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英国文学史及选读1,2册复习大纲


Part 1 The Anglo—Saxon Period(449-1066)秧格鲁 撒克逊时期 ( )秧格鲁-撒克逊时期 1. Historical Background Celts 400B.C. Romans 50B.C. Anglo—Saxons 450A.D Norman Invasion 1066A.D. Roman empire 从 albion 撤军,teutonic tribes(包括 angles, Saxons,jutes)(条 顿人 or 日耳曼人)陆续登陆此地 2. Literature 1,pagan 异教徒文学 2 christian 基督徒文学 alliterative verse

头韵诗
Epic: Beowulf 贝奥武甫 贝奥武甫(Denmark 背景) (the hall heorot 鹿庁,grendel:a monster half-human) 1) Oral origin, recited in court, handed down in generations until finally it was recorded by certain poet.上下部分由 pagan 写,插入由 christian 写 2) a mixture of history and legend.,england’s national epic 民国史诗 Part II The Anglo-Norman Period(1066-1350)秧格鲁 诺曼时期 秧格鲁-诺曼时期 秧格鲁 1. Historical Background Roman conquest,接着是 english conquest,最后是 norman conquest。 The Norman Conquest in 1066 Duke William of Normandy claimed himself William I, King of England.(the battle of hastings 希斯廷战役) Kings—Barons 男爵—Knights, a feudal system of hierarchy 统治集团 was formed 2. The language Upper classes: French, Latin The common people: Old English Three languages co-existed in England. French became the official language used by the king and the Norman lords; Latin became the principal tongue of church affairs and in universities; and Old English was spoken only by the common English people. 3.The literature Romance was a type of literature that was very popular in the Middle Ages. It is about the life and adventures undertaken by a knight. It reflected the spirit of chivalry 骑士制度. The content of romance: love, chivalry and religion. It involves fighting, adventures. Subject matter: ,riming chronicles 押韵编年史, Geoffrey’s History 杰弗里《史记》 metricalverse 格律诗体,doggerel verse 打油诗体 1) the Matter of France eg. Charlemagne and his peers 查理曼大帝和他的 骑士

2) Matter of Greece and Rome eg Akexabder 亚历山大大帝 3) Matter of Britain tales having for their heroes Arthur and his knights of the Round Table 3. main literature Sir Gawain and the green knight. 高 文 爵 士 和 绿 衣 骑 士 ( arthur , gawain,green knight, morgain the fay-woman 妖精摩根, the green girdle 绿 腰带) Part III Geoffrey Chaucer (1340—1400)杰弗里 乔叟时期 杰弗里.乔叟 杰弗里 乔叟时期 1. Historical Background He was living at the same time as the writer of Sir Gawain. In 1350 AD, 100 Years' War between England and France. The English won, they controlled large French territory 领土. The Henry VI lost it all. He is father of English poetry War of the Roses 1455-1485 AD 2. What's middle ages like? 1). The medieval society: hierarchy 等级制度 social system. 2). Another important thing in the medieval society is Christianity 基督 God-centered thinking, mind ideology 思想体系 3. Life and work of Chaucer Chaucer lived between (1340-1400). His life is closely connected with the King and the royal family. Chaucer is working in a royal family as a page 小 侍臣. He married the sister of Gaunt's wife. He became a government official.He is very much exposed to the influence of Italy of the culture. E. G. Dante 但丁, Patriarch,主教 Boccaccio-the Decameron 薄伽丘著《十日 谈》,Chaucer chose the metrical form which laid the foundation of the English tonico-syllabic verse.乔叟第一次在英国用韵脚韵律诗形式来创作 诗歌,开创了英国文学以重音-音节为基础的格律诗先河。首创 heroic couplet 英雄双行体。 His career can be divided into several periods 1. French 1360-1370 translate French poetry 2. Italian 1372-1386 3. English The Canterbury tales 4. The Canterbury tales He got his stories from various sources, Greek authors, Roman authors, Italian, French, but there is no doubt about Chaucer's originality. He retells the stories in his own way. The stories are told by a group of people on their way to and back from Canterbury. Pilgrims 朝圣者 tell stories to pass the time. The

journey is used as a kind of device to unite the various tales Nun 修女:Her enthusiasm for grace, trying to become someone that she is not, she cannot possibly be. --Pretentiousness, pretending 伪装 too much Chaucer has different attitude to different characters 第一句:as soon as april pierces to the root, the drought of march, and bathes each bud and shoot The significance of his writing 1) it gives a comprehensive 广泛的 picture of Chaucer’s time 2) the dramatic structure 3) Chaucer’s humor 4) Chaucer’s contribution to the English language. Ever since the Norman Conquest the French language was the language at the court and the upper classes, and Latin was the language of the learned and the church. Chaucer used the native language English and proved that the English language is a beautiful language. He increased the prestige 威信 of the English language. 5. Popular ballads 大众民谣 A ballad is a narrative 叙述 poem that tells a story. It is about particular incidents, usually dramatic. Ballets tell stories-about tragic 悲剧的 incidents. They are written in a special musical pattern, ballad meter-four meters, couplets(相连并押韵的两行诗)— two line in a unit or quatrain 四行诗__ ababcdcd Characteristics: 1) The beginning is often abrupt 突然地. No introduction of the characters and the background of the tale 2) There are strong dramatic elements. A ballad deals with a single episode 插曲 3) the story is often told through dialogue and action 4) the theme is often tragic 悲剧的 5) The ballad meter is used. It contains four-line stanza 节,段 在英国把民谣当文学形式研究的第一人是托马斯.帕西主教 Bishop Thomas Percy,他将民谣收录到《英诗辑古》Reliques of Ancient English Poetry 中。 Robin Hood and Allin-a-Dale 罗宾汉和阿林代尔 Get Up and Bar the Door. 派屈克。 起来去关门 Sir Patrick Spens 派屈克。斯宾塞爵士 Part IV The Renaissance 文艺复兴时期 1. Historical Background 1) The reign of Queen Elizabeth (1558_1603)

