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Unit 1 Festivals around the world

Period 1 Warming up

What kind of festival did you celebrate in February this year?

How did you spend your Spring Festival?

Greeting Season
春节 农历 正月 The Spring Festival Lunar calendar Lunar January; the first month by lunar calendar 除夕 New Year's Eve; eve of lunar New Year 初一 The beginning of New Year 元宵节 The Lantern Festival

Food names
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 团圆饭 年夜饭 饺子 汤圆 年糕 红枣 西瓜子 葵花子 莲子 莲藕 糖 family reunion dinner the dinner on New Year's Eve dumpling Tang-yuan; Nian-gao; rice cake; New Year cake red dates water melon seed sunflower seed lotus seed lotus root candy

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 春联 剪纸 年画 烟花 爆竹 舞狮 舞龙 灯谜 灯会 守岁 Spring Festival couplets paper-cuts New Year paintings fireworks firecrackers lion dance dragon dance riddles written on lanterns exhibition of lanterns staying-up

? 拜年 ? ? ? ? ? 去晦气 祭祖宗 压岁钱 辞旧岁 扫房

pay New Year's call; give New Year's greetings; New Year's visit get rid of the ill- fortune offer sacrifices to one's ancestors gift money bid farewell to the old year spring cleaning; general house-cleaning

The Chinese character "fu" (meaning blessing or happiness) is a must. The character put on paper can be pasted normally or upside down, for in Chinese the "reversed fu" is homophonic with "fu comes", both being pronounced as "fu dao le." What's more, two big red lanterns can be raised on both sides of the front door.

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Treasures(财富) fill the home Business flourishes(兴隆) Peace all year round Wishing you prosperity(繁荣、昌盛) Harmony(和谐) brings wealth May all your wishes come true Everything goes well The country flourishes and people live in peace Money and treasures will be plentiful Wishing you every success Promoting(提升) to a higher position(地位)

Watch the Spring Festival Programme

When ?

Delicious food Feast

Spring Festival
?lucky money? Have fun with Dress up

Visit friends and relatives

Festival Time of year/date Spring January/ Festival February

What it celebrates the end of winter, arrival of spring, Lunar New Year, reunion with family and relatives

What people do give money in red paper to children; see dragon dances; eat fish, prawns and dumplings; visit family members

What other Chinese Festivals do you know?
The Tomb-Sweeping Festival The Winter Solstice Festival (Dongzhi)

The Mid-Autumn Festival


The Dragon Boat Festival (Duanwu)

National Day Chongyang Festival The Lantern Festival

Choose one Chinese festival you like best to fill in the chart in the warming up.

Festival Time of year/ date Midautumn Autumn fall Festival

What it celebrates the beauty of the full moon, harvest, time with family and friends

What people do give and eat mooncakes, watch the full moon with family and friends

Festival Time of

What it year/date celebrates

What people do take time off work; travel to visit family or to see other parts of China; go shopping

National October 1 the founding Day of the People’s Republic of China in 1949

Festival Time of year/date Dragon the fifth Boat day of the Festival/ fifth Duanwu month in Festival lunar calendar

What it celebrates the memory of the beloved poet Qu Yuan who died in 278 BC

What people do eat zongzi; watch dragon boat races; throw rice wrapped in reed leaves into water in memory of Qu Yuan; put herbs on doorways for good health

Oral task:
Introduce your favorite festival to all your classmates, using the expressions below.

I like … best. It takes place in/on … It celebrates … At this festival, people usually …

Period 2


Festivals around the world
? Chinese Festivals ? Lantern Festival ? The Dragon Boat Festival ? Tomb Sweeping Day ? Mid-Autumn Day ? New Year’s Day ? Double-ninth Day ? National Day ? May 1st ? Foreign Festivals


Read the following descriptions about western festivals and guess which festival they convey? ? This festival happens at the beginning of the spring. ? Usually most young people are happy on this day. ? They send flowers and chocolate or some other gifts to the one they love.
Valentine’s Day

? This festival happens in winter. ? Every family has a feast on this day. ? Turkey is the most important food on this day. ? People celebrate it to thank God for a harvest in 1620.

