补充讲义 Unit 9
Text 1 In agrarian, pre-industrial Europe, “you’d want to wake up early, start working with the sunrise, have a break to have the largest meal, and then you’d go back to work,” says Ken Albala, a professor history at the University of the Pacific. “Later, at 5 or 6, you’d have a smaller supper.” This comfortable cycle, in which the rhythms of the day helped shape the rhythms of the meals, gave rise to the custom of the large midday meal, eaten with the extended family. “Meals are the foundation of the family,” says Carole Counihan, a professor at Millersville University in Pennsylvania, “so there was a very important interconnection between eating together” and strengthening family ties. Since industrialization, maintaining such a slow cultural metabolism has been much harder, with the long midday meal shrinking to whatever could be stuffed into a lunch bucket or bought at a food stand. Certainly, there were benefits. Modern techniques for producing and shipping food led to greater variety and quantity, including a tremendous increase in the amount of animal protein and dairy products available, making us more vigorous than our ancestors. Yet plenty has been lost too, even in cultures that still live to eat. Take Italy. It’s no secret that the Mediterranean diet is healthy, but it was also a joy to prepare and eat. Italians, says Counihan, traditionally began the day with a small meal. The big meal came at around 1 p.m. In between the midday meal and a late, smaller dinner came a small snack. Today, when time zones have less and less meaning, there is little tolerance for offices’ closing for lunch, and worsening traffic in cities means workers can’t make it home and back fast enough anyway. So the formerly small supper get together. “The evening meal carries the full burden that used to be spread over two meals,” says Counihan. 1.What do we learn from the passage about people in pre-industrial Europe? A) They had to work from early morning till late at night. B) They were so busy working that they only ate simple meals. C) Their daily routine followed the rhythm of the natural cycle. D) Their life was much more comfortable than that of today. 2.What does Professor Carole Counihan say about pre-industrial European families eating meals together? A)It was helpful to maintain a nation’s tradition. B)It brought family members closer to each other. C)It was characteristic of the agrarian culture. D) It enabled families to save a lot of money. 3.What does “cultural metabolism” (Line 1, Para. 3) refer to? A) Evolutionary adaptation.
B) Changes in lifestyle. C) Social progress. D) Pace of life. 4.What does the author think of the food people eat today? A) Its quality is usually guaranteed. B) It is varied, abundant and nutritious. C) It is more costly than what our ancestors ate. D) Its production depends too much on technology. 5.What does the author say about Italians of the old days? A) They enjoyed cooking as well as eating. B) They ate a big dinner late in the evening. C) They ate three meals regularly every day. D) They were expert at cooking meals.
Text 2 Come on—Everybody’s doing it. That whispered message, half invitation and half forcing, is what most of us think of when we hear the words peer pressure. It usually leads to no good—drinking, drugs and casual sex. But in her new book Join the Club, Tina Rosenberg contends that peer pressure can also be a positive force through what she calls the social cure, in which organizations and officials use the power of group dynamics to help individuals improve their lives and possibly the world. Rosenberg, the recipient of a Pulitzer Prize, offers a host of examples of the social cure in action: In South Carolina, a state-sponsored antismoking program called Rage Against the Haze sets out to make cigarettes uncool. In South Africa, an HIV-prevention initiative known as loveLife recruits young people to promote safe sex among their peers. The idea seems promising ， and Rosenberg is a perceptive observer. Her critique of the lameness of many pubic-health campaigns is spot-on: they fail to mobilize peer pressure for healthy habits, and they demonstrate a seriously flawed understanding of psychology. “Dare to be different, please don’t smoke!” pleads one billboard campaign aimed at reducing smoking among teenagers—teenagers, who desire nothing more than fitting in. Rosenberg argues convincingly that public-health advocates ought to take a page from advertisers, so skilled at applying peer pressure. But on the general effectiveness of the social cure, Rosenberg is less persuasive. Join the Club is filled with too much irrelevant detail and not enough exploration of the social and biological factors that make peer pressure so powerful. The most glaring flaw of the social cure as it’s presented here is that it doesn’t work very well for very long. Rage Against the Haze failed once state funding was cut. Evidence that the loveLife program produces lasting changes is limited and mixed. There’s no doubt that our peer groups exert enormous influence on our behavior. An emerging body of research shows that positive health habits—as well as negative
ones—spread through networks of friends via social communication. This is a subtle form of peer pressure: we unconsciously imitate the behavior we see every day. Far less certain, however, is how successfully experts and bureaucrats can select our peer groups and steer their activities in virtuous directions. It’s like the teacher who breaks up the troublemakers in the back row by pairing them with betterbehaved classmates. The tactic never really works. And that’s the problem with a social cure engineered from the outside: in the real world, as in school, we insist on choosing our own friends. 6. According to the first paragraph, peer pressure often emerges as [A]a supplement to the social cure [B] a stimulus to group dynamics [C]an obstacle to social progress [D]a cause of undesirable behaviors 7.Rosenberg holds that public-health advocates should . [A]recruit professional advertisers [B]learn from advertisers’ experience [C]stay away from commercial advertisers [D]recognize the limitations of advertisements 8.In the author’s view, Rosenberg’s book fails to . .
