tceic.com
学霸学习网 这下你爽了
赞助商链接
当前位置:首页 >> 英语 >>

读写任务概括方法与练习


读写任务的概括
PartⅠ基本步骤 方法和技巧
第一,阅读全文,了解文章大意,理解作者的写作意图和主要观点。 1.通读全文,了解文章的体裁。因为不同的体裁,概括文章大意的方法不相同,那么我们在 概括主要内容时要注意的内容也不相同。读写任务所给材料,通常是记叙文、议论文和说明 文,以议论文和记叙文为主。 2.注意文章的写作结构。英语文章的结构不像中文文章结构那么多种多样,英语的文章普遍 以固定的几种形式叙述所要表达的内容。如议论文多用比较来论述某个观点,历史故事文则 多用叙述的方式。因此平时熟悉一些篇章结构,阅读文章时就可以先看文章的标题、语篇标 记、关键句等来识别文章的篇章结构类型,然后找出文章的框架,通过段落间的逻辑关系, 了解文章的大意。 3.注意审题,看准要求是对整篇文章进行概括还是就某部份内容进行概括。是以读者的身 份进行概括,还是以当事人的身份进行概括,这决定着我们要以什么样的人称来写。 第二,正确找出文章的主旨大意。 1.一定要注意文章是否有题目,因为一篇文章的题目就是对整篇文章中心内容的最简练的归 纳,是文章的精华、中心。 2.阅读完后用一句话写出文章的主旨大意。这里我们要注意文章里一些概括性句子。每篇文 章都有其写作意图,在文章中,尤其在第一段或最后一段,作者都会对其进行总结,所以我 们要注意段落里一些起概括性句子(主题句)。文章的主题句往往出现在首段或末段,或各 个段落的首句末句,然具体情况却不能一概而论。以下是常见文体的主题句及主要内容的概 括的方法和技巧。 (1)记叙文(Narration):找出时间(when),地点(where),什么人(who),做了什么事(what),结果 怎么样(how)等五要素。其中,最重要的要点是某人(who)做了何事(what)。若是夹叙夹议的文 章,还要加上作者的看法、观点、经验或感悟。 ①叙事性的记叙文(Narration)。 叙事性的记叙文的主要内容的概括主要抓住记叙文的几个要素:时间、地点、人物、事
1

件和影响或后果。 ②写人的记叙文(Description) 。 写人的记叙文总结要点主要抓住人物的主要特点或事迹,划出关键词(所谓关键词是文 中反复出现的体现主题或关联的词) 。 (2)议论文(Argumentation) 。 找出议论文的三要素,即论点、论据和结论。其关键是找出主题句或结论句。而这种文章 的整体结构多数为总分结构、分总结构、平行结构等。因此,我们通常在首段或尾段,或者 在各段的首句或尾句找论点。若文中有一分为二(即对立观点)的观点,两种观点都要概括, 不要漏掉其中一方的观点。 【作者的观点(常在首或末段)而对立的观点(在文中议论的 过程中出现,常见有提示语) 】 (3)说明文(Exposition) 抓住关键句:文章第一段和各段第一句。 (所谓关键句主要是一些主题句即中心句) 对现象分析型说明文,要找出“现象”“造成这种现象的原因”“解决这种现象或问题的措施或 建议”。 (4) 新闻报道类(News report/ News Story)以及公告类(Announcement) 。 中心内容往往在第一段。写概要时注意要找出中心句,抓住关键词。 (5)寓言故事类(Moral) 。 概括寓言故事的要点包括两个部分,一是寓言故事的内容梗概,二是它说明了什么道理。 (6)发言稿:通常会很明确地表明观点或态度,写概要时要从发言者的言语中明确作者的 态度,把握作者的写作目的。或先概括每段大意,进而归纳全文主旨。 因此:辨认文章体裁,快速找出中心句和关键词;要求写什么就总结什么。 抓准主要内容,剔除不必要的次要内容。 3.在找主旨大意时,我们还要注意“多频词”,也就是在文章里频繁出现的词。因为经常出现 的词往往是文章所谈论的话题,也就是文章的中心。