England enjoyed a period of peace and prosperity 2) The defeat of the Spanish Armada 舰队 by the English navy in 1588. After the battle, England gradually became a mighty naval 海军的 power. 3) Humanism 人文主义 Renaissance: it is a French word that means “rebirth”复活 in English. In the 15th and 16th century, scholars in western European countries had a keen interest in the Greek and Latin culture. That is the art and science of ancient Greece and Rome were being born again after long years of neglect.忽略 Humanism: The welfare 幸福 of human being is very important. It emphases the worth of life in this world, and the dignity of human being. 4)主要作者介绍 Thomas More : Utopia 托马斯。莫尔:乌托邦 Thomas Wyatt:怀亚特:把 sonnet 十四行诗引入英国第一人 Edmund Spenser: the Fairy Queen 埃德蒙。斯宾塞:仙后 John Lyly: Eupheus 约翰。黎里:艳词,首创 euphuism 绚丽体 Christopher Marlowe:克里斯托弗。马洛:把 blank verse 无韵诗作为英语 戏剧主要表达方式的开创者 English drama 是英国文艺复兴的主流 2. The writers William Shakespeare (1564—1616) 1) His life and work –1592, arrived in London doing very mean jobs, then he joined Lord chamberlain’s 国王侍从 company, became very famous. He became a shareholder 股东 in the Globe and bought a big house in his hometown. He bought a coat of arms for his father。 出生地: Stratford-on-Avon, Warwickshire -2 poems, 37 plays, 154 sonnets His plays-1,Histories and comedies 2.Tragedies 3.Romances The importance of his writing( more can be added) 1) Shakespeare represented the tread 脚步 of history in giving voice to the desires and aspirations of the people.( peace) 2) Shakespeare’s humanism. His plays reflected the spirit of his age. 3He was a great poet 4) He was a master of the English language. 5) His first original play written in about 1590 was King Henry VI 6) Hmalet,哈姆雷特 Othello,奥赛罗 King Lear,李尔王 and the Tragedy of

Macbeth 麦克白 are regarded as Shakespeare’s four great tragedies. Hamblet:讲的是丹麦故事,反映的是英国的事情 主要人物: Claudius 克劳迪斯, 死去国王的弟弟, Queen Gertrude 乔特鲁得: 王子的母亲,Polonius 波洛琉斯:爱说闲话的官员,Ophelia 奥菲利亚:官 员的女儿,Laertes 雷欧提斯:官员的儿子 The Merchant of Venice 威尼斯商人 主要人物: Bassanio 巴萨尼奥, Antonio 安东尼奥, Shylock 夏洛克:a wealthy Jew 犹太人,Portia 鲍西亚:Bassanio’s girlfriend, Jessica 杰西卡:shylock’s daughter, Lorenzo 罗兰佐:Bassanio’s friend and Jessica’s boyfriend, Nerissa 尼莉莎:Portia’s waiting-woman 侍女 ,Gratiano:葛莱西安诺: Bassanio’s another friend and Nerissa’s boyfriend 地点:Belmont 贝尔蒙特 Sonnet 18: The first eight lines: shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?thou art more lovely and more temperat…. --The English summer: warm, not hot, gives people a happy feeling, lots of sunshine --Proposing a comparison:Even better to a summer’s day --Rough winds—nature ,The duration 持续 of summer: ends very soon , Hot_ the sun Summer is beautiful, but it will change into winter,But—change This poem is similar the Spencer’斯宾塞 s sonnets Spencer is using tide 潮水__time, Shakespeare is using summer—time Sonnet 29: The first eight lines: “when ,in disgrace with fortune and men’s eyes, I all alone…..” unlucky, unfortunate despised by other people Describes his unfavorable condition, therefore he is very sad. Line 9-12:The author—the lark 云雀 His great happiness—the memory of his friend brings his happiness --Magical effect Francis Bacon:十七世纪初,英国的杰出散文家 :十七世纪初, 1. his life: Pope 蒲柏 descibed him as the wisest,brightes, meanst of mankind, Bacon’s work may be divided into three classes, the philosophical, the literary, and the professional works. The final edition of essays contains 58 essays. 2. writing

(Of Truth,谈真理 Of Studies 谈读书) Part V The 17th century The period of revolution and restoration.17 世纪资产阶级与王政复辟时期 1. Historical Background 1) English Bourgeois Revolution 英国资产阶级革命 During the reign of Elizabeth, England enjoyed a time of prosperity and fast development. James I (Stuart 斯图亚特王室), a change of Dynasty, all the conflicts, which has started during Elizabeth reign, has come into surface. James I imposed 担负的 heave taxes on businessmen, bourgeoisie, he controlled the manufacture product__monopoly 垄断, but people believed in free trade King VS. The Parliament (has the support of the capitalists and businessmen and also the Puritans 清教徒) 2) the persecution 迫害者 of the Puritans Charles I was beheaded 砍头. After the civil War, the parliament was in power—Crowell 克罗韦尔 became the Lord 君主 Protector (1653) Charles II, and restoration, James II William Orange singed “ The Bill of Rights” which greatly restricted 约束 the power of the English King. The civil war has transformed the country from tyranny to a constitutional monarch. The revolution period is also called puritan age, because the English revolution was carried out under a religious cloak 2,literature , 这一时期的四约翰 (John Milton 弥尔顿, John Bunyan 班扬, John Donne 多恩,John Dryden 德莱顿)成为文坛杰出人物,metaphysical poet 玄学 派 and French drama 的影响成为两个重要的文学概念。The literature of the middle and later periods of the 17th century cultimated in the poetry of Milton, in the prose 散文 writing of Bunyan, and also in the plays and literary criticism 文学评论 of Dryden. Milton and bunyan represented the extreme of English life in the 17th century. One gave us the only epic 史诗 since Beowolf, the other gave us the only great allegory 寓言. 2. Writers John Donne:玄学派代表人物 John Milton: Paradise Lost 失乐园:consists of 12 books(it’s based on the biblical legend ,invovlves Adom 亚当 and Eve 夏娃, Satan 撒旦 in his plot) The character of Satan 撒旦:既是英雄又带点邪恶色彩的反叛者形象 we think of Satan either as an abstract conception as someone in whom evil is

