1. To learn and master the following words: era, calendar, dove 2. To review and master the use of the passive voices.
Difficult and important points:
1. Get the students to know how to use passive voices: 2. Help the students complete the activities of the Grammar.
Step 1. Revision Read the sentences and find out what grammar are they? 1. Is the room cleaned every day? 2. We were woken up by a loud noise during the night. 3. Something must be done before it is too late. 4. Have you heard the news? The President has been shot? 5. The car was three years old but hadn’t been used very much. 6. There’s somebody walking behind us. I think we are being followed. Step 2. Presentation— 被动语态 被动语态的基本形式是: be +及物动词的过去分词 根据时态的不同, be 的形式有所变化. (1) 一般现在时的被动语态: am/is /are+过去分词 (口语可用 get/become 或 got /became) (2) 一般过去时的被动语态:was /were+过去分词 (3) 一般将来时的被动语态:will / be going to + be done (4) 现在进行时的被动语态:am / is / are + being done (5) 现在完成时的被动语态:have / has + been done (6) 含情态动词的被动语态:情态动词 + be done 被动语态的基本用法: (1) 不知道或没有必要提到动作的执行者是谁时用被动语态. e.g. Printing was introduced into Europe from China. I was born in 1960. (2) 强调或突出动作的承受者常用被动语态.(有时可省略). e.g. She is liked by everybody. (3) 当动作的执行者不是人时，或出于礼貌避免说出动作的执行者时. e.g. We were shocked by the news of his sudden death. You’ll be contacted. (4) 在被动语态中，如需强调动作的执行者，用“by+动作执行者”的短语 e.g. The film was directed by Xie Jin. 使用被动语态应注意的几个问题. 1.不及物动词不能用于被动语态,及物动词才有被动语态, 不及物动词如 happen, take place, appear, arrive, die, fall, last, occur, remain, succeed, start 等没有被动语态。 e.g. Great changes have been taken place in my hometown. (×) Great changes have taken place in my hometown. (√) 2.表示状态的动词不能用于被动语态英语中。有些动词(短语动词)不是表示动作, 而是表 示某种状态或情况, 如"拥有、 容纳、 适合、 明白"等意, 这类词不能用于被动语态, 常 见的有: lack, mean, hold, have, become, last, cost, consist of, look like 等。
e.g. The new stadium can be held 5,000 people. (×) The new stadium can hold 5,000 people. (√) 3.主动形式表示被动意义 (1)某些感官动词和系动词加形容词可以表示被动意义, 常见的有:look, smell, taste, feel, prove, wear, sound 等。 e.g. Your idea sounds great. (2) 某些行为动词后加副词(有些可不加副词)也可以表示被动意义, 常见的有: wash, write, sell, read, handle, keep, pay 等。 e.g. The meat cuts easily. The shoes wear well. (3) want, need, require, deserve, be worth 等词的后面可以用动名词的主动形式表示被动意 义。 e.g. The point deserves mentioning. The tree needs watering. (4) 某些表语形容词后, 常用不定式的主动表被动。 （句型：be+形容词+to do） e.g. The question is difficult to understand. (5) 当不定式作定语, 与前面的名词或代词有动宾关系时, 用不定式的主动表被动。 e.g. Have you got anything to say at the meeting? 4.在主动语态中, 若动词为使役动词 let, make, have 或感官动词 feel, see, hear, watch,notice, look at, listen to 时, 后接省略 to 的动词不定式； 但是变被动语态时, 必须把省掉的 to 带 上。 e.g. 老板让他整天工作. The boss made him work all day long. → He was made to work all day long (by the boss). 5.主动变被动时双宾语（间人直物）的变化. eg: 我朋友在我生日时送我一本有趣的书. My friend gave me an interesting book on my birthday. →I was given an interesting book (by my friend) on my birthday.（人做主语） →An interesting book was given to me (by my friend) on my birthday. 物做主语） （ （需在间接宾 语 “人” 前加相应介词） 6.含复合宾语（宾语+宾语补足语）的句子主动变被动时,宾补成主补(位置不变) e.g. My teacher told me to clean our classroom after school. →I was told to clean our classroom after school by my teacher. 7.短语动词变被动语态时,勿要掉”尾巴”. e.g.他的要求遭到拒绝 His request was turned down. e.g. 孩子们被他照顾的很好. The children were taken good care of ( by her). e.g. 要注意一下你的发音和拼写. Your pronunciation and spelling should be paid attention to. 8.当句子的谓语为 say, believe, expect, think, know, write, consider, report 等时,被动语态有两种 形式: a: 谓语动词用被动语态,动词不定时作主补 构成句型：sb. + be + done + to do /to be doing /to have done. b 用 it 作形式主语,真正的主语在后面用主语从句来表示. 构成句型：It be+过去分词+ that-clause
eg: 人们说她是个聪明的孩子. People say he is a smart boy. →He is said to be a smart boy. →It is know that he is a smart boy. 人们都知道纸是最先在中国制造的. People know paper was made in China first. →Paper was known to be made in China →It is known that paper was made in China. 常见的句型有: It is said/ know/ suggested/believed/ hoped /thought that….. Step3: practice Activity 1: Multiple choices. 1. Jackson __C___ to work in a government office though he hated serving there. A. had wanted B. wanted C. was wanted D. was wanting 2. ---Did you enjoy last night’s concert? ---Yes, though the last piece __B___ rather poorly. A. played B. was played C. was playing D. playing 3. Come and sit down by the fire. You hands __A___. A. feel so cold B. is felt so cold C. fell so coldly D. felt so cold 4. Great changes _____ in our city and some schools ____ during the past 20 years. D A. have taken place; have set up B. were take place; were set up C. have been taken place; have been set up D. have taken place; have been set up 5. The thief __B___ while climbing the garden wall. A. has caught B. was caught C. had been caught D. has been caught 6. In some parts of the world, tea __A___ with milk and sugar. A. is served B. is serving C. servers D. served 7. Experiments of this kind __D___ in both the U.S. and Europe well before the Second World War. （2011 北京） A. have conducted B. have been conducted
C. had conducted D. had been conducted 8. All visitors to this village _B_____ with kindness. (2011 四川) A. treat B. are treated C. are treating D. had been treated 9. The church tower which _D____ will be open to tourists soon. The work is almost finished. （2010 上海） A. has restored B. has been restored C. is restoring D. is being restored 10. Every year a flood of farmers arrive in Shenzhen for the money-making jobs they __D___ before leaving their hometowns. （2010 福建） A. promised B. were promised C. have promised D. have been promised. 11. This coastal area _A____ a national wildlife reserve last year. （2010 湖南） A. was named B. named C. is named D. names 12. Traditional folk arts of Tianjin like paper cutting __C____ at the culture show of the 2010 Shanghai World Expo. （2010 天津） A. are exhibiting B. is exhibiting C. are being exhibited D. is being exhibited 13. In the spoken English of some areas in the US, the “r” sounds at the end of the words __A___. （2010 北京） A. are dropped B. drop C. are being dropped D. have dropped Activity2: Ask some Ss to come to the blackboard to rewrite the sentences in the passive voice. Then correct the answers. (Suggested answers: 1. Venice is visited by tourists from all over the world. 2. Many of the carnival masks are made by trained artists. 3. Parties were given every day for a month by rich people. 4. Carnival was taken to South America by the Portuguese and the Spanish. 5. The Notting Hill Carnival in London was created by the West Indian community. 6. Carnival is enjoyed by millions of people today.) Step4. Homework Do exercise3 on page 34 in the textbook and exercises on page 85 in the workbook.