2

4.我们在找主旨大意时,还要注意一些表示转折或让步的连接词,如 but, however, although 等,因为这些词往往告诉我们文章究竟支持哪个观点,通常 but, however 之后的观点是文章 的重点,而 although 之前是文章的重点。 第三,用简练的文字写出文章的概要(summary)。 1.通常 summary 的开头都有一些常用的句子,学生可以在平时的训练中学习使用。如: The passage/story / text /article is mainly about… The (given) passage /text /article mainly tells us The text is mainly written\discussed to explain… 但这些开头也只限于要求以读者的身份来概括时使用。像 07 年高考题目,要求作者以当事 人的身份来概括,那用上面这些表达则是不正确的。所以我们要审清题目,随机应变。 2.用最简练的文字(30 个字左右)把文章的主要内容概括出即可,无须把一些细节,琐碎 的内容加上,如描述,举例,一些具体事实等。 3.不要加入自己的个人观点。如要求以读者的身份来概括,用第三人称来写,莫把作者的观 点写成自己的观点。如要求以当事人的身份来写,则用第一人称。 4.语言表达要正确。语言结构是学生从一开始学英语一直到以后的学习都伴随的一部份内 容,是必须平时扎扎实实要打好的基础。我们除了平时要多记住一些词,短语,句型的用法, 还可以多写些文章请老师评改,老师把你的作文出现的问题划出后,你自己先改正,然后再 给老师面评。这是一个更重要,更快捷的提高方法。 附:2007 年广东高考概括部分评分细则:
1.完全糊涂地照抄原文,连人称都不改的,得 0 分; 2.机械死板地照抄原文,只改人称的,得 1 分; 3.稍微灵活地抄原文,改主语,宾语、原文词序的,得 2 分; 4.创造性地抄,改主语,宾语、原文词序 还有句子结构的,最多得 3 分。5.结构、用词,词性变化比较好的 4 至 5 分。



PartⅡ写概要的具体方法
1.定文体:确定文体,掌握大意。根据不用体裁,选择合适方法。 2.定时态:如果阅读材料是过去时,那么基本时态用过去时;如果是现在的,那么基本时态 用现在时;不过,模板的开头语一般为现在时如 The passage tells us that… 3.定人称:一般情况下采用第三人称来写作。 (特殊如书信的,可能会使用第一、二人称) ;
3

4.找主题:读短文,划关键词和关键句。所谓关键词是文中反复出现的体现主题或关联的词, 关键句主要是一些主题句。根据这些关键词,句,弄清作者的写这篇文章的目的,或作者的 观点态度。千万不可脱离材料,离题。 5.定技巧:结合相关技巧,重新组句。 1)Use words of similar meanings 同义替换法 I didn’t catch any fish owing to the fact that I was not patient. I didn’t catch any fish_________ I was not patient. 2)Adopt the opposite way when saying a sentence 正话反说法 You will fail. = You will ____________. 3)Change the part of speech 词性转换法 Patience is very important. Patience is of _____________________ . 4)Change the structure of a sentence 句式变化法 语态变换:Parents should give children more praise. →Children should ________ more praise. 简单句变复合句: Children should be encouraged more. This will help them learn faster. Children should be encouraged more, _______ will help them learn faster.. 5)Use the shortest possible transitions 连词衔接法 注意使用一些短而精的连词,如 but, and, so, while, however, then, yet, for, therefore, thus, including, instead of 等。 We should encourage children. We should not scold them. We should encourage children__________ scolding them. 6) Change the order of the words.词序改变法 ▲ 写概要时的几个注意事项: 1. 不可忽略, 忘记写. 概括要点占 5 分. 2. 改写而不是抄袭。 不可一字不漏地完全照抄原文.( 但可以灵活地抄, 特别对基础差的同学) 3. 不可加入自己的观点. 必须忠于原文、忠于作者. 4. 不要概括太广,缺乏针对性,也不要只针对原文某个细节太狭窄. 5. 不要用列举、描绘性语言当成概括性语言.
4

6. 不要只用一个简单句来概括.或写得太多句子(单词) 。 7. 要注意文体特征. 文体不同, 概括的方式也不同. 8.不要用序号标概括和下文,注意概括和下文构成一个不可分隔、完整的文章。 9. 不要把概括跟下文写成一起。 (即要求分段) ★注意事项: “五定三忌” 定体裁;定主题;定时态;定人称;定技巧。 忌照抄原文;忌私加观点 忌不符字数。

