必修（五） Unit1 Getting along with others
一．重点单词： 1.develop(v.)（使）发展，成长 3.academic(adj.)学术的，学院的 5.swear(v.)发誓，宣誓 7.focus(v.)集中注意力，聚焦 9.guilty(adj.)内疚的，有罪的 11.apologize(v.)道歉 13.doubt(n.)怀疑，疑惑 15.strength(n.)力量，力气 17.delay(v.)耽搁，拖延，推迟 19.persuade(v.)说服，劝说 21.amusement(n.)娱乐，消遣 23.discourage(v.)阻止，劝阻 25.anxious(adj.)焦急的，焦虑的 27.suffer(v.)忍受痛苦 29.free(adj.)免费的，自由的 31.puzzle(v.)使迷惑不解的 2.betray(v.)出卖，泄露 4.admit(v.)承认（事实，过失）等 6.forgive(v.)原谅，宽恕 8.mean(adj.)刻薄的，吝啬的 10.stand(v.)容忍，忍让 12.blame(v.)责备，谴责 14.embarrass(v.)使尴尬，不安 16.ruin(v.)破坏，使毁灭 18.neither(pron.)两者都不 20.note(n.)笔记，记录 22.identity(n.)身份，一致性 24.sometimes(adv.)有时候 26.need(n.)需要，必须 28.practical(adj.)实际的，实用的 30.express(v.)表达 32.attitude(n.)态度
33.consistent(adj.)一致的，符合的 34.hesitate(v.)犹豫，迟疑不决的 35.respond(v.)回答 37.realize(v.)意识到
二．重点短语： 1.get along with 与??相处，进展 3.in trouble 处在困难/麻烦中 5.even though 即使，尽管 7.in public 当众，在公共场合 9.first of all 首先，第一 11.make it 成功做到，赶上时间 13.ever since 从??之后一直 15.feel like 想要 17.refer to 指??而言 19.in advance 事先，提前 21.apart from 除了??以外（别无） 23.have an effect on 对??有影响 25.in the world 究竟，到底 2.keep one’s word 信守诺言 4.as a result 结果，因此 6.turn into 变成； （季节）转换 8.as well 也，同样 10.stay up 熬夜 12.come up with 想出，提出 14.take care 小心，当心 16.put off 推迟，延迟 18.an (absurd)amount of 过多的 20.get through 接通（电话） ，通过 22.agree with 同意某人的意见 24.be absorbed in 专心于 26.share sth with sb 与某人分担
27.be based on/upon 建立在?基础上 28.now that 既然 29.agree on 同意 30.on the other hand 另一方面
三．重点句型： 1. If you can buy a person’s friendship, it’s not worth having. 如果你能买到一个人的友谊，这种友谊是不值得拥有的。
2. True friends have hearts that beat as one. 真正的朋友心心相印。 3. What do you think are the most important characteristics in a friend? 你认为朋友最重要的特征是什么？ 4. We have been best friends since primary school... 我们从小学开始就是最要好的朋友?? 5. I must have sounded very proud of myself after the test, saying loudly how easy it was and how I was sure to get a good mark. 考试过后，我的口气听上去想必很是自鸣得意，因为我嚷嚷着说 那份试卷有多么容易，还说我肯定能够取得好的分数。 6. I was so upset that I felt like crying. 我是如此难过，以致都想哭了。 7. I thought that Hannah must have deliberately told everyone about my mark after promising not to. 我想，汉娜肯定是出尔反尔，有意将我的分数透露给了大家。 8. I don’t think I can ever forgive her. 我觉得我无法原谅她。 9. He seemed absent-minded and as a result of his careless playing , we lost the game. 他好像心不在焉，正因为他不用心，我们输掉了那场球。 10. He said it wasn’t his fault if he couldn’t play as well as me and that I shouldn’t yell at him.
他说，如果他踢得没有我好，那也不是他的过错，而且我对他大 吼大叫的。 11. He kept on saying really mean things to hurt me. 他不断地说一些刻薄的话来伤害我。 12. Football is very important to me, but so is our friendship. 足球对我来说很重要，但我们友谊同样重要。 13. I can’t help wondering if he wants Peter to be his best friend instead of me. 我禁不住在想，他是不是希望彼得取代我，成为他最要好的朋友 呢。 14. I told my brother about the fight, but he said Matthaw is just angry and perhaps a little bitter because I am really athletic and good at football and that I had better find another friend. 我把我们吵架的事告诉了哥哥，但我哥哥说，马修只是生气了， 也许还有点怀恨在心，因为我的确有运动天赋，足球踢得又好，我哥 哥还说我最好再找个好朋友。 15. Try not to sound too proud of yourself when discussing your marks in front of others. 当在人前讨论分数时，尽量不要听起来太自满了。 16. Some adjectives that describe personality are positive, while others are negative. 有些描绘人的性格的形容词是褒义的，而另一些却是贬义的。
17. Help him choose the proper adjectives to describe their personalities. 帮助他选择合适的形容词来描绘他们的性格。 18. We had nothing to do but watch TV. 我们无事可做，只好看电视。 19. You know I would rather visit the dentist than study algebra and arithmetic. 你知道，我宁愿去看牙医也不愿学习代数和算术。 20. Jane told me I had better spend more time studying... 简告诉我说我最好是多花点时间在学习上?? 21. Why not come to London this Easter? 为什么不在这个复活节来伦敦呢？ 22. I think it is no use crying about your exam results now. 我认为现在为你的考试成绩难过也无济于事。 23. Think about what questions to ask and write them down in advance. 想想有什么问题要问，提前把它们写下来。 24. Express your opinions on the following statements by stating whether you agree or disagree. 通过陈述同意或不同意以下观点表达你的观点。 25. Check that the choice of vocabulary and sentence structure is of the right degree of formality. 检查一下所选择的词汇和句式是否符合正式场合或非正式场合 的需求。
26. Although William and I are almost 18, Mum and Dad are still quite strict with us. 虽然我和威廉都快要满 18 岁了，但是爸爸妈妈对我们仍然很严 格。 27. When asked they usually hesitate before responding... 当问及这个问题时，在回答前他们往往都要犹豫一下?? 28. When a boy is said to be or to have a best friend, it is likely that the two share little about their feelings with one another. 当有人说一个男孩是他好朋友或者有个很好的朋友时， 很可能这 两个朋友间不会分享太多彼此的感受。 29. The qualities that boys and girls consider important in a friend seem to be the same. 关于一个朋友身上应具备的品质， 男生和女生的见解似乎是相同 的。
四．重点语法： 1. To- infinitive:动词不定式 2. Bare infinitive: 不带 to 的不定式 3. Verb-ing form as a noun: 动词的现在分词形式作名词
Section 1 Welcome to the unit
一．重点单词： 1. develop (1)(v.)A.开发，发展，发育，成长
We need to develop solar energy even further.
Can you develop this film for us?
Scientists continue to develop new types of plants which produce heavier crops.
The door has developed signs of rust.
(2)developed(adj.)发达的 developing(adj.)发展中的 development(n.)发展 (3)a developed country 发达国家 a developing country 发展中国家 with the development of 随着??的发展 2. following (adj.)下一个的，接着的 (1)follow（n.）的用法： A.跟着，跟随 Follow me and I’ll lead you to the manager’s office. B.在后面，紧接着 The lighting was followed by a great crash of thunder. C.接受， 遵循， 听众， 效仿 I decided to follow his advice and go to bed early. D.沿着??行进 Follow the road until you come to the bank. E.理解 I didn’t quite follow what he was saying.
(2)as follows 如下（用于列举事项）
The results of the match were as follows: First was China, then Korea, then Japan.
3. each (1)(prep.)各自，每个 Each of the children was given a present. (2)(adj.)各自的，每个的 There are trees on each side of the road. (3)each /every 区别： each: 可用作代词或形容词，指任何数量中的人或物中的每个， 强调个体，可作主语，宾语，定语，同位语
Each boy has a dictionary.
every:“每个，一切的” ，用作形容词，将任何数量中的人或物当 作整体来看，相当于 all，强调整体，只能作定语
Every boy has a dictionary.
二．重点短语： 1. get along with 与??相处，进展 get along/on well with sb 与某人相处得好 sb gets along/on well with sth 某人做某事很顺利 sth gets along/on well 某事进展顺利 get away 逃脱，离开 get down 写下，记下，情绪低落
get down to (doing) sth 开始认真做某事 get in 收（庄稼） get in touch with sb 与某人联系
get over 熬过， 克服，恢复过来 get rid of 除掉，摆脱 get round 饶开，设法解决，说明
get across 使通过，使被理解 get through 到达，办完，通过，打通
get together 聚焦，相聚一处
三．重点句型： 1.If you can buy a person’s friendship, it’s not worth having. (1)be worth doing sth 某事值得做??
The book is worth reading.
(2)A. be worth +n. （表示金额，价值等） be worth doing （主动形式表示被动含义） B. be worthy of +n 配得上，值得 be worthy to be done 值得做??
be worthy of being done 值得做?? C. It is/was worthwhile to do sth =It is/was worthwhile doing sth 值得做??
Eg: The city is worth visiting. = The city is worthy of being visited. = The city is worthy to be visited. = It is worthwhile to visit the city. = It is worthwhile visiting the city.
Eg: He devoted all his life to the worthy cause.
(4) worth 作为形容词只能作表语和后置定语，不能作前置定语。如 果说： “很值得” 应用 well 修饰 worth， ， 而不用 very, very much, quite 等
Eg: He gave me a dictionary worth 6 yuan.
2.True friends have hearts that beat as one. as 的用法：
As parents we are concerned for our children’s health.
（2）as 作连词时引导状语从句，有以下用法： A.意为“在??期间，当??时候” ，表示时间
The students watched the teacher as he did the experiment.
As we are both tired, let’s take a break.
C.意为“尽管，虽然” ，常用于形容词，副词，名词，动词等 之后，表示让步
Young as he is, he knows what he will do in the future.
We’d better leave things as they were until the police come.
I can’t run as fast as I used to.
He works in the same office as my sister does.
3.What do you think are the most important characteristics in a friend? (1)该句中 do you think 为插入成分，构成复杂的特殊疑问句，其构 成为：特殊疑问词+do you think+陈述部分
What do you think will win the game?
(2)除 do you think 外， you believe, do you suppose, do you imagine, do do you expect, do you suggest 都可以用于此结构
Where do you suppose they will go? How do you imagine the film will end?
Do you think who will win the game?
Where do you suppose will they go?
C.若 do you suggest 作了插入成分时，其后的句子要用虚拟语气
Where do you suggest he (should) go?
D.在 know, remember 引导的从句中，宾语从句的疑问词不能提 至句首
Do you remember where you put the pen?
四．练习 1 1.It is worthwhile to discuss the problem. The problem is _____ ______ ______ ______.(同义句转换) 2.Welcome you to Shanghai.(改错) 3.What do you think will they do next?(改错) 4.Where do you suggest I will go?(改错) 5.Over the past 20 years, the Internet helped change our world in ____ way or another for the better. A.any B.one C.every D.either
6.The twin sisters often fight with _____ but they soon make ____. A.one another, out B.one another, up C.each other, out D.each other, up
7.-Excuse me, can you tell me where the nearest bank is, please? -_____ Oh, yes! It’s past the post office, next to a big market. A.Mm, let me think. B.I beg your pardon? C.You’re welcome. D.What do you mean?
