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人教版高中英语选修六全册教案


人教版高中英语选修 6 优质教案全套
Unit 1 Art Vocabulary and Useful Expressions Teaching Goals: 1. To enable Ss to master some new words and expressions 2. To get Ss to have knowledge of this grammar point: the subjective mood Teaching Procedures: Step 1. Free talk If you have a special chance to become a poet, what kind of poems will you write to people? And why? Step 2. Word study Purpose: To consolidate the words and phrases in the text. 1. Find a word in the poems that rhymes with each of the words below. Then add other words that rhyme. The first one has been done for you. (1) dead (2) high (3) sing (4) today (5) lace (6) true Suggested Answers: (2) high (3) sing sky ring pie wing my fly shy lie lead red thread fed said bed

thing king fling string may space

(4) today away (5) lace race

say play lay tray chase few place

face case new flew

(6) true too

shoe

canoe

2. Complete the passage using the words below in the correct form. cottage run out of nursery rhythm recite rhyme

When I was a baby, my mother used to read me _________ rhymes, I loved their _______ and the way the words _________ at the end of the lines. By the time I was two years old, I could ________ at least ten of them. When we _____________ new nursery rhymes, my mother would go to the store to buy another nursery rhyme book. In fact, my family loved reading so much that the living room in our __________ was full of books. Suggested Answers: nursery; rhythm; rhyme; recite; run out of; cottage. 3. In English we sometimes add –ful to a noun to make an adjective. For example, wonder becomes wonderful. This means full of wonder. Now make adjectives form these nouns. Then add four other pairs you know. (1) beauty __________ (5) dread ____________ (9) __________ ____________ (2) joy ____________ (3) sorrow _________ (6) hope ____________ (10) _________ _____________ (7) peace ___________ (11) __________ ____________

(4) delight __________ (8) power ___________ (12). __________ ____________ Suggested Answers: (1) beautiful (6) hopeful (11) painful (2) joyful (7) peaceful (12) useful (3) sorrowful (8) powerful (4) delightful (9) thankful (5) dreadful (10) successful

4. Complete the table with the correct nouns, verbs, adjectives or adverbs.

Verb Noun Adjective angry darken impressive repetitive transformational translation warm

Adverb

enjoy expressively inspire Suggested Answers: Verb Noun anger dark impression repetition transformation translation warmth enjoyment expression inspiration anger darken impress repeat transform translate warm enjoy express inspire Adjective angry dark impressive repetitive transformational translated warm enjoyable expressive inspirational Angrily darkly impressively repetitively \ \ wrmly enjoyably expressively inspirationally Adverb

5. Complete each sentence using the correct word from the table you have just completed. (1) While you were reciting the poem, I think you moved your body very __________. It made the performance much more interesting. (2) Ad I lay in the _________, the words of a new poem came into my head. (3) The teacher doesn’t think that the _________ of the Tang poem is very good. (4) Songs are often easy to remember because they ________ a lot of poetry. (5) Your talk was so _________ that I want to go and write lots of poetry. (6) I loved the strong images you used in your poem to convey feelings of _________. (7) We were very __________ by the students’ performance of their poetry. (8) We passed the afternoon very _________ reading poetry together under the trees. (9) Mr. Tanner’s love of poetry has ________ the students’ feelings towards the subject. (10) Even though it is cold, your poem about summer has made me feel really ________. Answers:

(1) expressively (6) anger Step 3. Grammar 1. Presentation

(2) darkness (7) impressed

(3) translation (8) enjoyably

(4) repeat (9) transformed

(5) inspirational (10) warm

Purpose: To revise the usage of the subjunctive mood with Ss. 所述情况 与现在事实相反 从句 If+主语+动词过去式 (be 动词用 were) 与过去事实相反 If+主语+动词过去完成式 主句 主 语 + would/could/might/should+ 动词原形 主 语 + would/could/might/should+ have + 过去分词 与将来事实相反 ① if+主语+动词过去式 ② if+主语+were to + 动词原形 ③ if+主语+should+动词原形 此表中需要注意几点: (1) be 动词在表示与现在事实相反的从句中一般用 were.在非正式情况先,第一、第三人称 后偶尔也用 was. 如: If he were you, he would go at once. (2) 主句中的 should 通常用于第一人称,would,could 以及 might 可以用于各种人称。 (3) 在表示与将来事实相反的条件句中,只能用 should,而不能用 would, could, might 等。 如:If it should rain tomorrow, we would not go camping. (should rain 也可以用 rained, were to rain 代替)。 (4) 当条件状语从句表示的行为和主句表示的行为所发生的时间不一致时,被称为“错综时 间条件句”,动词的形式要分别根据它所表示的不同时间做相应的调整。如: If you had followed my advice, you would be better now. 2. Practice Purpose: To get Ss to have knowledge of the grammar through exercises. ⑴ Match the beginning of each sentence with the appropriate ending. 主 语 + would/could/might/should+ 动词原形

①. If you saw a person four meters high, ②. If Rob hadn’t injured himself, ③. If I were you, ④. If she had studied harder, ⑤. If you wrote me beautiful poems every day, Suggested Answers: ①E ②A ③D ④B ⑤C

A. we would have won. B. she would have passed the exam. C. I would love you forever. D. I’d go to bed early tonight. E. would you believe your eyes?

⑵ Complete the sentences using the correct forms of the verbs in brackets. ①. Miss Jiang explained the homework to the class yesterday. If Alfred (pay) _________ more attention at the time, he (not miss) her instructions. ②. I’m sorry, I don’t have a compass. Of course I (lend) it to you if I (have) __________ one. ③. Len doesn’t think he will ever win a poetry competition. If, by chance, he (win) ________, he (spend) _________ the prize on a computer. ④. Luckily, Janet is good at writing in English. If she (not write) _________ well, she (spend) ______ more time practicing. ⑤. If I (be) ______ you, I (take it easy) ________ and go home early. ⑥. Sue missed the party last night. I’m sure that if she (be) ______ there, she (meet) ______ some really interesting people. Suggested Answers: ①. had paid; would not have missed ②. would lend; had ③. won; would spend ④. didn’t write; would spend ⑤. were; would take it easy ⑥. had been; would have met ⑶ Look at the examples. Sentence A tells us the real situation. Sentence B tells us what would have happened if the situation had been different. Now write a sentence B for each sentence A below. A. I go to gym every day. B. He didn’t work had. B. If I didn’t go the gym every day, I would put on weight. B. If he had worked hard, he would have passed the exam.

