人教新课标必修8 Unit 3 Inventors and inventions
1. When I called up my mother in the countryside on the telephone, she was very upset. call up 打电话，使…回忆起 今晚我会给你打电话。 I’ll call you up tonight. __________________________
The old photo calls up memories of _____________________________ my childhood.
call back call for call in call on
召唤某人回来；再访；回电话 需要，要求，接（人或物） 邀请；请来 拜访（人）
call at 拜访（某地） Ex. ----Can I do the job? D ----I’m afraid not, because it ______skill and patience. A.calls on B. calls out C. calls up D. calls for
2. now and then 时而；不时= sometimes, but not often 我偶尔看见他，但不常见。 I see him now and then, but not often. _______________________________ 我有时喜欢去看歌剧。 I like to go to the opera now and then. _____________________________ 相关短语： 有时；不时 from time to time 时而；不时 (every) now and again 从现在开始，今后 from now on 刚才 just now 从那时以来 since then
3. Here was a chance for me to distinguish myself by inventing something merciful that would catch snakes but not harm them. distinguish vt. & vi. (1)辨别；辨认 从远处我能认出他们。 I can distinguish them at a distance. ___________________________ (2) （常与from, between连用）区别；区分 你能区分那两个物体吗？ ________________________________ objects? Can you distinguish between those two
应当教育孩子分辨好坏。 distinguish right from Children should be taught to wrong __________________
(3) (常与from连用) 使别于；有…特点
Speech ________________________________ distinguishes men from animals
象因为有长鼻子而有别于其他动物。 are distinguished Elephants _________________ by their long trunks.
(4)distinguish oneself 显扬自己；使自己扬名
这个人因智慧而扬名。 distinguish himself by his wisdom The man________________________________.
be distinguished from distinguish …from … be distinguished by be distinguished for distinguished adj. distinguishing adj. distinguishable adj.
不同于…与…加以区别 辨别，把…和…区别开 以…为特征 因…而著称 著名的，出名的 有区别的 可区别的
4. I set about researching the habits of snakes to find the easiest way to trap them. set about =set out: to begin or start 着手；开始 他一到那儿就着手解决问题。 set about solving the problem He __________________________ as soon as he arrived there.
set out to solve the problem = He ________________________ as soon as he arrived there.
set out的另一个意思为“动身”， “出发”， 后面长跟介词for
他们以出发到上海去了。 _____________________________________. They have set out (= set off ) for Shanghai set out set out to do sth. 出发，起程 开始做某事
5. …, which freezes hard when cooled. …, （果冻）被冷却后会变硬。
when cooled 为when it is cooled 的省略结构
when/while /once/unless/ if 等连词所引导的 时间状语从句中的主语与主句主语相一致， 且从句中含有系动词be 时，从句中的主语 和系动词be可省略，形成“连词+分词” 结 构。
D 1._________ with the size of the whole earth, the biggest ocean does not seem big at all.
B. When comparing
C. Comparing D. When compared A 2. _____more time, we are sure to finish it. A. Given B. Giving C. Be given D. If giving
6.They abruptly disappeared into a convenient hole in the wall. abruptly adv.突然地，唐突地 abrupt adj.突 然的；意外的 Ex. 这路有很多急转弯。
abrupt turns The road is full of ________________.
这会议突然结束了。 The meeting came to ______________. an abrupt end 我们的讨论突然给缩短了。
Our discussion was ____________ curtailed. abruptly
convenient adj. 便利的，方便的 be convenient to sb.
it is convenient for sb.
it is convenient to do sth. 做某事方便 三点钟对你方便吗？ Will 3 o’clock be convenient for you? ________________________________ 我想这个时候见你恐怕不大合适。 convenient moment I’m afraid this isn’t a ___________________ to see you.