[A]adequately probe social and biological factors [B]effectively evade the flaws of the social cure [C]illustrate the functions of state funding [D]produce a long-lasting social effect 9.Paragraph 5 shows that our imitation of behaviors [A]is harmful to our networks of friends [B]will mislead behavioral studies [C]occurs without our realizing it [D]can produce negative health habits 10.The author suggests in the last paragraph that the effect of peer pressure is . [ A]harmful [ B]desirable [ C]profound [ D]questionable
If you intend using humor in your talk to make people smile, you must know how to identify shared experiences and problems. Your humor must be relevant to the audience and should help to show them that you are one of them or that you understand their situation and are in sympathy with their point of view. Depending on whom you are addressing, the problems will be different. If you are talking to a group of managers, you may refer to the disorganized methods of their secretaries; alternatively if you are addressing secretaries, you may want to comment on their disorganized bosses. Here is an example, which I heard at a nurses’ convention, of a story which works well because the audience all shared the same view of doctors. A man arrives in heaven and is being shown around by St. Peter. He sees wonderful accommodations, beautiful gardens, sunny weather, and so on. Everyone is very peaceful, polite and friendly until, waiting in a line for lunch, the new arrival is suddenly pushed aside by a man in a white coat, who rushes to the head of the line, grabs his food and stomps over to a table by himself. “Who is that?” the new arrival asked St. Peter. “Oh, that’s God,” came the reply, “but sometimes he thinks he’s a doctor.” If you are part of the group, which you are addressing, you will be in a position to know the experiences and problems which are common to all of you and it’ll be appropriate for you to make a passing remark about the inedible canteen food or the chairman’s notorious bad taste in ties. With other audiences you mustn’t attempt to cut in with humor as they will resent an outsider making disparaging remarks about their canteen or their chairman. You will be on safer ground if you stick to scapegoats like the Post Office or the telephone system. If you feel awkward being humorous, you must practice so that it becomes more natural. Include a few casual and apparently off-the-cuff remarks which you can deliver in a relaxed and unforced manner. Often it’s the delivery which causes the audience to smile, so speak slowly and remember that a raised eyebrow or an unbelieving look may help to show that you are making a light-hearted remark. Look for the humor. It often comes from the unexpected. A twist on a familiar quote “If at first you don’t succeed, give up” or a play on words or on a situation. Search for exaggeration and understatements. Look at your talk and pick out a few words or sentences which you can turn about and inject with humor.
11. To make your humor work, you should ________. [A] take advantage of different kinds of audience [B] make fun of the disorganized people [C] address different problems to different people [D] show sympathy for your listeners 12. The joke about doctors implies that, in the eyes of nurses, they are ________.
