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2017届高考英语二轮复习-名词


2017 届高考英语二轮复习:名词
⊙怎么考 在高考中,语法填空和短文改错重点考查名词的单复数、不可数名词、名词 与其他词类的词性转化、主谓一致等。 Ⅰ.体验考向 单句语法填空 1.(2016 全国卷 1)Then, handle the most important tasks first so you'll feel a real sense of (achieve) 2.(2016 全国卷 3)Some people think that the great Chinese scholar Confucius, who lived from roughly 551 to 479 B.C., influenced the (develop)of chopsticks. 3.(2015 卷 2)In addition to their simple beauty,what makes the adobe dwellings(土 坯房)admirable is their (able) to “air condition”a house without using electric equipment. 4.(2016 全国卷 1)The nursery team switches him every few ( day) with his sister so that while one is being bottle-fed, the other is with mum-she never suspects. 5. (2016 四川卷) Any smell might attract natural ______ (enemy) that would try to eat the little panda. 6.(2015 湖南卷 )It is important to remember that success efforts made each day.
单句改错 1.(2014 年全国卷 1)The cherry tomatoes(圣女果) are small in size,but juicy and taste. 2.(2016 全国卷 1) The restaurant is always crowded with customers at meal times. 3.(2016 全国卷 2) If we go on a trip abroad, we can broaden our view and gain knowledges we cannot get from books. 4.(2016 全国卷 3) The teenage year from 13 to 19 were the most difficult time for me. 5.(2015 全国卷 2)One day , little Tony went to a shopping center with his both parent....he turned around and found that his parents were missing. 6.(2011 全国卷) When I finally arrived at my friend he lent me lots of clothes.

(be)a sum of small

II 名词的考点归纳 考点一 可数名词的数 1.可数名词单数变复数的规则变化

1

规律

例子

一般情况下在名词后面直接+s,s 在浊 day→days, change→changes member→members,painting→paintings 辅音后面读[z],在清辅音后面读[s]。 watch-watches box- boxes 以 s、 z、 ch、 sh 等结尾的单词+es,读[iz]。 class-classes brush-brushes 以 o 结尾的词有生命的+es,读[z]。 口 有生命:negro-negroes 黑人;hero-heroes; 诀: 黑人请英雄吃土豆、 西红柿和芒果; potato-potatoes;tomato-tomatoes; mango-mangoes 无生命的+s,读[s]。 无生命:photo-photos 相片;piano-pianos 钢琴; radio-radios 以 f、fe 结尾的名词,变 f、fe 为 v+es, 读[iz]。 口诀:妻子持刀去宰狼,小偷 吓得发了慌,躲在架后保己命,半片树 叶遮目光 wife-wives( 妻 子 ); knife-knives ( 小 刀 ) ; wolf-wolves (狼) ; thief-thieves (小偷) ; shelf-shelves (架子); life-lives (生命、 生活) ; leaf-leaves(树叶);

以辅音字母加 y 结尾的,把 y 改为 i, 辅音加 y: study 研究→studies;enemy 敌 再加-es,读[z]; 人→enemies;difficulty 困难→difficulties 以元音字母加 y 结尾的,直接加 s,读 元音加 y: boy -boys toy- toys key- keys [s]。

2.可数名词的不规则变化
单复数同形 sheep 绵羊 deer 鹿 means 手段 cattle 牛 Chinese child-children;man-men;woman-women; Tooth-teeth;foot-feet; mouse-mice;crisis 危机 自身有特殊变化的名词 -crises; medium--media 媒介;criterion 细菌 -criteria,phenomenon 现象-phenomena 合成词变复数 复数形式单数意义 单数形式复数意义 集体名词(若视为整体, 表示单数意义; 若 强调其个体成员,表示复数意义。) 只有复数形式,表示复数意义,谓语动词 也用复数 ? passer by→passers by, son in law→-sons in law, looker on→-lookers-on, grown-up→grown-ups physics, politics, news people; police; public family(家庭;家人),team(队;队员),class(班;班级 学生),audience(听众) goods(货物), clothes(衣服),trousers, glasses

温馨提示: 以 man, woman 修饰名词构成合成词变复数时时,两个词都变化. a woman teacher--women teachers;a man doctor-men doctors