下列是常规的实用技巧:
1) Skill1: Omit (省略) the details. 删除细节。只保留主要观点。 2) Skill2: Omit the repetitions(重复).避免重复。在原文中,为了强调某个主题,可能会 重复论证说明。但是这在摘要中是不能使用的。应该删除那些突出强调的重述句。 3) Skill3: Omit the examples. 删除具体例子。不过,阅读材料本身是由几个具体例子构成 的,如阅读材料是谈西方种种节日的,如删除具体例子,则概括很难达到 30 个词,那就选 择一至两个例子(即一两个主要节日) 。注:原文中可能包括 5 个或更多的例子,你只需从 中筛选一至二个例子。 4) Skill4: Use general(概括性) words instead of specific(具体的) words ).使用概括性的 名词代替具体的词,比如: “She brought home several Chinese and English novels, a few copies of Time and Newsweek and some textbooks. She intended to read all of them during the winter vocation.” 可以概括为:“She brought home a lot of books to read during the vocation.” 5) Skill5: Put the main points of a dialogue in indirect speech.把文章的对话或直接引语 (的要点)改成间接引语叙述。 6) 把长段的描述变成短小、简单的句子。如果材料中描述某人或某事用了十个句子,那么你 只要把它们变成一两句即可。 7) 压缩长的句子。如下列两例: “His courage in battle might without exaggeration be called lion-like.” 可以概括为: “He was very brave in battle.”
5

“He was hard up for money and was being pressed by his creditor.” 可以概括为:“He was in financial difficulties.” 8) 你还可以使用词组代替整句或者从句。 学以致用 (Task1: Please follow the example to choose the proper skill from the above ones.) 1,Then, you can think of a way to make both sides happy. Here are some tips 1)Make time to talk. You could talk about your school life and your plans for the future. 2)..Keep a diary. It can help you understand more about yourself and your feelings. 3). Show your parents you are growing up. Wash your own clothes and help around the house. Which skill: ___________________________________________________ Summary:___________________________________________________________ 2. Sometimes, kids don’t think their parents are fair to them. When you want to dress in a modern way, your mum doesn’t like you to wear a mini-skirt. When you are making phone calls to friends, they ask whether you’re speaking to a boy or a girl. Which skill: ___________________________________________________ Summary: ______________________________________________________________ 3. Kate looked at Paul disapprovingly, “You use too much salt on your food, Paul. It’s not at all good for you!” Paul put down his knife and frowned, “Why on earth not! If you didn’t have salt on your food it would taste awful…like eating wood or sand…just imagine bread without salt in it!” Which skill:___________________________________________________ Summary:______________________________________________________ 4. She brought home several Chinese and English novels, a few copies of Time and Newsweek, and some textbooks. She intended to read all of them during the winter vacation. Which skill: _____________________________________________________ Summary: _____________________________________________________________ Task2: find out how to summarize the whole passage ① 段意合并法 (说明文、应用文) 第一步, 通读全文, 领略大意;
6

第二步,小结每一段的大意; 第三步, 根据每一段的大意以及作者的侧重点, 综合归纳全文的大意. 对于说明性或描述性短文, 可以用概括性文字说明某一现象。 比如, 可以概括如下 “This article points out the common phenomenon…” ② 要素串联法(记叙文) 记叙文主要是记叙所发生的事情和经历。常见的形式有:故事、日记、新闻报道、游 记等。记叙文通常要交待清楚五要素的内容,即 where, when, what, who, how, 给读者一个内 容完整、细节清晰的故事。事情的叙述通常按时间的顺序叙述,让读者易于把握所叙述内容 之间的内在关联,我们必须抓住记叙文的写作特点或思路,从而更好地理解文章主题,概括 出比较中肯的短文中心大意。 ③ 主题概括法(议论文) 第一、找出关键词和全文或段落的主题句。任何一篇文章都是围绕某个主题展开的,因此, 许多文章中最明显的特点之一是有一个反复出现的中心词,即高频词,也叫做主题词。抓住 了它,便容易抓住文章的中心。一般地说,主题词通常是名词、动词或形容词。 第二、根据原文的词句(一般指关键词和全文或段落的主题句), 进行改写: 或用相应的同义 词,或进行句型转换(如主动句改为被动句等等). 千万不要原封不动地抄写原文的词句. 第三、用连词连接各部分,使它连贯; 第四、整合中心要点,使用形容词、介词短语、非谓语动词短语合并、简化句子,使之符合 概括短文内容要点的词数(30 个词左右)。 议论文通常用来讲明道理、议论是非、提出观点和看法。作者先正面或反面提出论点,然 后用事实论证论点,最后以重申论点或提出建议的方式得出结论。议论文的主题句通常在首 段或尾段,或者在各段的首句或尾句。 尽可能客观简要地转述阅读材料的观点。可以采用如下方法概括:The writer of this article thinks that… 或者你认为本材料的观点代表了一些人的思想,就可以说 Some people think… 还可以从中立的角度或用“无人称”的方式来说 The article gives the view that… 实例 1 It must have been about two in the morning when I returned home. I tried to wake up my wife by ringing the doorbell, but she was fast asleep, so I got a ladder from the shed in the garden,
7