[A] impolite to new arrivals [B] very conscious of their godlike role [C] entitled to some privileges [D] very busy even during lunch hours 13. It can be inferred from the text that public services ________. [A] have benefited many people [B] are the focus of public attention [C] are an inappropriate subject for humor [D] have often been the laughing stock 14. To achieve the desired result, humorous stories should be delivered ________. [A] in well-worded language [B] as awkwardly as possible [C] in exaggerated statements [D] as casually as possible 15. The best title for the text may be ________. [A] Use Humor Effectively [B] Various Kinds of Humor [C] Add Humor to Speech [D] Different Humor Strategies
Just how much does the Constitution protect your digital data? The Supreme Court will now consider whether police can search the contents of a mobile phone without a warrant if the phone is on or around a person during an arrest. California has asked the justices to refrain from a sweeping ruling, particularly one that upsets the old assumption that authorities may search through the possessions of suspects at the time of their arrest. It is hard, the state argues, for judges to assess the implications of new and rapidly changing technologies. The court would be recklessly modest if it followed California’s advice. Enough of the implications are discernable, even obvious, so that the justices can and should provide updated guidelines to police, lawyers and defendants. They should start by discarding California’s lame argument that exploring the contents of a smart phone—a vast storehouse of digital information—is similar to, say, going through a suspect’s purse. The court has ruled that police don’t violate the Fourth Amendment when they go through the wallet or pocketbook of an arrestee without a warrant. But exploring one’s smart phone is more like entering his or her home. A smart phone may contain an arrestee’s reading history, financial history,
medical history and comprehensive records of recent correspondence. The development of “cloud computing，”meanwhile, has made that exploration so much the easier. Americans should take steps to protect their digital privacy. But keeping sensitive information on these devices is increasingly a requirement of normal life. Citizens still have a right to expect private documents to remain private and protected by the Constitution’s prohibition on unreasonable searches. As so often is the case, stating that principle doesn’t ease the challenge of linedrawing. In many cases, it would not be overly burdensome for authorities to obtain a warrant to search through phone contents. They could still invalidate Fourth Amendment protections when facing severe, urgent circumstances, and they could take reasonable measures to ensure that phone data are not erased or altered while waiting for a warrant. The court, though, may want to allow room for police to cite situations where they are entitled to more freedom. But the justices should not swallow California’s argument whole. New, disruptive technology sometimes demands novel applications of the Constitution’s protections. Orin Kerr, a law professor, compares the explosion and accessibility of digital information in the 21st century with the establishment of automobile use as a virtual necessity of life in the 20th: The justices had to specify novel rules for the new personal domain of the passenger car then; they must sort out how the Fourth Amendment applies to digital information now. 16. The Supreme Court will work out whether, during an arrest, it is legitimate to ________. [A] search for suspects’mobile phones without a warrant [B] check suspects’ phone contents without being authorized [C] prevent suspects from deleting their phone contents [D] prohibit suspects from using their mobile phones 17.The author’s attitude toward California’s argument is one of ________. [A] tolerance [B] indifference [C] disapproval [D] cautiousness 18.The author believes that exploring one’s phone contents is comparable to ________. [A] getting into one’s residence [B] handling one’s historical records [C] scanning one’s correspondences [D] going through one’s wallet
19.In Paragraphs 5 and 6, the author shows his concern that ________. [A] principles are hard to be clearly expressed [B] the court is giving police less room for action [C] phones are used to store sensitive information [D] citizens’ privacy is not effectively protected 20.Orin Kerr’s comparison is quoted to indicate that ________. [A]the Constitution should be implemented flexibly [B]new technology requires reinterpretation of the Constitution [C]California’s argument violates principles of the Constitution [D]principles of the Constitution should never be altered Unit 10
All around the world, lawyers generate more hostility than the members of any other profession—with the possible exception of journalism. But there are few places where clients have more grounds for complaint than America. During the decade before the economic crisis, spending on legal services in America grew twice as fast as inflation. The best lawyers made skyscrapers-full of money, tempting ever more students to pile into law schools. But most law graduates never get a big-firm job. Many of them instead become the kind of nuisance-lawsuit filer that makes the tort system a costly nightmare. There are many reasons for this. One is the excessive costs of a legal education. There is just one path for a lawyer in most American states: a four-year undergraduate degree in some unrelated subject, then a three-year law degree at one of 200 law schools authorized by the American Bar Association and an expensive preparation for the bar exam. This leaves today’s average law-school graduate with $100,000 of debt on top of undergraduate debts. Law-school debt means that they have to work fearsomely hard. Reforming the system would help both lawyers and their customers. Sensible ideas have been around for a long time, but the state-level bodies that govern the profession have been too conservative to implement them. One idea is to allow people to study law as an undergraduate degree. Another is to let students sit for the bar after only two years of law school. If the bar exam is truly a stern enough test for a would-be lawyer, those who can sit it earlier should be allowed to do so. Students who do not need the extra training could cut their debt mountain by a third. The other reason why costs are so high is the restrictive guild-like ownership structure of the business. Except in the District of Columbia, non-lawyers may not own any share of a law firm. This keeps fees high and innovation slow. There is pressure for change from within the profession, but opponents of change among the regulators insist that keeping outsiders out of a law firm isolates lawyers from the pressure to make money rather than serve clients ethically.
