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2016版高考英语二轮复习 专题四语法填空和短文改错第三讲五专题针对训练


[专项训练] Ⅰ.单句语法填空 1.(2015· 高考陕西卷改编)After receiving the Oscar for Best Supporting Actress,Anne Benedict went on ____________(thank)all the people who had helped in her career. 解析:句意:在获得奥斯卡最佳女配角奖之后,Anne Benedict 继续感谢所有曾经在她 的职业生涯中帮助过她的人。go on 后接 to do 或 doing 作宾语均可,但是 go on doing sth.表 示“继续做同一件事”,而 go on to do sth.则表示“继续做另一件事”。由语境可知,Anne Benedict 在拿奖后又继续做另一件事,即“感谢所有帮助过她的人”,故用 go on to do sth.。 答案:to thank 2.(2015· 高考浙江卷改编)Listening to music at home is one thing,going to hear it ____________(perform) live is quite another. 解析:句意:在家听音乐是一回事,去现场听正在被演奏的音乐完全是另一回事。题干 中含有“hear+宾语+宾语补足语”结构, 宾语 it(指代 music)与 perform 之间存在被动关系, 且此处表示去现场听正在被演奏的音乐,故应用 being performed 作宾语补足语。 答案:being performed 3.(2015· 高考重庆卷改编) ____________(raise)in the poorest area of Glasgow,he had a long,hard road to becoming a football star. 解析:句意:因为他是在格拉斯哥最贫穷的地区被抚养大的,所以他走了一段很长很艰 辛的路才成为一位足球明星。句子的主语 he 和 raise 是被动关系,因此用过去分词表被动, 过去分词短语在句中作原因状语。 答案:Raised 4. (2015· 高考重庆卷改编)Like ancient sailors, birds can find their way ____________(use) the sun and the stars. 解析:句意:就像古代的水手,鸟能利用太阳和星星辨别路。birds 与 use 是逻辑上的 主谓关系,并且 use 表示的动作与谓语动词 find 同时发生,故用现在分词作状语。 答案:using 5.(2015· 四川省名校联盟测试改编)—The garage_____________(build) outside the hospital annoys the doctors and patients terribly. —Actually,we don’t know when it will be completed. 解析:句意:——医院外正在建设中的车库严重影响到了医生和病人。——事实上,我 们不知道什么时候被建完。 根据句式结构可知本题考查非谓语动词作定语。 the garage 与 build 之间为被动关系,根据下文可知车库正在建设当中,故用现在分词的被动式。 答案:being built 6. (2016· 湖南师大附中月考改编)____________(wait) for the bus for thirty minutes, he lost his patience and felt very anxious. 解析:句意:等了三十分钟公交车后,他失去了耐心,开始焦虑起来。wait 的动作发生 在谓语动作之前,且与主语 he 之间为主动关系,故填 Having waited,在句中作原因状语。 答案:Having waited 7.The computers require ____________(repair),so the workers are required ____________(get) ready. 解析:句意:这些电脑需要修理,因此这些工人被要求做好准备。sth.require(s) doing/to be done 表示“某事需要被做”;sb.be required to do sth.意为“某人被要求做某事”。
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答案:repairing/to be repaired;to get 8.My father regretted ____________ (put) so much money into the stock market,and decided to sell some instead of ____________(hold)all of them. 解析:句意:我父亲后悔把那么多钱投到股市上,最终决定卖掉一部分而不是全握在手 里不放。regret doing 表示“后悔做过某事”;此处 instead of 为介词短语,故后接动名词作 宾语。 答案:putting;holding 9.The managers discussed the plan that they would like to see ____________(carry) out the next year. 解析:句意:经理们讨论了明年有望得以实施的那项计划。that they would...next year 为定语从句,修饰先行词 the plan。先行词在从句中作 see 的宾语,该句为“see+宾语+宾 补”句式,plan 与 carry out 之间为动宾关系,故用过去分词作宾补。 答案:carried 10.With a lot of difficult problems ____________(settle),the manager felt like a rat on hot bricks. 解析:句意:因为有许多难题要解决,经理感觉像热锅上的蚂蚁。此处为 with 复合结 构,difficult problems 与 settle 之间为被动关系,且“解决难题”发生在将来,故用不定式作 宾补,这里不定式用主动表被动含义,表示将要发生的动作。 答案:to settle 11.____________(devote) to her job,Ms.Wang has no time to be with her daughter. 解析:句意:由于致力于工作,王女士没有时间和她的女儿在一起。此处为非谓语动词 作状语。be devoted to(doing) sth.为固定短语,意为“致力于(做)某事”,强调主语所处的状 态。 答案:Devoted 12.Relax yourself every day,or you’ll be too tired____________(get) good grades. 解析: 句意: 每天要放松一下自己, 否则的话, 你太累了就不会取得好成绩。 此处为 too...to do...句型,意为“太??而不能做??”,设空处用动词不定式作结果状语。 答案:to get 13.The horse covered the distance in six days ____________(compare) with the train’s 28 hours. 解析:句意:马走这一段路要用 6 天,与之相比火车要用 28 个小时。本题考查独立成 分作状语,compared with 为习惯搭配, “与??相比”,不受主句主语的影响。 答案:compared 14. When you’re learning to play the piano, ____________(have)a good teacher makes a big difference. 解析:句意:在你学弹钢琴时,有一位好老师会起到很大的作用。根据句式结构可知本 题考查动名词作主语。 答案:having 15.—Why do you look so upset,Linda? —There are so many troublesome problems remaining ____________(settle). 解析: 句意: ——琳达, 你为什么看上去不开心?——因为有许多棘手的问题有待解决。 remain to do sth.意为“尚待??;留待??”,settle 与 problems 之间为被动关系,故用不 定式的被动式。 答案:to be settled