① A. Shirley liked to write poems, so she practiced every day. B. _____________________________________________. ② A. She didn’t know how to convey her feelings effectively in a poem and her older brother often laugh at her. B. _____________________________________________. ③ A. She read many beautiful poems and gradually her writing skills improved. B. ____________________________________________. ④ A. She was so satisfied with her improvement that she entered a poem in a poetry competition. B. ___________________________________________. ⑤ A. The poem she entered did not have an appropriate ending and she did not win first prize. B. ____________________________________________. ⑥ A. However, because she won an encouragement award, she felt very pleased with herself. B. ___________________________________________. Suggested Answers: ① If Shirley hadn’t like d to write poems, she wouldn’t have practiced every day. ② If she had known how to convey her feelings effectively in a poem, her brother wouldn’t have often laughed at her. ③ If she hadn’t read many beautiful poems, her writing wouldn’t have gradually improved. ④ If she hadn’t been so satisfied with her improvement, she wouldn’t have entered a poem in a poetry competition. ⑤ If the poem she entered had had an appropriate ending, she would have won the first prize. ⑥ If she hadn’t won an encouragement award, she wouldn’t felt pleased with herself. Step 4. Using structures Purpose: To get Ss to consolidate what we have learned in the class. Match the beginning of each sentence with the correct ending. 1. She would have waited for him 2. Clare would be frightened 3. I would have been on time 4. He would have won the race A. if she saw a snake. B. if he hadn’t tripped over. C. if they had the money. D. if he had asked.

5. They would paint their house

E. if my mother had woken me up.

Suggested Answers: 1. D 2. A 3. E 4. B 5. C

Step 5. Homework. 1. Review the new words and phrases. 2. Master all the language points we have learnt in the class. Warming Up, Pre-reading and Reading Step 1 Lead in Show a picture and ask: 1.Who was she? Mona Lisa

2.Who painted her? Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) 3.How long did it take him to paint it? Four years (1503-1506)

Step 2 Discussion 1.Are there any paintings in your home? Whose? Which style? 2.Who are your favorite painters, from China and from other countries? 3.Do you know some famous painters and their works? List some. (China-- Xu Beihong, Qi Baishi, Zhang Daqian, Fu Baoshi…Leonardo Da Vinci, Picasso , Vincent Van Gogh, Henri Matisse, Giotto di Bondone…) 4.What do you think of the differences and similarities between Chinese and Western paintings? Chinese paintings: realistic detailed traditional natural line rich colorful

Western paintings: abstract natural Step 3 Some painters’ information 1.Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)

religious

impressionist

ridiculous modern colorful

Mona Lisa

朝见圣子

2.Giotto di Bondone (The Middle Ages ) 乔托·迪·邦多纳 Giotto was recognized as the first genius of art in the Italian Renaissance. He painted religious scenes in a more realistic style. Escape to Egypt 3.Monet 莫奈(1840-1926) ( Impressionism ) A French painter who helped to start the Impressionist movement. he is best known for his paintings of the countryside in which he tried to show the affects of light by painting the same picture at different times of day or in different types of weather.花园中的女人 4.Van Gogh 凡高(1853-1890)

吹笛少年

A Dutch painter who went to live in southern France and

helped to developed the style of Post-impressionism. His paintings typically use bright colors and have thick lines. One of the most famous ones is Sunflowers .He is also known for being mentally ill and for cutting off one of his ears and later killing himself. Poor as he was during his life, his paintings are now extremely valuable and sold for very high prices. 5.Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) 毕加索 ( Modern art ) He was born on October 25, 1881 in

Malaga, Spain, as the son of an art and drawing teacher. Picasso was the greatest art genius of the twentieth century.毕加索的作品,最著名的是和平鸽,格尔尼卡,以及无数长着三只眼睛,

几个乳房的怪人画,使他成为二十世纪最具争议,也最有影响的艺术家。即使看了说不出所
以然的人也只有跟着全世界喝彩。 要是遇到其他什么人画的看不懂的画时, 就会说一句: “这 是毕加索。” 6.Matisse 马蒂斯(1869-1954) A French painter and sculptor who helped to develop fauvism (野

兽派)as a style of painting. His paintings are mostly of ordinary places and objects, but they are pure bright colors and black lines.奢华 Step 4 Match the words with the correct meanings: [A] a. realistic b. abstract c. existence d. detailed [B] 1. accurate, minute 2. state or fact of existing 3. being in thought but having a physical or practical existence 4. lifelike, true to life

e. religious f. traditional

5. classical, of old beliefs 6. sincere to believe in a god or gods

Step 5 Pre-reading Get the Ss to discuss the questions in pre-reading in pairs. Then check the answer with the whole class, if they have no idea, use the materials previously prepared to let the Ss have some acquaintance with the knowledge of art and artists.

Step6 Reading Task 1 Scanning Show some questions on the screen. 1. What were the artists interested in from 5th to 15the century AD? 2. How did Masaccio 3. paint his paintings?

4. Why did the impressionists have to paint quickly. Task 2 Scanning Let the Ss red the passage again and get the main idea of it. Then complete the chart no their own. following

Names of Ages The Middle Ages The Renaissance Impressionism

Time 5th to 15th century 15th to 16th century Late 19th to early 20th century 20th century to today

Artist Giotto Di Bondone Massaccio

Feature religious, realistic perspective, realistic detailed, ridiculous

Modern art

Controversial, abstract, realistic

Task 3 Explanation There are so many… that it would be impossible to … The sentence means that there are too many different styles of /western art to introduce in a short passage.

People became more focused on… and less on… It tell us that people pay more attention to humans than religion If the rules of perspective had not been discovered, people would not have been able to paint … The sentence means that people discovered the rules of perspective, so that they painted such realistic pictures.

Step 7 Comprehending Ask the students to read the passage again and deal with Exercises. Step 8 Homework 1. Underline the time expression in the reading passage. 2. Retell the passage with the help of the chart about the text. 3. Discuss the question in Exercise 3 on page 3.

Step 9 Homework 1. Revise what you have learned in this class. 2. Preview the new lesson. Listening, Speaking and Writing Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言: 重点词汇和短语 Traditional, abstract, figurative, photography, dimensional, sculpture, pottery, wood carving, clay figures ,paper cutting 重点句子 Talk about likes and preferences: I’d prefer… I’d rather… I’d like… Which would you prefer…? I really prefer… Would you rather…

Would you like… 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Enable the Ss to express their likes and preference 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Help the Ss learn how to express their likes and preference Teaching important & difficult points 教学重难点 Teach the Ss how to express their likes and preference Teaching methods 教学方法 Speaking; making conversation; comparative method Teaching aids 教具准备 A computer, a recorder and some slides Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方法 Period 1 Listening Teaching aims 1 .Knowledge Aims 1).Let the Ss know about some scientists and their life and conditions. 2).Get the Ss to learn to learn how to talk about scientific wok and how to describe a person.. 2. Ability Aims 1).Train the Ss’ speaking ability by describing, talking and discussing. 2).Train the Ss’ listening ability. 3. Emotional Aims Encourage the students to learn from scientists to show interest in scientific exploration and research. Teaching Important Points 1. Train the Ss’ speaking ability by describing, talking and discussing. 2. Help the students to improve their listening ability. Teaching Difficulties Train the Ss’ listening ability. Teaching Aids CAI equipment with a mult-media classroom and other normal teaching tools. Teaching Procedure StepⅠ Greeting & Revision StepⅡListening Listen and answer the questions in Exercise1&2