In fact, allowing non-lawyers to own shares in law firms would reduce costs and improve services to customers, by encouraging law firms to use technology and to employ professional managers to focus on improving firms’ efficiency. After all, other countries, such as Australia and Britain, have started liberalizing their legal professions. America should follow. 1.A lot of students take up law as their profession due to________. [A]the growing demand from clients [B]the increasing pressure of inflation [C]the prospect of working in big firms [D]the attraction of financial rewards 2.Which of the following adds to the costs of legal education in most American states? [A]Higher tuition fees for undergraduate studies. [B]Admissions approval from the bar association. [C]Pursuing a bachelor’s degree in another major. [D]Receiving training by professional associations. 3.Hindrance to the reform of the legal system originates from________. [A]lawyers’ and clients’strong resistance [B]the rigid bodies governing the profession [C]the stern exam for would-be lawyers [D]non-professionals’ sharp criticism 4.The guild-like ownership structure is considered “restrictive”partly because it________. [A]bans outsiders’ involvement in the profession [B]keeps lawyers from holding law-firm shares [C]aggravates the ethical situation in the trade [D]prevents lawyers from gaining due profits 5.In this text, the author mainly discusses________. [A]flawed ownership of America’s law firms and its causes [B]the factors that help make a successful lawyer in America [C]a problem in America’s legal profession and solutions to it [D]the role of undergraduate studies in America’s legal education
Up until a few decades ago, our visions of the future were largely—though by no means uniformly—glowingly positive. Science and technology would cure all the ills of humanity, leading to lives of fulfillment and opportunity for all. Now utopia has grown unfashionable, as we have gained a deeper appreciation of the range of threats facing us, from asteroid strike to epidemic flu and to climate change. You might even be tempted to assume that humanity has little future to look forward to. But such gloominess is misplaced. The fossil record shows that many species have endured for millions of years—so why shouldn’t we? Take a broader look at our species’ place in the universe, and it becomes clear that we have an excellent chance of surviving for tens, if not hundreds, of thousands of years. Look up Homo sapiens in the “Red List” of threatened species of the International Union for the Conversation of Nature (IUCN), and you will read: “Listed as Least Concern as the species is very widely distributed, adaptable, currently increasing, and there are no major threats resulting in an overall population decline.” So what does our deep future hold? A growing number of researchers and organizations are now thinking seriously about that question. For example, the Long Now Foundation has as its flagship project a mechanical clock that is designed to still be marking time thousands of years hence. Perhaps willfully, it may be easier to think about such lengthy timescales than about the more immediate future. The potential evolution of today’s technology, and its social consequences, is dazzlingly complicated, and it’s perhaps best left to science fiction writers and futurologists to explore the many possibilities we can envisage. That’s one reason why we have launched Arc, a new publication dedicated to the near future. But take a longer view and there is a surprising amount that we can say with considerable assurance. As so often, the past holds the key to the future: we have now identified enough of the long-term patterns shaping the history of the planet, and our species, to make evidence-based forecasts about the situations in which our descendants will find themselves. This long perspective makes the pessimistic view of our prospects seem more likely to be a passing fad. To be sure, the future is not all rosy. But we are now knowledgeable enough to reduce many of the risks that threatened the existence of earlier humans, and to improve the lot of those to come. 6.Our vision of the future used to be inspired by_______. [A] our desire for lives of fulfillment [B] our faith in science and technology [C] our awareness of potential risks [D] our belief in equal opportunity 7. The IUCN’s “Red List” suggests that human beings are________.
[A] a misplaced race [B] a sustained species [C] the world’s dominant power [D] a threat to the environment 8. Which of the following is true according to Paragraph 5 ? [A] The interest in science fiction is on the rise. [B] Arc helps limit the scope of futurological studies. [C] Technology offers solutions to social problems. [D] Our immediate future is hard to conceive. 9. To ensure the future of mankind, it is crucial to_______. [A] draw on our experience from the past [B] adopt an optimistic view of the world [C] explore our planet’s abundant resources [D] curb our ambition to reshape history 10. Which of the following would be the best title for the text? [A] Uncertainty about Our Future [B] Evolution of the Human Species [C] The Ever-bright Prospects of Mankind [D] Science, Technology and Humanity
Text 3 The decision of the New York Philharmonic to hire Alan Gilbert as its next music director has been the talk of the classical-music world ever since the sudden announcement of his appointment in 2009. For the most part, the response has been favorable, to say the least. “Hooray! At last!” wrote Anthony Tommasini, a sobersided classical-music critic. One of the reasons why the appointment came as such a surprise, however, is that Gilbert is comparatively little known. Even Tommasini, who had advocated Gilbert’s appointment in the Times, calls him “an unpretentious musician with no air of the formidable conductor about him.” As a description of the next music director of an orchestra that has hitherto been led by musicians like Gustav Mahler and Pierre Boulez, that seems likely to have struck at least some Times readers as faint praise.
