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高考语法专项复习之形容词与副词专题_图文

一、形容词、副词的作用与位置 形容词是用来修饰名词的,常被放在名词前作定语,或放 在系动词后面作表语。而副词则用来修饰形容词、动词、其他 副词或者句子,一般位于形容词之前、动词之后或句子之首。 以下属几种特殊情况,须牢记: 1.形容词短语作定语,定语后置。 a language difficult to master, a leaning tower about 180 feet high 2.表语形容词(afraid,alike,alone,asleep,awake,alive 等)作定语,定语后置。如 a man alive。有些表身体健康状况的 形容词如 well,faint,ill 只作表语。sick 既可作表语又可作定 语,ill 如作定语意为“bad”。

3. 用作定语, 修饰由不定代词 one, any, no, some 和 every 构成的复合词如 anything,something 等时,通常后置。如: I have something important to tell you. 4.else 常用作疑问代词和不定代词的后置定语。 5.enough,nearby 修饰名词前置或后置,程度副词一般 位于形容词、副词前面,enough 修饰形容词、副词时,必须后 置。 6.几个副词并列作状语时,其顺序较灵活,但一般是: 方式→地点→时间。如: We had a good time together outdoors last Sunday.

7.频度副词如 often,always,usually 等在 be 动词后,行 为动词前。如: I usually have breakfast at 8:00. He is often late for school. 8.副词作定语,定语后置。如: The person there is waiting for you. 9. 几个并列的形容词作定语, 其语序通常为: 限定语(the, a)+描绘性形容词+size(大小)+shape(形状)+age(年龄、时间) +color(颜色)+origin(国籍、 来源)+material(材料)+purpose(目 的)+名词。如: a heavy black Chinese steel umbrella the man's first two interesting little red French oil paintings

10.以- 结尾的词性辨析。 ly 1)下列单词以- 结尾,但却是形容词而非副词:lively, ly lonely,lovely,deadly,friendly,ugly,silly,likely,brotherly, timely 等。 2)表原意(无ly)和引申意(有ly)的副词: ?deep深 ?wide宽广 ?high高 ? ? ? ? ? ? ?deeply深入地 ?widely广泛地 ?highly高度地 ? ? ?
?low位置低 ? ? ?lowly地位卑微 ?

3)有无- 意义大不相同的副词: ly ?dead完全,绝对be dead asleep ? ? ?deadly非常be deadly tired ?
?pretty相当be pretty certain that? ? ? ?prettily漂亮地be prettily dressed ? ?close近Don't sit close. ? ? ?closely密切地Watch closely! ? ?late晚,迟arrive late, ? ? ?lately最近I haven't seen ?

come late him lately?recently?.

二、形容词和副词的比较等级 1.原级的构成和用法 构成:形容词、副词的原级即本身。 用法:表示双方在程度、性质、特征等某方面相等时,用 “as+原级形容词/副词+as”的结构;表示双方不相等时,用 “not so(as)+原级形容词/副词+as”的结构; 表示一方是另一 方的若干倍时,用“倍数+as+原级形容词/副词+as”的结 构。如: Xiaowang is as tall as Xiaoyu. This building looks not so (as)high as that one. Miss Xu speaks English as fluently as you. This room is three times as large as that one.

2.比较级和最高级的构成 掌握比较级和最高级的变化规则,熟记少数不符合规则的 特殊形容词和副词。 大多数形容词(性质形容词)和副词有比较级和最高级的变 化,用来表示事物的等级差别。比较级和最高级有规则变化和 不规则变化两种。

1) 规则变化: 单音节词和少数双音节词, 词尾加- er, est 来构成比较级和最高级。 构成法 原级 比较级 最高级 taller tallest 一般单音节词末尾加er, tall great greater greatest est 以不发音的 e 结尾的单 nice nicer nicest larger largest 音词和少数以 le 结尾的 large able abler ablest 双音节词只加- st r,以一个辅音字母结尾的 bigger biggest 闭音节单音节词, 双写结 big hotter hottest 尾的辅音字母,再加er, hot est

“以辅音字母+y”结尾 easy easier easiest 的双音节词,改 y 为 i, busy busier busiest 再加er,est 少数以- - 结尾的双 clever cleverer cleverest er, ow 音节词末尾加er,est narrow narrower narrowest more most 其他双音节词和多音节 import important important more most 词, 在前面加 more, most ant easily easily easily