mixed with good but who is doomed to destruction 毁灭 by the flaw 缺点 of slef-love. 1. his good mastery 熟练 of Latin His writing of English is much influenced by his use of Latin 2. revolutionary enthusiasm His attempt to throw tyranny 暴政 and gain freedom His language --Long, complex sentence structures --Allusions 影射, references to Bible, history, mythology 神话 --Some sentences begin in the middle or at the end. Some are inverted John Bunyan The book: The pilgrim’s Progress 天 路 历 程 , it’s written in the old-fash-ioned, medieval form of allegory and dream.采用的旧体形式,大 量运用了中世纪时的比喻和梦的形式。In the Pilgrim’s Progress, the story begins with a man called Christiam 基督徒 setting out with a book in his hand and a great load 负荷 on his back from the city of Destruction 毁灭城. The fair-England the persecution 迫害 of the faithful, the persecution of the puritans 清教徒. Christ 基督---Vanity 虚荣心 Fair---Heaven Style: simple, straightforward, Biblical 圣经的 “ The Vanity 虚荣心 Fair,” an Excerpt 摘录 from Part 1 The Pilgrim’s Progress Part VI The 18th Century The Age of Enlightenment in England 英国启蒙运动时期 1. Historical Background In 1688, the constitutional 宪法的 monarchy 君主制. The monarch was deprived 剥夺 of its ruling power and in his place Parliament 议会 became the actual leader of the country. England grew from a second rate country to a powerful naval country. Parliamentary parties: the liberal Whig 自由派辉格党, the conservative Tory 保 守派托利党, on the extreme of Toryism was a third part of zealots, called the Jacobites ,who aimed to bring the Stuarts back to the throne.托利党中的狂热 分子形成第三方势力被称作詹姆斯派,妄图恢复斯图亚特王朝 All the struggles, violence has come to an end with the coning of the weak kings. People desire peace and stability Any extreme actions are regarded as irrational.无理性 The puritan’s revolution is treated as extremist action, excessive 过度的 zeal 热情 and subversion 颠覆,

irrationality 不合理性, absurdity 荒谬. People wish that their actions were controlled by reason. Moderation 温和, tolerance 宽容, restraint 约束, rule 规则, order 次序, these qualities are the most important. With the rising of bourgeoisie, the cultural life had undergone 经历 remarkable changes. Some special features: 1) political writings 2) newspapers and journals 杂志 3) coffeehouse 4) the new morality 道德 5) science and technology Newton 牛顿’s scientific discovery—men were living in a mechanistic 机械 地 world which ran as precisely 精确地 as a clock. 6) the French influence 18 世纪的英国文学进入了一个散文 prose 而不是诗歌的时代。文学主流 是现实主义,小说是主要的文学样式 Authors 1. Daniel Defoe 丹尼尔。笛福 作者介绍:He is often given the credit for the discovery of the modern novel.开创了现代派小说的先河。 Work:Hymn to the Pillory 立伽颂: a set of doggerel verses 打油诗 The life and strange surprising adventures of robinson crusoe 鲁滨 逊漂流记: robinson named Friday to the saved victim, 此书根据 Alexander Selkirk 经历改编. The features of his works: he is anti-romantic, anti-feudal realistic writer.He often use long sentences without strong paused to give his style an immediate quliaty, but the units of meaning are small and clear with frequent repetition so that the writing gives an impression of simple lucidity.明朗 2. Jonathan swift 乔纳森。斯威夫特 1) life: He was born in Dublin 都柏林(爱尔兰首都) ,He was the most remarkable satirist 讽刺家 in the 18th century who criticized the new bourgeois-aristocratic 贵族的 society of his age with mercy.宽容,he supports the conservative Tory 2) works: the tale of a tub 木桶的故事 is a satire on religion. Gulliver’s Travels 格列弗游记:包括 4 部分 1,Lilliputians 厘厘普特 格列弗游记: 人:矮人, 2, tBrobdingnagians 伯罗白丁拉格人:giants, 3, the

flyingisland of Laputa 拉普特飞岛:on the island, the ingenious invention is used not for the benefit of the people,but against them, 4, Houyhnhnms 胡己姆:horses,endowed with human intelligence and a virtue much superior to that of men.比人聪明,也比人品格高尚。And Yahoo 雅虎:repellent creatures with the outward appearance of human beings.长相像人,行为丑陋 一个小小的建议: is A modest proposal 一个小小的建议: made to English government to relieve 消除 the poverty 权力 of irish people。 强烈谴责了英国对爱尔 兰人民的剥削和压迫。The bitter irony of the pamphlet expresses swift’s great sympathy for the oppressed and hungry peasants of Ireland and his anger at English landlords 地主 3)Joseph Addison 约瑟夫。爱迪生 Life: he is the central figure of coffeehouse meetings.,he support whigs, 作 为 The Tatler 闲谈者得主要撰稿人和 the Spactator 旁观者得合办者,他把 期刊散文艺术发展到极致。这两本杂志 brought literature down to everyday 期刊散文艺术 life and kept it clean and wholesome 健康。These two magazines are the first important recognitions by literature of the special of the special interests of women readers. Sir Roger 是他塑造的经典形象。 4) Henry Fielding 亨利。 菲尔丁: 英国十八世纪最伟大的小说家。 主要作品: Jonathan Wild 乔纳森。威尔德,the history of tom jones, a foundling 弃婴 乔纳森。威尔德, 汤姆。 汤姆。琼斯的故事, amelia 阿米莉亚 5) Thomas Gray 托马斯。 格雷: 浪漫主义运动的先驱。 主要作品: Elegy written in a country churchyard 墓园挽歌:表达了对农民贫苦遭遇的同情,歌颂了 他们的质朴品质。前几句是:the curfew tolls the knell of parting day, the lowing herd wind slowly o’er the lea….. 6)Oliver Goldsmith 奥利弗。歌尔德斯密斯:he was born in Ireland. As an essayist 散文家,he is among the best in the century. As a poet, he makes the riming couplets 英雄双行体 as natural and simple as his prose.主要作品: novel:the vicar of wakefield 维克菲德尔的牧师,comedy:She stoops to 维克菲德尔的牧师, Conquer 委曲求全,essay:the critizen of the world 世界公民,poems:The traveler 旅行者 and the Deserted Village.荒村 7)Richard Brinsley Sheridan 理查德。布林斯里。谢里丹:主要作品:讽刺 喜剧:the rivals 对手,the school for scandal 造谣学校:(presents a brilliant 对手, 造谣学校: portrayal 描绘 of england’s high society and a biting satire on the morals and manners of that age.主要人物: Charles 查尔斯, Joseph 约瑟夫: charles’ brother, sir oliver surface 奥利弗。萨费恩:their wealthy uncle) 8)William Blake ( 1757—1827)

