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高二英语必修 5 Unit1 Grammar 过去分词做定语和表语导学案
1.课前认真完成学案,依据知识结构,勾划课本上的难点,找出自己的疑点。 2.学习目标:Enable students to learn and use the grammar 一、过去分词作定语: 1. The ground is covered with fallen leaves. 2. People today tend to choose vegetables grown without chemicals. 3. The money raised at the evening will be sent to the earthquake survivors as soon as possible. 通过对三个例句的观察,我们可以发现过去分词作定语的主要知识点: (1)单个的过去分词作定语一般置于被修饰的名词之( )。如:

cooked food, boiled water, fried eggs, a forced smile...
过去分词短语作定语则置于被修饰的名词之( )。 如:problems left over by history, a woman dressed in green... (2) 及物动词的过去分词表示( ),

如:vegetables grown without chemicals,a repaired car? 不及物动词的过去分词只表示( 如:fallen leaves, faded flowers, the risen sun? (3) 及物动词的过去分词可以扩展为一个谓语动词是( )语态的定语从句。如: )

vegetables grown without chemicals = vegetables which are grown without chemicals 不及物动词的过去分词可以扩展为一个谓语动词是( fallen leaves = leaves that have fallen 二、过去分词作表语: 1. The young NBA basketball king James is married. We are excited to hear the good news. 2. The window of my room is broken. 我房间的窗户是坏的。(表主语所处状态) The window of my room is broken by my naughty cousin. 我房间的窗户是被淘气的表弟打坏的。(表被动) 3. Don’t be so disappointed.(表主语主观上觉得失望的心理感受) The result of the exam is disappointing.(表主语客观上具有令人失望的性质特征) 通过对这三组例句的观察,我们可以发现过去分词作表语的主要特征: (1) 过去分词作表语表示主语 ( ) , 相当于形容词的作用。 如例句 1 中的 married )语态的定语从句。如:

(已婚的),excited(激动的)。此类常见词还有:表状态:addicted, broken, gone, lost, seated, absorbed, dressed, separated, engaged?表主观心理感受:excited, moved, puzzled, disappointed, surprised, frightened? (2). 当过去分词与 be 连用时,要注意区分是“系表结构”还是“被动语态”。过去分词

在“系表结构”中表示状态,在“被动语态”中表示动作。例如: The lake is surrounded by grass. (状态) The lake will soon be surrounded by tall trees. (动作) The window is broken. (状态) The window was broken by Tom. (动作) 三、高考直击: 例 1 The trees in the storm have been moved off the road. (2008 湖南卷) B. blown down C. blowing down D. to blow down

A. being blown down 例 2 The Town Hall time.(2007 上海卷) A. to be completed 例 3 Please remain 辽宁卷) A. seating

in the 1800’s was the most distinguished building at that

B. having been completed

C. completed

D. being completed

; the winner of the prize will be announced soon. (2008

B. seated

C. to seat

D. to be seated

过去分词作表语和定语是非谓语动词重要内容之一, 也是高考重要考点, 学习时应注意下 列几点: 一、理清过去分词作表语和定语的最基本特点 过去分词作表语和定语常常表示被动的和完成的动作。 典型考例: 1. Don't use words, expressions, or phrases _____ only to people with specific knowledge. A. being known B. having been known C. to be known D. known

2. The first textbooks ____ for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century. A. having written B. to be written C. being written D. written

值得注意的是, 有些过去分词(词组)因来自系表结构而不含被动色彩, 如 dressed like, dressed in, satisfied with, devoted to, tired of, born in, seated, pleased with, interested in, surprised at, prepared for, lost /absorbed in 等。 典型考例: The pilot asked all the passengers on board to remain ________ as the plane was making a landing. A. seat B. seating C. seated D. to be seating 一些表示情绪、情感的过去分词作表语和定语时也不具备被动色彩。 二、掌握过去分词作表语和定语的创新形式 1. get done 也可构成被动语态,相当于 be done。例如: His right hand got burnt in that big fire.他的右手在那场大火中被烧伤。

She got murdered last year.去年她被谋杀了。 典型考例: 1. As we joined the big crowd I got ________ from my friends. A. separated B. spared C. lost D. missed 2. Be careful when you cross this very busy street. If not, you may ________ run over by a car. A. have B. get C. become D. turn 三、 弄清过去分词作表语和定语的位置 单个过去分词作定语常放在被修饰的名词前边, 过去分词短语作定语应放在被修饰的名 词后边。过去分词作表语时,应放在连系动词后面,但有时过去分词和连系动词之间有副词 隔开。 典型考例: 1. Most of the artists ________ to the party were from South Africa. A. invited B. to invite C. being invited D. had been invited 2. Prices of daily goods ______through a computer can be lower than store prices. A. are bought B. bought C. been bought D. buying 过去分词作表语和定语练与析: 1. I don't know the girl ________ in the snow storm. A. to catch B. caught C. catching D. to be catching 2. The girl ________ down by a car was dying. A. knock B. knocking C. knocked D. to knock 3. The foreign guests, ________ by some artists, came out of the hall. A. following B. to follow C. followed D. to be followed 4. This is the problem ________ so quickly last evening. A. having been settled B. settle C. be settled D. settled 5. There was an ________ look on his face when the actress appeared. A. excited B. excite C. exciting D. excitement 6. The children ________ at the hospital yesterday were seriously ill. A. to examine B. examined C. examine D. examining 7. He was disappointed at his suggestions ________ by them yesterday. A. been turned down B. turned down C. to be turned down D. to turn down 8. Island is a small piece of land ________ by water. A. surrounded B. surrounding C. to be surrounded D. being surrounded 9. The managers will again discuss the plan ________ last week. A. carried out B. carrying out C. carry out D. to carry out 10. After the heavy rain, many cars got ________ in the mud.

A. catch B. catching C. caught D. being caught 11. What surprised me most was that the leader of that country got ________ . A. kill B. killing C. killed D. to be killed 12. When I went in, they were ________ in a heated discussion. A. absorb B. absorbed C. absorbing D. being absorbed



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