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Module 3 Unit3 Language points


Unit 3 Back to the past Language points

1. A British club arranged for high school students to go on a cultural tour of places where there are lost civilizations. civilization [u] 文明,文明世界,文明 社会;现代生活的舒适环境或文明设施 [c/u] (特定时期和地区)社会文明

e.g. Astronauts circling the earth are able

to keep in touch with civilization by
radio.

环绕地球飞行的宇航员可通过无线电
与文明世界保持联系。

Environmental damage threatens the

whole of civilization.
环境的破坏威胁着整个文明世界。

American civilization differs from ours.
美国的社会和生活方式与我们不同。

We are proud of the civilizations of ancient China. 我们为古代中国的文化而感到自壕。

What happened in that country horrified
civilization.

那个国家发生的事情令文明国家震惊。

▲ civilize vt. 使文明,使开化;教化,
熏陶,使文雅

civilized adj. 文明的,开化的;
有教养的,文雅的

e.g. Please be civilized. 请文雅点。
call at a civilized hour 在别人方便的时候去拜访 civilized service 文明礼貌的服务

Many a rough man in that country has been civilized by his wife. 在那个国家有许多粗野的男人都被妻子教 化好了。 Such things are not allowed to happen in a civilized society. 这样的事情在文明社会是不允许发生的。

2. I feel lucky to have won a place on this
trip. 能赢得这次旅行的资格我感到幸运。 win a place 意思是“赢得资格” e.g. She will someday win a place in music’s hall of fame. 她将来会在音乐方面获致不朽的成就。

填空:
She has __________ in the Olympic won a place team. 她已获得奥运代表队的队员资格。 He ____________ in the first team. lost his place 他失去了甲级队员的资格。

3. The city was founded in the 8th century
BC.

found vt. 建立; 创建; 创办
e.g. Her family founded the college in 1895.

她家族1895年创办了这所学院。
The town was founded by English

settlers in 1790.
这座城市是英国移民于1790建立的。

4. In 89 BC, the Romans took over
Pompeii. 公元前89年, 罗马人接管了庞贝城。 take over 接任; 接管; 接收 e.g. You watch them until ten o’clock, and then I’ll take over. 你看他们看到10点钟, 然后我接班。

CBS records _____________ by Sony. was taken over 哥伦比亚广播公司的唱片公司已被索尼公 司收购。 When Mr. Green retired, his son _________ the business from him. took over 格林先生退休后由他儿子接管他的生意。 What is good and still useful _________ should be taken over __________.好的有用的东西应该继承。

5. Many people were buried alive, and so was the city. 很多人被活埋,城市也被埋没了。 1) bury v. 埋葬; 隐藏; 掩蔽; 埋头于 e.g. The house was half buried under snow.

房子一半埋在雪中。

He ______________ in his work. buried himself 他埋头工作。 Many men __________ underground were buried when there was an accident at the mine. 矿上发生意外时, 许多矿工都被埋在地下。 She fell into the bed, ______ her face in buried the pillow and sniffed sadly. (抽鼻子)

2) so was the city. 城市也一样。

“so + 助动词 + 主语”这一结构主要
用来说明前面所说的情况也同样适用 于后面的人或物,意为“……也一

样”。

e.g. He passed the exam, and so did I. = He passed the exam, and I passed the exam, too. = Both he and I passed the exam. 他通过了考试,我也通过了考试。 /他和我都通过了考试。

“so + 主语 + 助动词”结构则主要用于加强

语气,其意为“的确如此、确实如此”,
表示后者赞同前者的话或意见,只是进一

步强调并重复前句所述的内容。前后句的
主语指的是同一个人或物。

e.g. — He has done a good job.
他干得不错。

— So he has. 他的确干得不错。

6. People started to dig in the area for
treasure, which caused much damage.

人们开始在这个地区挖财宝, 这造成了
重大损失。 damage v. 损失; 损害, 损坏 e.g. An earthquake sometimes causes great damage. 地震有时造成重大损失。

本课出现表破坏的词有damage, destroy和 ruin 这三个单词, 如: It’s hard to imagine how this peaceful volcano destroyed the whole city. A scholar from the local cultural institute, Professor Zhang, told us that around the year 1900 the European explorer Sven Hedin discovered the ruins of the Loulan Kingdom.

damage, destroy, ruin ? damage是破坏,常常是局部的,或可

以修好的。
e.g. The storm did a lot of damage to the

crops.
暴风雨使庄稼受到了很大损失。

? destroy 强调以具有摧毁或杀伤性的力 量把某物彻底毁掉。 e.g. The building was completely destroyed by fire. 建筑物被大火彻底焚毁了。 ? ruin 作动词时亦指彻底毁掉,但不含有 以 某种摧毁性的力量进行破坏,而含 有在一定的过程中逐渐毁掉的意思 e.g. The crops were ruined by the late frost. 庄稼被晚霜给冻坏了。