Answers2: 1John.2Susan. 3He wants to see the exhibition of Chinese art.4Small galleries. 5It is big, crowded and too expensive.6Modern art. 7The Frick collection and the Metropolitan Museum on Friday and the Whitney and the Guggenheim on Saturday. StepⅢ Discussion So far, we have learned some knowledge about the art. Let's talk about how to express likes and preferences. Let's see some sentence structures. Discuss the questions on page 41 Look at some sentences structures: I ’d prefer… I ’d rather… I’d like… Which would you prefer…? I really prefer… Would you rather…? Would you like…or Sample dialogue 1 S1: Who are your favorite Chinese artists? S2: I’d prefer the Chinese famous painter Qi Baishi, who is a master of traditional Chinese realistic paintings. He is good at combining two kinds of techniques: traditional Chinese realistic painting and freehand brushwork in traditional Chinese painting. S1: Would you like any western artists? S2: Yes, of course. I prefer the Italian artist Giotto di Bondone. He is well-known for his rediscovery of the third dimension Sample dialogue 2 S1: Which style would you prefer, two –dimensional or three-dimensional? S2: I prefer two-dimensional style. My favorite art style is photography. My ideal is to be a photographer. Images and information can be presented to thrill and inspire people. S1: I’d rather like three dimensional style. I like pottery very much Sample dialogue 3 S1: There are many kinds of folk arts in China, such as paper cutting ,kites, jade and other stone carvings, etc. what kind of Chinese art do you like best? S2: I enjoy paper cutting very much. The crafts use simple materials. S3: I’d rather like clay figures. Chinese folk artists use simple and cheap materials to make small and delicate handicraft. Clay figurine making is a unique folk handicraft of China. Task 2: Do some listening practice on page 44.Keys 1 What about visiting some art galleries? 3There’s even a section on Chinese art .I’d like to see that. 4 Well, the Frick Collection is quite small, and it has a beautiful garden.

5 Oh no. It’s too big and crowded. 6 Modern art! Do we have to ?I’m not very fond better pictures than some of those paintings. 7 Metropolitan stays open until 8:45 on Friday evenings. 7 ...They ‘re quite close together. The Guggenheim stays open till late on Saturdays... 2 Listen again and then answer the questions. P41 3 book 1vase 4wall hanging 2paints and brushes P41 2 1Xiao Wei. 2It was too expensive. 3Mrs Hang would probably have known What to get Mr Wang. 4At first he liked the book but later he thought the wall hanging would be the best. 5I think they will probably get the wall hanging because the others seem to respect Wang Pei’s opinion. Also, they know Mr Hang likes that type of Wall Hanging. P44 Listening task 1 discuss :In what period do you think they were? 2Listen to the tape: Number the artworks 1---6 to show the order in which Zhang Lin talks about them. 3 6 5 1 2 4 of that stuff. A monkey could have painted

Learn new words pottery陶器 Buddhism 佛教 Architecture 建筑 Brush strokes 绘画的技巧 Answer key for Ex.2 15000—3000BC 2First century AD Tang Dynasty 6 20th century Key for Ex 4 1. Painted pottery. 2. Religious theme, organized system of drawing focused on the use of brush strokes. 3. The traditional style that is practised even today was well developed .Pictures of human figures, animals and everyday life were popular during the Tang Dynasty. 4. Pictures of human figures and still life became popular. Scenery did not look realistic with a particular part of the scenery enlarged/focused on. 5& 6 Painters have become influenced by Western art, both abstract and realistic art painted. StepⅣSummary and homework Afterthoughts 4Yuan Dynasty 5 20th century Typical 典型的 Technique 技巧,手法

Period 2 Speaking & Writing Teaching Aims: Help and Enable the students learn how to talk about environment. Help the students learn how to write a letter asking for permission. Difficulty and importance Teach the students learn how to write a letter asking for permission Teaching methods: Fast reading; careful reading; discussion Teaching aids A computer a projector, and a recorder Teaching Procedures & ways StepⅠ Reading Task Here is a letter on page 45 from a group of students who would like to make their school more attractive. 1 Fast reading 1. Why do they become worried? 2. What do they hope the headmaster to do for their project? Careful reading: suppose you were the president of the high school council and you received the letter. Prepare to make notes for a report about the letter, filling the blanks on page 46 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Some tips about how to make notes Just write down some key words Use words or phrases Omit the small words like prepositions Letter from____________________________ Asking for______________ and____________ Reason ______________________________ Their plan: 1___________________________ 2___________________________ 3___________________________ 9 Work will be done by :___________________

StepⅡ Speaking task

Ask the Ss to discuss how to improve the environment of our school in fours, then speak out. 1 2 3 4 A: planting more trees, grass and flowers, a beautiful garden, not pick the flowers and stamp the grass B: not throw litter, pick the rubbish, throw it into a dustbin, collect waste paper and bottles for recycling. C: keep the schoolyard or classroom clean, not draw pictures on walls, not carve names on the trees or desks and chairs D: make our school a non-smoking place In all, if everyone makes contribution to protecting the environment, the world will become much more beautiful. If all Chinese care about the environment, I ’m sure China will become one of the most beautiful countries in the world StepⅢ Writing task 1 2 Write a letter to the headmaster of the school asking for permission to improve the environment of the school. While writing, refer to the instructions in WRITING TASK. A sample letter: As you know, our school used to look like a beautiful garden with green trees and many kinds of flowers in our schoolyard all year round. But great changes have taken place since a chemical work was built near our school two years ago .It produces poisonous gases and pours a large amount of waste water into the river. The terrible pollution has done great harm to students and teachers as well as to the surroundings. It's time for us to do something to protect our school and prevent her from being polluted. First, we must make great efforts to clean up polluted water and stop further water pollution. Ask the government to maintain and improve present facilities, and construct new project with health, safety, and protection of the environment as primary concerns. Second, we must insist that water pollution control laws be passed and strictly enforced. This responsibility extends also to members of the general public in our surrounding community. An important aspect of this responsibility is making ongoing water quality. This is of such importance, that is must be given precedence over operating productivity. Finally, we can also protect ourselves against polluted water. We should take measures to clean the polluted water. To cooperate with government, industry and academia is supporting research and maximizing benefits for the general public in safety, heath and environmental matters. We hope you will give us a permission to carry out he project and donate 5,000yuan we need. And we also require you to make a report to ask for the government’s rescue. By doing so , we will be able to live a healthier and happier life. Yours sincerely, Liu Wei Dear Mr. Wang,

StepⅣHomework 1 Revise the composition and hand it in tomorrow. 2 Revise the language points for tomorrow’s quiz. Afterthoughts

Grammar and Useful Structures Teaching Aims 1 .Knowledge Aim Help the students to use the subjunctive mood correctly in different situations. 2. Ability Aim To learn the subjunctive mood freely and properly in speaking and writing. 3. Emotional Aims 1) 1) 2) Encourage the students learn more about the grammar. Help the students to form the good habit in learning. Encourage the students to do more exercise consolidate the knowledge.