Thanksgiving Day

? Most children are excited on this day. ? They wear black costumes or masks. ? They would like to dress up as frightening and ugly ghosts or witches. ? They would like to knock others’ doors and say, “trick or treat”.



? It is one of the most important festivals in western countries. ? People usually celebrate it together with their family members. ? A kind-hearted old man put the gifts in the stockings for children secretly at night. ? People send cards or gifts to others.

? On December 25th ? It is the birthday of Jesus Christ ? Go to the parties and churches , give cards and presents to our friends and relatives


Easter a religious festival


Festivals around the world
? Chinese Festivals ? Lantern Festival ? The Dragon Boat Festival ? Tomb Sweeping Day ? Mid-Autumn Day ? New Year’s Day ? Double-ninth Day ? National Day ? May Day

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Foreign Festivals Christmas Day Thanksgiving Day Mother’s Day Father’s Day April Fool’s Day Valentine’s Day Easter Halloween

Which is the greatest and the most important festival to Chinese people? Spring Festival
Which is the greatest and the most important festival to Christian people in Western countries? Christmas

Both of them are quite popular around the world. Can you tell the similarities and differences between them by comparison?

Spring Festival


Festival Spring Festival Christmas from the 1st day Time to the 15th day Dec. 25th of the first Chinese lunar month candies, dumpling ( jiaozi), Special cookies, sweet dumpling food (tangyuan/yuanxiao) pudding foods, Gifts foods, fruits, desserts, clothes, drinks, Christmas red packets… decorations…

Festival Spring Festival

Christmas do cleaning do springand shopping, Prepa- cleaning, decorate the do Spring Festival houses with ration shopping, decorate Christmas the houses trees and colored lights have family family Major reunion dinner on reunion, have activities New Year’s Eve; a big dinner on pay New Year’s Christmas visits, recreational Eve… activities (dragon /lion dance, …)

Festival Purpose

Spring Festival say goodbye to the old year and welcome the new year, hoping for the best and the good future.

Christmas celebrating the birth of Jesus Christ

What part of activities you like best

Compare the festivals below. Can you tell the similarities and differences between them from the aspects given above?

Tomb-sweeping Day


Qiqiao Festival

Valentine’s Day

Dragon Boat Festival


Now let’s read the passage on Page 1 and try to learn more about these festivals.

Period 3


1. How many parts is the passage divided into? Six parts. 2. Which festivals are mentioned in the passage? 1. Festivals of the Dead 2. Festivals to Honor the People 3. Harvest Festivals 4. Spring Festivals

Listen again and decide T or F
? The ancient people needn’t worry about their food. F ? People celebrate Halloween with a different T purpose from the past. ? Gandhi was a great leader who Indian people honour a lot. T ? China and Japan share the same custom of celebrating Mid-Autumn Festival. T ? Easter just celebrates the rebirth of Jesus.



Day of the Dead

Festivals of the Dead

Cherry Blossom Festival Festivals to Honour People Halloween Dragon Boat Festival

Columbus Day

Harvest Festivals


Spring Festivals

Scan(扫读) the passage and fill in the chart. (Ex 1) Kinds of Festivals Names of Festivals Countries

Festivals of the Dead
Festivals to Honor People Harvest Festivals Spring Festivals

Kinds of festivals Festivals of the Dead Festivals to Honour People Harvest Festivals

Names of Festivals


? Obon ? Day of the Dead ? Halloween
?Dragon Boat Festival ?Columbus Day ?Festival to honor Gandhi ?Thanksgiving festivals ?Mid-Autumn Festivals

? Japan ? Mexico ? some western countries
?China ?USA ?India ?European and other countries ?China and Japan ?China ?some western countries ?Japan

?The Spring Festival
Spring Festivals

?Cherry Blossom Festival

Oban 盂兰盆节 lanterns everywhere lead the dead back to the earth light the streets where people go out to dance They also light lamps and play music because they think that this will lead the ancestors back to the earth.