8.I used to quarrel a lot with my parents, but now we ______ fine. A.look out B.stay up C.carry on
9.The boy has _____ the habit of making notes while reading books. A.caused B.developed C.created D.brought 10._____ be sent to work there? A. Who do you suggest B.Who do you suggest that should
C.do you suggest who should D.do you suggest whom should
Key: 1.worthy of being discussed
2. 去 掉 you
they(they will) 4.will(should) 5.B 6.D 7.A 8.D 9.B 10.A
五．练习 2 1.(完成句子)这首歌值得一听。 (1)The song is worth______________. (2)The song is worthy________________. (3)It’s worthwhile ___________________ the song. 2.好工作努力而且容易相处。 works hard and is easy ____________. She 3.每个学生都有一本英语词典。 (1)___________ has an English dictionary. (2)___________ have an English dictionary. 4.你建议他去哪里度过即将到来的假期？ Where do you suggest ____________ for the coming holiday? 5.因特网虽然很有用，但你不能在上面花太多的时间。 （as） _________________, you shouldn’t spend too much time on it. 6.我患了重感冒后，后悔没有听从妈妈的建议。
I have caught a serious cold and I regret _____________. 7.-Have you read this book? - Yes. But that one is ______ worth reading. I suggest you read it if you have time. A.best B.well C.better D.more 8.One of the best ways for people to keep fit is to _____ healthy eating habits. A.grow B.develop C.increase D.raise 9.-The boss said we had only three days to finish the work. -Don’t worry. We have already ____ two thirds of it. A.got down B.got through C.given in D.given away 10._____ the proverb _____, a friend in need is a friend indeed. A.While, says B.When , tells C.As , goes D.If, says 11._____ do you think ______ win the football match? A.Who, will B.Whom, will C.Who, that will D.Whom, to 12.-How are you getting _____ your English? -Not bad! I got an “A” in the last exam. A.on with B.along well C.on well with D.along well with 13.Much _____ I like the picture, I don’t want to buy it. A.because B.despite C.since D.as 14.The film star walked out of the airport, _____ by a group of reporters. A.following B.to follow C.follow D.followed
Key: 1.listening to; of being listened to/ to be listened to ; listening to/ to listen to 2. to get along with 3. Each of the 4. he (should) go 5.Useful as the
students; The students each Internet is
6.not having followed/ not following my mother’s
advice 7.C 8.B 9.B 10.C 11.A 12.A 13.D 14.D
Section 2 Reading
His smile betrayed that he was satisfied. For years they had been betraying state secrets to Russia.
(1)betray one’s country 卖国 (2)betrayal(n.)背叛，出卖，暴露 betrayer(n.)背叛者，卖国贼 2.academic(adj.)
The idea is only of academic interest. That is an academic point.
(1) academy(n.)学会，研究院，专科学校 academically(adv.)学术地 3.stupid(adj.)
It was stupid of you to turn the bottle upside down without covering the lid. You are stupid not to accept his advice.
stupid, dull, slow, unintelligent 区别： stupid:“笨的，愚蠢的” ，指缺乏思维能力，描述人或其言是愚 蠢的，特别指先天缺乏好的判断力或一般的智能 dull:“迟钝的，愚笨的” ，指人的智力低于一般水平，或因缺乏 智力训练，过度劳累或健康不佳而导致迟钝，呆滞
The child is dull in appearance.
slow:“迟缓的，愚笨的”；较正式用语，指智力低下，无理解 ， 力，记忆和正确表达能力
She is slow at figures.
This is an unintelligent answer to the question.
4.overlook(v.) (1)忽视，没有注意到 They seem to have overlooked this important detail. (2)不计较，宽恕 I’ll overlook your mistake this time. (3)俯视，俯瞰 Our room overlooks the whole city. (4)overlook, neglect, forget 区别： overlook:指没有注意到或没有检查到，往往指轻微的疏忽，可以 原谅， 也可以指有意的宽容
They overlooked many risks involved.
neglect: “疏忽，忽略” ，指粗心大意没去做某事，也常指疏忽做 某事
No government can neglect education.
Don’t forget to water the flowers.
5.admit(v.) (1)admit (doing) sth 承认（事实，过失等） ；准许（入场/入学/入会）
He admitted his guilt.
(2)admit sb to be +n./adj.承认某人是??
All admit him to be foolish.
(3)admit + that 从句： 承认??
You may not like her, but you have to admit that she is good at her job.
(4)admit sb in/into...允许某人进入??，准许某人入场
She opened the door and admitted the guests into the room.
(5)admit 后面通常跟动名词，而不是不定式作宾语 (6)admission(n.)承认，供认；允许进入，准许加入，入场券 deny(v.)否认，不承认 (admit 的反义词)
He said it deliberately to make me angry. I don’t think he deliberately tried to hurt you.
deliberate(adj.)故意的，蓄意的，不慌不忙的 deliberation(n.)故意，审慎 7.swear(n.) (1)发誓，宣誓，保证，敢肯定
Can you swear on your honour to keep the secret?
Parents shouldn’t swear in front of the chiclren.
(3)wear 后的 to 可以是动词不定式符号，也可以是介词，要区分其 不同； answer to do sth 意为“发誓将做某事” swear to doing sth 意为“发誓做过某事”
swear to sth 意为“保证某事” (4)swear on 凭??发誓 swear by 以??的名义发誓 swear sb in（常用被动语态）使某人宣誓就职 swear off 宣布停止 8.forgive(v.) (1)forgive sb/sth 原谅某人/某事
Will you forgive my mistake?
(2)forgive sb for (doing) sth 原谅某人做某事
I’ll never forgive her for what she did.
(3)forgive, pardon, excuse 区别：
I can’t forgive that type of behavior.
pardon: 指“宽恕”严重的过失，罪恶或严重的冒犯，尤指违反规 则，法律，道德的过失
The teacher pardoned me when I made a mistake.
Please excuse me for interruption.
forgive 的过去式，过去分词分别为：forgave，forgiven 现在分词 forgiving 9.focus(v.) (1)(v.)集中精力，聚焦 A.focus on/upon sb/sth 集中（注意力，精力等）于某人/某物
The discussion focused on three main problems.
B.focus sth on/upon sb/sth 集中某物于某人/某物
The visit helped to focus world attention on the plight of the refugees.
C.focus sth. (on sb/sth)（使）调节焦距
Let your eyes focus on objects that are farther away from you.
It’s today’s lecture the focus will be on tax structures within the European Union.
(3)in focus 焦距对准的，清晰的 out of focus 焦距没对准的，模糊的 10.mean(adj.) (1)be mean with...对于??吝啬，对于??小气
She’s always been mean with money.
be mean to sb 对某人刻薄的
He apologized to me for being mean to me.
it is mean of sb to do sth 某人做某事真卑鄙
It is mean of you to tease her.
(2)mean(v.)有??的意思 mean to do sth 打算干某事 mean doing sth 意味着干某事
be mean for 注定要成为 be meant for sb 为某人或某目的而准备 be meant to do sth 意在做某事
Eg: This book is meant for Tom. The diagram is meant to show the different stages of the process.
(3)means(n.)方法 by all means 尽一切办法，一定，务必 by no means 决不 11.guilty(adj.)内疚的,有罪的 (1)be guilty of 犯??的罪
The jury found the defendant not guilty of the offence.
by means of 用，依靠
be guilty for/about sth 因某事而内疚
I felt guilty about not visiting my parents more often.
a sense of guilt 内疚感,负罪感 (2)guilt(n.)罪行,内疚 guiltily(adv.)有罪地,内疚地 12.stand(v.)容忍,经受,经得起 (1)can’t stand sb/sth 受不了某人/某事 (2)stand sb. doing sth 容忍某人干某事
I can’t stand people interrupting all the time. I can’t stand his brother.
(3)stand 当”忍受,忍耐”讲时,通常用于否定句,疑问句中,不可用于 进行时态;stand 当 “承受,经得起”讲时,也多与 can 或 could 连用 13.apologize(v.)
(1)apologize to sb 向某人道歉
You should apologize to her.
apologize for sth 为某事道歉
I apologize for the delay in replying to your letter.
apologize to sb for (doing) sth 因（做）某事而向某人道歉
He apologized to me for stepping on my foot.
(2)apology(n.)道歉，谢罪 (3)make an apology to sb for (doing) sth 因（做）某事而向某人道歉 offer apologize to sb for sth/doing sth 因（做）某事而向某人道歉 14.unlikely(adj.) (1)be unlikely to so sth 不太可能做某事
He is unlikely to recover from the disease.
(2)It be unlikely + that 从句
It is unlikely that she will arrive on time.
(3)be likely to do sth 很可能做某事 It is likely+ that 从句 15.blame(v.) (1)(v.)责备，谴责 A.blame sb for (doing) sth 因（做）革事责备某人
He blamed me for my negligence. ??很可能
B.blame sth on sb/sth 把某事归咎于某人/某事
The police are blaming the accident on dangerous driving.
C.be to blame (for sth)（对某事）负有责任
If anyone is to blame, it’s me.
(2)(n.) 过失，责备 put /lay the blame on ...使（某人）负??之责
He put /laid the blame for his failure in the exam on his teacher.
(3)be to blame 该受谴责，该受责备；用动词不定式的主动形式表示 被动意义
Don’t always blame your own failure on others. Sometimes you yourself are to blame.
16.doubt(v.) (1)(v.)怀疑，疑惑 A. I don’t doubt that...我确信??
I don’t doubt that he will come.
B. I doubt whether/if...我怀疑??
You can complain, but I doubt if it will make any difference.
doubt 后跟宾语从句时， 关联词的选用要看 doubt 所在的主句的 情况而定。若 doubt 处在肯定句中，名词从句用 whether/if/when/what 等连接。若 doubt 处在疑问句，否定句中，名词从句用 that(或 but, but that)连接 (2)(n.)怀疑，疑问 A. There is no doubt that 从句/ about 毫无疑问
There was no doubt that he had been misunderstood.
B. without/ beyond doubt 无疑地，确实地
That was without doubt the worst movie I’ve ever seen.
C. be in doubt 不肯定，不确定，拿不准
The success of the system is not in doubt.
(3)There is no need (for sb) to do sth 没有必要做某事 There is no need for sth 没有必要做某事 There is no hope of doing sth 没有做某事的希望 There is no possibility to do sth 没有做某事的可能 以上句型中都用 there，但若表示“难怪??”则常用 It is no
wonder that?? 17.embarrass(v.)使尴尬，使困窘，使不安 (1)embarrass sb (with sth)（某事）使某人不好意思
Don’t embarrass them with personal questions.
(2)embarrass sb by doing sth 做某事使某人不好意思
I didn’t want to embarrass him by kissing hi in front of his friends.
(3)embarrassed(adj.) 困窘的，局促不安的，为难的 embarrassing(adj.)令人困窘的，令人为难的 embarrassment(n.)困窘，局促不安 18.gifted (1)(adj.)有天赋的，有才能的 He is a gifted pianist. (2)(n.)礼物，赠品 (3)have a gift for ＝have a talent for ＝have a genius for 有??的天赋 be gifted at 擅长，对??有天赋 She is a girl gifted at music. 19.strength(n.)力量，力气，实力 strength, energy, force, power 区别： strength:常指固定潜在的 “力量” 若指人， 。 着重强调 “力气” 若 ； 指物，着重强调“强度，潜力”等
He lifted the stone with all his strength.