7. I saw several houses which were
decorated with wall paintings.

decorate vt. 装饰,装潢
e.g. My mother likes to decorate rooms. 我妈妈非常喜欢装饰房间。 The cake was decorated to look like a car. 这蛋糕装饰得像一辆汽车。

8. It turns out that after the ash covered
the people who failed to flee the city.

flee vt. &vi. 逃避,逃跑;迅速离开
常用结构:flee (from) sb/sth

flee (to…/into…)
e.g. He fled to London after an argument with his family. 他和家人吵架离家去了伦敦。

9. Sven found the remains of buildings buried beneath the sand, together with a lot of treasures. remains n. 遗物,遗迹,遗骸 remains (of sth.) ①剩余物;剩饭菜

e.g. She fed the remains of the meal to
the dog.

她把剩下的饭菜喂狗了。

② 残骸;遗体,遗骸;遗稿
e.g. pay one’s last respects to the remains

of sb.

向某人的遗体告别

the remains of a plane 飞机的残骸

③ 遗迹,古迹,遗址;遗风
e.g. the remains of a Roman fort

罗马要塞的遗址
the remains of the ancient custom

古俗遗风

1. Near the city was a volcano. (P42)

离这个城市不远处有一座火山。
这是一个倒装句。near the city为介 词短语作表语, 此句的正常语序为: A volcano was near the city。为了 保持句子平衡,把介词短语提至句 首,此时,要引起句子的全部倒装。

例如: On top of the books are the photo albums you’re looking for.

你要找的相册在那些书的上面。
West of the lake lies the famous city.

这个著名的城市在湖的西面。

2. The city was forgotten for many
years until the 18th century when a farmer discovered a stone with writing on it. (P42) 这座城市被遗忘了很多年,直到18世 纪,有一个农夫偶然发现某种写着文 字的石头。

本句主句为The city was forgotten for
many years until the 18th century;

when引导一个定语从句,修饰先行词
the 18th century。

当先行词是表示时间或地点的名词时,
定语从句用关系副词还是关系代词来 引导,要根据关系词在定语从句中所 担当的句子成分来决定。

(1)当先行词在定语从句中作状语时,用
关系副词。

e.g. I will never forget the days when we
spent our holidays together.

我永远忘不了我们一起度假的日子。
I know a place where we can have a picnic. 我知道一个我们可以野炊的地方。

(2) 当先行词在定语从句中作其他成分 时,用关系代词。 e.g. I will never forget the days that / which we spent together. 我永远忘不了我们一起度过的日子。 I know a place that / which is famous for its beautiful natural scenery. 我知道一个以自然景色优美而闻名的 地方。

Exercises
1. Many people were buried alive, and so
was the city. (P42) [考点] “so + 助动词/情态动词+主语”引

导的倒装句表示 “……也是如此” 。

— My room gets very cold at night. — ______. A. So is mine C. So does mine B. So mine is D. So mine does

so引导的倒装句表后者与前者情况相同, 句中助动词的选择应依前面句子的谓语 动词而定。此题第一句中的动词为get,

所以第二句倒装需用助动词do (does)。
故选C。但是如果so后面的句子不用倒

装,则只表示对前面的情况加以肯定。

— I reminded you not to forget the appointment. — ______. A. So you did C. So did you B. So I do not D. So do I

解析:so后面的句子不用倒装,表示对 前面的情况加以肯定。

2. It is believed to have been gradually covered over by sandstorms from AD 200 to AD 400. (P43) [考点] sb./sth. be said/believed/ reported / considered等后面接动词不定式作主 语补足语。如不定式的动作已经完 成,需用完成时态。本句中用了不定 式的完成被动时,表示该动作在主句 动作发生之前已经完成。

The crowd cheered wildly at the sight of Liu Xiang, who was reported ______ the world record in the 110-meter hurdle

race.
A. breaking B. having broken

C. to have broken

D. to break

根据句子结构,was reported后需接动

词不定式作主语补足语;而且打破纪录
发生在报导之前,所以要用不定式的完 成时来表达,故选C项。

Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) _______ birds kept in cages in order to have the pleasure of setting them free. A. is said to be buying B. is said to have bought C. had said to buy D. has said to have bought

句意:据说莱昂纳多· 芬奇(1452达·

1519)常买一些被关在笼子里的鸟,以
享受放飞它们的乐趣。而动作buy应先

于动作say发生,所以需用不定式的完
成时,故选B项。sb. be said to be doing

sth.意为“据说某人正在做某事”。


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