The Day of the Dead In Mexico People eat food in the shape of skulls and cakes with “bones” on them

the Day of the Dead in Mexico They offer food, flowers and gifts to the dead.

the festival of Halloween in some western countries dress up, ask for sweets, play a trick on

play the “trick or treat “

Read part 1 carefully and answer these questions:
1.Which three times of the year did people celebrate in Ancient Times? The most ancient festivals would celebrate the end of the cold weather, planting in spring and harvest in autumn.

Read part 2 and part 3 carefully and fill in the chart Festivals why to honour the dead or satisfy of the and please the ancestors dead light lamps, play music, eat food in the shapes of skulls and cakes with bones, go to their neighbors to ask for sweets,dress up Festivals why to honour for their great contributions to the society or the country people

Dragon Boat Festival

Columbus Day

National Festival





Food is gathered for the winter. A season of agricultural work is Harvest how over. Festivals decorate churches and town halls, get together to have big meals, admire the moon and eat moon cakes

Spring Festivals how

celebrate the end of winter and the coming of spring

eat delicious food; have exciting carnivals

Read the following part of the passage and answer the following questions:

1. What do people not do in Spring Festivals in China? A.Eat dumplings, fish and meat together B. Give children lucky money in red paper C. Watch dragon dance D D. Eat eggs and chocolates. 2. Which of the following festivals is not celebrated in Japan? A. Easter B. Obon C. Cherry Blossom Festival D. Mid-autumn Festival

Period 4

Language points

Useful phrases
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 节日和庆典 自古以来 有很多由来 亡灵节 纪念死者 使祖先得到满足 损害、伤害、危害 扫墓 烧香 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? festivals and celebrations since ancient times have many origins festivals of the dead honour the dead satisfy the ancestors do harm (to) clean graves light incense

Useful phrases
? 纪念,追念
? in memory of ? lead the ancestors back to ? 把祖先引回到世上 ? 在这个重要的节日里 earth ? on this important feast day ? 以颅骨的形状 ? in the shape of skulls ? 给…提供… ? offer sth. to sb. ? 古老的信念 ? old beliefs ? 亡者的灵魂 ? the spirits of dead people ? 乔装打扮 ? dress up ? 捉弄某人 ? play a trick on sb.

Useful phrases
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 端午节,龙舟节 全国性节日 赢得独立 农活 用…来装饰 因…而获奖 赏月 盼望、期待、期望 压岁钱 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? The Dragon Boat Festivals a national festival gain its independence the agricultural work decorate …with… win awards for admire the moon look forward to lucky money

Useful phrases
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 红包 日夜、昼夜、整天 各种艳丽的节日盛装 庆祝耶稣复活 由…覆盖 好像 玩得开心 为…而自豪
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? red paper day and night colourful clothing of all kinds celebrate the return of Jesus be covered with as though have fun with be proud of

key sentences
? At that time people would starve if food was difficult to find, especially during the cold winter months . ? It is now a children’s festival, when they can dress up and go to their neighbors’ homes to ask for sweets. ? The most energetic and important festivals are the ones that look forward to the end of winter and the coming of spring.

1. Festivals are meant to celebrate important times of year.
? 节日就是庆祝重要事件的活动。 ? a. 指由命运,能力等所“注定”“就该”或由 父母决定
? He believes that he is meant to be a great man. ? Books are meant to be read

? b. 意义和用法上相当于ought to和be supposed to, 意为“应该,必须”
? ? ? ? You are meant to study hard when you are young. 你年轻的时候应该努力学习. You are meant to hand in your homework on time. 你必须按时上交作业.

mean 的用法
? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ?

1). mean doing sth. “意味着” What you said means breaking up our friendship 你所说的话意味着我们友谊的破裂. Missing the film means waiting for another week. 错过了这部电影就意味着再等一个一周. 2). mean to do sth.“打算或企图做某事”,其过去完成式 had meant to do sth表示“本来打算做某事”。 I meant to buy flowers for my mother, but I was too busy. I’m sorry ,but I didn’t mean to hurt you. Do you mean to start a quarrel? 3). mean sb. to do sth.“打算让某人做某事”