Old as he is ,he has so much energy that he can work 14 hours a day.
式 forces 意为“兵力，武力”等
The police had to use force when they took him to the police station.
power:主要指做一件事所依靠的能力， 功能， (人或机器等事物的 潜在的或所能发挥出来的)力量，职权，权力或政权
Water power creates electric power.
20.disagreement(n.)分歧，意见不同，不调和 (1)disagree(vi.) 不同意，不赞同 agreement(n.)协议，协定，同意 (2)be in agreement with 同意 make/come to/arrive at agreement with 与??达成协议
Eg: The two reports are in total disagreement. There is some disagreement among them about this problem.
21.ruin(v.) (1)(v.)毁灭，使破产 His complaints ruined the evening for everyone. (2)(n.)不可数名词，毁坏，毁灭；Gambling was the ruin of him. 可数名词，倒塌的建筑物，废墟；We walked round the castle ruins. (3)ruined(adj.) 毁灭的，荒废的 ruinous(adj.)破坏性的 ，导致毁灭的
ruinously(adv.)毁灭地，败坏地 (4)in ruins 破坏了的 Invaders left the city in ruins. be the ruin of...成为??毁灭/堕落的原因
Gambling was the ruin of him.
go to/fall into/fall in /come to ruin 毁灭，灭亡，崩溃
A large number of churches fell into the ruin in the disaster.
He delayed telling her the news, waiting for the right moment.
They’re trying to delay until help arrives.
Delays of two hours or more were reported on the roads this morning.
(3)without delay = immediately 尽快地
Report it to the police without delay.
delay (doing) sth 延期/推迟做某事
The judge will delay his verdict until he receives medical reports on the offender.
put off 推迟 23.behaviour(n.)待人的态度，举止，行为方式 (1)behave(v.)行为，举止
He has been studying the behaviour of pandas for years.
(2)behave oneself 表现良好，行为规矩有礼 24.promise(v.) (1)(v.)允许，答应，给??希望 A.promise (sb) sth
She promised me a quick reply.
B.promise (sb) to do sth
My father promised me to buy a bicycle as my birthday present.
C.promise + that
He promised that he would tell me all he knew.
(2)(n.)承诺，诺言，希望，前途 make a promise 许下诺言 keep one’s promise 信守诺言
break one’s promise 违背诺言 carry out a promise 食言 show promise 很有希望
She is a promising actress.
二．重点短语： 1.keep one’s word 信守诺言
You can depend on him to keep his words. We always keep our words.
(1)break one’s word 失信，食言 eat one’s word 收回前言，认错道歉 get in a word 插话，插嘴 have a word with sb 和某人谈一谈
have a few words with sb 和某人谈一谈 have words with sb 和某人吵架 upon one’s word 一定，决不食言 receive/get/have word 得到消息 in other words 换句话时 in a /one word 总之，一句话 leave word 留言
(2)word 当“话语”讲时，是可数名词；当“消息”讲时，不加冠词， 不用复数，常用于句型 word came that...，其中 that 引导同位语从句； 当“诺言”讲时为不可数名词 (3)have a word with sb 与 have a few words with sb 都表示“与某人谈 一谈” ，而 have words with sb 表示“和某人吵架” 。当两人说一句或 几句话时， 适可而止， 表示 “谈话” 故用 a word 和 a few words 表示； ， 当两人争执不下，你一句我一句，说得过多时就成了吵架，用 words 表示 2.in trouble
If you can’t pay the bill, you are going to be in trouble. We should help those who are in trouble.
get into trouble 陷入困境 ask for trouble 自找麻烦
take trouble to do sth 费心做某事 put sb to the trouble of doing sth 麻烦某人做某事 save/spare trouble 省事，避免麻烦 make trouble 制造麻烦 there be trouble in doing sth = have trouble doing sth 做某事有困难 be a great trouble to...对??来说很麻烦 3.as a result
I was very busy. As a result, I couldn’t take care of her. Tom was very lazy. As a result, he failed in the exam.
(1) with the result that 为此，因此 result from 用??造成 lead to 导致
without result 徒劳，毫无结果 result in ...导致?的结果 as a result of.. 由于??的结果
in/as a consequence of ... 由于??的结果 due to...由于?? owing to... 由于?? thanks to...多亏?? because of ...由于??的缘故
(2) as a result, as a result of, result in ,result from 区别： as a result 不是连词而是副词，只作状语，用法上同 as consequence
He failed the interview.As a result, he didn’t get the job.
as a result of 是介词，只能接名词，代词，动名词及 what 从句，与 in/as a consequence of, due to, thanks to, owing to, because of 等相似
As a result of the big fire, thousands of people lost the homes.
result in 意为 “结果为， 导致” 其主语是原因， ， 宾语是结果， lead 同 to, cause
Hard work results in success.
result from 意为“同去，源自” ，其主语是结果，宾语是原因，同 lie in
His failure resulted from his carelessness. = His carelessness resulted in his failure.
4.even though 即使，尽管
Eg: I’ll help you, even though I don’t sleep for a night. He made the same mistake again even though the teacher had warned him.
(1)even though/if 引导的让步状语从句，若主从句皆为将来的情况， 从句中可用一般现在时代替将来时
We won’t give up even though/if we fail again.
(2)even though/if 引导的让步状语从句常用省略形式， 省略与主句相 同的主语和 be 动词的某个形式， 成为“even though/if +非谓语动词 （短语）”形式
He said he wouldn’t go to the party even if/though (he was) invited to.
(3)as though = as if 通常用来引导方式状语从句或用于连系动词后 引导表语从句，意思是“仿佛，好像” ，其引导的从句表示虚拟条 件时要用虚拟语气
He talks as if/though he had been to Beijing many times; in fact, he has never visited the city.
(4)even now 即使在现在，尽管这样 even then 即使那样，尽管那样 even so 虽然如此 5.turn into 变成， （季节）转换
Eg: Water turns into ice when it freezes. The snow melted, and winter turned into spring.
change into 变成
turn to 转向，求助于 turn in 上交 turn away 打发走， 不理会 turn over 翻身，翻开
turn down（声音等）调低 turn off 关掉
turn on 打开 turn out 结果是，证明是
6.in public= publicly 当众，在公共场合 (1) serve the public 服务大众 (2) in private= privately（反义词）in public 私下，秘密地
Eg: She is too shy to speak in public. It’s wrong of him to embarrass you in public.
三．重点句型： 1. We have been best friends since primary school... (1)since 在句中是介词，其后接名词，代词或动名词作时间状语，这 时，句子多用完成时态 She’s been off work since Tuesday. (2)since 的其他用法： A.conj.因为，既然 Since I don’t enough money, I can’t buy the car. B.conj.从??以后，自??以来 I have lived here since five years ago. C.adv.从那时起，后来 He left us two years ago and we haven’t seen him ever since. (a.)It +be + 一段时间+since 从句，主句中 be 常用一般时态，也 可用完成时态
It is two years since I came here. = It has been two years since I came here.
(b.)since 引导的时间状语从句中，不论用短暂动词，延续性动词 还是状态动词的一般过去时， 通常都表示从动作或状态的完成或结束 时算起，因此这种 since 从句应理解为“自从该动作结束以来”
I haven’t heard from him since he lived /was in Beijing.
2. I must have sounded very proud of myself after the test, saying loudly how easy it was and how I was sure to get a good mark.
(1)must have done sth“一定做了某事” ，表示对过去情况的猜测， 用于肯定句中。如果在否定或疑问句中，则情态动词用 can
He isn’t here. He must have missed the bus. I can’t find him anywhere. Where can he have gone?
(2)“情态动词+ have done”结构还有以下几种： A.should have done 表示过去应该做但实际没做的动作。 shouldn’t have done sth 表示过去不应该做某事实际做了的动作 这个结构含有责备，埋怨的意思，相同用法的还有： ought (not) to have done
You shouldn’t have wasted a whole night playing computer games.
B.could have done“可能做了某事” ，表示对过去情况的猜测，否 定形式为 couldn’t have done，意为“不可能做了某事”
I can’t find my key. It could have been taken by someone by mistake.
C.may/might have done 表示对过去情况的推测，语气不肯定，意 为 “或许已经??” 主要用于肯定句中。 ， might 比 may 语气更弱。 否定句和疑问句中情态动词一般用 can 或 could
They may/might have read about the news.
D.needn’t have done sth “没有必要做某事” ，表示做了实际没有 必要做的事
The meeting has been called off. You needn’t have come.
(a.)could have done 还可表示“本来能够做而实际没有做” ，含有 委婉的批评或责备的口气，是虚拟语气用法 (b.)might have done 可以表示“本来有可能??而实际没有发生” (3)be sure to do sth 一定会做某事 A.be sure of / be sure to do 区别：
(a.)be sure of 的主语是人，指主语对某事“有把握，确信”
She is sure of her success. = She is sure that she will succeed.
(b.)be sure to do 的主语可以是人，也可以是事物，表示说话人 的推测“一定，必然会”
She is sure to succeed. It is sure to snow.
(c.)sure 表示“肯定的，有把握的” ，大多数情况下可以和 certain 互换，但是在句型“ It is certain + that 从句”中，certain 不能用 sure 替 代。在句中 it 是形式主语，that 从句是真正的主语。
It is certain that they will arrive before 5 o’clock. = They are certain/sure to arrive before 5 o’clock.
B.be sure of/about...对??确信，对??有把握 be sure that...确信?? make sure of/that...查明，确保??，把??弄清楚 for sure 确实，毫无疑问 3. I was so upset that I felt like crying. (1)so... that...的常用句型：
Eg: He spoke so quietly that I could hardly heard him. There were so many people in the street that we could hardly move on.
A. so + adj./adv. + that 从句
The book is so interesting that I want to read it again.
B. so + adj. + a/an +可数名词单数 +that 从句
He is so clever a boy that we all like him.
C. so + many/few+可数名词复数 +that 从句
He made so many mistakes that he didn’t pass the exam.
D. so + much/little+不可数名词 +that 从句
There is so little time left that I have to leave at once.
(2)such...that... 也意为“如此??以至于??” ，引导结果状语从句，
但 such 用于修饰名词，其句型结构为： such + a/an(+adj.)+可数名词单数+that 从句 such(+adj.) + 可数名词复数+ that 从句 such(+adj.) + 不可数名词+ that 从句 (3)so...that...句型中，so 可置于句首，这时句子要用部分倒装，即 把助动词提到主语之前
So tired was he that he fell asleep as soon as he lay down.
4. I thought that Hannah must have deliberate told everyone about my mark after promising not to. 本句是主从复合句，that 引导宾语从句。After 后面的动名词短语 promising not to 采 用 了 不 定 式 的 省 略 形 式 ， 补 充 完 整 后 为 ： promising not to tell anyone about my mark。这种不定式的省略是为了 避免重复，省略不定式中与上文相同的动词，而只保留 to (1)以下动词和词组后面常用省略：expect, hope, wish, mean, prefer, want, promise, care, try, hate, need, plan, would like , would love, be going, be glad/happy, be willing, used to
Would you like to go to the concert? Yes. I’ll be glad to.
