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Part-III 整车零部件台架耐久性试验及其试验

nCode 疲劳耐久性工程 高级培训班

整车/零部件台架 耐久性试验 及其试验加速技术

零部件台架模拟试验

用户使用 用户使用 情况 情况 实测载荷 实测载荷 应力分析 应力分析 材料性能 材料性能

加速的 加速的 Sign-off 试验 Sign-off 试验

零部件模拟 零部件模拟 试验 试验

产品寿命 产品寿命

关联
计算机辅助 计算机辅助 疲劳寿命模拟 疲劳寿命模拟 重新设计 重新设计 优化 优化

产品寿命 产品寿命

是一体化解决疲劳问题的策 略中的重要一环!

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台架试验的好处
进行台架试验的好处:

? ? ? ? ? ? ?

可重复的试验环境 易对试验进行监控 通过比较试验对设计 参数变化进行评价 早期检验零部件的性能 可能能实现试验加速 验证理论模型 ...

根据实测的载荷及响应信号,在实验室里 重现实际工况,模拟零部件的性能及寿命 台架试验时也可进行数据采集!

做哪些台架试验?
? ? ? ? 能模拟道路试验的台架试验 能一定程度评价零部件耐久性能的试验 模拟损伤最严重的,要看车辆的特点 。。。

不要做和实际工况无关的试验!
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实验室负责人的困境
要求的疲劳寿命要长, 但试验结果必须尽快出来! 疲劳分析能够帮助...
? ? ? ? ? ? 预先预测台架试验大概需要多长时间,费用大概多少? 高效地利用试验台 判断被要求做的试验是否是一个不合理的试验 在试验开始前,使用疲劳编辑技术 “合法地”加速试验 “合法地” 过滤掉试验台不能模拟的高频 …

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How should we test in lab?

From P.G. or Field to Test Rig

Customer Usage

Individual Surfaces, Events

Test Track

Test Rig

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What Do We Want From A Durability Test?
? Durability test that’s suitable for the item in question: a component, sub-assembly, or a whole vehicle ? Test must replicate the same failure mechanisms as seen in the real world ? Test should be representative of the real loading environment ? Test should be accelerated where possible to reduce project time scales and costs ? Test specification can be used in FE based virtual test or real physical test
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Test Synthesis – Route Map
Test Synthesis Random
Frequency Domain Time Domain Peak-Valley Domain

Deterministic

Dynamic

Dynamic

Quasi-static

Uniaxial

Multiaxial

Uniaxial

Accelerated Testing
? PSD random ? Sine sweep ? Sine on random

Fatigue Editing

Signal / Fatigue

? Buffered fatigue ? Is it proportional i.e. ? Peak valley extraction editing dominant plane? ? Block load sequence ? Remote parameter ? Multiaxial peak valley ? Statistical exceedence simulation test extraction ? Constant amplitude ? Proving ground ? Increase frequency of Time Series
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Vibration Load Scaling

Time Series Load Scaling

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Deterministic and Stochastic

30

0.4

20 0.2
Acceleration (g) Acceleration (g)

10

0

0

-10

-0.2

55.8

56

56.2
Time (s)

56.4

100
Time (sec)

200

300

Deterministic

Stochastic

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Load Scaling

4

Load Scaling
1 .10
4

1000

NC1

Stress Range

2UTS 1 .10
3

1/ b

Real Duration Test Duration
100 1 10
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 100 1 .10 1 .10 1 .10 1 .10 1 .10 1 .10 1 .10 1 .10 Number of Cycles to Failure

Original Range
Where b is the Basquin Exponent (gradient of SN curve) This is only approximate!