? In some parts of London, missing a bus A for another hour. means _____ A. waiting B. to wait C. wait D. to be waiting

meaning (n.) 意思 meaningful (adj) 有意义的

2.take place 发生;举行
? ? ? ? ? ? take place常指按计划或安排“发生” happen更侧重偶然性 take place The meeting will _________this evening. happen When did this accident_______? 与place相关短语: in the first place (用于列举理由)首先, 第一点 ? in the last place 最后

? take one’s place =take the place of sb=replace sb ? 在他的心底没有人可以替代他妈妈的位置. ? No one could take the place of his mother in his heart. take his mother’s place
replace his mother

A in the rural areas in the ? Great changes ___ last two decades. A. have taken place B. took place C. have been taken place D. are happening

3. celebrate vt. 庆祝;祝贺
? ? ? ? celebrate the Spring Festival / one’s birthday 词语辨析:celebrate, congratulate celebrate后常接sth (日期,事情或场合) congratulate sb. on/upon sth

4. Festivals and celebrations of all kinds are held everywhere.
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 世界各地都有各种各样的节日庆典。 of all kinds 各种各样的 sth of all kinds=all kinds of sth We sell all kinds of shoes. 我们卖各式各样的鞋. = We sell shoes of all kinds. That kind of questions is very difficult to answer. 那类问题是很难解答的。 Questions of that kind are difficult to answer. You can see different kinds of animals in the zoo. 你在动物园可以看见不同种类的动物。 You can see animals of different kinds in the zoo.

Practice (用动词的适当形式填空)
sell (sell) well in the ? ① Books of this kind ____ bookstore. sells (sell) well in the ? ② This kind of books ____ bookstore.

5. starve v.
? ⑴ (使)挨饿; 饿死 ? When will the dinner be ready? I’m starving. ? Millions of people are starving in the poor countries. ? You must eat more. Don’t starve yourself. ? ⑵ starve for something渴望得到某事 ? She is lonely. And she is starving for friendship ? (3)starve to death 饿死

6. ...or satisfy the ancestors, who could return either to help or to do harm.
? …取悦祖先, 使他们得到满足,以为(祖先们)有可 能回来帮助他们,也有可能带来危害。 ? satisfy vt. 满足,使…满意; ? satisfy sb. ? satisfied a. 感到满意的; ? be satisfied with sb/sth ? satisfaction n. 满意; ? to one’s satisfaction 让人满意的是 ? His parents are satisfied with his good results.

7. harm
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? n.危害,害处 do sb harm =do harm to sb =harm sb do (no, a lot of…)harm to sb/sth 或do sb/sth (no, a lot of…) harm Studying hard won’t do you any harm. v. 损害,对…有害处 Studying hard won’t harm you. adj. harmful 有害的 be harmful to sb/sth

8. in memory of 纪念某人
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 这个学校是为了纪念那位有名的科学家而建立的。 The school was built in memory of the famous scientist. 歌颂 in praise of 为纪念 in honor of 为庆祝 in celebration of 为寻找 in search of

9. dress up
dress意思是“给…穿衣服”。 +sb 他穿着红色的衣服. He was dressed in red. get dressed Hurry up and___________. 快点穿上衣服。 was dressed in red. The girl _______________ 这个女孩穿着一身红衣服。 dress up是“穿上最好的衣服”, 常指“打扮,化 装”, ? You should dress up when you take part in the party. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

10. award
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? n. 奖品,奖项,奖金,…… She won a lot of awards in the college. vt. 授予,奖给…… award sb sth= award sth to sb The teacher awarded the girl a nice book. reward 回报,报酬 辨析: award 和reward: award后接双宾语 award sb. sth 授予某人某物 reward 奖赏, 给…报酬, 不能接双宾语; reward sb. for sth. 因 …奖赏某人; reward sb. with sth. 用某物酬劳某人

rewarded ? She __________herself with a cup of coffee after a whole morning’s hard work. ? 一上午的刻苦学习后, 她冲一杯咖啡来奖赏 自己。

11. admire v. 意为“赞赏;钦佩;羡慕”
? ? ? ? 表示“在某方面钦佩某人” 用“admire sb. for sth.” 我们都钦佩他的勇气和胆识。 We all admire him for his courage and bravery.

