把握作者的意图和态度; 8. 理解文章的文化信息。 (注意具体文字和排列次序应与省高考说明相同,请核对一下。 )

专题一 事实细节 一、题型特点与解题技巧 尽管近几年高考英语阅读试题中推断题呈不断上升的趋势,但细节题仍然占有较大比例,而 且已由过去简单的对号入座直接答题转向通过语句的同义或反义转换等来考查同学们对英语 语言的理解能力,因此难度比往年有所增加。 一、题型特点与命题方式 所谓细节题,是指原文提到了某事物、现象或理论,题干针对原文具体叙述本身发问。一 般包括直接理解题(在原文中可直接找到答案,常用 who, what, when, where, why 和 how 等提问。 )语义转化题(需要将题目信息与原文相关信息进行语义上的转换,两者存在表达上 的差异,有时需要进行加工或整理后方能得出结论) 、数字计算题、排列顺序题、图表图画题 等。抓住文段中的事实和细节是做好该题型的关键,也是做好其它类型问题的基础。这类题 型的题干常为: When / Where did the story happen? Which of the following statements is (not) correct? Which of the following statements is (not) mentioned in the passage? Which is the right order of the events given in the passage? All the statements are true except? 该题型几乎都可以在文章中直接找到与答案有关的信息,或是其变体。所以,搜查信息在 阅读中非常重要,它包括理解作者在叙述某事时使用的具体事实、数据、图表等细节信息。 在一篇短文里大部分篇幅都属于这类围绕主体展开的细节。做这类题一般采用寻读法,即先

读题,然后带着问题快速阅读短文,找出与问题有关的词语或句子,再对相关部分进行分析 对比,找出答案。

二、解题思路与应试技巧 细节题是针对文中某个细节、某句话或某部分具体内容设置问题,正确答案的根据一定可 以在原文中找到,即原文的改写往往成为正确选项。 通常细节题的正确选项有以下特征: 1.对原文句子中的关键词进行替换。把原文中的一些词换成意义相近的词,成为正确选项。 2.词性或者语态的变化。把原文中的一些词变换一下词性,或者改变原文句子的语态,给考 生制造障碍。 3.语言简化。把原文中的复杂语言现象进行简化,成为正确答案。 4.正话反说。把原文中的意思反过来表达而成为正确选项(适用于寻找错误选项的题目) 。 干扰项也是以文章中的某个细节设题,若不仔细辨别,很容易把它当成正确选项。干扰项 有以下特征: 1.将原文内容扩大或缩小。把原文中的限定词去掉或替换,使该选项看似正确,实际上却是 错误选项。 2.把未然当已然。改变文中某句话的时态,如把将来时变成现在时,把未发生的事情当成已 发生的事情。 3.无中生有。即选项内容是根据主观想象或推测得出的结论,而文中并未涉及。 4.偷换概念。把原来做该事的“张三”换成“李四”,所述细节确实与原文一致,一不小心 就会 误选。 5.文不对题。这类题最不容易辨别,选项中的描述与原文完全一致,确属原文中的一个细节, 这时要回到题干,看该选项是否能回答题干所提的问题。

三、细节题的不同类型 1.直接信息题 对此类题型,考生可以首先从问题中找到关键词,然后以此为线索,运用略读及查阅的技 巧在文中迅速寻找这一细节,找到后再把这一部分内容仔细阅读一遍,仔细比较所给选项与 文中细节的细微区别,在准确理解细节的前提下,最后确定最佳答案。

He joined the world of politics as news secretary for his congressman (国会议 员) from Baltimore During Bill Clinton’s presidency, he wrote speeches for

Health and Human Services Secretary Donna Shalala and worked in a number of jobs in the White House and in governmental departments. President Clinton then appointed him to the office of director of speechwriting. Following the 2000 elections Edmonds returned to Morgan State University as the school’s special assistant to the president for 2001-2002. (2009 陕西)

46. Edmonds entered the world of politics first as ________. A. news secretary for a congressman B. a speechwriter for President Clinton D. a speechwriter for Secretary Donna