(2)如果省略的不定式结构中含有 be, have, have been, 则这些词要 保留
Our city is no longer what it used to be. He didn’t tell me the news. But he ought to have.
5. I don’t think I can ever forgive her. (1)本句为否定转移句型，即 not 在意思上否定的不是 think，而是 think 后的从句。能这样使用的动词还有 believe, expect, suppose,
I don’t believe she has lost the necklace. I don’t suppose they’ll be back tonight.
(2)使用否定转换句型时，主语必须是第一人称 I 或 we；主句谓语 动词只能用上述五个动词之一。若不符合这两个条件，则不能否定转 移
He didn’t believe I could make such rapid progress. She doesn’t expect she will meet him again.
(3)否定转移句型成反意疑问句时，不能针对主句的内容反问，而 是针对从句的内容，并把 not 考虑在内
I didn’t think she was happy, was she? I don’t suppose that he cares, does he?
(4)对这种句型作简略回答时，肯定答语使用 I+v.+so；否定答语使 用： I don’t think so.(一般不说 I think not.) I don’t believe/expect/suppose/imagine so. I believe/expect/suppose/imagine not. (5)hope 不用于否定转换， 但有简略答语: I hope so./ I hope not. 但不 说 I don’t hope so. 6. He seemed absent-minded and as a result of his careless playing , we lost the game. 常用的复合形容词有以下种类： (1)形容词+ 名词
first-class goods a real-like hero warm-hearted animals an white-haired man
peace-loving people English-speaking countries
a world -wide exhibition
man-made satellites a twenty-metre-deep well
a well-dressed lady a low-paid job
7. He said it wasn’t his fault if he couldn’t play as well as me and that I shouldn’t yell at him. (1)as well as 和??一样，也，以及；不但??而且??
He plays football as well as Jack. John can speak Chinese as well as French.
(2)as well as / not only...but also 的区别： A. as well as 连接两个并列成分，侧重点在前者；连接两个并列主 语时，其谓语动词的形式要根据前面的名词而定
The teacher as well as the students wishes for a holiday.
B. not only...but also...连接两个并列成分，侧重点在后者。连接两 个并列主语时，其谓语动词的形式要根据后面的名词而定
Not only the teacher but also the students wish for a holiday.
8. He kept on saying really mean things to hurt me. keep on doing sth 继续做某事 keep...in mind 记住 keep an eye on 注意，看守
keep sb from doing sth 阻止某人做某事 keep a secret 保密 keep back 隐瞒，留下 keep up 不低落，维持
keep away from 远离，不接近 keep house 当家，料理家务 keep off 让开，不接近 keep up with 跟上
9. Football is very important to me, but so it our friendship.
(1) “ so +be+助动词/情态动词+主语”结构用于肯定句中，意为“某 人或某物也是如此” ，表示上述情况也适用于另外人或物，一般主语 不是同一个人或事物
I love making friends, and so does my classmate Jack.
(2) “neither/nor + be/助动词/情态动词+ 主语”结构用在否定句中
I don’t like chatting with strangers online. Neither/Nor does Mary.
(3) “so it is/was + sb/sth”或“ it is/was the same with sb/sth”用于前面 句中既含有 be 动词，又含有实义动词或其他动词形式，下句要表示 相同情况时
-Jack is English but likes Chinese food. - So it is with Mike.
(4)if 等连词引导的条件状语从句，用一般现在时表示将来，但主 句仍要用一般将来时，因此 so 引导的主句要用助动词 shall 或 will
If you buy such type of car, so will I. If you don’t go there, neither/nor shall I.
She was unhappy. So was mother.
(6) “so + 主语+be/助动词/情态动词” 表示某人或某物 “的确如此” ， 主语往往是同一个人或事物
-You seem to like coffee. - So I do.
注：so do I, so do I，倒装语序跟着 so。表示某某“也一样” ，前 后主语不一样。so I do, so I do，正常语序跟着 so. “的确如此” ，前后 主语都一致 10. ... I cannot help wondering if he wants Peter to be his best friend instead of me. cannot help doing sth 情不自禁做某事
He cannot help smiling whenever seeing the photo of his lovely baby.
cannot help( to) do sth 不能帮助做某事
I am so busy that I can’t help (to) do the housework for my mum.
cannot help but do 不得不做
We can’t help but obey the rules.
11. I told my brother about the fight, but he said Mattew is just angry and perhaps a little bitter because I am really athletic and good at football and that I had better find another friend. (1)本句中，he said 后接两个宾语从句，即 Matthew is just angry and perhaps a little bitter because I am really athletic and good at football that I had better find another friend. 注意，第二个宾语从句的引导词 that 不能省略
He said that there were lots of things to do and that he wouldn’t go with us.
(2)had better 意为“应该，最好” 。意义上指的是紧接着的将来，但 在形式上总是过去式 (不能说 have better)。 better 之后要用不带 to had 的不定式，其否定形式是“had better not + 不带 to 的动词不定式”。
You’d better go to the doctor about your cough. We’d better leave now or we’ll miss the bus.
12. Try not to sound too proud of yourself when discussing your marks in front of others. (1)省略的条件是：从句主语与主句主语一致，且谓语动词中含有系 动词 be,这时可省略主语和 be.
When (he was) asked why he said so, he went red. I was reading a book when ( I was) waiting for a bus.
(2)除 when 外, while, if, unless, though,once 等都可用于这种省略句
I won’t go to the party unless invited. The boy will get hurt if let alone.
四．练习 1 1. The World Health Organization gave a warning to the public without any ____ when the virus of H1N1 hit Mexico in April, 2009. A.delay B.effort C.schedule D.consideration
2. Nancy enjoyed herself so much ____ she visited her friends in Sydney last year. A.that B.which C.when D.where
3. His sister left home in 1998, and ____ since. A.had not been heard of B.has not been heard of C.had not heard of D.has not heard of
4. If you leave the club, you will not be ____ back in. A.received B.admitted C.turned D.moved
5. He did not regret saying what he did but felt that he ____ it differently. A.could express B.would express
C.could have expressed D.must have expressed 6. - I’m sorry. I ____ at you the other day. - Forget it. I was a bit out of control myself. A.shouldn’t shout B.shouldn’t have shouted C.mustn’t shout D.mustn’t have shouted
7. I can’t stand ____ with Jane in the same office. She just refuses ____ talking while she works. A.working, stopping B.to work, stopping
C.working, to stop
D.to work, to stop
8. What a pity. Considering his ability and experience, he ____ better. A.need have done B.must have done D.can have done D.might have done
9. -What’s the matter with Della? -Well, her parents wouldn’t allow her to go to the party, but she still____. A.hopes to B.hopes so C.hopes not D.hopes for 10. The young man made a ____ to his parents that he would try to earn his own living after graduation. A.prediction B.promise C. plan D.contribution 11. I got caught in the rain and my suit ____. A.has ruined B.had ruined C.has been ruined D.had been ruined 12. John had to have his car repaired in a garage because it ____ seriously. A.damaged B.was being damaged
C.had damaged D.had been damaged 13. -You are always full of ____. Can you tell me the secret? A.power B.strength C.force D.energy
14. -My room gets very cold at night. -____. A.So is mine B.So mine is C.So does mine D.So mine does 15. He has been accused of ____ his former socialist ideals. A.betraying B.contributing to
C.devoting himself to D.betraying to 16. The weather was ____ cold that I didn’t like to leave my room. A.really B.such C.too D.so
17. So sudden ____ that the enemy had no time to escape. A.did the attack B.the attack did
C.was the attack D.the attack was 18. The book was written in 1946, _____ the education system has witnessed great changes. A.when B.during which C.since then D.since when 19. The teacher took the _____ for the accident, although it was not really his fault. A.obligation B.blame C.charge D.help 20. -Have you known Dr Jackson for a long time? -Yes, since she ____ the Chinese Society. A.has joined B.joins C.had joined D.joined 21. To make members of a team perform better, the trainer first of all has to know their ____and weaknesses. A.strengths B.benefits C.techniques D.values 22. Every evening after dinner, if not _____ from work. I will spend some time walking my dog. A.being tired B.tiring C.tired D.to be tired 23. Some of you may have finished Unit One. _____.
A.If you may B.If you do C.If not D.If so 24. I’m sure you’d rather went to school by bus, _____? A.hadn’t you B.wouldn’t you C.are’t I D.didn’t she Key: 1-5A C B B C 6-10B C D A B 11-15 C D D C A 16-20 D C D B D 21-24 A C D B
五．练习 2 同义句转换: 1. You must apologize to her for stepping on her foot. You must _____ ______ ______ ______ her for stepping on her foot. 2. Global warming results from the burning of fossil fuels, such as petroleum products. The burning of fossil fuels, such as petroleum products, ____ _____ global warming. 3. Unless you are invited to speak, you should remain silent at the conference. Unless ____ _____ ______ , you should remain silent at the conference. 4. If you go swimming this afternoon, I will go, too. You have to _____ ______ to get into medical school. 5. You have to do well academically to get into medical school.
If you go swimming this afternoon, _____ ______ ______. 6. Tod hadn’t passed the exam and was afraid of being scolded.It was the same with Jim. Tod hadn’t passed the exam and was afraid of being scolded. ______ ______ ______ ______ ______. 7. They blamed him for the accident. They blamed _____ ______ on ______. 8. The girl has a gift for language learning. The girl _____ _______ _______ language learning. 9. We too pride in the success of the Chinese team in the Winter Olympic Games. We _____ ______ _______ the success of the Chinese team in the Winter Olympic Games. 10. He is unlikely to arrive before dark. _____ ______ ______ ______ he will arrive before dark. Key: 1. Make an apology to 2.results in / leads to 3.invited to speak 4.be academic 5.so will/shall I 6.So it was with Jim 7.the accident, him 8.is gifted at 9.were proud of 10.It is unlikely that
选择: 11. -Do you still remember when we went to Nanjing? - I can’t remember now but ____ sometime last summer?
A.might it be
B.could it be
C.could it have been D.should it have been 12. Mary sat there sad and disappointed, _____ by her friends. A.feeling betrayed B.to be betrayed C.been betrayed D.having betrayed
13. If Joe’s wife won’t go to the party, _____. A.he will either B.neither will he
C.he neither will D.either he will 14. Each year some foreign students _____ our school. A.are admitted by C.have admitted into B.are admitted to D.have been admitted to
15. There is no doubt ____ the factory should cut back on production. A.that B.whether C.what D.when
16. The students listened carefully to the teacher with their eyes ____ on the blackboard. A.to focused B.focusing C.being focused D.focused 17. How can you stand _____in the public. A.laughing at B.to laugh at
C.being laughed at D.to to laughed at 18. The girl _____ to be a good dancer if she is well trained in an art school. A.expects B.allows C.wishes D.promises
19. It is I that _____ for the mistake in the work. A.is blamed B.is to blame C.am to blame D.am to be blamed 20. Sorry for having delayed _____ your letter. A.answering B.to answer
C.to have answered D.having answered 21. The small town is so good a place ____ many people come to visit _____ it has become well known all over the world. A.that, that B.as , as C.that, as D.as , that
22. I am sorry it’s beyond my ____ to make a final decision on this project. A.strength B.power C.force D.energy -Not yet. It will be a
23. -Have you got your results of the final exam? few days ____ we know the full results. A.before B.after C.until D.when
24. - _____ when has the country been open to international trade? -1978, I suppose. A.Since B.In C.From D.After
25. This problem may lead to more serious ones if ____ unsolved. A.making B.remained C.left D.keeping
26. Better go to see my sick colleague right now, ____ I ? A.hadn’t B.didn’t C.don’t D.won’t
27. We were in _____ when we left that we forgot the airline tickets.
A.a rush so anxious B.a such anxious rush C.so anxious a rush D.such anxious a rush 28. That they referred to that ____ thing made her very _____. A.embarrassed, embarrassed B.embarrassing, embarrassed
C.embarrassed, embarrassing D.embarrassing, embarrassing 29. When Johnson was suspected, he _____ by his honour that he was innocent. A.cursed B.swallowed C.argued D.swore
Key: 11-15C A B B A 16-20 D C D C A 21-25 D B A A C 26-29A C B D
Section 3 Word power
一．重点单词： 1. notice(v.)注意，发现，看到
Eg: When I went into the room, I noticed the wall had been painted. Did you notice a boy coming/come into my office?