Teaching Important Point Enable the students to use the correct form o f of the subjunctive mood Teaching Difficult Point To know the differences between the attributive and the predicative. Teaching Methods: Summarizing, comparative method; practicing activities Teaching Aids Multi-media classroom and other normal teaching tools Teaching Procedure StepⅠ Greeting Greet the whole class. StepⅡ Dictation StepⅢ Homework checking StepⅣ Grammar 虚拟语气(Subjunctive Mood)这一语法项目是各类英语考试中心测试的重点之一。虚拟 语气是一种特殊的动词形式,用来表示说话人所说的话并不是事实,而是一种假设、愿望、 怀疑或推测。 判断是真实条件句还是非真实条件句。 只有在非真实条件句中才使用虚拟语气。 通过句子意思,看假设的条件是否能够实现,能够实现是真实条件句,不能使用虚拟语气;

假设的条件不能实现则是非真实条件句,要用虚拟语气.判断这个假设是与哪个事实相反。 通常有三种情况:①与过去事实相反。②与现在事实相反。③与将来事实可能相反 I:虚拟条件句: 1. 虚拟现在时表示与现在事实相反的假设,其if 从句的谓语形式用动词的过去式(be 一般 用were),主句用would/ should/ could/ might +动词原形。 If places were a like, there would be little need for geographers.如果各个地方都一样,就不 需要地理学家了。 2. 虚拟过去时是表示与过去事实相反的假设, 从句的谓语形式用过去完成时即had+过去 if 分词,主句用would / should / could / might + have +过去分词。 If he had known your address yesterday, he would have telephoned you. 3. 虚拟将来时是表示对将来实现的可能性很小的或不确定的假设。 If从句的谓语形式用一般 过去式或用were to / should +动词原形,主句用would / should/could/ might +动词原形。 If he were to leave today, he would get there by Friday 4. 省略if 采用倒装语序的条件句。有时可以把含有助动词、情态动词、be或have的虚拟条 件句中的连词if省去,而将had , should, were 等词提到主语之前,即用倒装结构。 Had he worked harder, he would have got through the exams. Were he to leave today, he would get there by Friday. Were I in your place, I wouldn’t do that. 5混合虚拟语气 有时主句和从句的谓语动词指不同的时间,这时需要用混合虚拟语气。一般来说,在 这种情况下,主从句谓语动词指代的时间不同,所以我们又可以错综时间条件句,在这种虚 拟情况, 动词形式应根据实际情况灵活使用, 在做这些题目时候尤其要注意每道题目的提示 语:时间状语。绝大多数情况下,从句或者主句都有相关的时间状语,这是我解题的关键。 If you _____ that late movie last night, you wouldn’t be so sleepy. A. haven’t watched C. hadn’t watched B. didn’t watch D. wouldn’t have watched 答案选C。

Had Paul received six more votes in the last election, he would be our chairman now. 混合虚拟语气还有一种情况就是事实和虚拟假设的混合句,这样的句子不仅仅是时间 的不同,而重要是事实和假设的混合。 I would have gone to visit him in the hospital had it been at all possible, but I was fully occupied the whole of last week. 该句前半部分是假设虚拟,而后半部分是事实的陈述。 Your math instructor would have been happy to give you a make-up examination had you gone and explained that your parents were ill at the time. 该句前半句用的是假设虚拟, 后半句主句也用的是假设虚拟 (如果你去并且解释的话) , 但是后半句的从句用的是事实语气,因为“父母病了”是客观事实,故不需要用虚拟形式had been。 6. 含蓄虚拟条件句

含蓄条件句是指句中没有明显的虚拟条件句, 而是利用其他手段来暗示存在虚拟条件。 但是这类隐含式虚拟条件句往往都可以转化为if引导的条件句。常来表示含蓄虚拟条件的手 段有: (1) 介词或介词短语, 如but for, but that, without, in case of, under more favorable condition等。 Without the leadership of the party, we could not be living a happy today.=If there hadn’t been the leadership of the party, we could not be living a happy today. A. In spite of B. But for C. Because of D. As for 答案选B。 (2)连词,如:so that, unless, in case, supposing, lest, provided(倘若……),for fear that(唯 恐),in order that, on condition that, if only(要是……就好了)等。 She listened carefully in order that she might discover exactly what he wanted. =if she listened carefully, she might discover exactly what he wanted. If only I had more money, I could buy a car. (注:lest, for fear that 和 in case 引起的从句中谓语动词多用should+动词原形,但可以 不用虚拟语气,而用动词的陈述语气形式。)例如: The foreign teacher spoke slowly in case we misunderstood him. 这位外籍教师说得很慢 以免我们听不懂。 Care must be taken in using this method lest overflow should occur.在使用此法时要小心谨慎, 以免会发生溢流现象。 II: wish 后的 that 从句中: 1. 表示现在或将来的愿望,从句中过去式. I wish I knew his address. I wish I were young. 2. 表示过去没有实现或不可能实现的愿望, 从句用过去完成式或would, could, might + have + 过去分词. I wish you had written to him. I wish I could have slept longer this morning, but I had to get up and come to class. 3. 如果将wish改成wished, 其后that 从句中的动词形式不变. 4. 如果that 从句中用would , 一般表示 对现状不满或希望未来有所改变或请求 I wish he would answer my letter. I wish prices would come down. I wish you would help me. I wish you would stop asking silly questions. StepⅤ Exercises Ex.1----4 in using structures on page 43.Then check the answers. Prepare for the Listening and Talking on page 41. StepⅥ Homework Prepare for the Listening and Talking on page 41 Afterthoughts

Unit 2

Poems

Period 1 —— Warming up and Pre-reading Teaching material: NSEFC Book 6 —— Unit 2

Lesson type: warming up & speaking Teaching aids: 1. a tape recorder 2. a projector 3. Slides and Pictures Teaching Objectives: 1. To present the topic of this unit —— poetry 2. To help students form concept of poetry. 3. To learn some words and useful expressions in order to express their own feelings. 4. To cultivate students’ interest of poetry. Teaching Important Points: How to improve the students’ speaking ability. Teaching Difficult Points: How to make the students gain enough information to express themselves. Teaching Methods: 1. 2. Pair work or group work to make every student join in the class activities Discussion to make every student express himself freely.

Teaching Procedure: Step 1: Daily Greetings (1 minute) T: Good morning, students! Ss: Good morning, Miss Huang!