1) Life He lived into the 19th century. In his lifetime, he was not considered a very important poet. Now he is universally acknowledged as one of the most important poets in English literature. His father recognized his talent and sent him to school. His visionary 梦想的 experience: Classicism 典范: reason, order, law, art techniques He believed the power of imagination. With it a poet can reach out. Blake and Burns 彭斯—the romantic revival 复活—to break away with the convention 习 俗,协议 2) His work Songs of Innocence 天真之歌→delight Songs of Experience 经验之歌→confusion 困惑 They show two contrary states of human souls London:I wander thro’ each charter’d street, near where the …. It is taken from The Songs of Experience. Blake apparently drew from his personal observations and gives a comprehensive 综合的 picture of the many miseries, physical and spiritual, in the English capital.资本家 Background: industrial revolution, the fog city The scene was in London, in Blake’s time. The Tiger:tiger!tiger!burning bright in the forests of the night….. It is from The Songs of Experience. It is one of Blake’s best known poems. The apparently simple questions of curiosity and puzzlement. What imagination inspires the creator 1. The image of the maker is complete. the process of creating tiger. Religions allusion 暗指: lamb 羊羔 The whole poem is consisted of questions—are not able to be answered The Chimney-Sweeper 扫烟囱的孩子:a little black thing among the snow cring” weep, weep” in notes of woe! The short lyric contains chiefly the simple yet somewhat ironical speech of a boy chimney 9 ) Robert Burns 罗伯特。彭斯:the greatest Scottish poest.主要作品:my heart’s in the highlands 我的心呀在高原,John Anderson, my jo 约翰。安徒 生,我爱,a red, red rose 一朵红红的玫瑰, to a mouse 致小鼠 Part VII The Romantic Period 浪漫主义时期 A new movement appeared in the literary area with the publication of Lyrical Ballads 抒情歌谣集 by William Wordsworth 威廉华兹华斯 and Samul Taylor.

Coleridge 柯 勒 律 治 in 1798. Coleridge’s chief contribution was his masterpiece The rime of the ancient mariner 古舟子咏 1. Historical Background French Revolution,American Revolution,The Industrial Revolution 2. Intellectual Background Rousseau 卢梭 (1712—1778) the French philosopher, is generally regarded as the father of romanticism. English Romanticism: a kind of emotional outlook, an attitude towards life. Individual is the center of all life and experience, cast its eye on human being, individual, the intense 强烈的 subjectivity 主观性, concerned with nature, express s strong like for nature. Interest in supernatural; take an interest in the past—ancient civilization represented by Greece and Rome. 1832 was the year the Romantic writer Scott dies 1836 was the year when Queen Victoria inherited the throne, the start of Victorian Age. The older generation: Wordsworth, Coleridge The younger generation: Byron 拜伦, Shirley 雪莱, and Keats 济慈 Characteristic features of the romantic movement( more can be added) (1) Subjectivism 主观主义: imagination. (2) Spontaneity 自发性: A work of art must be original. The role of instinct 本能, intuition 直觉, and the feeling of “ the heart” is stressed. (3) Singularity 奇怪: Romantic poets have a strong love for the remote, the unusual, the strange, the supernatural, the mysterious, the splendid 壮丽 的, the picturesque 生动的, and the illogical. (4) Worship of nature: (5) Simplicity: Romantic poets take to using everyday language spoken by the rustic 乡村的 people. A reviva 复活 of folk literature, a sense of universal brotherhood, a growing sympathy for the suffering of the people. (6) There is a dominating note of melancholy 忧郁的 in the poems of the romantic poets. (7) The use of free verse form The characteristics of Gothic novels( search from the Google) Authors William Wordsworth (1770—1850)威廉。华兹华斯 1. his life His love for nature is boundless. To him nature means more than rivers, trees,

rocks, mountains and lakes. Nature has a moral value and has its philosophical significance. Nature is for him the embodiment 体现 of the Divine 神圣的 Spirit. He believes the God and universe are identical 同一 的 2,his work:大部分主题是关于 nature and country life.主要有:lines composed a few miles above tintern abbey 丁登寺,the prelude 序曲,the 丁登寺, 序曲, excursion 漫游,miscellaneous 十四行诗 漫游, 课文节选: Tintern Abbey 丁登寺 It is a meditation 思考 on his mental 精神的 grownup 成年人 Selected 挑选出的 reading: 她住在人际罕见的路边: She Dwelt Among the Untrodden Way 她住在人际罕见的路边:悼亡露西 I travelled among unknown men 我在陌生人中孤独旅行 I wondered lonely as a cloud 我好似一朵孤独的流云:it’s about the 我好似一朵孤独的流云: beauty of nature.there is vivid picture of the daffodils here, mixed with the poet’s philosophical and somewhat mystical thoughts. The Solitary Reaper 孤独的割麦女: 孤独的割麦女: 在抒情中表达了华兹华斯的自然观, 具有林秀之气和音韵之美。 Soonet composed upon Westminster bridge 在西敏寺桥上 Soonet :London 1802 George Gordon Byron 乔治。戈登。拜伦 乔治。戈登。 His major contribution of romantic literature is the creation of Byronic hero 冷 笑而浪漫的主角, a mixture of good and evil. Byron is hard to describe, moody 喜怒无常, unstable, sensitive, melancholy 忧 郁, sad, he deliberately 故意地 exile 流放 himself to a foreign, dared to die. The early death of the Romantic poets-image: the poet will never grow old. Poets die young. They have reached their peak. Reading Works: Childe Harold’s pilgrimage 恰尔德。 恰尔德。 该隐, Done 哈罗尔德游记, Cain 该隐, juan 唐璜 课文节选: 1. She Walks in Beauty 她走在美的光彩中 This perfect beauty serves as the ideal for the poet, peace. Harmony. 和睦 2,Childe Harold’s pilgrimage 恰尔德。哈罗尔德游记 恰尔德。 3, when we two parted 想从前我们两分手 4. The Isles of Greece 颂希腊 It is taken from “ Don Juan 唐璜”. It is among Byron’s most effective

poetical utterance on national freedom. All the 16 stanzas 节 that constituted the song are supported to have been sung by a Greek singer at the wedding feast 宴会 of Don Juan and Haidee on an isle of Greece. The past glory of the Greek people The present state of enslavement 奴役 by the Turkey 土耳其 Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822)珀西。比西。雪莱 He was rebellious 反抗的 from a very young age. He was a person of extreme personality. He wrote about the universe, lark 宇宙 sky. 主要作品: pamphlet: nescessity of atheism 无神论的重要性 , the Queen mab 麦布女王, 阿多尼斯, 西风颂, 麦布女王,adonais 阿多尼斯,ode to the west wind 西风颂,to a sky lark 致