put it against the wall, and began climbing towards the bedroom window. I was almost there when a sarcastic voice below said, “I don’t think the windows need cleaning at this time of the night.” I looked down and nearly fell off the ladder when I saw a policeman. I immediately regretted answering in the way I did, but I said, “I enjoy cleaning windows at night.” “So do I,” answered the policeman in the same tone. “Excuse my interrupting you. I hate to interrupt a man when he’s busy working, but would you mind coming with me to the station?” “Well, I’d prefer to stay here,” I said. “ You see, I’ve forgotten my key.” “Your what?” he called. “My key,” I shouted. Fortunately, the shouting woke up my wife who opened the window just as the policeman had started to climb towards me Which skill: ____________________________ 点拨:1)这是一篇记叙文,请从原文中划出时间、地点、人物、事情的经过和结果。 2)填充下面所给的 summary, 注意如何借用词法,语法简化句子。 Summary: As can be learnt this passage, on arriving home __________ in the morning, the

writer failed to wake up __________ by ringing the doorbell. He tried to _______________, but was found by _____________. Soon his shouting woke his wife. 实例 2 Advertising can be a service to customers. This is true when advertisements give

reliable information about the goods advertised. Such information is needed if the customer is to make a sensible choice when he buys something. It is useful in that it lets him know of the kinds of goods in the shops. Printed advertisements do this job best. Customers can collect them and compare them. They can be taken along to the shops and their statements can be checked against and actual goods in the shops. Some advertisements are not very useful to the customers. Instead of helping the customer to satisfy his real needs, they set out to make him want things. They set out to make us believe that what they advertise will make us cleverer, prettier, more
8

handsome, if only we use it. The voice on TV says, “ Get away people use XYZ petrol.” The screen shows a picture of petrol pump for a fast expensive car owned by a boy with a pretty girlfriend. They drive off to the wonderful country or a lovely beach. Some people may feel that clever, successful people use XYZ petrol. Some might choose that petrol every time they fill up their cars. Skill: _______________________

Summary:
_______________________________________________________________________________ 实例 3 Students should think now about what extracurricular (课外的) activities they'd

like to participate in. Participating in extracurricular activities may help you deepen your physical, creative, social, political, and career interests by bringing you into communication with other like-minded people you didn’t previously know. You can join groups as a way to get support from other students. A club or group can also be a great way to meet people who are different from you. Lots of youth programs bring people together with those who are different as a way to break down the barriers between people. Participating in extracurricular activities helps you in other ways, too. It looks good on college and job applications and shows admissions officers and employers you're well-rounded and responsible. Specific activities help with specific goals. The most basic reason for joining a club or team is that it gives you something better to do than staring at the wall, wandering the hall, or sleeping all afternoon. People who are participating are less likely to pick up bad habits, like smoking or drinking. Skill: ______________________________________

Summary:
_______________________________________________________________________________

Part

Ⅲ 高效模板
9

A.如议论文的概要通常可以如此开头: The essay/passage/author highlights(强调) the importance of… The essay/passage/author discusses the impact of.... The essay/passage/author argues that … B.而记叙文的概要则可以从以下模板中选择: The passage/story is about … The author tells us a story about a ________. The passage is a story about ________. According to the passage, the hero in the story ________. C.通用型模板: According to the passage, we know… This article is mainly about… The writer states(陈述) that… As can be learn this passage, - - In this passage, the writer mainly tells us his experience of…

另外,更具体一点:
1. 记叙文概要模板 点明写作目的类: The writer tells us…(主题)by showing us an example of…, who/which…(故事情节). 作者经历类: In the passage, the writer mainly tells us his experience of doing sth, which…… 他人经历类: This passage is mainly about sb’s experience of doing sth….. 2. 议论文概要模板 ①The article gives the view that… should/shouldn’t…(主题) …..(补充论据).