Come and see me whenever________________. C A.you are convenient B. you will be convenient
C. It is convenient to you D. it will be convenient to you A If it is quite ______ to you, I will visit you next Tuesday. A. convenient B. fair C. easy D. comfortable
7. This was in the expectation that the snakes would bite again. But monitored carefully, the snakes proved to be no trouble and all went according to plan. 这是因为我们预料蛇
句中的that从句是一个同位语从句， 作expectation的同位语。 Expectation:预料；期待。例如： firm belief that sth will happen
There’s no expectation of snow tonight. 今晚预计无雪。
（1）to check by means of an electronic receiver for significant contents, such as military, political, or illegal activity 利用监听器 或监视器来监听，收听，收视重要内容，如有 关军事，政治或非法活动的内容。例如： They have been monitoring the enemy’s radio broadcasts to try to find out their secret plans. 他们一直在监听地方的电台广播，设法查探他 们的秘密计划。
（2）to keep close watch over; supervise 密切监视；监督。例如： The teacher is monitoring an examination. 老师正在监考。
prove (vt.) (1)show that sth is true or certain by means of argument or evidence 证明；证实。例如：
He has proved his courage in battles. 他已在战斗 证明了自己的勇气。 Facts prove that the creative power of people knows no limits. 事实证明人民的创造是无穷的。
be seen or found to be; turn out to be 原 来（是）；证明（是）。例如： The method/drug proved (to be) highly effective. 这个方法/这种药被证明是非常 有效的。 My advice proved to be wrong. 我的意见 被证实是错的。
8. Only after you have had that recognition can you say that you are truly an inventor. 只有你得到这种承认，你才可以说是一个 真正的发明家。
only 修饰状语，至于句首，主句的语序需要 倒装。此句如改成正常语序应是：You can say that you are truly an inventor only after you have had that recognition. 又如： Only by working hard can we pass the exams.
某些否定词至于句首，表示强调时也会引起 倒装。如： never, seldom, hardly, neither, nor, not, only, little 等。 如课文中令一句： Nor will you receive a patent until a search has been made to find out that your product really is different from everyone else’s.
Never have I seen such an exciting film.
Little did I know what was about to happen.
9. The criteria are so strict that it is difficult to get new ideas accepted unless they are truly novel. 专利标准非常严格，除非新的想法真的是新颖 的，否则很难被接受。 这里that引导结果状语从句。主句和从句是原因 与结果的关系，译作“因此”。例如： She spoke so fast that few of us could follow her. 讲话太快，我们很少有人能听得懂。
novel 在此处是形容词，意思是 “新的；新 颖的；新奇的”。其名词形式是novelty。 He is a person who always has novel ideas. 他经常会有新奇的想法。
1. He believed that one should always be curious and his most famous saying was: ”Leave the beaten track occasionally and dive into the woods. Every time you do you will be certain to find something that you have never seen before. Follow it up, explore all around it, and before you know it, you will have something worth thinking about to occupy your mind. All really big discoveries are the result of thought.” 他认为一个人应当具有好奇心，他最著名的一句话 是：“偶尔离开平路去寻求困境。当你这么做的时 候，你一定会发现你从未见过的东西。跟踪下去， 不断探索，不知不觉中，你就会发现某种值得思考 的东西占据着你的头脑。所有真正伟大的发现都是 思考的结果。”
beaten track 踏平的路；一贯的路；惯例。如： We followed a well-beaten track through the forest. 我们沿着一条人们他出来的路穿过森林。 dive (vt)
to go headfirst into water 潜入；跳水。例如：
He dived into the river and rescued the drowning child. 他跳到水中，救起那快要溺死的小孩。
to move quickly in a specified direction 扑去；冲去。 例如： when the rain started, we dived into a café 雨下了起 . 来，我们立即跑进一家小餐馆。
woods 原指“森林”，在这里有“险境，困境”的 意思。out of the woods 表示“脱离麻烦或困难”。 如：
The situation is improving, but we are not out of the woods yet. 情况正在改善，但我们还没有摆脱困境。
2. Although he is most often associated with the invention of the telephone, he was indeed a continuing searcher after practical solutions to improve the quality of everybody’s life.
虽然人们常把他和发明电话联系起来，但是他的确 是一名永不停息的探索家，不断寻求着改善人们生 活质量的途径。 associate with 把… 和…联系起来；和…来往。如： In our minds the Spring Festival is associated with happy family reunions. 在我们心中，春节是和愉快 的家庭团聚联系在一起的。 Her parents didn’t like her associating with net friends. 她的父母不喜欢她和网友来往。
句中的continuing是动词-ing形式，在这里作定语 用。如： This is a very pressing problem. 这是意见紧急的 事情。
We talked a great deal about the coming festival. 我们说了不少有关即将到来的节目的事情。
He made an inspiring speech at the meeting. 他在 会上发表了一段激动人心的讲话。
practical 实际的; 实践的; 实用的 I want some practical advice.
It wouldn’t be practical for us to go all that way just for the weekend.
The dictionary is very practical.
3. I’m sorry, but this phone is out of order. 对不起，这 个电话坏了。
out of order 坏了；有毛病。如：
Our refrigerator is out of order again. We’d better buy a new one instead of repairing it. 咱们的冰箱又 坏了，我们别修它了，最好买一个新的。 与之相反的短语是in order, 意思是“处于正常情况， 情况良好”。如：
The house is painted and decorated, everything is in order. 房子粉刷了，装修了，一切都整整齐齐。 I’ll see that everything is in good order when the guests arrive. 客人来时我会把一切都照料得井井有 条的。