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高考英语完形填空解题技巧和方法


高考英语专题复习 --完形填空解题技巧指导
格式塔心理学: 当看见不完整的事物时,人们根据脑子里对事物的完整概念,会在思想上把它补全。 即:补全心理 一.《高中英语课程标准和考试说明》对高考完形填空的规定: 完形填空是高考试题中的一个重要部分。完形填空共 20 题,考试时间为 20 分钟左右,分值为 30 分,占总分 的 20%。在两篇题材熟悉、难度适中的短文(约 350 词)内留有 20 个空格,每个空格为一题,每题有四个选择 项,要求考生在全面理解内容的基础上选择一个最佳答案,使短文的意思和结构恢复完整。 完形填空部分的目的是测试学生综合运用语言的能力(测试能力要求大体接近大学非英语专业二年级水平。 ) 完型填空考查综合运用语言的能力: 1)词语辨析能力 2)语法结构分析能力 3)语篇理解能力 4)逻辑推理能力 5)文化背景透析能力 6)生活常识综合运用能力… 二:完型填空试题主要特点:

1. 通常从一篇 300-350 词左右,文章中设空 20 个,首句不挖空;
2. 内容完整, 逻辑性强, 语言结构严谨。生词少, 难度适中。 3. 干扰项设计严密.一般情况下,四个选项的词性相同或属于同等或对等范畴,干扰项填入后在 语法上一般不存在错误,对考生有很大的迷惑作用; 4.突出语篇(语境),强调应用,注重交际; 5. 考察重点多为实词: 名词 / 代词 /动词 / 形 容词 / 副词等;单词为主、短语为辅。 6. 关注语境背景知识, 侧重上下关联, 暗示判断能力。 7.大多富有积极的教育意义,给人以人生的启迪或是充满了生活情趣;

记叙文 对于叙事, 描述类文章。 短文的首句, 往往点明故事发生的人物(who),时间 (when) , 地点(where), 和事件(what)等背景情况。例: It was a busy morning,about 8:30,when an elderly gentleman in his 80s came to the
hospital . ……

议论文 1、议论文的设题往往多以上下文为基础,利用承前信息或滞后信息,使读者有所依托。 2、议论文中表达作者态度或看法的词较多,所以,试题中对形容词和副词的考查往往也较多。
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问题跳跃性较大。我们做题时,既要看事实,又要感悟作者的态度与情感。 对于论述文,首句表明了论述的主题。起到揭示主题的作用。例如:
A man who knows how to write a personal letter has a very powerful tool. A letter can be enjoyed, read and 21 .

说明文 说明文直白性较强,脉络清晰。 2、说明文的层次清晰,整体性强,所以,递进性词汇和名词的设题往往出现得较多。只要把握 这些关键,做完形填空便会得心应手,游刃有余。 完形填空总体要求 完形填空全面考查学生的语言知识、阅读理解能力和总体语言水平。 解题过程是对语篇中的缺失信息进行猜测、推断、验证的过程,需要我们立足语篇环境,树 立全局观念,瞻前顾后,连贯思维,从语境角度来选择答案。
高考完形填空考什么? 1. 词汇题 2. 语法结构 3. 篇章结构(语境)