②The passage highlights(强调) the importance of sth…..
10

③The author argues that… 3. 说明文概要模板 现象揭示类: This article points out (指出)the common phenomenon -----…(主题), which…..(补充解释). 利弊对比类: ①The article compares the disadvantages/ benefits of A and B. ② The passage discusses the impact(影响)of sth. 研究显示类: ①The study reveals(揭露) that… ②The purpose of the report is to show that… A…while B…

On the positive side…, but it may also….

Part Ⅳ Exercises 根据材料,用约 30 个字写概要。
1. I took a trip to a big lake in Indonesia with my family two years ago. It was really a huge lake with beautiful scenery all around. People were amazed by the endless view in front of our eyes. Later on, unlike other girls, I volunteered to go water-skiing alone. I put on the life jacket, got on the motorboat immediately and started my engine as soon as possible. The lake seemed broad and endless. I was so thrilled(激动) to enjoy my trip among the mountains and waters that I sped my motorboat. Then, after some time, I found myself in the middle of the endless lake. A sudden fear came around me. I didn’t know where I was or even how far I had gone from the shore. What was worse, it began to rain and it became very cold and foggy. I rode everywhere but couldn’t find my way back. It was useless for me to cry or shout for help. I was so terrified that I began to think about all kinds of horrible things. After floating on the water helplessly and hopelessly for a long time, suddenly I heard someone calling my name. Soon, a big steamboat sailed to me and they pulled me up to the deck and asked me if I was hurt. I couldn’t say a word but cried out in my father’s arms. _______________________________________________________________________________ 2. I like watching TV very much; for I think it has many advantages. First of all, watching TV is a
11

way to help us relax. After a day of hard work, we need a good rest. Pleasant shows can make our mind and body much relaxed. There are many kinds of shows, such as sports programs, concerts, plays and films from all over the world. It’s not possible for us to go to every place to enjoy all the activities within a short time. We usually need about eight hours to fly from New York to Pairs and about a week by train from Beijing to Moscow. But within just one second, TV can take us from an NBA game in New York. But within just one second, TV can take us from an NBA game in New York to a fashion show in Pairs. Most importantly, watching TV is educational. We can learn all kinds of subjects through educational programs and special reports on TV. For example, it’s easy for us to learn Chinese from a Chinese teacher in Beijing and to learn Russian from a Russian teacher in Moscow. TV can even teach us good manners, how to cook, what to wear, and so on. _______________________________________________________________________________ 3.(09 年高考题)Jackie is perhaps the most easily annoyed koala(考拉)at the Featherdal Wildlife Park in southern Australia.All the koalas there are unhappy and complaining. You would be too if you were used to night activities and someone kept waking you up all day while you were trying to sleep it off. That’s right--sleep it off. average koala is always half asleep because it feeds on the The leaves of a special kind that makes it sleepy. The reason Jackie and her fellow koalas are repeatedly awoken from their deep sleep is that they can be hugged and photographed by tourists,who make the trips to Featherdale and an increasing number of other national parks for just that special experience.Whatever department in the Aussie government in charge of such things is now moving to make the practice illegal,which is understandable.How would you react,my friend,if you were trying to sleep off a dozen times and some round,furry creature smelling of grass kept waking you? _______________________________________________________________________________

12


推荐相关:

读写任务概括方法与练习.doc

读写任务概括方法与练习 - 读写任务的概括 PartⅠ基本步骤 方法和技巧 第一


读写任务概括方法与练习2011高二.doc

读写任务概括方法与练习2011高二_英语学习_外语学习_教育专区。介绍读写任务的


读写任务+概括与主题句+训练+答案.doc

读写任务+概括与主题句+训练+答案 - 读写任务(共 1 小题,满分 25 分)


“读写任务”段落大意概括训练_图文.ppt

读写任务”段落大意概括训练_军事/政治_人文社科_专业资料。“读写任务” ...___ 1.—读写任务的构成及赋分方法是怎样的? 分别打分:“概括5分,正文20分...