12. look forward to (doing) sth. 期待着(做)某事, 其中的to是介词 ? 孩子们渴盼着过年。 ? Boys and girls are looking forward to the Spring Festival. ? 他期待着笔友来信。 ? He’s looking forward to hearing from his pen pal.

13. as though= as if 好像,仿佛

? ? ? ? ? ? ?

as though和as if从句用虚拟语气,还是用陈述语气。 完全根据具体情况而定。 如果从句表示的意思与事实完全相反,或者纯粹 是一种假设, 通常用虚拟语气。 The child talks as if she were an adult. 那孩子说话的样子好像她是个大人。 He behaved as if/ though nothing had happened. He talks as if/though he knew everything. He looks as if he were ill. 陈述语气(表示很可能的事实就用陈述语气) It looks as if/ though it is going to rain.

14. have fun with each other.
? have fun意为“过得快乐”同义词组为have a good ? ? ? ? ? ?

time, enjoy oneself. 短语有have fun ( in ) doing sth. great fun 有趣的人[事物] make fun of sb. 嘲弄; 取笑 What fun ! 多么有趣。

15. They offer food, flowers and gift to the dead….
? ? ? ? ? 词语辨析:offer, provide, supply offer 主动提供 offer sth to sb; offer sb sth provide sth (for sb); provide sb with sth. supply sth to sb; supply sb with sth offer When I meet difficulty, my roommates will_____ me help. offered a reward for the return of the lost ? They _______ jewels. provide ? The government need to _________these old people with food and clothes. supplied ? Electricity should be _________enough every month.

Period 5

Using language

The Chinese people believe that the star Vega(织女星), east of the Milky Way, is Zhinu and, at the constellation(星座) of Aquila(天 鹰座), on the western side of the Milky Way, Niulang waits for his wife.

fell in love got married

The Goddess got angry

forced to leave each other Cross the Milky Way to meet only once a year


Zhinu, the _______ weaving girl, the most lovely of the daughters, visited the earth and met herd boy. Niulang, the _______ ell ___ in _____ love , married secretly Development They f___ and were very happy. Climax The Goddess of Heaven got so angry that Heaven . she forced Zhinu back to ________ (高潮) ollow Niulang tried to f_________ her but was stopped by the Milky Way. Thus, the ouple were separated. c_______ Ending The Goddess of Heaven allowed the couple to meet once a year on the seventh ______ day of eventh l_______ unar the s_______ month when magpies bridge of their wings. made a _________


Li Fang was waiting alone at the ________ coffee shop with his roses and chocolates, but turn ______ up . He thought she Hu Jin didn’t ______ ord would keep her w_______. Feeling like a ______, fool he would _________ drown his sadness in coffee. Li Fang watched a TV program about “Qiqiaojie”. Thinking Hu Jin played a trick / joke __________________ on him, he threw t________ away et off for home. the gifts and s_____


Climax (高潮) / Ending

tea shop on the corner, As Li Fang passed the _____ he heard Hu Jin calling and waving at him, “I’ve gift for you! Why been waiting long. I have a ______ are you so late?” forgive him? What would he do? Would she ________

? Think of what Hu Jin will say when she finds out later that the flowers and chocolates are gone. ? Think of an ending to the story that will solve Li Fang’s problem. Will he be happy or sad?
? As he sadly passed the tea shop on the corner on his way, … ? Content / Idea/Organization/Grammar ? Vocabulary

Useful phrases
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 心碎的 情人节 在咖啡馆 出现 守信用 期盼 屏住呼吸 用咖啡来解愁 很明显 擦桌子 打开电视机

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

be heart-broken Valentine’s Day at coffee shop turn up keep one’s word look forward to hold one’s breath drown one’s sadness in coffee It is obvious that wipe the tables turn on the TV

Useful phrases
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 织女 牛郎 相爱 结婚 与…结婚 乞巧节 动身往家走 提醒某人某事 招手 扔掉 原谅某人

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

the weaving girl the herd boy fall in love get married be married to Qiqiao Festival set off for home remind sb. of sth wave at sb. throw away forgive sb.