2. neither (1)(adj.)（二者之中）两者都不（用在单数名词之前）
Neither article is made in Beijing.
Neither of the roads is very good.
(3)(adv./conj.)也不（与 no, not, never, no 等连用）
He can’t speak French, neither/not can I.
(4)both/neither 区别： both:的意思是“两个都” ，表示肯定； neither:的意思是“两个都不” ，表示否定；
Both the brothers are good at Chinese, but neither of them is good at Maths.
(5)either...or..., neither...nor..., both...and ...区别： 这 三 组 连 词 都 是 连 接 两 个 对 等 成 分 的 。 当 either...or..., neither...nor...连接两个并列主语，且有一个谓语时，句子中的谓语动 词的数要和 or 和 nor 后的名词或代词一致。both...and...,连接两个并 列主语时，谓语动词要用复数；改为否定句时，要用 neither...nor...
Either you or she is wrong. Neither you nor she is wrong. Both you and she are wrong.
Neither is he clever, nor does he work hard.
二．重点短语： 1. as well 也，同样 (1)as well, too, either 区别： as well 与 too 当“也”讲时，用于肯定句，either 多用于否定句
He doesn’t like Chinese and he doesn’t like English, either.
(2)as well as 与 not only...but also... as well as 连接两个并列成分。若连接两个主语，谓语动词的数 应与其前的主语保持一致， 这正好与 not only...but also...相反， 但均遵 循了强调谁就与谁一致，以谁为主就与谁的“意义一致”的原则(not only A but also B 中强调 B, 而 A as well as B 中强调 A )
She was clever as well as beautiful. He as well as his brother is coming to see you. Not only he but also his brother
2. first of all 首先，第一(比 first 语气重，用于加强语气) after all, at all, in all, above all 区别： after all: 毕竟，别忘了（用于句首） ；没想到，竟然（用于句尾）
After all, your son is 18 years old, he has the right to decide what to do.
at all: 根本，无论如何；究竟，到底（用于否定句，条件句和 疑问句加强语气）
A taxi wasn’t at all necessary.
in all: 总共
There were 20 people there in all.
above all:首先，最重要的是＝most important of all
We must work hard and above all , we must believe in ourselves.
3. stay up 熬夜
Eg: He stayed up all night. We sometimes let the children stay up late.
stay away (from)不在，缺席，离开，避开 stay in 留在家里不外出 stay out 在外过夜 stay the same as...仍和??一样 4. make it (1)及时到达，赶上（规定时间）
The bus is just over there. If you run, you can make it.
No one ever thought he would make it as an actor.
We didn’t make it to the party because of the heavy snow.
I don’t know how I’m going to make it through the day.
(5)make it /manage it 区别： make it: 意为“办成功，办到” ，强调结果 manage it:意为“能行，能对付” ，侧重具备某种能力
Would you like me to carry the box for you? No, thanks. I think I can manage it myself.
5. come up with 想出，提出（主意，计划，答案等） ；提供（所需钱款）
Is that the best excuse you can come up with? You’d better come up with a solution as soon as possible. How am I supposed to come up with $10,000?
(1)come up with 这一短语不能用于被动语态 (2)come up with：想出，提出 keep up with：跟上，别落下 catch up with： （从后面）赶上 put up with：容忍，忍受
(3) come about 发生
come across 偶然遇见
come on 跟着来，进展（口语中表示劝说，激励，不耐烦等）加油，快点，得啦 come out 出来，出版，长出，发芽， （秘密等）泄露 come to 共计，总计 come up to 达到，符合 三．重点句型： 1. Some adjectives that describe personality are positive, while others are negative. (1)while 作连词，意为“而，然而” ，表示对比。在句中连接并列成分
He likes music while I like sports. She is a worker while I am a doctor.
come to an end 结束
(2)while 引导状语从句时， 除表示 “然而” 的意思外， 还有以下用法： A.表示“当??时候” ，引导时间状语从句
They arrived while we were having dinner.
B. While 引导时间状语从句时，当主句的主语和从句的主语一致， 且从句中含有系动词 be 时，从句中的主语和系动词均可省略
His fingers trembled while doing it. He has an accident while on his way to school.
C.表示 “尽管， 虽然” 引导让步状语从句， ， 意义同 although, whereas， 多用于句首
While I admit his merits, I can see his shortcoming.
While there is life, there is hope.
(3)while, when, as 区别： 三者都可以表示“当??的时候” A.while 强调同时性或某时间段内某一种情况发生时另一种情况出
I always listen to the radio while I’m cooking.
B.when 可与延续或非延续性动词连用，但在强调“这时”之意时 只能用 when。常见句型有:hardly...when..., be doing...when..., had (just) done sth...when..., be about to do ...when...
I was about to go out when the telephone rang.
I read the letter as I walked along the river.
2. Help him choose the proper adjectives to describe their personalities. (1)help him choose 属于 help sb do sth 的用法。Help 后可接不定式作 宾语或宾语补足语，其中动词不定式可带 to 也可省去 to A.help (to ) do sth 帮忙干某事
She can’t help clean the house because she is busy making a cake.
B.help sb (to) do sth 帮助某人做某事
She will help us to learn English.
(2)help 后的动词不定式可省去 to，也可带有 to，而有些动词后的动 词不定式要省去 to，在变成被动语态时再还原 to，如：一感觉(feel)； 二听(hear,listen to)；三让(let, have, make)；四看(see, observe, watch, look at)；半帮助(help,可带 to ,也可不带 to)
We made Tom go there. = Tom was made to go there. I saw her play at the seaside. = She was seen to play at the seaside.
(3)help out 帮忙 help sb out 帮某人摆脱困难 help sb (to) do sth＝help sb with sth 帮助某人做某事 be a great/good help to sb＝be of great/good help to sb 对某人很有帮助 can’t help but do sth 只好做某事 help oneself to sth 随便吃，随便用
四．练习 1 1. It was hard for him to learn English in a family, in which _____ of the parents spoke the language. A.none B.neither C.both D.each
2. -Do you want tea or coffee? - _____, I really don’t mind. A.none B.Neither C.Either D.All
3. Nine in tn parents said there were significant differences in their approach to educating their children compared with _____ of their parents. A.those B.one C.both D.that
4. Why are you so anxious? It isn’t your problem _____. A.on purpose B.in all C.on time D.after all 5. -Have you finished your first paper? -_____. Just half of it. How about it? A.Not at all B.Not likely C.Not a bit D.Not yet 6. Owen wouldn’t eat anything ____ he cooked it himself. A.until B.since C.unless D.while 7. _____ the Internet is of great help, I don’t think it’s a good idea to spend too much time on it. A.If B.While C.Because D.As 8. In some places women are expected to earn money _____ men work at home ana raise their children.
B.while C.because D.though
9. It just isn’t fair._____ I was working as a waiter last month, my friends were lying on the beach. A.Whenever B.Though C.For D.While 10. -Poor Steve! I could hardly recognize him just now! -____. He has changed so much. A.Never mind B.No problem C.Not at all D.Me neither 11. Green products are becoming more and more popular because they are environmentally _____. A.friendly B.various C.common D.changeable
12. We’ll _____ till after midnight to see the new year in. A.stay up B.stay out C.stay on D.stay in 13. -When shall we start? -Let’s _____ it 8:30. Is that all right? A.set B.meet C.make D.take
14. -What do you think of Andrew? - There are some things that are not easy to _____and his coldness is one. A.put up with B.keep up with C.get along with D.come up with 15. Neither the students nor the teacher _____ seen the books before. A.have B.has C.is D.are
16. As she is busy with her homework, she can’t help _____ some housework for her mother. A.doing B.do C.does D.did
Key: 1-5B C D D D 6-10C B B D D 11-16A A C A B B
五．练习 2 1.To help myself get to sleep, I have tried several ways but it seems that _____ works. A.nothing B.none C.neither D.all
2.____ I really don’t like art, I find his work impressive. A.As B.Since C.If D.While
3.E-mail, as well as telephone , ______ an important part in daily communication. A.is playing B.have played C.are playing D.play 4.I had just finished my work and was busy cooking dinner _____ I heard the doorbell. A.while B.when C.since D.after
5.The vocabulary and grammatical differences between British and American English are so few and unimportant as hardly. A.noticed B.to notice C.being noticed D.to be noticed
6.There are 5,000 books in the school library_____,70 percent of ____ are intended for children. A.at all, them B.in all, them C.at all, which D.in all, which 7.A man may usually be known by the books he reads _____ by the friends he keeps.
A.rather than B.as well as C.in place of D.as many as 8.I’d like to buy a house - modern, comfortable, and _____ in a quiet neighborhood. A.in all B.above all C.after all D.at all
9.-Have you _____ some new idea? - Yeah. I’ll tell you later. A.come about B.come into C.come up with D.come out with 10.-I’ve studied growing plants are one of my interests.Could I make some suggestions ? -______.
A.You will make it B.Go right ahead C.Don’t mention it D.Take it easy
Key: 1-5 B D A B D 6-10 D B B C B
Section 4 Grammar and usage
一．重点单词： 1.persuade 说服，劝说，使相信，使信服 (1)persuade sb to do sth = persuade sb into doing sth 说服某人干某事
He persuaded her to go /into going with him.
persuade sb not to do sth = persuade sb out of doing sth 说服某人不干某事
I persuaded my son not to go on online, while he persuaded me into believing her would try his best and get a better place.
persuade sb of sth = persuade sb that...使某人相信某事
He persuaded me of her death. = He persuaded me that she had died.
try to persuade sb to do sth = advise sb to do sth 劝说某人干某事（但不一定劝成）
I tried to persuade him to stop smoking but he wouldn’t. = I advised him to stop smoking but he wouldn’t.
(2)advise/ persuade/convince 区别： persuade:
advise: “忠告，建议” 。没有敦促意味，多指劝说，忠告，建议 的动作，不表明结果如何，相当于 try to persuade convince: “说服” 。侧重于用理智，理论，语气等方面来劝服， 多指成功地劝服。常用结构为：convince sb of sth/that 从句
No one can persuade Mike to give up playing computer games, which makes his parents very sad.
It is easy for you to advise, but difficult to take advice from others. I was convinced of the importance of spending time with my family.
Leave a note telling him I will call again.
The policeman noted some footprints.