Scaled Range

? Scaling up the load will reduce the test duration exponentially. ? Target life is influenced by endurance limit and onset of local plasticity as well as dynamic response of component ? Scaling should be used with extreme care to avoid local yielding and changing the load paths ? Not suitable for most inertia reacted tests
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Load Scaling
Positive ? Maintains Sequence ? Maintains Phase between multiple channels ? Maintains Frequency Content Negative ? Amplitude is not maintained (may affect the failure mechanism)

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Increasing Load Frequency

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Increase loading frequency
? Doubling the frequency will half the test time ? Limit acceleration to max 1/3 first mode natural frequency ? Not suitable for inertia reacted tests

1/3 * natural frq

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Increase loading frequency
Positive ? Maintains Amplitude ? Maintains Sequence ? Maintains Phase between multiple channels Negative ? Frequency is not maintained (cannot consider dynamic response)

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Peak valley extraction

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Peak valley extraction
What is it? ? Remove non peak or valley points in the signal and reduce the length of the signal in order to accelerate the fatigue test ? Frequency may be re-adjusted after peak-valley extraction
360 Points
“峰谷”点 非“峰谷”点

36 Points

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Peak valley extraction
What is the method based on? ? Fatigue damage is calculated by cycles which are constituted by peak and valley points
“峰谷”点 非“峰谷”点

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Peak valley extraction
Positive ? Maintains Amplitude ? Maintains Sequence ? Test can be accelerated significantly, typical 90% reduction in signal length ? ‘Gate’ small cycles on range, rainflow or fatigue contribution Negative: ? Frequency is not maintained (cannot consider dynamic response) ? Phase between multiple channels is not maintained (so, not suitable for multiaxial)

? Be care with slew rates, etc.

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Constant amplitude

Cantilever: actual load change

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Cantilever: simple test load

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Constant amplitude
What is it? ? Replace variable load with a constant amplitude sinusoidal load, and test the component for a fixed number of cycles or until failure occurs ? Sometimes called “bogey test”

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Constant amplitude
What is the method based on? ? a concept of equivalent damage ? Normally increase the load to accelerate the test

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Constant amplitude
Equivalent damage based S-N curve

ΔS1 ΔS2

D1=1/Nf1 D2=1/Nf2

Νf1

Νf2

Nf1 cycles of ΔS1 range is equivalent to Nf2 cycles of ΔS2 range. Both make the component failure
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Constant amplitude
How can calculate equivalent amplitude or lading cycles? ? Assume the slope of SN curve ? Estimate the accumulated damage in a component over the life of the vehicle ? Specify the number of test cycle for sinusoidal load, and use equivalent damage to calculate the load amplitude ? Or specify the amplitude of the sinusoidal load, and use equivalent damage to calculate the number of cycle

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Constant amplitude
Determine amplitude from specified cycle number 1 repeat D=sum(Di)

ΔS? N cycles

ΔS Nf
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D=N×DΔS DΔS= 1/Nf
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Constant amplitude
Determine cycle number from specified amplitude 1 repeat D=sum(Di)

ΔS N? cycles

ΔS Nf
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D=N×DΔS DΔS= 1/Nf
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Constant amplitude
Frequency of test load ? As quick as possible, say 10Hz?

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Constant amplitude
Positive ? Total damage is maintained ? Test is simple ? Test can be accelerated significantly Negative ? Damage distribution is not maintained (may change failure mode) ? Frequency is not maintained (cannot consider dynamic response) ? Not suitable for multiaxial

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An example

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Case Study 1: Durability Test
Background
? ? Need: Create a durability test Analysis: Create durability test specification for chassis component testing based on proving ground data – Steering knuckles and control arms – Constant amplitude lab test – Equivalent damage
? How many cycles? ? What size cycles?

? ?

Current Process: Infield with Excel; very manual and step-by-step Challenges – Reduce time required to analyze proving ground loads data. – Promote standard processes for analyzing those loads. – Make sure input data are clean. Solution: GlyphWorks Signal

?

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Case Study 1: Durability Test
Results
? Lab test

– 100,000 cycles @ +/-load – Equivalent damage

? Report

– Contains results and user inputs traceability – Archivable as Word document or Web page
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Case Study 1: Durability Test
Value Value:
? Results are given in an archivable report. ? Process is easily repeated by non-experts. ? Massive reduction in analysis time and effort:
Engineer: “Took the analysis time required from 2 days to 5 minutes.” Engineer: “Get the right answers without all the manual processing, and all the results are given in archivable reports.” Manager: “90% reduction in time; this kind of time savings is unheard of. The time that was eliminated was all the tedious work that made it hard to focus on the engineering.”