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Ⅱ.单句改错 1. (2015· 高考陕西卷· 短文改错) I might have to retire again next year just get some more of these biscuits. ________________________________________________________________________ 解析:句意:我也许得再退休一次,能吃到更多的饼干。由语境可知,此处要用动词不 定式作目的状语。 答案:get 前加 to 2.(2015· 高考陕西卷· 短文改错) My favorite picture at the party is of my coach and me enjoy the biscuits with happy laughter! ________________________________________________________________________ 解析:分析句子结构可知,and 连接两个并列成分,介词 of 后是复合宾语,故用动名词 形式。 答案:enjoy—enjoying 3.(2014· 高考四川卷· 短文改错) It’s been a month since I came to this new school and I really want share with you some of the problems I have been experiencing. ________________________________________________________________________ 解析:want 后接不定式作宾语。 答案:在 want 后加 to 4.(2015· 高考四川卷· 短文改错) We’ve been spending a lot of time sing in karaoke bars. ________________________________________________________________________ 解析:考查 spend time (in)doing sth.结构,意为“花费时间做某事”,此处省略了介词 in。 答案:sing—singing 5.(2015· 高考浙江卷· 短文改错)The position of the classroom with its view made me felt like I was dreaming. ________________________________________________________________________ 解析: 使役动词 make 后面跟不带 to 的动词不定式作宾补, 即 make sb.do sth., 表示“使 某人做某事”,所以此处应将 felt 改为 feel。 答案:felt—feel 6.(2015· 高考全国卷Ⅱ· 短文改错)After looks at the toy for some time,he turned around and found his parents were missing. ________________________________________________________________________ 解析:介词 after 后面跟 v.?ing 形式,故用 looking。 答案:looks—looking 7.With a lot of work do,I decided not to play with you. ________________________________________________________________________ 解析:句意:有许多作业要做,我决定不和你一起玩了。根据句意可知 do 的动作还没 有发生,在 with 的复合结构中,如果作宾补的动作还未发生,常用不定式的主动形式。 答案:do 前加 to 8.Based an important decision more on emotion than on reason,you will regret it sooner or later. ________________________________________________________________________ 解析:句意:以情绪而不是原因做出一个重要的决定,你迟早会为此后悔的。sb.base(s) sth.on sth.某人把??放在??的基础之上。句子主语 you 与动词 base 构成主动关系,故使
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用现在分词形式。 答案:Based—Basing 9.There is no doubt that achieve a goal,one needs not only knowledge but also good personalities. ________________________________________________________________________ 解析:句意:为了实现目标,一个人不仅需要知识,而且需要好的个性,这是毫无疑问 的。在 that 引导的同位语从句中 to achieve 作目的状语,故加 to。 答案:在 achieve 前加 to 10.I’m calling to ask for information about the position advertising in the local TV news. ________________________________________________________________________ 解析:句意:我打电话是想询问关于电视新闻中登的那个职位的信息。advertise 与被修 饰词 position 之间为被动关系,故用过去分词作定语。 答案:advertising—advertised 11.Translating into English,the sentence was found to have an entirely different word order from Chinese. ________________________________________________________________________ 解析:句意:翻译成英语之后,这句话的词序和汉语完全不同。非谓语动词作状语时, 其逻辑主语应为主句的主语, the sentence 与 translate 之间为被动关系, 故用过去分词作状语。 答案:Translating—Translated 12.Michael put up a picture of Yao Ming beside the bed to keep himself reminding of his own dreams. ________________________________________________________________________ 解析:句意:迈克尔把姚明的画像挂在床边,目的是提醒自己记住自己的梦想。本句为 “keep+宾语+宾补”结构,himself 与 remind 之间为动宾关系,故用过去分词作宾补。 答案:reminding—reminded 13. While looking for some personal documents, I happened to see an album contained some old photographs. ________________________________________________________________________ 解析:句意:在找一些私人文件时,我意外看到了一个装有一些老照片的相册。album 和 contain 之间为主谓关系,故用现在分词作定语,相当于 which contained。 答案:contained—containing 14.Above all,I have learned that the smile is the key to solve any problem. ________________________________________________________________________ 解析:句意:尤其重要的是,我已经明白微笑是解决任何问题的关键。此处 to 为介词, 后接动名词形式,构成短语 the key to doing sth.,意为“做??的关键”。 答案:solve—solving 15.At the beginning,I always kept silent in oral class to avoid make mistakes. ________________________________________________________________________ 解析:句意:起初,我在口语课上总是保持沉默以避免犯错误。avoid doing sth.为固定 搭配,意为“避免做某事”,故此处应用动名词形式。 答案:make—making [高考模拟] Ⅰ.语法填空 (2016· 甘肃兰州市高三实战考试)阅读下面材料,在空白处填入适当的内容(1 个单词)或