(3)compare notes 对笔记，交换意见 change one’s note 改变态度/口气 take note of 注意 note down 记下，写下 make/take notes of ＝make/take a note of 把??记下来 (4)noted(adj.)著名的，知名的 noteless(adj.)不被注意的，不著名的 noter(n.)摘记者，做笔记者 3.result (1)(n.)A.考试的成绩 When can we know the exam results? B.结果，效果，后果 His illness is the result of lack of exercise. C.成效 If the programme doesn’t get results, it should be dropped. (2)(vi.)产生，发生，导致
These are injuries resulting from a fall.
(3)as a result (of)作为（的）结果，由于 with the result+that 从句 为此，因此 without result 毫无结果地 result from 起因于 result in= lead to 导致
Eg: The flight was delayed as a result of fog. He didn’t go to the party, with the result that he missed seeing some famous singers.
amusing(adj.)有趣的，好玩的 amused(adj.)感到有趣的，感到好奇的 (2)in amusement 感到好玩的 to one’s amusement 令人愉快的 amuse sb/oneself with 用??逗某人/自己乐 be amused at/by/with 以??为乐 be amused to do sth 做??取乐 (3)amuse,entertain, interest 区别： amuse:着重于“使人注意某些有趣或悦人之事而排谴时间”之间
They amused themselves by playing computer games.
entertain:“使娱乐，招待” ，指提供愉快的消遣，可以是私人的， 随便的，也可以是正式场合的娱乐
Mr Chen entertained us to dinner yesterday. He entertained the children with stories.
interest:“使感兴趣，注意，使关心” ，指对某学科或其他事物产 生兴趣
What the newspaper said interested me.
5.identity(n.) 身份，一致性 identify(v.)认出，确认 identical(adj.)同一的，完全相同的
Eg: The police are trying to find out the identity of the man killed in the accident.
6.discourage (1)discourage sb from doing sth 阻止某人做某事 encourage sb to do sth 鼓励某人做某事
Eg: Her parents discouraged her from becoming a singer.
discouraging(adj.)令人泄气的 courage(n.) 勇气 encourage(v.)鼓励 二．重点短语： 1.ever since 从??之后一直；从??以来一直 (1)ever since 要用于完成时态 (2)ever since,ever before, ever after 区别： ever since: 意为“从??之后一直” ，要用于完成时态
I haven’t written home ever since I went to college.
ever before:意为“在以往任何时候” ，要与比较级或最高级连用
The flowers grow more beautiful than ever before.
ever after:意为“从那以后” ，用于过去时
They lived happily ever after.
2.take care 小心，当心，保重 (1)take care (not) to do sth 小心/注意（不要）做某事
Take care not to smoke too much.
(2)take care + that
Take care that you don’t stay up too late.
(3)care for 喜欢，想要，看护，照料（尤指老人，病人） take care of = look after 照顾，负责，在意 care about 关心，在意 3.put off 推迟，延迟 (1)put off sth 推迟某事
We had to put off our wedding until September.
(2)put off doing sth 延迟做某事
He keeps putting off going to the dentist.
(3)put forward 提出，建议，推荐 put...away 把??放好，存好
put...back 把??放回原处 put out 熄灭，关掉
put sth aside 储蓄某物 put down 把??放下，写下，平息
put in 插入，放进，安装 put on 穿上，上演，戴上 4.refer to 就??而言，提到，参考，涉及，有关 refer to: 意为“提到，参考；指??而言，涉及，有关”
Her pupils often refer to this dictionary.
They referred their success to the correct leadership of the party.
The American Indians referred to salt as “magic white sand”.
5.feel like 想要（后接名词或动名词） feel like: 中的 feel 为系动词，like 为介词，feel like 后接名词或动名词
I feel like meeting her tonight.
would like:表示“想要做某事” ，like 为动词，后面跟不定式或名词
I’d like to visit the Great Wall.
like:表示“喜欢”时是实义动词。like doing 常表示经常的，习惯性 的行为，而 like to do 表示偶然一次性动作
I like reading but I like to watch TV now.
6.an absurd amount of 过多的 (1)“许多，大量”有以下表达方法： A.修饰可数名词：many, a great/good many, a large number of, quite a few, scores of , dozens of, many a B.修饰不可数名词: much, a great deal of, a large amount of/large amounts of, quite a little C.修饰可数或不可数名词：a lot of, lots of, plenty of, a quantity
of/quantities of, a mass of/masses of (2)a large amount of/ the large amount of A. a large amount of:后面接不可数名词，表示“许多，大量”
The trip abroad cost a considerable amount of money.
B. the large amount of:后面接不可数名词，表示“??的数量”
They have run out of the large amount of money.
(3) “quantities of +不可数名词” 作主语时，谓语动词用复数形式 三．重点句型： 1.We had nothing to do but watch TV. (1)have nothing to do but do...别无选择，只有??
Martin had nothing to do but sleep. The girl had nothing to do but leave alone.
(2)在 have nothing to do but do...句式中，因 but 前有了 do 的相应形 式, but 后省略动词不定式符号 to，若 but 前无 do 的形式，则 but 后 要用动词不定式符号 to (3)类似的结构： do nothing but do... There is nothing to do but do... have no choice but to do We had nothing to do but chat
Eg: The boy did nothing but cry. The boys had no choice but to obey.
2.You know I would rather visit the dentist than study algebra and arithmetic! (1)would rather 宁愿，其常见结构有：
A.would rather (not) do sth 宁愿（不）做某事
I would rather not tell you the truth.
B.would rather do sth than do sth = would do sth rather than do sth 宁愿做某事而不愿做（另外）某事
She would rather die than give in.
C.would rather (that) sb + did sth 宁愿某人做某事（虚拟语气，表示现
在或将来的愿望） I would rather you didn’t do it.
D.would rather (that) sb (not) had done sth 宁愿某人（没）做过某 事（虚拟语气，表示过去的愿望）
I would rather I hadn’t known it.
(2)would rather 后接从句时，从句要用虚拟语气，用一般过去时表 示现在或将来的愿望，有时也用 had done 表示过去的愿望。 3.Jane told me I had better spend more time studying... (1)spend time/money on sth 花费（时间/金钱）做某事 spend time/money in doing sth 花费时间/金钱在某事上 (2)spend, pay, cost, take, waste 区别： spend: 用在主动语态中， 主语是人， 其宾语为为表示时间的或金 钱的名词，常用以下句型： sb spends some time/money on sth sb spends some time/money (in) doing sth pay: 的主语是人，宾语是人或钱，即： sb pays some money for sth
How much did you pay for the new MP3?
The Laptop computer cost me more than 10,000 yuan.
take:指花费时间，常用下列句型： It takes sb some time to do sth. Sth takes sb some time to do.
It will take some time for milk sales to return to normal.
take 还可以表示花费力气，精力，占用地方等，含有“需要” 的意思
It takes great courage to take on the task.
waste:表示“浪费” ，其常用结构与 spend 相同
You are wasting your time trying to explain it to him.
4.Why not come to London this Easter? 表示建议劝告的常用句型有： I advise you (not) to do ...我劝你（别干）?? You’d better (not) do...你最好（别）干?? I suggest that you (not) do...我建议你（别）干?? Why not do ...? = Why don’t you do ...你为什么不?? Can’t you do sth?难道你不能干??吗？ How/What about doing...?干??怎么样？ Will you please do...?请你干??好吗？ Shall we do...?让我们干??好吗？ Let’s do ..., shall we?让我们干??，好吗？ Have you considered doing...?你考虑过做??吗？ 5.I think it is no use crying about your exam results now.
（1）it is no use doing sth 是一个常用句型，意为“做某事是没有 用的” 是形式主语，真正的主语是后面的动名词短语 ，it
It’s no use arguing with him. He won’t listen.
（2）It is no good doing sth 做好事没有好处 It is useless doing sth 做某事没有用 make use of 利用，使用 put sth to use 利用某物 be in use 在使用中
四．练习 1 1. There is nothing more I can try _____ you to stay, so I wish you good luck. A.being persuaded B.persuading C.to be persuaded D.to persuade 2. -Do you have any idea what Paul does all day? -As I know, he spends at least as much time playing as he ____. A.writes B.does writing C.is writing D.does write 3. Jenny nearly missed the flight ______ doing too much shopping. A.as a result of B.on top of C.in front of D.in need of 4. Hearing the ____ news, all of us became ______. A.discouraging , discouraged B.discouraged, discouraged C.discouraging, discouraging D.discouraged , discouraging 5. -How about going to the cinema this evening? - I don’t ____ movies. A.care much for B.care much C.care D.care about
6. The president spoke at the business meeting for nearly an hour without _____ his notes. A.bringing up B.referring to C.looking for D.trying on
7. According to a recent US survey, children spend up to 25 hours a week _______ TV. A.to watch B.to watching C.watching D.watch 8. -Do you feel like _____ there or shall we take a bus? -I’d like to walk. But since there isn’t much time left, I’d rather you _____ a taxi. A.walking, hire B.to walk, hire C.to walk, hired D.walking, hired 9. - I usually go there by train. -Why not ____ by boat for a change?
A.to try going B.trying to go C.to try and go D.try going 10. -Do you mind if I keep pets in the building? -____. A.I’d rather you didn’t actually B.Of course not. It’s not allowed here C.Great! I love pets. D.No, you can’t.
Key: 1-5 D B A A A 6-10B C D D A
五．练习 2 同义句转换： 1.It is useless arguing with her about this problem. ____ _____ ____ _____ arguing with her about this problem. 2.I prefer to take a trip rather than stay at home. I ____ ____ take a trip ______ stay at home.
3.Your hard work results in your great progress in English. Your great progress in English _____ ______ your hard work. 4.Why don’t you come in and have a rest for a walk? _____ ______ _______ in and have a rest for a while? 5.Drivers who break traffic rules won’t escape punishment. Drivers who break traffic rules won’t escape ______ _______. 选择： 6.With more forests being destroyed, huge quantities of good earth _____. A.is washing away B.is being washed away C.are washing away D.are being washed away 7.Nowadays, a large number of women, especially those from the countryside, _____ in the clothing industry. A.is working B.works C.work D.worked
8.The country life he was used to _____ greatly since 1992. A.change B.has changed C.changing D.have changed 9.The research group ______ 15 members has made great achievements in recent years. A.is made up of B.makes up C.made up of D.making up of 10.Children are _____ by health experts to take more physical exercise, for lack of it may produce bad influence on their later life. A.suggested B.warned C.informed D.advised
11.It was foolish of him to _____ his notes during that important test, and as a result, he got punished. A.refer to B.stick to C.come to D.turn to
12._____ of the truth of the report, he told his colleagues about it. A.Convinced B.Convincing C.To convince D.Having convinced 13.Many people believe that poverty is only a problem in rural areas. _____, it is also a problem in some urban areas. A.As a result B.Furthermore C.In the end D.As a matter of fact 14.His careless driving _____ him his life. A.spent B.cost C.ended D.lost
15.-You seemed to be impressed by his skill. -Not exactly so. It was his courage ______ his skill that really impressed me. A.rather than B.as well as C.but also D.together with 16.The driver started to speed up to _____ for the hour he had lost in the traffic jam. A.keep up B.take up C.make up D.catch up
17.At this moment and in this kind of condition, we have nothing to do but ____ the worst and hope for the best. A.prepare B.to be prepared for C.be prepared for D.to prepare for 18.The forest fire _____ his carelessness should have been avoided. A.resulting from B.resulting in C.being brought D.leading to 19.To our ____ , he acted in such a funny way.