云雀 课文节选:
Ozymandias 奥西曼祶斯 He was a pharaoh of Egypt. He had several statues 雕像 of himself built after he died.这首诗借埃及历史上的拉美西斯二世嘲讽封建专制,表达了对专制 帝王的厌恶和蔑视。同时表明,尽管专制帝王曾经不可一世,但也不过是 过往烟云,专制政权可以延续几百年,但在历史长河中不过是一瞬之间。 Antique 古董的 land: Egypt, earliest civilization.文明 A song: man of england 给英国兰人的歌 Ode to the West Wind: Ode: it is used to express the poet’s feelings and emotion. 在此诗中, 在此诗中, 使人抒发了对大自然的热爱, 歌颂了西风摧毁旧事物, 使人抒发了对大自然的热爱, 歌颂了西风摧毁旧事物, 孕育新事物的精神。诗歌以“如果冬天来了,春天还会远吗”结尾。 孕育新事物的精神。诗歌以“如果冬天来了,春天还会远吗”结尾。 The cloud 云:反映的是一个争取独立和追求幸福的人物形象。 To a sky-lark 致云雀:运用云雀美妙的歌声,反映诗人向往美好未来的欢 乐心情,表达他渴望自己也能用同样空灵的曲调宣扬革命理想,获得世人 的倾听。是诗人追求理想主义的光辉诗篇。 John Keats 约翰。济慈(1795—1821) 约翰。济慈( — ) “ A thing of beauty is a joy for ever”.他一生崇尚美,追求美。 He was born in a lower class family. He abandoned medicine for poetry simply for its beauty. He is physically small. His father died when he was eight. His childhood was quite miserable. His tomb are carved:“ Here lies a one whose name is written with water.” 此地长眠者,声明水上书 课文节选:On first looking into chapman’s homer 初读查普曼译荷马诗有 感。 Ode to a nightingale 夜莺颂 ode on a Grecian urn 希腊古翁颂,to 希腊古翁颂, autumn 秋颂,bright star 灿烂的星 秋颂, Walter scott 华特。司各特:欧洲历史小说之父 这 个 时代 的不 同时 期: the Crusades,the rise of absolute monarchy, the

bourgeois revolution in England, the attempts to restore feudalism in the 18th century.十字军时期,君主专制制度的兴起,英格兰资产阶级革命,18 四级 欲恢复封建主义的尝试 His historical novel paved the path for the development of the realistic novel of the 19th century.他的历史小说为 19 世纪现实主义小说的发展铺平了道路。 主要作品介绍:Waverley 威弗利:establish its author as a novelist 奠定了作 : 者的小说家帝王 , St. Ronan's well 圣罗南之泉 :is the only contemporary novel among the works of scott Count robert 巴黎的罗伯特伯爵: the last of scott's novels 课文节选:ivanhoe 艾凡赫 艾凡赫主要地点:cedric's ball 大厅,ashby de la zouche 阿什贝.德.拉.左克,isaac of york 约克城,knights templar 吞不拉司陀圣殿

骑士院 重点词汇: pilgrim 朝圣者 Rob roy 罗布罗伊 重点句子: in the first selection francis’meeting with robroy is described. The second selection vividly depicts a skirmish 战斗 between the highlanders 高地居民 and the english
Jane Austin Literature:乡村生活是她小说的主要题材。全部作品:northanger abbey : 诺桑觉寺,persuasion 劝导,sense and sensibility 理智与情感,pride and prejudice 傲慢与偏见,mansfield park 曼斯菲尔德花园 and emma 艾玛 课文节选 :Pride and Prejudice This book mainly tells of the love story between a rich, proud young man Darcy and the beautiful and intelligent Elizabeth Bennet. Mr. Bennet, a clergyman 牧师 who has married young and rashly 轻率地, is skeptical 怀疑的 of conventional 常规的 marriage and has no good words for his beautiful daughters except Elizabeth. Mrs. Bennet is a beautiful but empty-headed, snobbish 粗俗的 and vulgar 庸俗的 woman whose only goal in life is to marry her five daughters to rich, handsome young men. Charles lamb 查尔斯。兰姆:最大成就在散文,其随笔与蒙田名声并列 课文节选:Dream-children, a reverie 梦中的孩子们,poor relations 穷亲戚 Part VIII The Victorian Age 维多利亚时期 Critical Realism in England 英国的批判主义 1. Historical Background Industrial Revolution, railways, novels provide a means to kill the time. The rising of middle class. Reading novels is becoming a sign of statues and a way of living. A typical Victorian novel is usually 400-5oo pages, lengthy 长的, thick 厚的.

The values of Victorian Age The middle class, the core of the values: to be a gentleman, the pursuit of wealth achieved by self-reliance 倚靠自己 through hard work. The Victorian Age (1832-1901) 1. Historical background The Queen came to the throne in 1837 The two Queens that the English people were proud of: Queen Elizabeth (1533-1603) Queen Victoria. The similarities between the two queens: First, both queens were on the throne for a long period of time, Queen Elizabeth being on the throne for over forty years and Queen Victoria more than sixty years. Secondly, during their long reigns England developed rapidly both politically and economically. During the reign of Queen Elizabeth, capitalism first took its shape, and the small island country defeated the strong naval power Spain in 1588. During the long reign 统治 of Queen Victoria., England grew from an agricultural country into an industrialized one and became the workshop 工场 of the world as well as its financial and political center. Thirdly, during their reign, literature flourished. 繁荣 In the age of Queen Elizabeth drama flourished and with it there was the greatest dramatist William Shakespeare whereas 但是 in the age of Queen Victoria., novel flourished and with it a galaxy 一群 of brilliant novelists appeared in the literary scene. The Victorian age can be roughly divided into three periods: the early period 1832-1848, a time of social unrest;( child labor, women workers, long working hours, miserable working conditions) the middle period 1848-1870, a period of economic prosperity and religious controversy 论战;( social reforms , in 1851 a gigantic greenhouse of glass and iron 铁 was built in Hyde Park. It was called the Crystal Palace where the Great exhibition was held. It was a display of the nation’s advanced technology and industry, as well as its prosperity.) The last period 1870, a period of decay of Victorian values .England continued to grow in strength in this period. “the empire 帝国 on which the sun never sets”. To many Victorians this was a period of serenity 安详 and security, the age of house parties and long weekends in the country. Rival 竞争对手 s: Germany, the United States, Japan and Russia The Charitist Movement 宪章运动 appeared in the thirties of the 19th century. 导致其的主要矛盾是工人阶级与此本家的矛盾。此运动最后以工人在议会 中取得相应席位而告终。