为什么我们在这一题型上总是失分较多?
1. 没有严格遵循答题步骤:很多考生一拿到完形填空题就急于选择答案,不认真分析通篇文章, 单纯求快,忽略语篇理解,只看局部的词义辨析、搭配和语法结构。表面上解题速度挺快, 但是这种见树不见林的做法只会影响解题的质量和效率。 切记:一定要用 2-3 分钟时间先进行缺词阅读,弄清文章大意和基本脉络后再着手逐个填空. 2. 不注意积累答题技巧: a.忽略文章首句的提示作用; b.忽略文章中上下文之间的照应关系; c.遇到长句不注意分析句子结构,在语义模糊时抱碰运气的心理随意作出选择. 3.时间安排不当:在几个选项上过分纠缠,追求完美,导致许多本可以做出的题来不及做。 切记:正确的做法是由易到难,先做会做的,再考虑较难的。 强烈推荐: 如尚有几题题目不确定可将某题的可能的两项填入空格, 然后快速地整句整段地默读, 选择某一项习惯或短语或动宾搭配读起来较流畅的. 四. 解题方法: 总的原则: 先完意,后完形。 十六字方针:上下通气 ,瞻前顾后,左顾右盼,前后照应 。 三步曲: 读——填——读 五. 完形填空具体解题步骤 通览------选填-----复核 1 通览----速读全文,把握大意 跳格快速阅读一下全文,通过通览全文、领会大意,概略地了解文章的体裁、背景、内容等等。 2 选填----紧扣文意,瞻前顾后 先易后难,逐层深入。紧扣全文内容,联系上下文和语境,展开逻辑推理,注意从上下文中寻
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找线索,注意词汇的意义、搭配,惯用法,语法,常识等多个角度进行综合考,选项入格。 3 复核----全面检查,确保语意连贯,用词准确 复读全文验证答案。带着答案把全文再通读一遍 ,注意看所选答案填入空白处后能否做到文章 意思通顺、前后连贯、逻辑严谨、结构完整、首尾呼应。 完形填空之解题技巧-----Basic skills of cloze 细读文章的第一句话 高考完形填空选文的第一句话通常是完整的。该句往往就是主题句(Topic Sentence) ,这就为我 们理解文章的内在联系提供了一个“窗口” ,它的句意往往为全文提供中心信息,能直接概括全 文大意、揭示主题。 充分重视首句的标示作用,利用它为解题找到一个突破口,据此展开思维,争取开局胜利。

一:词汇题
1. 上下文和前后句的提示(复现、同/近义词、反义词) 1.( 2010 北京卷)Mrs. Neidl would ask me for my 37 . She wanted to know how I thought …… She believed I had opinions, so I began to ……. 37. A.opinion B.impression C.information D.intention 语境-原词重现 2. (2010 陕西卷) I had some 28 in my pocker, but I would not give them to him, thinking to myself he would 29( only) use the money to feed his addiction to drugs or alcohol. 28. A. chocolates B. coins C. tins D. drugs 语境-同义词、近义词复现 3. Many old people don’t have good ____. They can’t watch TV, but they can listen to music or news over the radio . A hearing B health C eyesight D time 4. Some parts of the water are very shallow. But in some places it is very, very______. A. deep B.high C. cold D. dangerous 5. Chinese government challenged local shools to conduct experiments in-educationreform. And then Renda Fuzhong Xisan School in Beijing stepped up to the_______. A. charges B. exchange C. challenge D. experience 语境-原词重现(词性变化) 6. … and then both ended up from the same high school. Just three weeks before_____, Bill asked Mark if they could talk.(2003 北京) A graduation B movement C separation D vacation 7.The amount of usable water has always been of great interest in the world. Holding springs and streams sometimes means control, particularly in the 22 areas like the desert. 22.A.dry B.distant C.deserted D.wild 8. The correct water supply forecast is based more on the water from the 34 than from the below.
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34.A.clouds B.sky C.air D.above 9. In 1964 Shirley graduated from Gallaudet and looked for _44_.She wanted to be independent and work full time. 44.A.information B.help C.a job D.an assistant 10. The stone men face 41,rather than out to sea, and their eyes are focused upon the sky. 41. A. forward B. outward C. onward D. inward 11.The art experts who work at the gallery say they used modern chemistry technology to 45 the paint on the picture. These checks found traces(痕迹) of paint deep in the picture dating from about 1814. 45. A. try B. remove C. wash D. check

词汇题
2.词语的习惯用法和固定搭配
1.(2010 全国 I) …The nurse had him take a 36 in the waiting area, 37(telling) him it would be at least 40 minutes 38(before) someone would be able to see him . 36 A. breath B. test C. seat D. break 语境-固定搭配 2.The city(Washington) was named___George Washington, the first president of the United States. A. by B. for C. as D. after 3. It was 4 o’clock when the front doorbell rang. Mrs Clarke was ____tea at the time. A. cooking B. making C. burning D. serving 4. Mark____ down and helped the boy pick up these articles.(2003 北京 春 50 小题) A.fell B. sat C.lay D. knelt 5. … , but they are _____ damage to our houses and shops of historical interest,’’ Said John Norris,one of the protesters.(NMET1999 第 30 题) A .doing B. raising C. putting D. producing 6.He’d 36 his life brewing beer for local breweries only to make a living, 37 had his father and grand-father before him. 36.A. cost B. spent C. take D. paid 37.A. like B. as if C. so D. nor 7. On April 12, 1888, Alfred’s brother Ludwig died of heart attack. A major French newspaper ___ his brother for him and… A. found B. misunderstood C. mistook D. judged 能与“A for B”搭配的在四个选项中只有选项 C, mistake A for B 意为“误以为 A 是 B,把 A 错当 成 B”。注意:mistake-mistook-mistaken