1. But she didn’t turn up.
? 1) 来, 出席(某活动) ? I’m very happy you turned up so early. ? 2) 把(收音机等)音量开大一些, 其反义短语是turn down. ? ? ? ? ? ? 相关短语: turn down 拒绝 turn off 关掉 turn on 打开 turn out 结果是...... turn to sb. for help 向某人求助

? keep one’s word 意为“守信用”,其反义词是break one’s word, 即“失信”。 ? He is a man who always keeps his word. ? Don’t break your word, otherwise, no one will trust you. ? 注意:keep one’s word和break one’s word中的名词word 不能用复数形式。 ? 相关短语: ? in a word/in short/to be short 简言之;总之 ? have a word with sb. 与某人谈话 ? have words with sb. 与某人发生口角 ? in other words 换句话说

2. She said she would be there at seven o’clock, and he thought she would keep her word.

? ? ? ? ?

A gentleman should always __ his __. A. keeps; word B. keep; word C. keeps; words D. keep; words

3. It was obvious that the manager of the coffee shop was waiting for Li Fang to leave...
? ? ? ? obvious adj. 1) obvious + to + 表示人的名词或代词 Her disappointment was obvious to her friend. ? 2) It + be + obvious +that-clause ? It was obvious that she was in danger.

4. When the Goddess of Heaven knew that her daughter was married to a human, she ...
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? marry 的用法: 1) 她嫁给了一个律师。 She married with a lawyer. She married a doctor. 2) 她和一位律师结婚了。 She got married with a lawyer. She got married a lawyer. She was married to a lawyer. 3) 他们结婚三年了。 They have married for three years. They have got married for three years. They have been married for three years.

5. As Li Fang set off for home, he thought...
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? set off: 动身, 出发; 使(地雷、炸弹)爆炸; 使某物更有吸引力 Tom and his father set off for America yesterday. The bomb set off among the crowd. A woman’ beauty is set off by her clothes and jewellery. 相关短语: set about doing sth. 着手(做某事) set in 开始 set up 建立,创立 set down 写下,记下

6. I don’t want them to remind me of her.
? remind vi. ? remind sb. of sth. ? What you said just now ____ me American professor. ? A. mentioned ? B. informed ? C. reminded ? D. memorized

of that


What are the differences and similarities between the two festivals?

How should we treat Chinese traditional festivals and some western festivals?

Period 6


情态动词(Modal Verbs)
? 情态动词表示说话人对某一动作或状态的态度, 认为“可能”、“应当”、“必要”等等。但本 身词义不完全,不能单独作谓语动词,必须和不 带to的不定式(即动词原形)连用。情态动词没 有人称和书的变化。 ? can and could ? may and might ? will and would ? shall and should ? must and can’t

can and could
? So he can carry heavy books. ? ability ? He couldn't open the door by himself. ? ability ? Could you open the door, please? ? request

can and could
? 1) 表示能力(ability),指有能力做某事,意为 “能够”。例如: ? 注意:表示现在,将来“能够”可用be able to 替换。表示过去“能够”并成功了只能用was/ were able to, 不能用could。例如 ? My grandma is over eighty, but she can/ is able to read without glasses. ? We can/ will be able to talk about the matter later. ? I talked with her for a long time, and at last I was able to make her believe me.(不能用could)

can and could
? 2) 表示请求(request)或(permission)意为“可 否”、“可以”。 Could 比can 更有礼貌,在此不 是can的过去式。 ? Can you wait a moment please? ? Liz, can you do me a favor? ? Excuse me, could you tell me the way to the station? ? I wonder if you could help me. (request) ? ---- Could I use your phone? ----Yes, of course. You can. ? Do you think I could borrow your bike? (permission)

can and could
? 3) 表示可能性 (possibility) ? a. can 表示泛指的“可能”,并非说话者主观认为 的可能性,即并非说话者的主观猜测。 ? Accident can happen to any drunken driver.
? b.表示说话者主观猜测,只能用与否定句或疑问 句中。例如: ? It can’t be my father. He is now in England. ? ----Can it rain tomorrow? ? ----No, it can’t.

may and might
? He may be in his office. =( perhaps he is in his office.) ? He might be having lunch. =( perhaps he is having lunch.)