2. The Victorian novelists The rise of the novels as a dominant 突出的 literary genre 类型 during the Victorian age First, the growth of urban 城市的 population resulted in the appearance of a new reading public Second, with the development of the method of printing and paper making, the price of books dropped, and the serial publication, the libraries Third, writing had become a profession Fourth, there was a large idle 空闲的 class who needed recreation and entertainment Fifth, the conditions of the time and the dire 可怕的 poverty 贫穷 in the one hand and the enormous wealth on the other hand needed a secular 世俗的 form to explore human relations rather than sermons 说教 given in the church. the novels were used as a tool to Finally, the feminist 男女平等主义 movement had much to do with the growth of the novel. The struggle for women’s rights was a recurring 循环的 theme in the novels of the 19th century. The common features of the Victorian novels 1. The plot is unfolded 展现 against a social background. The Victorian novels reflect the complexity 复杂性 of human relations in a capitalist society and reveal the writer’s attitude towards the society. 2. the cause –effect sequence is much more striking 突出的 than in previous novels, the central character, 3. Most of the Victorian novels were first published in serial form, that is, by installment 安装, before they were fully published in a single book. 4. the Victorian novels were tainted 污染的 by the spirit of Puritanism 清教 徒 of the Victorian age 5. The Victorian novels were characterized by their moral purpose. Many writers wrote with a purpose to edify 开到 readers and to bring about reforms. In economics, capital, capital goods, or real capital are factors of production used to create goods or services that are not themselves significantly consumed (though they may depreciate) in the production process. Capital goods may be acquired with money or financial capital.Capitalism is an economic system in which the means of production are privately owned; supply, demand and price are mostly set

by market forces rather than economic planning; and profit is distributed to owners who invest in businesses. Capitalism also refers to the process of capital accumulation 3.in the 19th-century english literature, a new literary trend critical realism appeared. Charles Dickens (1812-1870):he was the greatest representative of English : critical realism. And William Makepeace Thackeray Thackeray(1811-1863)威 廉。梅克皮斯。萨克雷 Dickens and Thackeray were contemporaries.Similarities:Both humorists and they criticized the Victorian society satirically 嘲讽的。在使小说回返自然和 真实这一点上,萨克雷是英国小说家中影响最大的一位。Different life Differences in writings 1. Thackeray mainly described the lives of aristocrats 贵 族 and rich businessmen, that is, people of the upper and middles classes, whereas Dickens’s chief contribution was his description o the underdogs 受压迫者 and unprivileged 平穷的. 2. Dickens was a sentimentalist.多愁善感者 He likes to avail 有益于 himself of every opportunity to arouse the emotions of his readers. Thackeray was a cynic 愤世嫉俗者 who saw no good in anything and doubted the goodness of human nature. On the whole he preserved detachmen 分离 t, and he always held himself under control. 3. Whereas Dickens was a romantist in many aspects by letting loose his imagination. Thackeray was against affectation 假装. His cynical attitude towards life explains the fact that most of his clever people are rogues 流氓 and most of his virtuous 善良的 people are fools. 3.The Victorian poets . The Novel was the predominating 占支配优势 genre 类型 of literature in the Victorian age. There are prominent 突出的 poets after the death of major romantic poets. Alfred Tennyson (1809-1892) Robert Browning (1812-1889)他们两个最 他们两个最 具 代 表 性 Elizabeth Barrett Browning (1806-1861) , Matthew Arnold (1822-1888)

They not only wrote highly lyrical poems as the romantists did, but also they in their poetry reflected the spiritual search which was characteristic of the age. The conflicts at that time: The class struggle between the wealthy and the poor The rapid progress of science and technology, and the discovery of new theories of social science. All these greatly shook the religious faith that had been the mainstay 支柱 of people’s spiritual life for centuries. Hence 所以 the Victorian age was marked through by the prominence of the spirit of inquiry 探 究 and criticism by skepticism and religious uncertainty, and spiritual struggle and unrest. . 2.Writers Charles Dickens 1812-1870 He was the most important novelist in the Victorian age, and he was extremely popular, best seller, most of his characters in his early work are cartoon characters, most complex in his late work Initiation novel. His artistic techniques: 1. Dickens has a tendency to depict 描绘 the grotesque 荒唐的 (very odd 奇 怪的 or unusual, fantastically 奇异的 ugly or absurd 荒谬的) characters or events. Most of Dickens’s characters have peculiar 奇怪的 habit, manner, behavior, dress, and catch phrase of his or her own. 2. Dickens loves to instil 灌输 l life into inanimate 无生气的 things and to compare animate beings to inanimate things, engines—the head of an elephant, the smoke in the air to snakes trailing 蔓延 themselves for ever and ever. 3. Dickens is noted for his description of pathetic 凄惨的 scenes that aim to arouse people’s sympathy. Pathos 哀婉 is a distinctive 与众不同的 quality in Dickens’s writings. 4. Dickens is a great humorist. His novels are full of humor and laughter. 5. 主要作品:Pickwick Papers 匹克威克传,Oliver Twist 雾都孤儿, The 匹克威克传, 雾都孤儿, old curiosity shop 老古玩店, a christmas carol 圣诞欢歌,Dombey and 圣诞欢歌, son 董贝父子,david copperfield 大卫科波菲尔,hard times 艰难时世, 董贝父子, 大卫科波菲尔, 艰难时世, a tale of two cities 双城记,great expectation 远大前程。In 双城记,the 双城记, 远大前程。 双城记, two cities are london and paris in the time of revolution.艰难时运 makes a fierce attack on the bourgeois system of education and the bourgeois philosophy 人生观 6. 课文节选 Posthumous Papers of the pickwick club 匹克威克传