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Block loading

Cantilever: actual load change

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Cantilever: block loading

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block loading
What is it? ? Replace variable load with a block loading that consists of several constant sinusoidal load with different amplitude, and test the component for a fixed number of cycles or until failure occurs

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block loading
What is the method based on? ? Rainflow cycle counting (a concept of equivalent damage and equivalent damage distribution) ? Normally can accelerate the test without increasing load (only gating out small amplitude loading cycles)

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block loading
Principle: rainflow cycle counting

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block loading
How can we obtain block loading time history? ? Rainflow cycle counting with several bins (say, 8) ? Gating out small amplitude cycles (damage calculation is needed for appropriate gate) ? Use constant amplitude cycles to represent cycles for each bin. Frequency can be as high as possible ? Combine all time histories obtained for each bin (normally in the order from small to large amplitudes)

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block loading

No gating

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block loading

Gating out the first bin
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block loading
Positive ? Total damage is maintained ? Damage distribution is maintained ? Test is simple ? Test can be accelerated significantly with gating out small amplitude cycles Negative ? Frequency is not maintained (cannot consider dynamic response) ? Cycle sequence is not maintained ? Not suitable for multiaxial

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Histogram editing

Cantilever: actual load change

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Histogram editing
What is it? ? Replace variable load with an equivalent reconstructed time history load for testing

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Histogram editing
What is the method based on? ? equivalent damage and equivalent damage distribution ? Normally can accelerate the test without increasing load

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基于损伤的直方图编辑技术思路
? 用应变或应力法,对循环直方图进行疲劳分析, 获得对应的损伤直方图 ? 比较循环和损伤直方图,在循环直方图中将那些 无损伤循环移走 (将循环数置 0 即可) ? 根据编辑后的循环直方图重构一个只有“峰谷”的 随机时域信号,作为载荷控制信号 ? 对重构的信号再进行疲劳计算,比较编辑前后的 疲劳寿命

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基于损伤的直方图编辑技术思路
RESPONSE.CYH
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循环数
Z-轴 0 0 707.5

范围
uE X-轴 1893.5 -1167.2

平均应力
uE Y-轴

(a) 编辑前循环直方图
RESPONSE.DHH

应变 (uE)
00 0
707.5

RESPREG.DAC

1.8968E-6

损伤值
Z-轴 0 0

00 00 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2

范围
uE X-轴 1893.5 -1167.2

平均应力
uE Y-轴

Sample = 204.8 Npts = 44 Max Y = 681.9 Min Y = -1152

(b) 损伤直方图
190.9 1.916E-6

循环

损伤

时间 (秒)

循环

对数 损伤

重构的应变信号

0 0

1.916E-1

范围

1893

(c)

编辑后循环直方图

信号重构

重构时域信号: - Range-mean 雨流矩阵 - Max-min 雨流矩阵 - Markov 矩阵 - 不规则因子 组合录自不同时间的 时域信号

Histogram editing
Positive ? Total damage is maintained ? Damage distribution is maintained ? Test can be accelerated significantly Negative ? Frequency is not maintained (cannot consider dynamic response) ? Cycle sequence is not maintained ? Not suitable for multiaxial

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Multi-channel Peak Valley Extraction

Multi-axial peak valley extraction
? Maintains phase relationship between multiple channels by keeping points that correspond with a peak or valley in a different channel ? Ordinary peak valley would apply all peaks / valleys simultaneously therefore changing the load paths ? ‘Gate’ small cycles
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多通道信号的峰谷值抽取
编辑前
? ? ? 一个应变响应信号 response 四个驱动加速度信号 g01,g02,g03,g04 信号点数:8000

应变计响应信号 加速度信号 或 位移信号

加速度信号 或 位移信号

应变计

驱动器

驱动器

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多通道信号的峰谷值抽取
编辑后
? ? 不设门槛值 编辑后信号点数:7449

应变计响应信号 加速度信号 或 位移信号

加速度信号 或 位移信号

应变计

驱动器

驱动器

多通道信号的峰谷值抽取
? ? 采用 45.3% 门槛值 编辑后信号点数:598

应变计响应信号 加速度信号 或 位移信号

加速度信号 或 位移信号

应变计

驱动器

驱动器

Resultant / Critical Plane Analysis
? ? ? ? Proportional multi-axial, or cases with a dominant fatigue plane Establish critical plane Eliminate non-damaging channels Determine a single drive channel with fixed proportions between inputs or align component on the uniaxial test rig at a given angle