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词汇题
3.根据词汇的意义及用法辨析词义
1.(2010 江苏卷) My father 36 me to her with these words:“I would like you to meet the fellow who is …… 36.A.rushed B.sent C.carried D.introduced 语境-词义辨析 2.(2010 全国 I) The happiest people don’t 53(necessarily ) have the best of everything; they just 54 the best of everything they have . 54 A. learn B make C.favor D.try 语境-词义辨析 3. The boy was ___ ① ____ the water and his canoe was _②___ away. ① A. on B. within C. in D. under ② A. running B. floating C. flowing D. pulling 4. With her slow and clumsy reactions, she would surely ____ her team. A. hold on B. hold out C. hold over D. hold up 语境+词语辨析 5.The trainer decided it was useless trying to finish. He called to Trudy to 45 . 45.A. keep up B. slow down C. give up D. take up 6.The forest began to disappear, which 53 all the animals dying out. 53. A. resulted in B. resulted from C. created D. lay in 7. Nobel arranged in his will to give the largest part of his money to establish the Nobel Prizes, which would be awarded to people who made great _______ to the causes of peace, literature, and the sciences. A. additions B. sacrifices C. changes D. contributions make additions to 给……增加 make sacrifices for 为……做出牺牲 make changes to 对……作修改 make contributions to 对……作贡献 8. So I tried hard with my writing and went to college . My first novel 45 while I was at college. 45. A. came on B. came in C. came out D. came back come on 加油,得了吧;开始 come out 出来; 盛开; 出版; 显出 come in 进来 come back 回来

词汇题
4.根据生活常识及文化背景知识进行选择
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1. I made my sandwich that afternoon while waiting for Cassie. 39 the butter-cream gave me an idea. A. Spreading B. Boiling C. Baking D. Holding 生活常识 2. (2010 福建)Born in America , I spoke English not Chinese, the language of my ancestors . When I was three . my parents flashed cards with Chinese 36 at my face , but I pused them 37 (aside ) , …… 36. A. custorn B. games C .characters D. language 常识、背景知识 3. I turned the key in the lock and _____the door open. A. knocked B. forced C. pushed D. tried 语境-常识 4.(2008 浙江)I don’t remember my father ever getting into a swimming pool. But he did love the water. Any kind of ride seemed to give him pleasure. And he loved to fish…… A. boat B. bus C. train D. bike 5. …,you __①__the international dateline.By agreement, this is the point where a new day__②__. ① A. see B. cross C. are D. are stopped by ②A.is coming B. is discovered C.is invented D. begins the international dateline 是‘ ‘国际日期变更线’ ’ ,是人们所规定的,看不见,摸不着,但是可 以越过。它是新的一天开始的地方。答案分别为 B 和 D 其实,以上方法并非独立使用,交互使用的情况较多。根据文章运用多方法,对选项逐项分析, 排除干扰项,从而确定最佳答案。对稍难的或拿不准的个别题,我们可采用排除法。

二:逻辑手段 1.逻辑手段
顺序关系 并列关系 因果关系 让步关系 转折关系 解释关系 1.(2010 江苏卷) Then she looked at my father and replied,“You are 40(wrong). This is not the worst boy at all, 41 the smartest one who hasn’t yet found an outlet (释放的途径)for his enthusiasm.” 41. A.but B.so C.and D.or 语境-转折关系、搭配 2.(2010 湖南卷) Bean is a white dog, quite handsome and very 38 . 38. A. smart B.sweet C.slow D.shy 语境-同类并列关系 3.(2010 安徽卷) First of all, a pen should fit comfortably in your hand, ... Then the writing point of the pen…… 52 ,the pen should make a thick, dark line. 52. A. Meanwhile B. Generally C. Afterwards D. Finally 语境-顺序关系 4. A transistor radio is sometimes very small.It is very easy to carry…___,radio broadcasts are better for blind people. A. Besides B. However C. Yet D. Sometimes
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5. At first nothing happened,____suddenly a large rat rushed out of the… A.and B. or C. so D.then 6. My main responsibility(职责) were clearing tables and washing dishes,____sometimes I helped cook.(2003 北京 第 40 题) A. or B. so C. but D. even 7. ____ father and I often argue with each other, we are good friends. A. If B. Although C. When D. As if 语境-让步关系 8. If we make a noise on the bus they look _____ and uncomfortable . A. untouched B. worried C, moved D. excited Hellen was an old teacher with a warm smile and _____eyes. A. bursting B. freezing C. friendly D. lively 语境-并列关系