Oliver twist 雾都孤儿:this passage tells us the terrible conditions in the english workhouse of the time and the cruel treatment of a poor orphan by the so-called “Philanthropists”慈善事业。 William makepeace thackeray 威廉。梅克皮斯。萨克雷 威廉。梅克皮斯。 课文节选: The vanity fair 名利场: sub-title is a novel without a hero. the writer’s its intention was not to portray individuals, but the bourgeois and aristocratic society as a whole. The main plot of Vanity Fair renders on the story of two women: Amelia Sedlley 阿美利亚。赛迪尼 And Rebecca Sharp 瑞比卡。 夏普。 George eliot 乔治。艾略特 乔治。 Life: 原名 Mary Ann Evans 玛丽。安埃。文斯。主要作品:Adam Bede 玛丽。安埃。文斯。 要作品: 亚当比德, The 弗洛斯河上的磨坊, silas marner 织工马南。 织工马南。 亚当比德, mill on the floss 弗洛斯河上的磨坊, 作品特色:1,her novels ,for the most part, describe rural life,deal with moral problems and contain psychological studies of the characters.2,she has rich humor and keen observation, and her characters are real men and women of her time.3,her novels are very philosophical.4,with her the transition from critical realism to naturalism began in english literature. 课文节选:Adam bede 亚当比德:主要人物:Adam, heety sorrel:海蒂苏洛: 亚当比德: adam 最初喜欢的人,arthur donnithorne 亚瑟。唐尼桑恩:海蒂喜欢的人, Seth 赛斯: adam’s brother, Dinah Morris:戴娜。莫里斯:seth 喜欢的人,同 时也是 adam 最后喜欢的人。 Charlotte bronte(1816—1855) and emily bronte(1818—1848) — — 夏洛蒂。勃朗特和艾米丽。 夏洛蒂。勃朗特和艾米丽。勃朗特 Charlotte bronte:主要作品:the professor, jane eyre, shirley 雪莉, villette 维 主要作品: 主要作品 莱特. emily bronte 主要作品: 主要作品: wuthering heights 呼啸山庄: is influenced both by 呼啸山庄 it the Romantic Movement as well as Gothic writing. The novel deals with a kind of raw 天然的 passion. It is not to be judged by its moral context 背景. Her novel has nothing to do with moral issue. How passion works in human beings. Wuthering Heights: the place stands for storm, violence Thrush 画眉鸟: civilization 文明, very gentle, mild. Her mentality 心态 is much in line with what Wuthering Height stands for. Complex structure, layers 层面板 of narration 叙述 Wuthering Height: Class distinction: emphasis decency 庄重, respect

课文节选:jane eyre., wuthering heights 主要人物:lockwood 洛兹伍德, 主要人物: 洛兹伍德, Heathcliff 西斯克里夫,catherine,Hindley 辛迪尼。 西斯克里夫, 辛迪尼。 Thomas hood(1799—1845)托马斯。胡德 托马斯。 Most of his works were humorous poems, containing topical comments on contemporary events and manners.主要作品: princess, in memorian 悼念: the 是为了悼念朋友 hallam 而写 ,Idylls of the king 国王叙述诗 this 课文节选: song of the shirt 衬衫之歌: poem presents a vivid picture of the the miserable life of the british seamstresses.女裁缝。The bridge of sighs 叹息


Alfred, Lord Tennyson 艾尔弗雷德 丁尼生(1809—1892) 艾尔弗雷德.丁尼生 丁尼生( , — ) He is the representative of Victorianism. His poem has an exquisite 精致的 sense of music. 课文节选: 尤利西斯: 课文节选:Ulysses 尤利西斯:A Greek hero If life is not without experience, struggle. It is not life at all. A typical ambition of Victorian age, a confidence. The age is full of ambition, desire to explore the world. The poet expresses this through the image of Ulysses. Break ,break ,break 碎了,碎了,碎了:把自己痛失密友的悲伤之情同渔 碎了,碎了, 家子女的嬉戏和少年水手的歌唱等天真快乐对比,并同撞击海岸那无情的 海浪以及驶入港湾那冷漠的航船进行对照, 书法自己的悲痛心情。 crossing the bar 过沙洲:注重本能和自然 Robert Browning 1812-1889 代表作:the ring and the book 指环与书 Dramatic monologue 独白 poem in which there is one imaginary speaker addressing an imaginary audience. In his dramatic monologues, he penetrates to depth the psychology of his characters and through their won speeches, he analyses and dissects 分析 is characters and reveals the innermost secret of their lives dramatic monologue . It has a single person who is not the poet himself as the speaker. He utters at the critic moment. --The person addresses and interacts with one or more people. We can feel the presence of the auditor. We can infer what they say and they do from the clues in the course of the speaker. --The principle to select a piece of poem: it should reveal temperament and character of the speaker. 课文节选:My last Duchess 我已故的公爵夫人 Ferrara 费拉拉 费拉拉 An image of a lively young lady. Dramatic situation which reveal the

psychology of the character. It paved 铺 the way for the upcoming 即将到来的 of the 20th century poetry. Critical moment, single speaker, and interaction 合作: the speaker is talking to a specified auditor 旁听者 or speaker. Elizabeth barrett browning 伊丽莎白。巴雷特。布朗宁 伊丽莎白。巴雷特。 代表作: 卡萨。吉迪的窗子, 奥罗拉。 代表作:casa guidi windowsk 卡萨。吉迪的窗子,aurora leigh 奥罗拉。利, poems before congress 议会前的诗 课文节选:from sonnets from the portuguese 葡萄牙十四行诗:表达诗人对 爱情的赞美和对幸福的追求。 Part IX Twentieth century literature20 世纪文学 The transition from 19th to 20th century in English literatue Historical background:对文学产生影响的两个因素:1,imperialism 帝国主 义: 统治世界的精神的觉醒。 相继爆发了第一, 二次世界大战。 widespread 2, demand for social reform of every kind. Thomas Hardy 托马斯。哈代(1840—1928) 托马斯。哈代( — ) 1. His life He was born in Dorset 多赛特, an agricultural district in the south of England. His father was an architect. After studying in Dorset and in London, he returned to settle down in his native place. While he worked as an architect, he began to write novels and stories. Later he became a full—time writer. His principal 主要的 works are the Wessex 伟克塞斯 novels, novels describing the characters and environment of native countryside. He was a writer who sees the turn of the century. He witnessed the change of the society, the fashion; he was the last of the Victorian novelist and one of the forerunners of the modern writing. 代表作:Tess of the d’urbervilles 德伯家的苔丝,jude the obscure 无名的裘 德伯家的苔丝, 得,epic drama:the dynasts 统治者 课文节选:Tess of the D’urbevilles:是哈代“性格和环境小说”中一部分量 颇重的长篇小说,导致苔丝悲剧的不是盲目的无从追究责任的命运,而是 环境和社会的力量。 Setting 环境: the agricultural region of the southern countries of England. The impoverishment 使贫穷 and decay 腐烂 of small farmers who became hired field hands and roamed 漫步 the country in search of seasonal jobs. His tone is pessimistic 悲观的 Mankind is subjected to the rule of some hostile and mysterious fate, which brings misfortune to human life.