C. news secretary in the White House Shalala 2.间接信息题

做这类题目时,考生需要对原文信息进行加工处理,然后再进行进一步的推理或鉴别,这 是介于事实细节题和推理判断题之间的一种题型,对考生来说有一定难度。例如: Kong Zi, also called Confucius (551-479B.C), and Socrates (469-399B.C)lived only a hundred years apart, and during their lifetimes there was no contact between China and Greece, but it is interesting to look at how the world that each of these great philosophers came from shaped their ideas, and how these ideas in turn, shaped their societies. (2010 江西)

Which of the following is TRUE according to the first paragraph? A. Socrates and Confucious had much in common. B. Confucious had much influence on Socrates’ ideas. C. The societies were influenced by the philosophers’ ideas. D. There were cultural exchanges between China and Greece 3.数字计算题 数字计算题也是近几年高考中常考的内容,此类试题是在文章中直接表现出来细节事实, 有的要经过具体的计算才能够得出正确的答案。具体的计算题可以是对年代的计算、月份的 计算或比例的计算等。文章中经常会出现许多数字,它们对解题产生一定的影响。解答此类 试题的方法是先来理解文章的大意,然后经过对比、分析、计算等就能够得出正确的答案。 例如: (2010 江苏)

BORDER CROSSINGS While there are no restrictions on the amount of money that you can bring [来 源:金太阳新课标资源网] across the border, you must report to both the US and Canadian border services amounts equal to or greater than $10.000. PERSONAL EXEMPTIONS(免税)ON PURCHASES AMERICANS RETURNING TO THE US Less than 48 hours: $ 200 US 48 hours or more: $ 800 US duty-free personal exemption. next $ 1.000 US at 3% Including up to 100 cigars and 100 cigarettes. CANADIANS RETURNING TO CANADA Less than 24 hours: $ 50 CAN 48 hours or more: $ 400 CAN Including up to 100 cigars and 200 cigarettes. 7 days or more: $ 750 CAN Including up to 100 cigars and 200 cigarettes. DOCUMENTATION NEEDED FOR BORDER CROSSING LAND OR SEA TO THE US(INCLUDING FERRIES) A valid passport or passport card, or a NEXUS card. (A NEXUS card is a Trusted Traveler Program that provides quick travel for pre-approved, low risk travelers through special lanes.) A recent Washington State, New York or BC driver’s license. Note: Children 15 years of age and younger require only a birth certificate or copy.(Certified copies are not required but are advised.) AIR TRAVEL TO THE US A valid passport, an Air NEXUS card, or a U.S. Coast Guard Merchant


Marine Document. 64.If a Canadian who is on a 7-day trip to New York buys $ 800 CAN worth of goods, how much should he pay tax on when returning home? A. $ 800 CAN B. $750 CAN C.$ 400 CAN D. $ 50 CAN

65.For an American citizen on a 2-day tour of Canada, how much tax does he have to pay on $ 1.600 US worth of purchases when returning to the US? A. $ 24 US 4.排列顺序题 这种试题要求考生根据事件发生的先后顺序和句子之间的逻辑关系,找出事件发生的正确 顺序。做这种题时可采用“首尾定位法”,即最先找出第一个事件和最后一个事件,迅速缩 小选择范围,从而快速选出正确答案。 5.图表图画题 在有图表图画的阅读理解中,有的图表图画出现在阅读理解文章中,有的出现在选项中, 这些图片的出现增加了试题的直观性,同时也暗含着和文章内容相关的信息。在解答此类试 题的时候,一定要把握图表图画中所暗含的信息,特别是有些事实是通过图片来叙述的,我 们可以采用按图寻找正确答案的方法。 总之,做英语阅读理解时,考生一定要每道题目都返回原文,这是解任何题目的基础,很 多考生阅读得不了高分得最重要原因就是不返回原文定位。 我们把选项和原文重叠, 记住“本 本主义”,即与原文意思接近的,差不多的为正确答案,与原文意思相反的,或者只要是文 中未提及的都是错的。 B. $ 48 US C. $52 US D. $ 200 US

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