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考点二 不可数名词
(一)一般说来,抽象名词为不可数名词 eg: advice, knowledge, information,love, time, work(工作), luck, help, success, courage, progress, freedom, luggage, housework, homework, fun, weather, anger 等 (二)物质名词通常为不可数名词 eg: water, air,tea, coffee, oil, soup, milk, rain, meat, hair, sugar (三)抽象名词具体化后,有单复数的变化 具有某种特性、状态、特点、情感、情绪的人或事,具体指特定的某一件事时,这

一抽象名词可作为可数名词。 (1)difficulty 困难;a difficulty 一件难事 (2)failure 失败;a failure 一位失败者,一件失败的事 (3)knowledge 知识;a good knowledge of 丰富的知识 (4)success 成功;a success 一位成功者,一件成功的事 (5)surprise 惊奇;a surprise 一件令人吃惊的事 (6)honour 荣誉;an honour 一位(件)带来荣誉的人或事
? 温馨提示: 可数名词 工作 建议 采取措施 job suggestion take measures 不可数名词 work advice take action life exercise experience 可数名词 生命(性命) 练习,眼操 经历 不可数名词 生活(常作[U]) 运动 经验

考点三 名词与其他词类的词形变化
名词后 意义 缀 -age 例词

use—usage 用途 short—shortage 缺乏 抽象名词后缀, 表示行为、 状态、 结果或总称 marry—marriage 婚姻 pack—package 包裹 accept-acceptance 接受 perform—performance 表演 抽象名词后缀, 表示性质、 状态、 行为、过程 exist—existence 存在 occur—occurrence 发生 differ—difference 不同 expect—expectancy 期待 end—tendency 趋势, 趋向

-ance, -ence -ancy,

抽象名词后缀, 表示性质和状态 emergent—emergency 紧急情况 -ency fluent—fluency 流利;流畅 -dom -er, -or 表示状况或状态 表示“······人, · · · · · · 者” 构成人称名词,表示“精 通· · · · · · 的人” free—freedom 自由 wise—wisdom 智慧 receive—receiver 接受者,听筒 carry—carrier 携带者 begin—beginner 初学者 direct—director 主任 operate—operator 操作者 technique—technician 技术员, magic-magician 魔术师
3

-ian

-ness -ication -ics -ion, -ation, -ition -ist -ity/ty

构成抽象名词

happy-happiness, lazy-laziness, tired-tiredness

由动词变化而来的抽象名词, 常 classify—classification 分类 义为“······化” communicate—communication 交流 表示“······学科” economic—economics 经济学 produce—production 生产 solute—solution 解决方法 由动词构成的名词, 表示行为的 organize—organization 组织;机构 过程、 结果、状况,意为“······行为; · · · · · · 状态” 构成人称名词,表示“从 事· · · · · · 研究者;信仰· · · · · · 主义 者” 抽象名词后缀,表示性质 construct—construction 建设 describe—description 描述 direct—direction 方向 hesitate—hesitation 犹豫 compete—competition 竞争 special—specialist 专家 piano—pianist 钢琴家 responsible—responsibility 责任 similar—similarity 相似

考点四

名词所有格

名词所有格表示所属关系,表“...的” (一)’s 所有格(单数名词和不以-s 结尾的复数名词加’s,以-s 结尾的复数名词加’) 1. 表有生命名词的所有格 eg: the boy’s books, the boys’ books, the children’s books 2. 表国家、机构、时间、距离等无生命的名词 eg: today’s newspaper, the world’s population, five minutes’ walk 3. 表某人的家或店铺 eg: We went to Lucy’s for dinner. (二)of 所有格 表无生命名词的所有格 eg: the cover of the book, the end of the road (三)双重所有格 双重所有格的名词通常是有生命的 eg: a friend of my brother’s, a friend of mine

考点五
注意:

名词与主谓一致
family(家庭;家人),team(队;队员),class(班;班级 学生),audience(听众) physics, politics, news people;police;public goods(货物), clothes(衣服),trousers, glasses,scissors(剪刀)

集体名词(若视为整体, 表示单数意义; 若 强调其个体成员,表示复数意义。) 复数形式单数意义,谓语动词用单数 单数形式复数意义,谓语动词常用复数 只有复数形式,表示复数意义,谓语动词 也用复数

集训:1.His family (be) well-known in the town in the past. 2.His family (be) waiting for him now. 3.There (be) many people at yesterday’s meeting. 4.Where (be) my glasses? / 5.No news (be) good news. 6This means (work). These means all (work). 7.The police (search) for the suspect these days. / 8.These clothes (wash) well.