The double moral standard for men and women exposes 曝 光 the hypocritical 虚伪的 morality in bourgeois society. Why does Hardy call her a pure woman? According to the values of that age, Tess is a stained 玷污的 woman, she gave birth to a child outside marriage, and she became the mistress 情妇 of Alec 艾 立可 later. The son’s veto 儿子的否决权:小说反映了生活的多层面,还对受挫以后的 幸福提出了重建。女主人公名叫 Sophy. John Galsworthy 约翰。高尔斯华朔 约翰。 他是 20 世纪英国杰出的批判现实主义小说家和剧作家。 代表作:the man of property 有产业的人:was the highest point of social 有产业的人: criticism ever attained by Galsworthy, 它是福赛特世家中的第一部, the , forsyte saga 福赛特世家,the sivler box 银匣 福赛特世家, 课文节选: 有产业的人中 chapter X diagnose of a forsyte 福尔赛的诊断, conscience 良心 Oscar wilde 奥斯卡。王尔德 奥斯卡。 出生于 Dublin,have a homosexual relationship with Lord Alfred douglas 和 艾尔弗雷德。道格拉斯有同性恋关系 代表作: 长篇小说: The portrait of dorian gray 多里安。 多里安。 格雷的画像, Salome 格雷的画像, 莎乐美:唯美主义的代表作,是戏剧,喜剧:Lady windermere’s fan 温得 梅尔夫人的扇子, a woman of no importance 无足轻重的女人, an ideal husband 理想丈夫, and the importance of being earnest 认真的重要. 多里安。 课文节选:The portrait of dorian gray 多里安。格雷的画像 Shaw(1856—1950)乔治。 George Bernard Shaw(1856—1950)乔治。萧伯纳 George Bernard Shaw was dramatist, essayist 随笔作家, and critic. He was born of Irish Protestant 新教徒 parents in Dublin. In 1876 Shaw left Ireland for good. During his life time he wrote lots of dramas. He is considered to be the best –known English dramatist since Shakespeare. His works are the best example of all the plays that are inspired by social criticism. In most of his plays, he expressed a strong indignation against political and economic exploitation 开 发 , against hypocrisy 虚 伪 and corruption 腐 败 , against prostitution 作践自己 and slavery 奴隶制度, and against poverty and dirt. His style: 1. didactic 教导的,学究式的 2. Made his lessons “palatable”可口的 through comedy. 3. Use his wit to ridicule 嘲笑 the things he attacked—witty rather than

humorous. 4. Inversion 倒装 of ideas—made things usually considered good and just to appear absurd 荒谬的 and ridiculous. 5. Exaggerated, sometimes grossly 很,非常, in order to achieve comedy. 6. Plays made up-to-date references and used modern stage props 小道具. 7. Destructive 破坏性的 in his criticism, but constructive 建设性 in his analysis and interpretation 解释 of life. Features of his plays: 1. His plays witty rather than humorous—avoidance of emotion and sympathy. 2. Improved upon play craftsmanship of his predecessors—increased stage directions. 3. Frequently subordinates 下级得 dramatic interest to expounding 论述 his ideas. His characters are his mouthpieces 代言人. 4. characters lack true life 5. His plays vehicles to express his many ideas. 6. Shocks his audience into attention—paradoxical 矛盾的, personal, and outspoken 直言的. 7. Powerful, logical, satirical style. Dialogue has vitality 精神, clearness, directness. 课文节选:Mrs. Warren’s profession 华伦夫人的职业:华伦夫人的职业是豢 养妓女,Mr. Crofts 是她的帮凶,女儿 Vivie 是一所传统寄宿学校毕业的学 生。此书深刻揭露了“体面的”资本者不体面的财富来源:残酷的剥削和 肮脏的交易。 deals with the theme of prostitution 卖淫 as big business in the It bourgeois society. David .Herbert.Lawrence(1885—1930)戴维。赫伯特。劳伦斯 戴维。 — 戴维 赫伯特。 He is often criticized for the didactic 说教的 elements and looseness in structure. 代表作:the white peacock 白孔雀: his first novel, sons and lovers 儿子与 情人, the Lady Chatterlay’s Lover 查特莱夫人的情人: most his 情人, rainbow 虹, controversial 争议的 novels 课文节选:sons and lovers 儿子与情人主要人物:paul 保罗,Mrs morel 莫 瑞尔:it’s a semi-autobiographical nove. Viginia Woolf 弗吉尼亚。沃尔夫(1882—1941) 弗吉尼亚。沃尔夫( — ) 她是 20 世纪欧洲最重要的女性作家,著名的文学批评家和文艺理论家。 她是“意识流”stream of consciousness 小说的代表人物.代表作:Mrs. Dalloway 达洛维夫人,to the lighthouse 到灯塔去, the waves 海浪。 达洛维夫人, 到灯塔去, 海浪。

课文节选:Mrs. Dalloway 达洛维夫人 James Joyce 詹姆斯。乔伊斯(1882—1941) 詹姆斯。乔伊斯( — ) 都柏林人, He was born in Dublin.是 意识流小说之父 。 “意识流小说之父 代表作: 意识流小说之父” Dubliners 都柏林人, a portrait of the artist as a young man 一个青年艺术家的肖像。Ulysses 尤利 一个青年艺术家的肖像。 西斯: 西斯:in the book, the writer intends to present a microcosm 小规模地 of the whole human life by providing an instance of how a single event contains all the events of its kind, and how history is recapitulated 总结 in the happenings of one day.。 课文节选:Araby 阿拉比:是 dubliners 中的第 3 篇小说。


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