二:逻辑手段 2:语法结构分析
①When we talked, I discovered(发现) some differences in school life between the US and China. For example, each class lasts fifty minutes in the US. It is a little ____ than that in China. We usually have forty minutes in each class. A. shorter B. longer C. earlier D. later ② (辽宁) 42 is known to us all, there is not 43 (enough) water in all places for every-one to use as much as he likes. 42. A. That B. It C. What D. As ③ When Ed first phoned and ___we play, I laughed quietly, figuring on an easy victory.(NMET2003 , 37 题) A.declared B. mentioned C.persuaded D. suggested ④ (2010 天津卷) “ As a policeman, I saw 27 there was violence, drugs were always behind it. They have a damaging 28(impact) on the kids. ” 27. A. where B. unless C. as D. whether ⑤The instructor then ___ that we find ways to make apologize to people. A. expected B. suggested C. told D. said we find = we should find ⑥Of course, he did not understand a thing, but he nodded his head as he_____ A. did B. had C. understood D. could 这儿 did 代替 understood,不选 understood 避免重复。属语法考点. ⑦(2007 辽宁)What made him sad was ___his piano teacher in Beijing didn’t like him. A. whether B. why C. when D. that
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完型填空中语法结构方面测试较少 1)虚拟语气; 2)定语从句(连接词,限定与非限定定语从句的区别,定语从句与其它主从复 合句的区别) ; 3)状语从句; 4)非谓语动词;5)主谓搭配一致 ; 6)并列句;7)省略句; 8)倒装句及复杂句子 …注意上下文的逻辑关系和语篇内容,这样才能确保答案的正确。 三:语篇理解

作者观点、态度
1.Life is very 55 , so don’t rush to make decisions. Life doesn’t let you plan. 55.A. hard B. busy C. short D. long 2.Dr. Shirley Jeanne Allen has traveled many roads and followed many rainbows searching for her dream. With courage and _55_, she never gave up. 55.A.determination B. intelligence C. strength D. pride 3.This is because the most important character of creative people is a very strong 40 to find a way out of trouble. 40.A.desire B.inspire C.influence D.attitude

小结:完型填空考查内容
语篇信息(语境理解) 词汇手段:原词复现,同义.近义复现,反义词,习惯用法
语法手段:指代,句型,语法项目 逻辑手段:顺序关系,并列关系,因果关系,让步关系,转折关系,解释关系

作者观点、态度 解题过程中应做到
注意上下文语境 了解常识背景 掌握习惯搭配 运用词义辨析 运用语法分析 运用逻辑分析 运用排除法 英语完形填空解题步骤 1. 通读全文,统揽全局。首句主题 2. 逐句分析,确定选项。比较选项 3. 通盘理解,上下一致。作者思想 4. 复读全文,核对答案。第一感觉

做题三忌:
? 急于求成,未通读全文便忙于答题, 不了解文意。 ? 只抠字眼,语法,不顾文意,抓不住关键。 ? 断章取义,不管前后照应,前后矛盾。 ? 不善于逻辑推理,容易受思维定势的干扰,忽视特定语境中知识的应用。 如何提高能力技巧 一、提高阅读能力(速度、理解) 二、打好语法基础
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三、扩充词汇量(词汇是完型之根,动 词、名词为主) 四、增长生活常识,培养广泛的兴趣爱好 五、坚持每天做两篇,以提高实战能力 总结--解题方法:

总的原则:
“先完意,后完形”。

八字方针: 上下求索,瞻前顾后。 三步曲: 读——填——读

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