Unit 3 Back to the past Language points
1. A British club arranged for high school students to go on a cultural tour of places where there are lost civilizations. civilization [u] 文明，文明世界，文明 社会；现代生活的舒适环境或文明设施 [c/u] （特定时期和地区）社会文明
e.g. Astronauts circling the earth are able
to keep in touch with civilization by
Environmental damage threatens the
whole of civilization.
American civilization differs from ours.
We are proud of the civilizations of ancient China. 我们为古代中国的文化而感到自壕。
What happened in that country horrified
▲ civilize vt. 使文明，使开化；教化，
civilized adj. 文明的，开化的；
e.g. Please be civilized. 请文雅点。
call at a civilized hour 在别人方便的时候去拜访 civilized service 文明礼貌的服务
Many a rough man in that country has been civilized by his wife. 在那个国家有许多粗野的男人都被妻子教 化好了。 Such things are not allowed to happen in a civilized society. 这样的事情在文明社会是不允许发生的。
2. I feel lucky to have won a place on this
trip. 能赢得这次旅行的资格我感到幸运。 win a place 意思是“赢得资格” e.g. She will someday win a place in music’s hall of fame. 她将来会在音乐方面获致不朽的成就。
She has __________ in the Olympic won a place team. 她已获得奥运代表队的队员资格。 He ____________ in the first team. lost his place 他失去了甲级队员的资格。
3. The city was founded in the 8th century
found vt. 建立; 创建; 创办
e.g. Her family founded the college in 1895.
The town was founded by English
settlers in 1790.
4. In 89 BC, the Romans took over
Pompeii. 公元前89年, 罗马人接管了庞贝城。 take over 接任; 接管; 接收 e.g. You watch them until ten o’clock, and then I’ll take over. 你看他们看到10点钟, 然后我接班。
CBS records _____________ by Sony. was taken over 哥伦比亚广播公司的唱片公司已被索尼公 司收购。 When Mr. Green retired, his son _________ the business from him. took over 格林先生退休后由他儿子接管他的生意。 What is good and still useful _________ should be taken over __________.好的有用的东西应该继承。
5. Many people were buried alive, and so was the city. 很多人被活埋，城市也被埋没了。 1) bury v. 埋葬; 隐藏; 掩蔽; 埋头于 e.g. The house was half buried under snow.
He ______________ in his work. buried himself 他埋头工作。 Many men __________ underground were buried when there was an accident at the mine. 矿上发生意外时, 许多矿工都被埋在地下。 She fell into the bed, ______ her face in buried the pillow and sniffed sadly. (抽鼻子)
2) so was the city. 城市也一样。
“so + 助动词 + 主语”这一结构主要
e.g. He passed the exam, and so did I. = He passed the exam, and I passed the exam, too. = Both he and I passed the exam. 他通过了考试，我也通过了考试。 /他和我都通过了考试。
“so + 主语 + 助动词”结构则主要用于加强
e.g. — He has done a good job.
— So he has. 他的确干得不错。
6. People started to dig in the area for
treasure, which caused much damage.
重大损失。 damage v. 损失; 损害, 损坏 e.g. An earthquake sometimes causes great damage. 地震有时造成重大损失。
本课出现表破坏的词有damage, destroy和 ruin 这三个单词, 如: It’s hard to imagine how this peaceful volcano destroyed the whole city. A scholar from the local cultural institute, Professor Zhang, told us that around the year 1900 the European explorer Sven Hedin discovered the ruins of the Loulan Kingdom.
damage, destroy, ruin ? damage是破坏，常常是局部的，或可
e.g. The storm did a lot of damage to the
? destroy 强调以具有摧毁或杀伤性的力 量把某物彻底毁掉。 e.g. The building was completely destroyed by fire. 建筑物被大火彻底焚毁了。 ? ruin 作动词时亦指彻底毁掉，但不含有 以 某种摧毁性的力量进行破坏，而含 有在一定的过程中逐渐毁掉的意思 e.g. The crops were ruined by the late frost. 庄稼被晚霜给冻坏了。
7. I saw several houses which were
decorated with wall paintings.
decorate vt. 装饰，装潢
e.g. My mother likes to decorate rooms. 我妈妈非常喜欢装饰房间。 The cake was decorated to look like a car. 这蛋糕装饰得像一辆汽车。
8. It turns out that after the ash covered
the people who failed to flee the city.
flee vt. &vi. 逃避，逃跑；迅速离开
常用结构：flee (from) sb/sth
e.g. He fled to London after an argument with his family. 他和家人吵架离家去了伦敦。
9. Sven found the remains of buildings buried beneath the sand, together with a lot of treasures. remains n. 遗物，遗迹，遗骸 remains (of sth.) ①剩余物；剩饭菜
e.g. She fed the remains of the meal to
e.g. pay one’s last respects to the remains
the remains of a plane 飞机的残骸
e.g. the remains of a Roman fort
the remains of the ancient custom
1. Near the city was a volcano. (P42)
这是一个倒装句。near the city为介 词短语作表语, 此句的正常语序为： A volcano was near the city。为了 保持句子平衡，把介词短语提至句 首，此时，要引起句子的全部倒装。
例如： On top of the books are the photo albums you’re looking for.
West of the lake lies the famous city.
2. The city was forgotten for many
years until the 18th century when a farmer discovered a stone with writing on it. (P42) 这座城市被遗忘了很多年，直到18世 纪，有一个农夫偶然发现某种写着文 字的石头。
本句主句为The city was forgotten for
many years until the 18th century；
the 18th century。
定语从句用关系副词还是关系代词来 引导，要根据关系词在定语从句中所 担当的句子成分来决定。
e.g. I will never forget the days when we
spent our holidays together.
I know a place where we can have a picnic. 我知道一个我们可以野炊的地方。
(2) 当先行词在定语从句中作其他成分 时，用关系代词。 e.g. I will never forget the days that / which we spent together. 我永远忘不了我们一起度过的日子。 I know a place that / which is famous for its beautiful natural scenery. 我知道一个以自然景色优美而闻名的 地方。
1. Many people were buried alive, and so
was the city. (P42) [考点] “so + 助动词/情态动词＋主语”引
导的倒装句表示 “……也是如此” 。
— My room gets very cold at night. — ______. A. So is mine C. So does mine B. So mine is D. So mine does
so引导的倒装句表后者与前者情况相同， 句中助动词的选择应依前面句子的谓语 动词而定。此题第一句中的动词为get，
— I reminded you not to forget the appointment. — ______. A. So you did C. So did you B. So I do not D. So do I
2. It is believed to have been gradually covered over by sandstorms from AD 200 to AD 400. (P43) [考点] sb./sth. be said/believed/ reported / considered等后面接动词不定式作主 语补足语。如不定式的动作已经完 成，需用完成时态。本句中用了不定 式的完成被动时，表示该动作在主句 动作发生之前已经完成。
The crowd cheered wildly at the sight of Liu Xiang, who was reported ______ the world record in the 110-meter hurdle
A. breaking B. having broken
C. to have broken
D. to break
Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) _______ birds kept in cages in order to have the pleasure of setting them free. A. is said to be buying B. is said to have bought C. had said to buy D. has said to have bought
成时，故选B项。sb. be said to be doing