Step 2: Warming up (11 minutes)

T: Last unit we have learnt something about art, right? Ss: yes T: It is a kind of art. This time we will learn another kind of art. What is it? Ss: Poetry. T: Yes, poetry. From now on, we will begin a mysterious trip of poetry——Unit 4: a garden of poems. Here “poem” means 诗,它是指一首具体的诗。It is a countable noun. We can say “a poem” or “poems”. For example, we can say “a love poem”. Well, the word “poetry” refers to 诗歌,它是指诗歌的总称。So it is an uncountable noun. Is that clear? Ss: Yes. T: Ok. Who are the people that write poems? Ss: Poet. T: Yes, we call them poet. Can you name some famous poets in China? Ss: …… T: Very good. So many. Now, I’d like to introduce you two of them. Who is he? (show a picture of Li Bai on the Blackboard) Ss: Li Bai. T: Good. Li Bai. Can you recite any of his poems? Ss: …… T: Good job. (show a poem written by Li Bai on slide 1) So from his poems, we can see that Li Bai is full of imagination, right? His poems are always very romantic. So we say Li Bai is a representative of Romanticism. What about another famous poet? Who is he? (show a picture of Du Fu on the blackboard) Ss: Du Fu. T: Yes, you’ve got it. Do you know any of his poems? Ss: …… T: Wonderful, thank you. Compared with Li Bai, most of his poems present us a real life in that period. For example, “朱门酒肉臭,路有冻死骨” . It tells us the living condition of the people at that time, right? Ss: Yes

T: So, we call Du Fu realistic poet. Now, I’d like to take a poem written by Du Fu for example. (show a poem written by Du Fu on slide 2) Xxx, would you please read it for us? S1: (reading) T: Thank you very much. Well, can you understand the meaning of this poem? Ss: No. T: I don’t know, either. I think if we don’t know the background of the poem and some necessary explanations, it will be very difficult for us to understand a traditional poem, right? Ss: Yes T: Well, what about this one? Who’d like to read it for us? (show a English songs “Do S3: (reading) T: Do you think it is easier to understand? Ss: Yes T: I’m sure all of us know what it talks about. Ri Mi on slide 3)

Step 3: Reading (5 minutes) T: Today we’ll learn some English poems. They includes many kinds…. Ss: (reading) T: Thanks for your sweet voice. Look at the first poem , can you tell me what is the Nursery Rhymes? S4: Strong rhythm and rhyme, a lot of repetition, easy to learn and to recite T: Yes. Good. What the matter is. OK? T: Can you understand the meaning of this poem? It talks about a football match, right? With him? S5: They lost the game. Step 4: Discussion (10 minutes) T: OK, up till now, we have collected several words to describe different styles of poems. Well, what other words will we need to talk about poems? Now, would you please form a group of four and have a discussion.

What other words will we need to talk about poems? Are you clear? Ss: Yes T: Ok. I’ll give you three minutes. After that, I’d like some of you to list some words you need. Now, go! (Three minutes later) T: OK. Time’s up. Who’d like to be the bravest one? S6: funny, happy. T: Good. Any other opinions? S7: Boring, dull, sad. T: Very good. Any other words? S8: Moving, meaningful, meaningless. ……

Step 5: Pair work (10 minutes) T: Well, what about this one? (Sing an English song of another style by myself——Jingle Bells) Do you think it is very sad? Ss: No. T: Do you think it is happy? Ss: Yes T: Yes, it sounds very happy. It is also very lovely, right? Ss: Yes T: Well, compare with these two songs, which one do you like better? This time, I’d like you to discuss with your desk-mates and make up a dialogue. Which song do you like better? Why? You can make up your dialogue with these useful expressions and sentence patterns. Maybe this sample may help you a lot. (show the useful expressions and a sample on slide 5) Is that clear? Ss: Yes T: OK, go. You have five minutes to prepare. (five minutes later)

T: Who is ready? …… (check some pairs.)

Step 6: Conclusion (3 minutes) T: Today we just begin our magical journey of poetry. We have talked about some famous poets and learnt many words to show our ideas about poems and songs, right? Besides, we also enjoyed two beautiful songs. Do you feel good this class? Ss: Yes T: Thank you.

Step 7: Homework (5 minutes) T: Here comes your homework. Next period we’ll make a further study about poetry, especially English poetry. So: 1. Please preview the reading part and look up the new words in the dictionary.

2. Try to find an English song or poem, and write a review. Are you all clear? Ss: Yes T: Ok. So much for today. Thanks for your attention. See you! Ss: See you!

Blackboard Design:

Unit2 具体的一首诗

Poems

romantic 浪漫主义的 interesting funny 滑稽的,可笑的 happy meaningful lyric 抒情的 moving 感人的 encouraging 振奋人心的

realistic 现实主义的 uninteresting dull / boring 枯燥的 sad 悲伤的 meaningless

poetry 诗歌(总称) poet 诗人 limerick 打油诗 style 风格

bold and unconstrained 豪放的 lovely 可爱的

附: Slide 1: Slide 2

《望庐山瀑布》 ——李白 日照香炉生紫烟, 遥看瀑布挂前川。 飞流直下三千尺, 疑是银河落九天。

《冬日有怀李白》 ——杜甫 寂寞书斋里,终朝独尔思。 更寻嘉树传,不忘角弓诗。 短褐风霜入,还丹日月迟。 未因乘兴去,空有鹿门期。

Slide 3: 沁园春——考试 考场风光, 千里纸飘, 万里眼瞟。 望教室内外, 风景甚好, 交头接耳, 互打手势, 欲与考官试比高; 需来日, 看试卷成绩, 互喜互贺。 惜八股取士, 摇头晃脑。 死记硬背, 甚是苦恼。 一代天骄, 时代骄子, 考试作弊出高招。 俱往矣, 数风流高手, 还看今朝。 Example: Useful expressions:

Slide 5:

1. I’m interested to …… but …… 2. I’m (not) interested in …… so …… 3. I think it will be too ……to …… 4. I’ve never heard of …… so …… 5. I don’t know much about …… but …… 6. I’d like to ……

A: Which song do you like better? B: I’m interested in…… A: Why are you interested in ……? B: Because …… What about you? A: Well, I prefer to …… Because I think ……

Slide 4: the lyric of the song “My Heart Will Go On” (omit)

Unit 2

Poems

Period 2 —— Reading (content) Teaching material: NSEFC Book 6 —— Unit 2

Lesson type: Reading

Teaching aids: 1. a computer

Multi-media

2. a tape recorder Teaching Objectives: 1. To learn the main develop steps of the history of English poetry. 2. To learn the characteristics of poems during different periods. 3. To master some extra-curricular knowledge about some famous poets. 4. To improve students’ reading ability. Teaching Important Points: 1. 2. The extra-curricular knowledge of English poetry The similarities and differences between the Chinese and English poets and poems.

Teaching Difficult Point: How to grasp the information presented in the reading material. Teaching Methods: 1. 2. Fast-reading to rasp the main idea of three most important paragraphs. The introduction of some famous poets to widen their background knowledge about English poetry. 3. Pair work or group work to get every student to join in the class activities.

Teaching Procedure: Step 1: greeting and revision (2 minutes) T: Good morning, girls. Ss: Good morning, Miss Huang Likui. T: Yesterday, we started our trip of poetry. We mentioned a lot of things. Some new words and some famous poets in china, right? Ss: Yes

Step 2: While-reading (30 minutes) (Deal with paragraph 3, 4 and 5) 1. Fast-reading (10 minutes) T: What about English poetry? Now, please open your textbook and turn to page 10. Let’s have a

look at the poems first. Please listen to the tape carefully. Ss: Yes T: OK, here we go. (Several minutes later) ……………. 2. Intensive-reading (20 minutes) T: Despite its short history, there are a lot of good English poets around. This time, would you please red the third paragraph more carefully and answer the questions on the screen? 1. How many poets are there in this text? Who are they? 2. Whose poetry reminds Chinese readers of the poems by WangJian? 3. What is Haiku? Are you clear? Ss: Yes (Several minutes later) ……………… T: That’s right, thank you. How time flies! The windmill of the time accompanied us going through many kinds of poems . ………………. T: Very good. Thank you very much. No matter how well a poem is translated, something of the spirit of the original work is lost. So we’d better learn English well, thus we can read poetry in English.