2) 不规则变化 原级 good (好的)/well (健康的) bad (坏的)/ill(有病 的)

比较级 better worse

最高级 best worst

oldest/e older/elder old (老的) ldest farthest farther/further /furthes far(远的) t more most much/many(多的) less least little(少的)

3.比较级的用法 1)对方比较, 表示一方超过另一方时, 用“比较级+than” 的结构表示。如: This picture is more beautiful than that one. 2)表示一方不及另一方时, 用“less+原级+than”的结构 表示。如: This room is less beautiful than that one. 3)表示一方超过另一方的程度或数量时,可在比较级前加 表示程度的状语,如 even,a lot,a bit,a little,still,much, far,yet,by far 等修饰。如: He works even harder than before.

注意:by far 通常用于强调最高级。用于比较级时,一般 放在比较级的后面,如在前面,应在二者中间加“the”。如: He is taller by far than his brother. He is by far the taller of the two brothers.

4)表示一方随另一方的程度而变化时,用“the+比较级 ( 主 语 + 谓 语 ) , the+ 比 较 级 (主 语 + 谓 语 )” 的 结 构 (意 为 “越??越??”)。如: The harder he works, the happier he feels. 5)不与其他事物相比,表示本身程度的改变时,用“比较 级+and+比较级”的结构。如: The weather is getting colder and colder. The girl becomes more and more beautiful.

6)某些以- 结尾的形容词进行比较时,用 to 代替 than。 ior 这些词有 inferior(劣等的,次的),superior(较好的,优于??), junior(资历较浅的), senior(资格较老的), prior(在??之前)等。 He is superior to Mr.Zhang in chemistry. 7)在比较从句中为了避免重复,我们通常用 that(those), one(ones)代替前面出现的名词。that 指物,one 既可指人又可 指物。that 可代替可数名词单数和不可数名词,而 one 只能代 替可数名词。 The book on the table is more interesting than that(或 the one)on the desk. A box made of steel is stronger than one made of wood.

8)倍数表达法。 ①A is three (four, etc.)times the size(height, length etc.) of B. The new building is four times the size (the height) of the old one. 这座新楼比那座旧楼大 3 倍(高 3 倍)。 ②A is three(four, etc.)times as big(high, long, etc.)as B. Asia is four times as large as Europe. 亚洲比欧洲大 3 倍。 ③A is three (four, etc.)times bigger(higher, longer, etc.)than B. Your school is three times bigger than ours. 你们的学校比我们的学校大 3 倍。 用 times 表倍数通常用于三倍(含)以上,两倍可以用 twice 或 double。

4.最高级的用法 1)三者或三者以上相比,表示最高程度时,用“the+最高 级”的结构表示。这种句式一般常有表示比较范围的介词短 语。如: Zhang Hua is the tallest of the three. He works (the) hardest in his class. 2)最高级可被序数词以及 much,by far,nearly,almost, by no means, quite, really, not not nothing like 等词语所修饰。 如: This hat is by far/much/nearly/almost/not nearly/by no means/not quite/nothing like the biggest. How much did the most expensive hat cost?

3)表示“最高程度”的形容词,如 excellent,extreme, perfect 等,没有最高级,也不能用比较级。 4)形容词最高级修饰作表语或介词宾语的名词、代词时, 被修饰的词往往省略。如: He is the tallest (boy) in his class. 5)作状语的副词最高级前可以不加定冠词。如: Of all the boys he came (the) earliest.

5.形容词和副词前面使用冠词的情况 1)形容词最高级前一般要加定冠词,副词最高级前可不加 定冠词。 2)形容词最高级前有时加不定冠词,或不加冠词,不表比 较,表示“非常”。如: He is a most clever young policeman.(a most=very) The film is most interesting.(most=very) 3)表示两者间“较??的一个”比较级前加 the。如: Who is the older of the two boys? 4) 在“the+比较级?,the+比较级?”结构中。

5) 在 same 前一般要加 the。 6) 有些形容词前加 the 成为名词,表示“一类人”。如 the poor,the rich 等。

三、广东高考语法填空中四年都出现的形容词与副词的 考 点 2010 : His teacher took a deep drink, smiled______(warm), and thanked his student very much for the sweet water.