may and might
? 1) 表示可能性(possibility),用于对 现在,过去或将来的推测,暗示不确定。 might 不是may的过去式,它所表示的可能 性比may 小,含较多的怀疑。 ? He may be very busy now. (可能性较大) ? He might be very busy now. (可能性较小)

may and might
? 2) 表示许可(permission),表示允许 别人做某事, 也可征求对方的许可。 ? He may go now. ? We may keep the book for two weeks.
? 3) 用于祈使句,表示祝愿。 ? May you succeed! ? May you have a nice trip!

might ? 1. They (can/might) ___________be away for 表示猜测 the weekend but I’m not sure. may ? 2. You (may/might) __________leave now if you表示许可 wish. could ? 3. (could/may) __________you open the 表示请求 window a bit, please? could ? 4. He (can/could) __________be from America, judging by his accent. 表示猜测 can ? 5. (may/can) ___________you swim? 表示能力 ? 6. Listen, please. You (may not/might not) may not _________________ speak during this exam.表示不允许

may, might, can, could

may, might, can, could
can not 表示猜测(不可能) ? 7. They (can not/may not) _______________ still be out, the light is on in the house. ? 8. You (couldn’t/might not) couldn’t 表示许可 smoke on the bus. _________________ ? 9. With luck, tomorrow (can/could) could __________be a cooler day. 表示猜测 ? 10. You (can/might) might ___________ be right, but I’m going back to check it. 表示猜测

will and would
? 1)表示意愿 ? 表示愿意做或主动提出做,如意志,愿望或决心

? That bag looks heavy, I’ll help you with it. ? ( offering to do sth) ? ---- You know that book I lent you. Can I have it back if you’ve finished with it? ---- Of course. I’ll give it to you this afternoon. ? (agreement) ? Thanks for lending me the money, I’ll pay you back on Friday. ? (promise)

will and would
? 2)表示习惯(habit, custom) ? This old man is strange. He will sit for hours without saying anything. ? We would sit around Grandpa after supper, listening to his stories. ? 3)表示请求(request), 用于第二人称, would 比will 更委婉。 例如: ? Will you come this way, please? ? Would you open the window?

shall and should
? 1)shall 的用法 ? a.shall 在疑问句中用于第一,第三人称,表示征 求对方的意见。 ? Shall we put off the sports meeting until next month? ? Shall Tom go there with me tomorrow? ? b.shall 用于第二,第三人称,表示说话人给对方 ? 的命令,警告,允诺或威胁。 ? You shall fail if you don’t work harder. (警告) ? He shall have the book when I finish reading it. (允诺) ? He shall be punished. (威胁)

shall and should
? 2) should 的用法 ? a. should 表示劝告、建议、命令。 ? You should go to class right away. ? b. should 表示期待,用于表达合理推断 (prediction,意为“应该” ),或明显的结果(意为 “可能”)且所期待的事几乎是事实。 ? It is three o’clock, the football game should begin now. ? Mary took dancing lessons for years, so she should be an excellent dancer.

will, would, shall, should, must:
表示禁止,不许可 mustn’t ? 1. We __________ smoke here, because the worker is carrying ? ? ? some petrol. 表示建议,命令 2. It is dangerous. You __________ should leave the room immediately. 3. He ___________ would go hiking with friends at weekends when young. 表示过去习惯 4. Write to me when you get home. will ---I ___________. 表示意愿 5. --Need I hand in my exercise book at once? --Yes, you__________. must 表示必须 表示肯定猜测 6. You have been working all day. You __________ must be very tired. should come 7. It is a long time since we met last time. You __________ and see us more often. 表示建议 8. Why don’t you try on this dress? It _________ look nice on will you. 表示将会,一定会

? ? ?

must and can’t
? must 用来表示“命令”、“推测”等含义。
? 1)表示规定、指令 ? 表示规定、指令时主要指客观上的法律、条文规定,常常翻译为 “ 应该、必须”之类意思。mustn't表示禁止

? You must have a passport if you want to go abroad.
? 2) 表示主观的命令、禁止 ? 表示主观的命令、禁止时,主要指说话者主观的命令或强烈的劝告 。