Step 3: Post-reading (3 minutes) (Adopt the first paragraph as a conclusion of the whole passage) T: So, today, we have learnt a lot of things about English poetry, including some famous poets and their representative works, right? Ss: Yes T: Although we are Chinese, they are English; although we are modern people, they are ancient men; poetry can bring us together, right? Just as Mu Dan wrote: Quietly, we embrace in a world lit up by words.

Step 3: Homework (2 minutes) T: Here comes your homework. 1. Finish exercises in post-reading 2. Review the information we have collected this class. 3. Read the whole passage again and underline some language points. Is that clear? Ss: Yes T: So much for today. See you tomorrow! Ss: See you! Unit 2 Poems Period 3——Reading (Language points)

Teaching material:

NSEFC Book 6 —— Unit 2

Lesson type: reading Teaching aids: 1. a tape recorder 2. a projector 3. slides Teaching Objectives: 1. To learn some new words and phrases. 2. To master the main idea of each paragraph. 3. To learn some complicated sentence patterns. Teaching Important Point: The usage of some useful words and expressions. Teaching Difficult Point: How to grasp and remember the detailed information of the reading material. Teaching Methods: 1. Explanations of words and phrases to get the students know their meanings. 2. More examples to get the students know the usage. 3. Pair work or group work to get every student to join in the class activities and learn self-study.

Teaching Procedure: Step 1: greeting and revision (2 minutes) T: Good morning, girls! Ss: Good morning, Huang! T: Yesterday we talked about English poetry, especially some famous English poets, right? Ss: Yes T: I think you must have got a first impression of English poetry. This class let’s study the passage in details. In my opinion, this passage is not easy. So some language points may help you to understand it better.

Step 2: Language points (32 minutes) T: OK, now would you please open your textbook and turn to page 18——English poetry. Have you noticed that in slime paragraphs, there are some words in bold? Please pay attention to these words and make clear “what do the words in bold refer to?”. Ok, let’s read the first paragraph together. Reading poetry, one two start. Ss: (reading) T: Thanks for your sweet voice. Who’d like to translate the second sentence into Chinese? Xxx, would you please? S1: ……

Step 3: Homework (3 minutes) T: I believe you must have something in your mind. Here comes your homework. 1. Review the language points we have discussed this class and try to retell the whole passage. 2. Finish exercise 2 in word study. Are you clear? Ss: Yes T: So much for today. See you tomorrow! Ss: See you!

Blackboard Design:

Language points 1. There are various reasons why people write poetry. a poem various: different, its root is vary poetry is a collective noun, used as an uncountable noun. 2. Some poems tell a story or… Others try to convey certain emotion Some …others… /One… the other(s) … 常常以固定的搭配形式出现 Convey : communicate ideas, feelings to sb Colors like red convey a sense of energy and strength. Body language conveys much more information than language spoken. 3. emotion 情绪

emotional 易动感情的 4. learn about sth. learn sth 5. I saw a person twelve-feet high. It is appropriate to “tall” here 6. We would have won if Jack had scored that goal. Unit 2 Poems Period 4 ——Grammar

Teaching material: NSEFC Book 6 —— Unit 2 Lesson type: grammar Teaching aids: Tape recorder, Slides, Pictures

1.英语动词有三种语气, 陈述语气,祈使语气和虚拟语气。 2. 定义:用来表示说的话不是事实,或者是不可能发生的情况,而是一种愿望,建议,假 设的语气叫虚拟语气。 3. 在条件句中的应用

条件句可分为两类,一类为真实条件句,一类为非真实条件句。非真实条件句表示的 是假设的或实际可能性不大的情况,故采用虚拟语气。 1).真实条件句 真实条件句用于陈述语气,假设的情况可能发生,其中 if 是如果的意思。 句型: 条件从句 一般现在时 主句 shall/will + V 原形.

If he comes, he will bring his violin 2). 非真实条件句。 非真实条件句用语虚拟语气,假设的情况不可能发生,或者可能性很小,其中 if 是 “要是、如果”的意思。即: “要是……就好了”;“如果……,……就会……” Unit 2 Poems Period 5——Listening

Teacher: Teaching material: NSEFC Book 6—— Unit 2 Lesson type: listening Teaching aids: 1. a tape recorder 2. a projector 3. slides Teaching Objectives: 1. To improve students’ ability of listening 2. To help them learn how to enjoy English poems Teaching Important Point: How to get the students to grasp the main idea of a passage by listening. Teaching Difficult Point: How to direct the students to grasp the detailed information to finish the listening task. Teaching Methods: 1. 2. To create a situation that helps the students know what they will hear from the conversation To present an English poem and cultivate their interests.

Teaching Procedure: Step 1: Greeting. (1 minute) T: Good morning, girls! Ss: Good morning, Miss Luo! Step 2: Pre-listening (7 minutes) Unit 3 A healthy life Warming Up, Pre-reading and Reading Content analyze:本单元以健康话题为主题,听说读写等活动主要围绕如何健身,怎样成为健 康人展开,其中涉及许多社会热点问题,如抽烟,吸毒,艾滋病,学习与工作压力等影响健 康的棘手问题。本单元引导学生讨论这些问题,目的在于让他们远离有损健康的活动,并养 成良好的习惯。 课型设计与课时分配 1stperiod Reading 2nd period Language study
3rd

period

4th period word

5th period Grammar

6th

period

7th

Extensive reading

Speaking&writing Integrating skills

listening

The

1st

period

Teaching Aims: Enable the Ss to learn how to give advice on stopping smoking. Difficulty and importance Learn the bad effects of smoking and how to bive advice on stopping smoking.Learn in what ways people get addicted to cigarettes. Teaching methods: Discussion,cooperative learning and oral practice. Teaching aids A computer and a projector Teaching Procedures & ways StepⅠ Warming A healthy life

A report ----Health China,2005,which is about ten issues concerning Chinese people the most in the year 2005.According to your understanding ,what a healthy life is like? Can you guess what the ten issues are? A health life should include two aspects A sample list : health issues AIDS and infections ,parenting, relationships, food and nutrition, family issues, environmental health, domestic violence(家庭暴力), air pollution, cancer, anxiety, birth control, dental health, divorce, medical emergency treatment。 Look at the issues listed in the textbook on page 17.Which issue do you think is the most important one? Why?Work in groups and have a discussion. Drug taking Drug taking is particularly important .it does great harm to people’s health; it will gradually kill a person if he gets addicted to it. Buying drug costs a lot of money, many families break up in this way. Our government has to spend much money on drug addicts’ treatment. Parenting is important Because many issues arise as a result of bad parenting or lack of care and love. If children grow up in happy and healthy families ,they will form good habits and keep away from bad habits. Smoking is important Smoking does great harm to people’s health, it causes damage to people’s lung and heart, smoking shortens people’s lifespan(寿命)。Smoking not only does harm to people who smoke, but also affect the people around them.