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括号内单词的正确形式。 Dear friends, Water is essential for life.Yet millions of people around the world face water shortages.Millions of children die every year from waterborne 1.____________ (disease).And drought regularly causes suffering in some of the world’s poorest countries.The world needs to respond much better.We need to increase water efficiency,2.____________ (especial) in agriculture.We need to free women and girls 3.____________ the daily chores of 4.____________ (carry) water,often over great distances.We must involve them in decision? making on water management.We need to make sanitation a priority.This is where progress is lagging (落后) most.And we must show that water resources need not be a source of conflict.Instead,they can be a catalyst (催化剂) for cooperation.Significant gains have been made.But still a major effort 5.____________ (require).That is why this year 6.____________ (mark) the beginning of the“Water for Life Decade”.Our goal is 7.____________ (meet) the internationally agreed targets for water and sanitation by 2015,8.____________ to build the foundation for further progress in the years beyond. This is 9.____________ urgent matter of human development,and human dignity.Together,we can provide safe,clean water to all the world’s people.The world’s water resources are our lifeline for 10.____________ (survive),and for continuous improvement in the 21st century.Together,we must manage them better. 【解题导语】 水对于生命来说是必不可少的。每年有许多儿童死于由水传播的疾病, 如何让整个人类和谐共享优质的水,作者给出了建议并发出了号召。 1.解析:考查名词。disease 既可作可数名词也可作不可数名词,故此处应填 disease 或 diseases。 答案:disease(s) 2.解析:考查副词。此处修饰空后的介词短语,因此应该用副词形式。 答案:especially 3.解析:考查介词。根据固定搭配 free sb.from...“使某人摆脱??”可知,此处应填 介词 from。 答案:from 4.解析:考查非谓语动词。介词后面应该用动名词,所以填 carrying。 答案:carrying 5.解析:考查时态、语态及主谓一致。根据整篇文章的时态及 still 的提示可知,此处 应用一般现在时; 由于句子的主语与 require 之间在逻辑上是动宾关系, 主语为“a major effort” 所以用一般现在时的被动语态 is required。 答案:is required 6.解析:考查时态及主谓一致。根据本句的 is 可知,此处应用一般现在时;由于主语 是 this year,为单数,因此应填 marks。 答案:marks 7.解析:考查非谓语动词。此处与 8 空后的不定式 to build 并列。 答案:to meet 8.解析:考查连词。此处应用 and 连接两个并列的非谓语动词。 答案:and 9. 解析: 考查冠词。 这是人类发展与人类尊严的一件紧迫之事。 此处表示泛指“一件”, 因此用不定冠词 an。
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答案:an 10.解析:考查名词。世界水资源是我们生存的生命线。介词 for 后面应用提示词的名 词形式作其宾语。 答案:survival Ⅱ.短文改错 (2015· 河南省郑州市高中毕业班第二次质量预测)假定英语课上老师要求同桌之间交换 修改作文,请你修改你同桌写的以下作文。文中共有 10 处语言错误,每句中最多有两处。 每处错误仅涉及一个单词的增加、删除或修改。 增加:在缺词处加一个漏字符号(∧),并在其下面写出该加的词。 删除:把多余的词用斜线(\划掉。 修改:在错的词下划一横线,并在该词下面写出修改后的词。 注意:1.每处错误及其修改均仅限一词; 2.只允许修改 10 处,多者(从第 11 处起)不计分。 Dear Mandy, I’m not doing well in my lessons at school,especial in maths.My dad says I must try hard because he wants me go to university.He thinks I’m lazy,but it’s not true.I work really hard, often study late into the night!I’ve tried to talk to my mother,but she always said I have to work as hard like my brother does.My brother doesn’t study very hard,and he always gets excellent grades.It’s not fair! The only thing I like it is art.My teacher says I’ m the best student she’ s had for year.When I told my dad,all he said was, “You mustn’t waste your time in art.You must focus your mind on your lessons!”I’m feeling quite puzzling about what to do now.Would you please help me out? Thanks a lot! Yours sincerely, Lisa 答案: Dear Mandy, especial I’ m not doing well in my lessons at school, in maths.My dad says I must try hard especially ∧ because he wants me to go to university.He thinks I’ m lazy, but it’ s not true.I work really hard, often study said late into the night!I’ve tried to talk to my mother,but she always I have to studying says like and my brother does.My brother doesn’t study very hard, he always gets as but is art.My teacher says I’m the best student she’s had for

work as hard

excellent grades.It’s not fair! The only thing I like it

year in .When I told my dad, all he said was, “You mustn’ t waste your time art.You must focus years on your mind on your lessons! ”I’m feeling quite help me out? Thanks a lot!
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puzzling about what to do now.Would you please puzzled

Yours sincerely, Lisa

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