A.amusing B.amused C.amusement D.amuse 20.Why ____ to the park with him? A.not to go B.you not go C.not to D.you don’t go 21.He spent the whole night _____ in his study to prepare for the exam the next day. A.locking B.in locking C.locked D.both A and B 22.Do you have any proof _____? A.of identity B.of identify C.in identity D.in identify
Key: 1. It is no use 2. would rather; than 3. results form 4.Why not come 5.being punished 6-10D C B C D 11-15 A A D B
A 16-22 C C A C C C A
Section 5 Task
一．重点单词： 1. anxious(adj.) (1)be anxious for/about...为??而忧虑或担心
The doctors are anxious for / about his health.
be anxious to do sth 渴望做某事，急于做某事
He is anxious to know the result of the exam.
be anxious + that 从句
We were anxious that we should see you soon.
(2)anxious/eager 区别： anxious: 强调“担心”或“焦急” ，对结果感到不安
We are anxious for his illness.
He is eager to join the Party.
(3)anxiously (adj.) 焦急的，焦虑的 anxiety(n.)焦虑，不安，渴望 2. suffer (1)(vt.)经受，承受（痛苦或不愉快之事）其后常跟抽象名词
suffer pain suffer loss
(2)(vi.)受损害，受损失（常与 from 连用，其后的名词多表示非常具体的一种不幸或痛苦）
She often suffers from headaches.
Most of the things you learn at school have no practical value in the real world. Be practical. We can’t afford the car and the vacation.
(1)practice(n.)练习，实践，习惯做法 practise(v.)实践，练习，开业，从业 practically(adv.)实际地，现实地
(2)in practice 实际上，在实践中 be out of practice（因久不练习而）荒废，生疏 be in practice 经常练习，熟练 put sth into practice 把某事付诸实施 practise doing sth 练习干某事 4. express (1)(v.)A.表达，表示 express one’s views 表达自己的观点 express one’s disappointment/sympathy/thanks 表示失望/同情/感谢 express oneself 表达自己（的观点或想法） B.用快件寄出 (2)(n.)快车，快递
They asked me to express the letter.
Send these books by express. There is an express service between the two cities twice daily.
(3)(adj.)快递的， 直达的 二．重点短语：
1. in advance= ahead of time 事先，提前 advance(v.)（使）前进，推进，向前 advanced(adj.)先进的，高级的
They asked us to pay the rent in advance. It is impossible to know in advance what will happen.
2. get through (1)接通电话
I can’t get through to him. The line is busy. Can you get through the work in a week? We all have got through the final examinations.
(4)look through 浏览，把??看一遍 live through 度过，经受住 go through 经历（苦难等） cut through 抄近路穿过，剪断 pass through 经过，经历 break through 突围，冲垮
3. apart from 除??以处（别无） ??外，而且 ，除 (1)apart form, but , except, besides 区别： apart from: 既表示“除??之外别无” ，同 except 的用法，又可表 示“除之外还有”之意，同 besides 的用法
Apart from his nose, he’s quite good-looking.
but 与 except 均表示“除??之外”
He answered all the questions except the last one.
I have five other dictionaries besides this.
(2)in addition 加上，另外，又 as well 也，倒不如
as well as 既?又?? except for 除??之外
except that/what/when/where 除??之外还有 4. agree with agree with/agree to/agree on agree with: 表示同意，赞同某人所说的话；如果事物作主语，意 为“适宜，与??一致”
We all agree with you.
agree to:“赞同，同意” ，后面接提议，办法，计划等名词
Do you agree to his suggestion?
agree on :表示商量后“就??取得一致意见” ，主语通常是复数
At last we agreed on the plan of the project.
5. have an effect on 对??有影响，对??起作用
The medicine had no effect on him. What he said had a good effect on the poor boy.
(1)effect/affect 区别： effect:用作名词时，意思是“结果，效果，作用，影响”等
Did the medicine have a good effect?
affect: 通常是及物动词，有“影响，感动，感染”等意思，其 名词形式是 effect。affect sth= have an effect on sth
The entire country was affected by the drought.
(2)bring/carry/put into effect 实行，实现，完成，使生效 come/go into effect 开始生效，开始实施 in effect 事实上 of no effect 无效
take effect 生效，起作用 with effect 有效地 without effect 无效地 三．重点句型： 1. Think about what questions to ask and writer them down in advance. (1)“特殊疑问词+不定式”结构，相当于疑问词引导的从句 (2)what/who/when/where/how/which/whether+ to do = 名词性从句， 在 句子中可作主语，宾语，表语，同位语等
Please tell me what to do next. = Please tell me what I should do next.
(3)能接此结构，作宾语的及物动词有 ask, decide, know, tell, show, teach, explain, wonder, consider, find out 等
I don’t know what to do next.
Please show me how to do it.
She was not sure on what to depend.
2. Express your opinions on the following statements by stating whether you agree or disagree. (1)whether...nor...表示“是??还??”“不管??还是??” ，
Whether he succeeds or fails, he has to do his best.
(2)whether or not= in either case 无论如何，不管怎样
He threatens to go ,whether or not.
3. Check that the choice of vocabulary and sentence structure is on the right degree of formality. “Of + 名词”结构相当于形容词，常用来表示人或事物所具有的 特征或性质，在句子中作表语或后置定语。该结构有两类： (1)be +of +抽象名词 = be +相应的形容词
The meeting is of great importance. = The meeting is very important.
(2) be of +age/size/height/kind/shape/length/colour/weight 等，该结构 中的 of 可以省略
When I was of your age, I was a teacher.
(3) 此结构中，如果 of 后面的名词前有不定冠词 a/an，则 a/an 相当 于 the same
These bottles are of a /the same size.
4. Although Willliam and I are almost 18, Mum and Dad are still quite strict with us. (1)although but yet still (2)although/though/as A.although 较正式，多用于句首 B.though 在 非 正 式 语 体 中 较 为 普 遍 ， 在 下 列 用 法 中 只 能 用
though ，不用 although a. Though 用于倒装句中，与 as 用法相同 b. 用作副词，表示“然而，不过” ，常常用在句末，有时也可以在句中
I have caught a cold, it isn’t serious, though.
C.as 引导让步状语从句中，从句要用部分倒装，句型为：形容词/ 名词（不带冠词）/动词（原形）+as+主语+谓语
Young as /though he is, he can speak two foreign languages.
四．练习 1 1. -Have you _____? -No, I had the wrong number. A.got in B.got away C.got off D.got through
2. -Have you got any particular plans for the coming holiday? -Yes. _____, I’m going to visit some homes for the old in the city. A.If ever B.If busy C.If anything D.If possible -He phoned me this morning, and
3. -When did you last hear ____ Jay?
we agreed ____ a time and place to meet. A.of, to B.aobut, with C.from, with D.from, on 4. For a moment nothing happened. Then ____ all shouting together. A.voices had come B.came voices
C.voices would come D.did voices come 5. He told us whether _____ a picnic was still under discussion. A.to have B.having C.have D.had
6. Unsatisfied _____ with the payment, he took the job just to get some work experience.
A.though was he B.though he was C.he was though D.was he though 7. Scientists are convinced of the positive effect of laughter _____ physical and mental health. A.at B.in C.on D.at
8. It will be foolish to pay to see that film when you can see it on TV for _____. A.free B.nothing C.none D.both A and B
9. My mother always gets a bit _____ if we don’t arrive when we say we will. A.anxious B.ashamed C.weak D.patient
Key: 1-5D D D B A 6-9 B C D A
五．练习 2 1. Grandma always gives us ______ Christmas presents-last year we got a kettle. A.real B.practical C.beautiful D.expensive
2. -Can you work out the problem? - I can’t _____ you explain how to do it. A.but for B.except C.apart from D.unless 3. To their delight, their only son has _____ the important exam. A.got around B.got down to C.got through D.got away from
4. The old lady _____ great pain when her only son was killed in a traffic accident. A.took B.suffered C.suffered from D.stood
5. It is generally accepted that guest writes a letter one or two days after the dinner party_____ his thanks to the host and hostess. A.expresses B.expressing C.with expression D.so that express 6. You’ll find the map is of great _____ in helping you to get round London. A.price B.cost C.value D.importance
7. _____ at the back of the room was a shy girl with two big eyes. A.Sit B.Sat C.Seated D.Seating
8. ______, his idea was accepted by all the people at the meeting. A.Strange as might it sound B.As it might sound strange C.As strange it might sound D.Strange as it might sound 9. The great changes would never have taken place _____ the economic reform in our country. A.apart from B.but for C.except D.besides 10. I think the book is _____. A.of greatly value B.of great value C.of very value D.great valuable
Key: 1-5 B D C B B 6-10C C D B B
Section 6 Project
一．重点单词： 1. puzzle(v.) (1)be in a puzzle about 对??困惑不解
I’m in a puzzle about what you said.
be puzzled by 被??迷惑 I’m puzzled by what happened in our office. (2)puzzle,question 区别： puzzle: 指令人迷惑的，难以理解或回答的问题
This is quite a puzzle.
Answer your teacher’s question.
(3)puzzled(adj.)迷惑的，困惑的 puzzling(adj.)令人困惑的，令人迷惑的 puzzlement(n.) 迷惑，困惑 类似结构的派生词还有： disappoint(v.)-disappointed(adj.)-disappointing(adj.)-disappointment(n.) amuse(v.)-amused(adj.)-amusing(adj.)-amusement(n.) amaze(v.)-amazed(adj.)-amazing(adj.)-amazement(n.) astonish(v.)-astonished(adj.)-astonishing(adj.)-astonishment(n.) excite(v.)-excited(adj.)-exciting(adj.)-excitement(n.) 2. attitude(n.)
She shows a very positive attitude to her work. Don’t take that attitude with me.
a positive/negative attitude 积极/消极的态度 attitude to /towards sb./sth 采取??态度
take/adopt/assume a ...attitude 采取??态度 change one’s attitude 改变某人的态度/看法 3. consistent(adj.)一致的，符合的 (1)be consistent with = consist with 与??一致
His behaviour was not consistent with his opinion.
(2)consist(v.)一致，相容，构成 4. hesitate(v.)犹豫，迟疑不决 (1)hesitate to do sth = hesitate bout doing sth 对做某事犹豫不决
Don’t hesitate to tell me if you have any requests. She’s still hesitating about sending her son to college.
without hesitation 毫不犹豫 feel some hesitation in accepting invitation 对接受邀请有点犹豫不决 (2)hesitate in speaking 说话吞吞吐吐
The old man hesitated in speaking.
(3)hesitation(n.)犹豫，踌躇 5. respond(v.) (1)(v.)作“回答，对??回应”解，比 answer 更正式，常与介词 to 搭配
He didn’t respond to my question.
The doctor responded that he could not tell the name of the disease.
(3)response(n.)回答，响应 responder(n.)回答者，响应者 responsible(adj.)有责任的，可靠的 responsibility(n.)职责，责任 (4)respond to a letter 回信 in response to 回答，回应
a sense of responsibility 责任感 take the responsibility for 负起??的责任 be responsible for 对??负责 6. suppose(v.) (1)用在句首(supposing)，引导状语从句，相当于 if, in case, providing 或 provided，表示“假设，设若”
Supposing that it rains, can we play the match indoors?