For my part, I have no idea whether Gilbert is a great conductor or even a good one. To be sure, he performs an impressive variety of interesting compositions, but it is not necessary for me to visit Avery Fisher Hall, or anywhere else, to hear interesting orchestral music. All I have to do is to go to my CD shelf, or boot up my computer and download still more recorded music from iTunes. Devoted concertgoers who reply that recordings are no substitute for live performance are missing the point. For the time, attention, and money of the artloving public, classical instrumentalists must compete not only with opera houses, dance troupes, theater companies, and museums, but also with the recorded performances of the great classical musicians of the 20th century. These recordings are cheap, available everywhere, and very often much higher in artistic quality than today’s live performances; moreover, they can be “consumed” at a time and place of the listener’s choosing. The widespread availability of such recordings has thus brought about a crisis in the institution of the traditional classical concert. One possible response is for classical performers to program attractive new music that is not yet available on record. Gilbert’s own interest in new music has been widely noted: Alex Ross, a classical-music critic, has described him as a man who is capable of turning the Philharmonic into “a markedly different, more vibrant organization”. But what will be the nature of that difference? Merely expanding the orchestra’s repertoire will not be enough. If Gilbert and the Philharmonic are to succeed, they must first change the relationship between America’s oldest orchestra and the new audience it hopes to attract. 11. We learn from Paragraph 1 that Gilbert’s appointment has [A]incurred criticism [B]raised suspicion [C]received acclaim [D]aroused curiosity 12. Tommasini regards Gilbert as an artist who is [A]influential [ B]modest [ C]respectable [ D]talented 13. The author believes that the devoted concertgoers . [A]ignore the expenses of live performances [B]reject most kinds of recorded performances [C]exaggerate the variety of live performances [D]overestimate the value of live performances
14. According to the text, which of the following is true of recordings? [A]They are often inferior to live concerts in quality. [B]They are easily accessible to the general public. [C]They help improve the quality of music. [D]They have only covered masterpieces. 15. Regarding Gilbert’s role in revitalizing the Philharmonic, the author feels . [ A]doubtful [ B]enthusiastic [ C]confident [ D]puzzled Text 4 First two hours, now three hours—this is how far in advance authorities are recommending people show up to catch a domestic flight, at least at some major U.S. airports with increasingly massive security lines. Americans are willing to tolerate time-consuming security protocols in return for increased safety. The crash of EgyptAir Flight 804, which terrorists may have downed over the Mediterranean Sea, provides another tragic reminder of why. But demanding too much of air travelers or providing too little security in return undermines public support for the process. And it should: Wasted time is a drag on Americans economic and private lives, not to mention infuriating. Last year, the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) found in a secret check that undercover investigators were able to sneak weapons—both fake and real—past airport security nearly every time they tried. Enhanced security measures since then, combined with a rise in airline travel due to the improving economy and low oil prices, have resulted in long waits at major airports such as Chicago’s O’Hare International. It is not yet clear how much more effective airline security has become—but the lines are obvious. Part of the issue is that the government did not anticipate the steep increase in airline travel, so the TSA is now rushing to get new screeners on the line. Part of the issue is that airports have only so much room for screening lanes. Another factor may be that more people are trying to overpack their carry-on bags to avoid checked baggage fees, though the airlines strongly dispute this. There is one step the TSA could take that would not require remodeling airports or rushing to hire: Enroll more people in the PreCheck program. PreCheck is supposed to be a win-win for travelers and the TSA. Passengers who pass a