All these issues are important and need to be concerned. I am wondering if any of you smoke?...We know some adolescents(青少年) started smoking at very early years. Why do you think they smoke? Some realized the harm of smoking and wanted to stop it, do you know any scientific ways of stopping smoking? StepⅡ Text analysis listen to the tape

Summarize the main ideal of each paragraph. In 1st : in 2nd: In 3rd: In 4th: In 5th: How about the writing style and purpose of the text? The text is in the form of _____________, the purpose is to explain how people get addicted to cigarettes and _____________ affects people’s health. It also __________________________________ How can I stop smoking? How can I stop smoking? 1Choose a day that is not stressful 3Throw away all your cigarettes 5if you feel bad, ask a doctor StepⅢ Reading I: ask the students to read the passage for five minutes then answer the following questions: 1. What kind of person do you think James’ grandfather is ? Possible answer: He is fit and healthy and leads an active life. He takes an interest in his daughter’s and grandson’s well-being. He is knowledgeable. He reads the internet. He appears to love his grandson. 2Make a list of all the benefits 4Develop some other habits

2. What are the suggestions James’ grandfather gives to quit smoking? Possible Suggestions to quit smoking: Prepare yourself Be determined Break the habit

Relax Get help if you need it Keep trying…… 3. Do you think the information and advice on the internet page that James’ grandfather sent is useful for someone who is trying to give up smoking? Possible answer: It’s a good summary but a person wanting to give up should probably look for more information than what is presented here. 4. What else could have been included? 5. What information could have been left out?

II: Fill in the chart on the next page with information from the reading passage.

Different ways people can become addicted to cigarettes Harmful physical effects for smokers Effects a person’s smoking can have on other people Effects smoking can have on

sporting performance

III: Make a summary on how to stop smoking. IV: Reading and comprehending A letter from granddad to James, he gives James some advice on stopping smoking. After reading the letter, what kind of person do you think the granddad is? From his words ,I think he is very _______and ___________.He doesn’t give_________ advice on stopping smoking.Instead,first he tells

James___________________________and_____________________________;Then

he

____________________to his similar experience as a teenager. So I think he is very careful about_____________talking to his grandson about _____________. Suppose you were his grandson, would you love to take his advice? P20 2 Information from the reading passage 1Different ways people can become addicted to cigarettes 2Harmful physical effects for smokers

StepⅣHomework Make sentences with the six words and phrases Due to , addicted to ,accustomed to ,mentally, manage ,quit Search on the Internet or other sources for information about how to stop smoking. Unit3 A healthy life Listening, Speaking and Writing Listening Teaching goals Enable the students to listen for details and catch the specific information as much as possible. Learning ability goals Enable the students to predict some important information in the process of listening and encourage the students to talk about the situations according to the listening materials. Teaching important and difficult points How to make sure the answers of listening material. Teaching aids A recorder and cassette tapes, a projector, and a computer Teaching procedures Step 1 Warming up 1. Are there any discos, karaoke bars or nightclubs in your district for young people to g o to? 2. Have you ever been to places like these? 3. Do you ever go to parties with your friends? 4. Do you think it is OK for alcohol to be available at places where young people meet? Step 2 Pre-listening The listening is a conversation between Tina and Sara about going to a disco. Let’s predict: What kind of advise will Tina give to Sara? Step 3 Listening

1)Listen to the tape and tick the things Sara is worried about. 1. drugs 2. smoking 3. alcohol 4. dancing 2)Listen to the tape again and complete Tina’s sentences. 1. Just say no. You don’t have to do anything you don’t want to. 2. It is ok to drink orange juice or something instead. 3. It would be a good idea to have something to eat before you go out, like rice or noo dles. 4. If someone offers you a cigarette, don’t take it. 5. Well, you’ll have to learn. Let’s get my CD player and I’ll teach you. Step 4 Listening on page 58 1) Listen to the tape and fill in the chart below Medical chart Name: Li Yue Age: 18 Occupation: student Today’s date: _________ Symptoms: headaches, tired all the time, not sleeping and eating well Possible problem: stress Proposed action: 1. Do some tests to make sure there is nothing seriously wrong 2. Discuss ways to relax Step 5 Listening task 1) Read the questions below and then listen to the tape to find the answers. 1. What is the topic of Li Yue’s talk? 2. Summarize Li Yue’s talk in one sentence. 2) Listen to Li Yue’s talk again and complete these sentences. 1. It’s OK to ____________. 2. Be careful of _________________. 3. You also ___________ a balance in your life. 4. If you _________________ to relax and enjoy yourself, you can become _______________________________. 5. You ______________ your study time with rest times. 6. You need to _____________. You _______ keep in touch with friends and to________ _____________. 7. So, my advice to you today is to____________ ________your physical and mental heal th as well as your schoolwork. 8. Just ______________ a day to ____________ ____________________________________ _ ________. 9. Take _______ occasionally to _______ film, _________in the country or ___ hiking. Keys: 1. worry a little 2. worrying too much 3. have to keep

4. don’t take time out; stressed and stress leads to ill health 5. have to balance 6. have some sun; need to; get some exercise 7. think carefully about 8.take 30 minutes; get some fresh air, do a little exercise or meet with friends 9. time out; go to a; take a bike ride; go 3) Listen once more and then answer these questions. 1. How long ago did Li Yue leave school? Two years. 2. What is she doing now? She is studying at university. 3. Why did Li Yue say to the students “I can see by your faces that youare all doing ve ry well at school and that none of you are worried about the coming exams?” (Sample answer) Li Yue is making a joke to entertain the audience and keep them interes ted in her talk. 4. Why is Li Yue a good person to give this talk to the students? Give at least two reas ons. Li Yue suffered stress herself so she knows what can cause stress and she knows how to prevent it. She is not much older than the students so she is a good role model. 5. What does Li Yue say could happen if you study all the time without a break? You could become stressed, which often leads to ill health. 6. List five things Li Yue suggests students could do to relax. Take 30 minutes a day to get some fresh air; get some exercise; meet with friends; go to a film occasionally; take a bike ride in the country; go hiking. Step 6 Homework Read the listening materials and pay attention to some key points. Speaking and writing Teaching material NSEFC Book 6 —— Unit 3 Teaching Aims Enable the students to give advice on quitting smoking. Teaching Important & Difficult Points How to help the students to write a letter of giving advice on quitting smoking. Teaching aids A computer and a projector Teaching Procedure Step1 Letter reading T: Read this letter and imagine you are the adviser who deals with