? You can go out with your friend but you must come back before 11 at night. ? ----Must I hand in the exercise today? ----No, you needn’t. 。

must and can’t
? 3)表示猜测,语气非常肯定,近乎确定的意味, 一般用于肯定句,意为肯定……。其否定为can’t, 意为不可能…... 。 ? You must be ill. I can see it from your face. ? He can’t be at home. I saw him in the classroom just now.

must and have to
? 1.must用于一般问句中,肯定回答用must否定式 用 needn’t或don’t have to,做 “不必”,mustn’t表 示“禁止,不允许” ? — Must I finish all assignments at a time? ? —Yes, you must. ? No, you needn't. ? 2.表示“必须”这个意思时,must 和have to 稍有区 别。must着重说明主观看法,have to 强调客观需 要。另外,have to 能用于更多时态。 ? I don’t like this TV set. We must buy a new one. ? There was no more bus. They had to walk home.


Not sure

Very sure
He must be in the classroom.

He should be in the classroom.
He could be in the classroom. He may be in the classroom.

He might be in the classroom.

Group work
? Choose one of the following situations to create a short dialogue using modal verbs.
? Situation A: In a library. Ask the librarian if he can help to find a book relating to some specific topics, whether they can be renewed or not, and how to do if the books are lost. (“Could you please find…?” “May I …?” “You mustn't…”) ? Situation B: A doctor gives a patient some advice. (“You should…”) ? Situation C: In a park by a lake. Discuss that one should not destroy the environment. (“You should…”, “You shouldn't’ …”, “You mustn't’ …”) ? Situation D: Requesting an appointment. (“Will you…?” “Shall I …?”)

Group work
? Situation E: You have to go to buy food and gifts for Spring Festival. In pairs, one as the shop keeper and the other as the customer, offer and request the items you need. Use these expressions to help you. ? Would you like …? Could I have …? ? Might I suggest …? May I see …? ? You should try …? Could we look at …? ? Can you see …? We might take …?

? In the supermarket a customer is talking with the salesman.
A: Hello, I need to buy some things for the Spring Festival. B: May I suggest these gifts for the children? They are very popular. A: They are pretty, but could I have a look at the red paper envelopes on the shelf? B: Sure, would you like these ones? They are less expensive. A: That’s fine. I’ll take twelve of them. May I see what your pork is like? I need to make dumplings. B: Of course, it’s over there. You should try some of the cabbage that just arrived. It’s very fresh. A: Ok, could I have three cabbages and a kilo of pork? I also need some flour. B: Can you see the flour down there? Please take what you need. Thanks for coming in, and have a good holiday.

Sample dialogue

1.---There were already five people in the car but they managed to take me as well. ---It ____a comfortable journey. ( D ) A. can't be B. mustn't have been C. shouldn't be D. couldn't have been 2.The fire spread through the hotel very quickly but everyone ___ get out. ( D ) A. had to B. would C. could D. was able to

3. Peter ___ C come with us tonight, but he isn’t very sure. A.must B. can C. may D. will 4. --- Could I call you by your first name? --- Yes, you____. C

A. will B. could C. may D. might A have turned off 5. Sorry, I ’m late. I ___ the alarm clock and gone back to sleep again. A.might B. should C. can D. will

6.--Excuse me, but I want to use your computer to type a report. A have my computer if you don’t take care of it. --You ____ A. shan’t B. might not C. needn’t D. shouldn’t 7. ---When can I come for the photos ? I need them tomorrow afternoon. ---They _____be ready by 12 : 00 . B A. can B. should C. might D. need D 8. With so much work on hand, you ____to see the game last night. A. mustn’t go B. could have gone C. shouldn’t go D. shouldn’t have gone

9.Johnny, you ______play B with the knife, you ____hurt yourself. ( ) A. won't ; can't B. mustn't ; may C. shouldn't ; must D. can't ; wouldn't
D go home on foot. 10. I missed the bus, so I ___ A. must B. may C. can D. had to

表示“能 力” can could

表示“推测” 表示“许可;要求”表示“建议” 和“义务” must can must should could have to could may need may might Shall I …? might must can’t shouldn't mayn’t mustn't mightn’t Would you like…? Can …? Will you please …?



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