高中英语读写任务---30字概括专项训练.doc

高中英语读写任务---30字概括专项训练_英语_高中教育_教育专区。读写任务


高中英语读写任务主旨大意概括专项训练.doc

高中英语读写任务主旨大意概括专项训练 - 读写任务中的主旨大意怎么写? 评分标准 项目 分值 5 4 3 评分标准 按照要求概括了全部主要信息, 没有增加与原文无...


读写任务型写作训练_图文.ppt

读写任务训练 读写任务型写作模板标题 第一段: 概括所给短文内容要点[约30字]


读写任务训练_图文.ppt

读写任务训练_英语_高中教育_教育专区。江苏2014高考考试说明规定题型---任务读...章的谋篇布局,做到观点鲜明,内容连贯, 层次清楚 五、30字概括文章内容方法 ? ...


读写任务型 材料概括型作文 写作训练 高三英语.doc

读写任务型 材料概括型作文 写作训练 高三英语_英语_高中教育_教育专区。读写任务型 材料概括型作文 写作训练 高三英语 书面表达 ...


高中英语读写任务概括及常用句式.doc

can we... 只有用这种方法/当??时,我们才 能?? ▲提高作文档次的五招 1...5 高中英语读写任务专题突破---概括 Summary 附:练习参考答案: I. “定技巧...


读写任务之说明文_概括_图文.ppt

读写任务之说明文_概括_高中作文_高中教育_教育专区...结构:介绍对象(主题) + 支持说明 说明文概括方法: ...? 练习1 阅读下面短文,然后以约30个词概括该文的...


读写任务型-材料概括型作文-写作训练-高三英语.pdf

读写任务式作文”写作训练 Focus: 30词的摘要怎么写? (限时训练十五作文)...3、 不同文体的概括方式 1、议论文---找出论点、结论, 再补充论据 议论文的...


读写任务之说明文 概括_图文.ppt

读写任务之说明文 概括_高中作文_高中教育_教育专区...结构:介绍对象(主题) + 支持说明 说明文概括方法: ...? 练习1 阅读下面短文,然后以约30个词概括该文的...


2013年高三英语读写任务作文专题概括 (1)_图文.ppt

在高考读写任务中, 多为说明某种社会 现象的说明文。 语篇练习 3) Ecotourism...文体不同, 概括方式也不同. ? 8.不要把概括跟下文写成一起。(即要求...


英语高考第三轮复习材料读写任务.doc

高考第三轮复习材料读写任务 一、读写任务的特征和基本要求: 读写任务写作...约二、读写任务的写作思路及方法: 1.概括文章的中心思想。 (定位 中心词...


读写任务作文专题概括_图文.ppt

在高考读写任务中, 多为说明某种社会 现象的说明文。 语篇练习 (The passage ...文体不同, 概括方式也不同. ? 8.不要把概括跟下文写成一起。(即要求...


读写任务之说明文_概括_图文.ppt

读写任务之说明文_概括_高中作文_高中教育_教育专区...结构:介绍对象(主题) + 支持说明 说明文概括方法: ...练习2 阅读下面短文,然后以约30个词概括该文的主要...


广东高考读写任务概要写作导练_图文.ppt

即时练习 阅读下面短文,然后以约30个词概括这篇 短文的主要内容。短文略 ...(36 words) 说明文 [方法指导] 根据读写任务的命题特点,阅读材料最 有可能...


对读写任务型(议论文)写作的几点思考.doc

3)小结:如何概括短文(议论文)内容?此时的小结顺理成章,学生也能把方法和技巧 融为一体,开始摩拳擦掌,跃跃欲试了。 4)练习 2013 年广东卷读写任务 小组讨论...


高三英语读写任务作文专题突破---如何写概括.doc

高考,读写任务,如何写概括,基础写作 广东高考英语基础写作训练一、写作的基本...文体不同, 概括方式也不同. 8. 不要把概括跟下文写成一起。 (即要求...

网站首页 | 网站地图
All rights reserved Powered by 学霸学习网 www.tceic.com
copyright ©right 2010-2021。
文档资料库内容来自网络,如有侵犯请联系客服。zhit325@126.com