Resultant Load Plane

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Multi-axial peak valley extraction
Pos: ? Maintains Amplitude ? Maintains Sequence ? Maintains Phase between multiple channels Neg: ? Frequency is not maintained (cannot consider dynamic response) ? Only suitable for proportional multi-axial loads

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Time-domain damage editing

试验加速技术的基本原理
? 根据响应信号预估疲劳寿命 ? 用响应信号的损伤结果编辑驱动信号 ? 编辑原理为原始响应信号和浓缩后的 响应信号的损伤值和损伤分布(损伤 直方图)保持不变
应变计 驱动器 驱动器 应变计响应信号 加速度信号 或 位移信号

加速度信号 或 位移信号

损伤值

损伤值


应变 范围 应变 均值 应变 范围 应变 均值

编辑前

编辑后

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时间关联损伤编辑技术

? 基于时间-疲劳损伤概念 ? 计算应变响应信号的时间-损伤分布图 ? 损伤可用 S-N 或 e-N 方法计算 ? 用时间-损伤分布图同步移去响应和驱 动信号中的无损伤或损伤小于某一门 槛值的信号段 ? 插入一个递减或连接信号,避免在连 接处有一个突然的信号跳跃 ? 可用于单通道或多通道加载

时间-疲劳损伤图
? 每一循环周产生的损伤值对分至组成 循环周的“波峰”和“波谷” ? 叠加所有的循环获取损伤分布图
1 3 2 2 4 4 1
时间-损伤图

3

应变时域信号 (4 个循环)

时间-疲劳损伤图
应变时域信号

时间-损伤图

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同步移去响应和驱动信号中的无损伤信号段

? 用时间-损伤图同步 移去响应和驱动信 号中的无损伤或损 伤小于某一门槛值 的信号段 ? 插入一个递减或连 接信号,避免在连 接处有一个突然的 信号跳跃

编辑前后的驱动信号比较
? 编辑前信号长度 39 秒 ? 编辑后试验时间 8 秒

Fatigue damage editing
Positive ? Maintains Amplitude ? Maintains Sequence ? Maintains Phase between multiple channels ? Maintains Frequency content ? Typical acceleration 50-80% depending on amount of damage to be retained and number of failure locations assessed ? Can be used with uniaxial or multiaxial fatigue solvers

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一个疲劳加速实例
经过疲劳编辑原先需要 114 天的车体疲劳模拟试验 被缩短到 15 天,节省试验费用 $235,000 美元!

疲劳试验加速分析

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做台架试验需要什么?
? 所要模拟的道路谱 (这很重要!) ? ? ? ? 道路谱数据处理软件 台架试验加速软件 台架试验控制软件 。。。

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Frequency-domain accelerated testing

Example – Head lamp on car
What vibration level is transmitted to the light?
Question

Light

The supplier wants to reproduce it on shaker table for sign off tests!

Mechanical link

The car Manufacturer knows what vibrations are transmitted to the vehicle through the chassis

Measure base acceleration

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Simple PSD Scaling

2/ b

Real Duration Test Duration

PSDs from Mission

Envelope for worst response

Scale loads to accelerate test

Vibration test specification

? Test specified in (US) MIL STD 810 and (UK) DEF STAN 0035 ? Test only valid for PSD input, no facility for transient loads ? Better suited to a single event ? No account of component’s frequency response characteristics
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How does Test Synthesis Work?
Transient Loading Parameters Stochastic Loading

Time Series

Treduced

PSD

Treduced
Validation
Test Specification
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How does Test Synthesis Work?
Relative displacement z(t)

Component M Stiffness K Damping c

Vehicle Platform

? Consider a simple vibrating component mounted on the vehicle platform ? The component receives the most critical loads when excited at it’s natural frequency

Amplitude of displacement z

Acceleration input

&&(t ) x

15 ωo 10 Q

Vehicle displacement x(t)