background check are eligible to use expedited screening lanes. This allows the TSA to focus on travelers who are higher risks, saving time for everyone involved. TSA wants to enroll 25 million people in PreCheck. It has not gotten anywhere close to that, and one big reason is sticker shock. Passengers must pay $85 every five years to process their background checks. Since the beginning, this price tag has been PreCheck’s fatal flaw. Upcoming reforms might bring the price to a more reasonable level. But Congress should look into doing so directly, by helping to finance PreCheck enrollment or to cut costs in other ways. The TSA cannot continue diverting resources into underused PreCheck lanes while most of the traveling public suffers in unnecessary lines. It is long past time to make the program work. 16. The crash of Egypt Air Flight 804 is mentioned to . [A]explain Americans’ tolerance of current security checks [B]stress the urgency to strengthen security worldwide [C]highlight the necessity of upgrading major U.S. airports [D]emphasize the importance of privacy protection 17. Which of the following contributes to long waits at major airports? [A]New restrictions on carry-on bags [B]The declining efficiency of the TSA [C]An increase in the number of travelers [D]Frequent unexpected secret checks 18. The word “expedited” (Line 3, Para.5) is closest in meaning to [ A]quieter [ B]cheaper [ C]wider [ D]faster 19. One problem with the PreCheck program is [A]a dramatic reduction of its scale [B]its wrongly-directed implementation [C]the government’s reluctance to back it [D]an unreasonable price for enrollment 20. Which of the following would be the best title for the text? [A]Less Screening for More Safety
[B]PreCheck—a Belated Solution [C]Getting Stuck in Security Lines [D]Underused PreCheck Lanes Text 5 When it comes to the slowing economy, Ellen Spero isn’t biting her nails just yet. But the 47-year-old manicurist isn’t cutting, filling or polishing as many nails as she’d like to, either. Most of her clients spend $12 to $50 weekly, but last month two longtime customers suddenly stopped showing up. Spero blames the softening economy. “I’m a good economic indicator,” she says. “I provide a service that people can do without when they’re concerned about saving some dollars.” So Spero is downscaling, shopping at middle-brow Dillard’s department store near her suburban Cleveland home, instead of Neiman Marcus. “I don’t know if other clients are going to abandon me, too.” she says. Even before Alan Greenspan’s admission that America’s red-hot economy is cooling, lots of working folks had already seen signs of the slowdown themselves. From car dealerships to Gap outlets, sales have been lagging for months as shoppers temper their spending. For retailers, who last year took in 24 percent of their revenue between Thanksgiving and Christmas, the cautious approach is coming at a crucial time. Already, experts say, holiday sales are off 7 percent from last year’s pace. But don’t sound any alarms just yet. Consumers seem only mildly concerned, not panicked, and many say they remain optimistic about the economy’s long-term prospects, even as they do some modest belt-tightening. Consumers say they’re not in despair because, despite the dreadful headlines, their own fortunes still feel pretty good. Home prices are holding steady in most regions. In Manhattan, “there’s a new gold rush happening in the $4 million to $10 million range, predominantly fed by Wall Street bonuses,” says broker Barbara Corcoran. In San Francisco, prices are still rising even as frenzied overbidding quiets. “Instead of 20 to 30 offers, now maybe you only get two or three,” says John Tealdi, a Bay Area real-estate broker. And most folks still feel pretty comfortable about their ability to find and keep a job. Many folks see silver linings to this slowdown. Potential home buyers would cheer for lower interest rates. Employers wouldn’t mind a little fewer bubbles in t he job market. Many consumers seem to have been influenced by stock-market swings, which investors now view as a necessary ingredient to a sustained boom. Diners might see an upside, too. Getting a table at Manhattan’s hot new Alain Ducasse restaurant used to be impossible. Not anymore. For that, Greenspan & Co. may still be worth toasting. 51. By “Ellen Spero isn’t biting her nails just yet” (Lines 1 -2, Paragraph 1), the author means ________. [A] Spero can hardly maintain her business [B] Spero is too much engaged in her work [C] Spero has grown out of her bad habit
[D] Spero is not in a desperate situation 52. How do the public feel about the current economic situation? [A] Optimistic. [B] Confused. [C] Carefree. [D] Panicked. 53. When mentioning “the $4 million to $10 million range” (Lines 3-4, Paragraph 3) the author is talking about ________. [A] gold market [B] real estate [C] stock exchange [D] venture investment 54. Why can many people see “silver linings” to the economic slowdown? [A] They would benefit in certain ways. [B] The stock market shows signs of recovery. [C] Such a slowdown usually precedes a boom. [D] The purchasing power would be enhanced. 55. To which of the following is the author likely to agree? [A] A new boom, on the horizon. [B] Tighten the belt, the single remedy. [C] Caution all right, panic not. [D] The more ventures, the more chances.