Let us suppose, for example, that you are married with two children.
(3)suppose++(to be) adj./n.
This combination of qualities is generally supposed to be extremely rare.
(4)be supposed to do 理应，应当，按理
You were supposed to be here an hour aog.
(5)be not supposed to do 不许，不可
You are not supposed to walk on the grass.
7. realize(v.) (1)(v.)A.“意识到，认识到” ，后接名词或宾语从句
At last he realized his mistake.
She realized her dream of becoming an actress.
(2)realize/come true 区别： realize:是及物动词，后可跟宾语 come true:是不及物动词短语，后面不可跟宾语
He realized his dream at last. His dream had come true.
(3) real(adj.)-realize(v.) true(adj.)-come true(v.)
8. regardless(adv.)不管，不顾，无论如何 (1)regardless of 不顾，不惜
But she did not give it up regardless.
in spite of 不顾，不管
In spite of the rain, she went swimming.
Despite wanting to see him again, she refused to reply to his letters.
(2)in spite of/regardless of 区别： in spite of: ＝despite, 意为“不管，尽管”
The plane took off in spite of the bad weather.
regardless of:＝without considering or taking note of， “不考虑， 意为 不顾”
He continued speaking, regardless of my feelings on the matter.
9. determine(v.)决定，确定，下定决心 (1)determine+n./pron.决定/确定??
Upbringing plays an important part in determining a person’s character.
(2)determine to do sth 决定做某事 （表示动作， 是非延续性动词短语）
As you know, they determined to start early.
The court determined that the defendant should pay the legal costs.
(4)determine sb to do sth 使某人下决心做某事
We determined him to pass the examination.
I’m determined to succeed.
二．重点短语： 1. be absorbed in
The students were completely absorbed in their reading. The girl was absorbed in drawing.
(1)absorb...into...把??吸收进?? take in 吸引，容纳 bring in 引来，引进 (2)absorbed(adj.)全神贯注的，一心一意的 absorbable(adj.)可吸收的，容易被吸收的 2. in the world 相当于 on earth，用于疑问句中，以加强语气
What in the world are you doing? Where in the world did you go?
3. share (in) sth with sb 与某人分担/分享某事物
Eg: Eli shared his chocolate with the other kids. People often share their political views with their parents.
share (in) sth between/among sb 在某人之间分（分配，分担）某物 have a share in...在??方面分得一份（或有贡献） go shares with sb (in sth)与某人均分某物 share the joys and hardships 同甘共苦 4. be based on/upon 建立在??基础上，基于
His theory is based on facts.
(1)base(v.)把基础放在??（常与介词 on/upon 搭配） (n.)底部，基础，基地 basic(adj.)基本的，基础的 basically(adv.)基本上，从根本上说 basis (n.)基础，根据，原则 (2)base...upon(on)??以??为基础（其被动：be based on/upon） on the base of 以??为基础
at the base of 在??的根基上 at the base for/of...在??的根基上 5. now that (1)now and then 时而，不时 from now on 从现在开始 just now 刚才 until/till now 直到现在 (2)because,now that, since, as, for 区别： 这几个词语气由强至弱依次伙 because-since/now that-as-for ,其中 because, now that, since, as 为从属连词,引导原因状语从句； 为并列 for 连词 because:意为“因为” ，表直接原因，回答 why 的提问，一般放 在 主句之后，也可单独存在
She got the job because she was the best candidate.
up to now 直到现在
since/now that: 意为“因为，既然” ，侧重主句，从句说明原因， 主句说明结果，为常用词
Since everyone is here, let’s start.
as: 意为“由于，鉴于” ，主从句并重，从句说明原因，主句说 明结果，为常用词
As it was late, I made haste to go.
for: 意为“因为，由于” ，表示附加或推断的理由，引导的分 句前常有逗号，for 分句不能放在句首
He must be ill, for he is absent today.
6. agree on
agree on/agree with/agree to 区别： agree on +n.(place/date/price...)双方就??达成协议
Finally, they agreed on a plan of work.
agree with sb/sb’s words/what one said 同意某人（的意见）
I agree with what you said.
sth agree with sb (气候，食物等）适合某人
The climate here doesn’t agree with her.
agree to one’s proposal/plan/suggestion 同意某人的建议/计划/主张
We all agree to his suggestion.
agree to do sth 同意做某事
I agree to have another try.
7. on the other hand (1) on the one hand...on the other hand... 一方面??， “ 另一方面??” ， 用于表达相矛盾的两个方面，尤其指对立的观点，思想等
On the one hand, I want to sell the house, but on the other hand, I can’t bear the thought of moving.
(2) for one thing...for another (thing)...首先??，再者??，陈述两方 面的情况一致，以说明理由，其中 for another (thing) 相当于 besides
For one thing, I have seen the film, for another , I have an important meeting to attend tonight.
三．重点句型： 1. When asked they usually hesitate before responding... 在表示时间，条件，让步等的状语从句中，如果主语和主句的 主语一致，且谓语中包含动词 be，那么从句的主语和 be 常省略；当 从句的主语是 it，表示情况，谓语是 be，这时 it 和 be 也可以省略
I will phone you whenever possible.= I will phone you whenever it is possible. If invited, we will go to the party.= If we are invited, we’ll go to the party.
2. When a boy is said to be or to have a best friend, it is likely that the
two share little about their feelings with one another. (1)A.表示“据说??”常用的结构有： It+be said+ that 从句 主语+be said to do sth People say +that 从句 B.除 say 之外，常用此结构的还有： It is believed that...人们相信?? It is reported that...据报道?? It is known that...众所周知?? It is agreed that...人们同意?? It is thought that...大家认为?? It is supposed that...大家推测?? It is hoped that...人们希望?? It is proved that...据证明?? It is suggested that...人们建议?? It is required/demanded that...据要求?? It has been found that...已经发现?? (2)当从句作主语时， 为了使句子平衡， 常用 it 作形式主语， 把连 that, whether 和连接副词 when, where, why, how 等引导的主语从句放在句 末，常用 it 作形式主语的句型一般有以下四种： A.It +be +adj.+that/wh-从句
It is certain that fuels like coal and oil cause a lot of pullution.
B.It +be +n.+that/wh-从句
It’s a shame that you’ve sick.
It is not decided when and where the meeting will be held.
It happened that I was not in the office that day.
3. The qualities that boys and girls consider important in a friend seem to be the same. that 定语从句与 that 同位语从句： (1)定语从句是先行词的修饰语，它不涉及先行词的具体内容。定语 从句中 that 不但起连接作用，而且在定语从句中充当一个句子成分， 充当从句的宾语成分时可省略
The hope that they expressed is that they would come to visit China again.
(2)用作同位语的从句叫同位语从句。同位语从句对中心词的内容作 进一步的解释和说明， 表明中心词的具体内容。 引导同位语从句的 that 在同位语从句中不做任何成分，只起连接作用，无具体含义，且不可 省略。它引导的同位语从句一般跟着名词 news, fact, suggestion, truth, plan, belief, doubt, possibility, idea 等作它们的同位语。引导同位语从 句最常见的是连词 that
They expressed the hope that they would come to visit China again.
(3)除了 that 外，还有 whether, when, where, how, why 等可以引导同 位语从句
We ought to discuss carefully the question whether we can do it or not.
四．练习 1 1.We are at your service. Don’t ____ to turn to us if you have any further problems.
2.This special school accepts all disabled students, _____ educational level and back ground. A.according to B.regardless of C.in addition to D.in terms of 3.I have offered to paint the house ____ a week’s accommodation. A.in exchange for B.with regard to C.by means of D.in place of 4.It is often ______ that human beings are naturally equipped to speak. A.said B.to say C.saying D.being said 5.Despite such a big difference in _____ towards what one eats, there is no doubt that people in the west regard the Chinese food as something special. A.point B.idea C.attitude D.sight 6.He _____ as a national hero for winning the first gold metal for his country in the Olympics. A.regarded B.was regarded C.has regarded D.had been regarded 7._____ you’ll get a chance, you might as well make full use of it. A.Now that B.After C.Although D.As soon as 8.The results are consistent _____ our earlier research. A.to B.with C.of D.on
9.He says what he thinks, _____ other people’s feelings. A.regardless of B.not think C.in spite D.in despite 10.From his _____ expression, we know it is a ____ problem.
A.puzzled, puzzled B.puzzling, puzzling C.puzzled, puzzling D.puzzling, puzzled 11.He never _____ to help those in trouble because he was a kind-hearted man. A.handled B.hurried C.hesitated D.delayed 12.I don’t think his _____ is good. A.attitude to work B.attitude towards work C.attitude for work D.Both A and B 13.He has ______ that nothing shall prevent him ______ to work in the countryside. A.determined, going B.determined, to go C.decided, going D.decided , to go
14.Culture refers to a group of community ____ we share common experiences that shape the way we understand the world. A.with which B.that C.which D.what
15.I think it is high time you _____ up your mind. A.make B.made C.will make D.to make
Key: 1-5B B A A C 6-10B A B A C 11-15C D A A B
五．练习 2 1. The truck ran down the hill, and the drive ____, according to the local newspaper , to have been killed.
A.was reported B.was reporting C.reported D.had been reported 2. ____ in the book, she didn’t bear what I said to her at all. A.Having absorbed B.Being absorbed C.Absorbed D.to absorbed 3. Leonardo da Vinci(1452-1519)____ birds kept in cage in order to have the pleasure of setting them free. A.is said to be buying B.is said to have bought C.had said to buy D.has said to have bought
4. She listened with a ____ expression. A.puzzle B.puzzling C.puzzled D.to puzzle 5. She was so ____ in her job that she didn’t hear anybody knocking at the door. A.absorbed B.attracted C.drawn D.concentrated 6. In order to change attitudes ____ employing women, the government is bringing in new laws. A.about B.of C. towards D.on 7. I hesitate ____ you, but will you lend me some money? A.to ask B.ask C.asking D.asked 8. This job is open to all, ____ their previous experience. A.apart form B.as a consequence of C.regardless of D.in spite 9. Her theory ____ John Markham’s proves to be correct and practical. A.basing on B.based on C.copying from D.made up
10. The suspect was very cunning. He told a lie to the policeman ____ at
the scene. A.when questioned B.while to be questioned C.as questioning D.when questioning
11. I ____ if you could have a word with me. A.wonder that B.wonder C.wonder at D.wonder on 12. ____ take the exam? A.When do you think will they B.When do you suppose 13. ____ to train his daughter in English, he put an ad like this in the paper, “____,an English teacher for a ten-year-old girl.” 14. It is ____ on historical facts. 15. We have planted flowers and green trees around the blocks of buildings, which ____ beauty to the whole city. 16. -What do you think of the meal? -Although some dishes don’t agree ____ me, it’s really a nice meal. 17. He ____ his brains to find the answer to the question. 18. He made no response ____ my questions. 19. The film, ____ true story of this Red Army general, attracted people’s interest all over the world. 20. -Look! He’s running so fast! -Hard to _____ his legs were once broken. 21. There are many black clouds. It is ____ to rain soon. Key: 1-5A C B C A 6-10 C A C B A
11-15 B B A D A 16-21B C A D B C