5

0
76

50 Frequency of excitation

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The Extreme Response Spectrum
PSDAcceleration (g) of acceleration
30 20 10 0 -10

1.) Input PSD or Time Signal

55.8

56

Time (s)

56.2

56.4

2.) Filter using a Single Degree of Freedom Response and find maximum amplitude of response

3.) Repeat for next frequency interval 4.) Find envelope of maximum responses PSD input = Extreme Response Spectrum (ERS) Time input = Shock Response Spectrum (SRS)
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Extreme Response Spectrum

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Natural Frequency

26

The Fatigue Damage Spectrum
PSDAcceleration (g) of acceleration
30 20 10 0 -10

1.) Input PSD or Time Signal

55.8

56

Time (s)

56.2

56.4

2.) Filter using a Single Degree of Freedom Response and calculate the fatigue damage

3.) Repeat for next frequency interval 4.) Join the damage points to create the Fatigue Damage Spectrum (FDS)

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Fatigue Damage Spectrum

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Natural Frequency

Mission Profiling
Time Histories Calculate SRS SRS

Calculate FDS

FDS

Mission events consisting: ? several time histories with #repeats ? several PSDs with duration

PSDs

Calculate FDS

FDS

Calculate ERS Calculate sum of all FDS

ERS

ΣFDS

Calculate envelope of all SRS & ERS
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Generating a Synthesized Test Signal
Time Histories Calculate SRS SRS Calculate FDS FDS

Guarantee Coefficients:

* k safety
Duty cycle consisting: ? several time histories with #repeats ?several PSDs with duration PSDs Calculate FDS FDS

* k test
ERS

Calculate ERS

P
Calculate sum of all FDS ΣFDS Calculate envelope of all SRS & ERS

Loading Strength

d

Synthesized Data from the total lifetime damage

Calculate test ERS and compare with Mission ERS and SRS. Ensure test does not over scale the loading beyond what is reasonably expected in real life
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Calculate the synthesized PSD

1 .10 1 .10 1 .10 1 .10 PSD of acceleration 1 .10 1 .10

8 7 6 5 4 3

Comparison of Test PSD

Test PSD over reduced duration

100 10 1 0.1 0.01

Measured PSDs

1 .10

3

0

5

10

15 Frequency [Hz]

20

25

30

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Validate the synthesized signal
Extreme Response Spectra Comparison
8000

6000

Aim: ensure that Synthesized Specification contains the necessary damage and is still representative: ERS(Synthesized) >= ERS(OriginalData) Also: ensure that Synthesized Specification does not exceed maximum shock loads seen in practice:
2 4 6 8 10 Natural Frequency [Hz] 12 14

ERS

4000

2000

0

0

ERS(Synthesized) < SRS(OriginalData)

Synthesised Test Original Duty Cycle

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Case Study Exhaust Muffler
? A supplier is required to prove the durability of a bus exhaust muffler. ? The OEM specifies repeats of proving data equivalent to 53 days of continuous testing. ? Can we create a valid, accelerated shaker test with equivalent damage to 53 days?

Front Chassis Bracket Rear Chassis Bracket

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Case Study – Exhaust Muffler
Accelerated PSD, 72 hours per axis (x, y & z)
x axis y axis z axis

6 times quicker than original test spec

Test ERS Mission ERS

Test ERS Mission ERS

Test ERS Mission ERS

x axis

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工程应用实例

四通道道路模拟机

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四通道道路模拟机加速试验数据准备
? ? ? ? ? ? Instrumentation Data acquisition of RLD Analysis & editing Response files Iteration Drive file creation

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Acquisition of road load data
Channels ? Four vertical acceleration of spindle ? Several strains at critical locations in body ? Displacement from wheel to body Road surface ? A proving ground Hardware used ? Somat eDAQ

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Raw data

加速度

应变

信号长度约 2200 秒

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Data preparation
Software used ? nCode GlyphWorks Data processing ? Pre-reporting ? Data cleaning ? Data reduction (fatigue editing)

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Pre-reporting

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Fatigue assessment

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Fatigue editing

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Deduced data for road simulator

加速度

应变

编辑后信号长度约 100 秒
(原信号长度约 2200 秒)

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振动台损伤等效试验谱制定

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