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III 巩固练习:
一、单句语法填空 1.(2016· 全国卷Ⅰ)Chengdu has dozens of new millionaires,Asia’s biggest building,and fancy new hotels.But for tourists like me,pandas are its top________(attract). 2.(2016· 全国卷Ⅱ)Recent________(study) show that we are far more productive at work if we take short breaks regularly. 3.(2016· 淄博高三二模)He lost all his ________(key) to the doors,so he had to get them opened by force. 4.(2016· 滕州 5 月模拟)For several weeks,Mrs.Edwards hoped to be one of the lucky ________(housewife) like many of her friends. 5.(2016· 太原模拟)The little boy ate so many ________(potato) and so much meat that he threw up at dawn. 6.(2015· 全国卷Ⅰ)I’d skipped nearby Guilin, a dream place for tourists seeking the limestone mountain tops and dark waters of the Li River that are pictured by artists in so many Chinese ________(painting). 7.(2015· 江苏卷)Some schools will have to make ________ (adjust) in agreement with the national soccer reform. 8.(2015· 江苏卷)—Go and say sorry to your Mom,Dave. —I’d like to,but I’m afraid she won’t be happy with my ________(apologize). 9.(2015· 浙江卷)One of the most effective ways to reduce ________ (stressful) is to talk about feelings with someone you trust. 10.(2014· 全国卷Ⅰ)While there are amazing stories of instant transformation,for most of us the ________ (change) are gradual and require a lot of effort and work,like cleaning up a polluted river. 11.(2014· 辽宁卷)Unbelievable!Oh...,if you don’t mind,I’ll stop and take a deep ________ (breathe). 12.There are twenty-three ________(man) teachers in our school. 13.[2014· 湖南高考]All we need ________ (be) a small piece of land where we can plant

various kinds of fruit trees throughout the growing seasons of the year. 14.However, his resignation will never stop ___ (teenagers) dreams. 15.[2015· 安徽合肥质检二]So far, almost every possible means _________(try)to provide accommodation and medical rescue for the people in the floodstriken area.

二、单句改错(每句一处错误)

1. (2016 浙江卷) When I was a very young children, my father created a regular practice I remember well years later. 2.(2016 全国卷 1)My uncle tells me that the key to his success is honest. 3. (2016 山西二模) We were all moved to tear. 4. (2016 成都二诊) What’s worse, the driver’s informations might be unreliable.
5

5. (2016 湖北联考) At the end of 2002, there were 20 millions mobile phone users. 6. (2016 河南期中) We should learn to take others’ advices and do the right things. 7.(2014 全国卷 2)My dream school look like a big garden. 8.(2013 全国卷 2)This made for the grow in the porcelain(瓷器) industry. 9.(2016 天水一中模拟)But the problem is that there are not enough sports facilities to meet the public growing demand. 10.. (2015 全国Ⅰ卷) The airs we breathe in is getting dirtier and dirtier. 11. (2016 湖北六校联考) They hope many such activity can be held in the future. 12.(2014 辽宁高考)Finally, there were a sudden pull at the pole and a fish was caught. 13. (2007 全国卷) I first met Li Meng at a friend birthday party five years ago. 14.(2016 四川高考)Mom has a full-time job, but she has to do most of the houseworks. 15. (2016 湖北联考) Yesterday, one of my favorite stamp was lost, which made me really upset. 16. (2016 广州一模) But soon, she came back with a bottle of pill.

三、语篇填空:
Robots used for housework were tested out in some 1. the 2. in a deep voice.Larry was going to be away from home.Also,3. (family).Tony,one of (curious) drove (robot), looked like a tall and handsome man with smooth black hair, speaking

him to have a try on such a new thing.So he hired a robot to accompany his wife Claire.Claire didn’t like the idea at the beginning,but she agreed to it at last.At the first sight of Tony, Claire felt embarrassed.Gradually,Tony began to win the 4. changing the make-up she wore and giving her 5. (hostess) trust.He (person) (admire) helped Claire realize her dreams by making her home elegant,giving her a new haircut, (advise) on her 6. dresses.Therefore at the party all her guests who were invited were filled with 7. with 8. (Tony) report and believed it was 9.

when they saw her house was completely changed.After the test,the company was satisfied success because he had successfully made a woman regain her 11. (confident) and fall in love with him.

6


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