【答案】warmly 修饰动词应用副词。

2010: teacher replied, You tasted the water.I tasted the The “ gift.The water was simply the container for an act of kindness and love.Nothing could be ______(sweet).”

【答案】sweeter 考点:否定加比较级的含义是最高级。 句意是“没有比这更甜的水了”。

形容词与副词在语法填空中的考试技巧: 1.题目提供出词根,要求学生根据上下文转化为适当的 形容词或者副词,如:attract—attractive; base—basic。 2.题目提供形容词或者副词原形,要求学生根据上下文 添加前缀或后缀, 如:polite—impolite; happy—unhappy。 3.题目提供形容词或副词的原形,要求学生根据上下文 使用形容词或者副词的比较级或最高级, 如: happy—happier—happiest; hot—hotter—hottest。这时,我们特 别要关注某些形容词或副词的不规则变化。

一、用括号内词的适当形式或用适当的副词填空。 increasingly 1 .—Volunteering is becoming ____________ (increase) popular in China. —Yeah, people are now aware that helping others is helping themselves. frequent 2.Drunk driving, which was once a ________ (frequency) occurrence, is now under control. 3.In this lecture, I can only give you a purely personal ________ (person) view of how we can live life to the full and make some suggestions about the future.

4 . If I find someone who looks like the suspect, my ________(immediately) reaction will be to tell the police. immediate merely 5.I wasn't blaming anyone; I ________ (mere) said errors like this could be avoided. 6. went to answer the phone.__________, Harry started Jim Meanwhile to prepare lunch. equally 7.The island is ________ (equal) attractive in spring and autumn because of the pleasant weather in both seasons. 8.Mr.Black is very happy because the clothes made in his more popular factory have never been ____________(popular).

9.Do you think shopping online will ________ (final) take finally the place of shopping in stores? 10.Playing on a frozen sports fields sounds like a lot of fun.Isn't it risky, ________? though so 11. have seldom seen my mother ________ pleased with my I progress as she is now.

二、阅读下面文章,根据意思填上适当的词或用括号内所 给词 的适当形式填空。A Living and dealing with kids can be a tough job, but living tougher and dealing with parents can be even1.________ (tough). If I have learned anything in my 16 years, it is that especially communication is very important, 2.________(especial) when you disagree.With any relationship, you need to let other people know how you're feeling.When you're mad at your parents, or anyone else, nor talking to them doesn't solve anything.

Communication begins with the concerns of another.It means that you can't just come home from school, go up to your room and ignore everyone.Even if you just say “Hi” , and see how 3.________ their day was for five minutes, it is 4.________(good) better than nothing. When dealing with parents, you always have to make them feel good about how they are doing as parents.If you are trying to make them see something as you see it, tell that you'll listen to politely what they have to say, but ask them 5.________(polite) to listen to you.Shouting or walking 6.________only makes the away worse situation7.________(bad).

This is an example:one night, Sophie went to a street party with her friends.She knew she had to be home by midnight, but she didn't feel she could just ask to go home.That would be rude.After all, they had been nice enough to make her along with Needless late them.8.________(need) to say, she was 9.________ getting home.Her parents were mad at first, but when Sophie explained why she was late, they were not as mad and let the incident go.Communication was the key factor here.If Sophie's parents had willing not been 10.________(will) to listen, Sophie would have been in a lot of trouble.

B Macao is only forty miles from Hongkong and it is easy to reach.You can get there by sea.It is an 1.________(interest) place willing and it has a long history.Macao is part of China and most people living 2.________are Chinese. there The first Europeans to go to Macao came from Portugal.More ago than four hundred years 3.________the Portuguese went there to trade with China.Some settled and made their home there.They also 4.________built churches, school, hospitals and other Slowly places.5.________ (slow) the city grew.People from many countries came to live and work in Macao.

Today many people visit Macao.Some only go there to watch dogracing or motorracing or to gamble.But Macao is a quiet and peaceful pleasant 6.________ (peace) place.It is 7.________ (please) just to walk around and look at old building and forts.You feel you are back in the old days.The Church of St.Paul has only the front wall with many steps leading up to it.But it is still interesting to see. tired When you are hot and 8.________ (tire), there are small cool gardens to rest in.When you are hungry, there are good restaurants Nearby with many kinds of food.9.________ are some islands, which are certainly also nice to visit and are easy to get to.There is 10.________ (certain) a lot to see and to do in Macao.


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