students’ problems. List some helpful advice to give Xiao lei. Slide show Li Xiaolei 203 Thames Street Oxford, OX41LF Class 2 Grade 2 GZ …Middle School, GZ, GD, China 518036 203 Thames Street Oxford, OX41LF Friday 11 Nov. Dear students in Class 20 Grade 2, Can you help me, please? I have tried to stop smoking several times. I am OK for two days and then I feel really sick and irritable and I have to start smoking again. I know smoking is a bad habit, but I just can’t seem to give it up. Do you have any useful tips? Yours sincerely Li Xiaolei Step 2 Discussion T: Discuss with your partner and make a list of the tips to quit smoking. Slide show Tips on how to quit smoking Write down why you want to quit (the benefits of quitting): live longer, feel better, for your family, save money, smell better, find a mate more easily, etc. You know what's bad about smoking and you know what you'll get by quitting. Put it on paper and read it daily. Set a quit date. Decide what day you will extinguish your cigarettes forever. Write it dow n. Plan for it. Ask your family and friends to support your decision to quit. Talk with your doctor about quitting. Begin an exercise program. Do some deep breathing each day for 3 to 5 minutes. Cut back on cigarettes gradually. Drink lots of water. Find something to hold in your hand and mouth, to replace cigarettes. Whenever you have a craving for a cigarette, instead of lighting up, writedown your feeli ngs or whatever is on your mind. Believe in yourself. Believe that you can quit. T: Choose 3 pieces of most useful advice and write 2 or 3 sentences to explain how to do it. Step3 Writing T: Write a letter to give Xiao lei some helpful advice. You can refer to the structure and useful expressions below.

Slide show structure beginning of the letter : show your sympathy for him and encourage him body of the letter: list the advice on how to quit smoking end of the letter: express your wish and encourage him Useful expressions How to advise people about what to do Do… You should… Don't forget to… It would be a good idea to… It’s OK/ all right to… How to advise people about what not to do Don’t… You don’t have to… There is no need to… It’s not necessary to… Sample Letter Dear Li Xiaolei, I am sorry you have had so much trouble to stop smoking, but I am glad you are still trying. I hope the tips below will help you. First of all, don’t give up. The more often you try the more likely you are to eventually succeed. When you feel irritable, don’t automatically reach for a cigarette to makeyou feel better. T ake a few moments to relax. Start by breathing deeply and lifting your arms out to the side and over your head. It is a good idea to drink lots of water and eat lots of fruit when you are quitting smoking. This will help to remove the nicotine from your body faster and you won’t feel so sick. It is normal to feel a little stressed when you first give up smoking, but try to remember that it will only last a few days and then you will begin to feel much better. Keep up the good work, Li Xiaolei ,and remind yourself how much healthier you will be when you finally quit. Good luck and best wishes, Sun Gao Step 4 Homework Revise the unit and prepare for an exam. Unit 3 A Health Life Vocabulary and Useful Expressions Step one: Explanation 1.adolescent.青少年

e.g. adolescents between 13 and 18 and the problems 13 至 18 岁的青少年以及他们面临的问题 2.due to 归因于,归功于。 e.g. 1.The accident is due to your careless driving. 那意外事故归因于你驾驶不小心。 2. Her worldwide fame is due to his support. 她名扬四海应归功于他的支持。

they face

表示因果关系的词和短语 because 从属连词,接从句,表示所叙述的理由是本句的重点 as\since 从属连词,接从句,表示理由是已知的,而理由以外才是叙述的重点 for 并列连词,不用于句首,至于第一分句之后,补充说明理由;第一分句表示推测时,用 for 说明推测的依据。 because of 介词,意思是“因为”,较口语化 owing to 介词,意思是“因为”,较正式 thanks to 介词,意思是 “多亏了” as a result of 介词,意思是“因为”

3. addicted 形容词,“对某某上瘾”,“沉湎于某某” e.g. My children have become hopelessly addicted to television. 我的几个孩子都成了电视迷,简直不可救药了。 addict 名词,沉湎与不良嗜好的人,由指吸毒者。 addiction 名词,沉湎、成瘾 addictive 形容词,使人上瘾的

4.accustom 动词,使人习惯于、养成习惯 e.g. She found it necessary to accustom her child to getting up early. 她觉得有必要让孩子养成早起的好习惯。

常用句式

(1)accustom+名词/oneself + to+名词 e.g. Children are quick to accustom themselves to new surroundings. 孩子们很快就会适应新环境。 (2) be accustomed to +名词 e.g. I am accustomed to walking long distances. 我习惯与长距离步行。 (3)get/become accustomed to +名词 e.g. You will soon get accustomed to the job. 你将会习惯于这个工作。 5.quit 动词,过去式和过去分词均为 quit,现在分词为 quitting,接动词-ing 形式,“停止做” e.g. She quit smoking when she got pregnant. 她一怀孕就戒了烟。

6. in spite of 尽管、无视 。后接名词。 e.g. She can’t see very well in spite of her glasses.尽管戴着眼镜她还是不能看得很清楚。 The boy went out in spite of his father’s orders.那男孩无视父亲的命令,径直出去了。

7. feel like 想要,只表示一次的想法,后接动词-ing 形式 e.g. It’s so hot today. I feel like going swimming. 今天好热啊。我想去游泳。

8.get into 陷于,染上什么习惯 get into the habit of 养成什么习惯。相当于 fall into the habit of 或者 form the habit of e.g. The girl has got into the habit of playing with her hair while reading. 那个女孩养成了阅读时玩弄头发的习惯。 短语联想 ?get into trouble 惹上麻烦 ?get into debt 负债累累 ?get into a temper 大发脾气 ?get into deep water 陷于困境

?get into one’s head 有某种看法 ?get into the way of 习惯于、学会

Step two: Now do the quiz and check yourself 1. Rice production has increased greatly in china over the last few years, largely _______super hybrid rice. 2. Having lived in Hawaii all his life, he was not __________to the cold of Northern Europe. 3. He was_________ of his body so he decided to go on a diet and do more exercise. 4. In spite of her wounded leg, she ________to get up the stairs. 5. He told me the same story _____________ until I felt like screaming. 6. With exams only a week away, I am under a lot of ______. 7. When I ____________playing sport I become very fat and unhealthy. 8._______health is as important as physical health. 9. Now that I am __________ I eat a good diet because I want my baby to be born healthy. 10.___________often take more risks than adults.

Step three: Complete the text with words form below. adolescents 青少年 quit due to 停止,戒 归因于 cigarettes 香烟 drugs 毒品 stress 压力 alcohol 酒 manage 管理,努力做

eventually 终于 addicted 上瘾的

Smoking ________,drinking ______or taking other_______ produce many harmful effects and have no real benefits. So why do __________do it? Some because they believe it makes them look cool. Others think it will help with _________in their life possibly_____ pressure from their parents or teachers. Some just want to see what it is like. What they don’t realize is that they will get into the habit and ________become _______. It will then be difficult to _____the habit. A

few people ________to quit easily but for many it is a very painful process. Of course, the best

way to deal with these drugs is not to start in the first place. Step four: Homework

1. Master and go over the use of the words and phrases above. 2. Pre-view the use of it on page 21. Unit 4 Global warming Warming up & Listening Teaching goals Enable the students to know something about energy resources and something that use energy, and listen for details and catch the specific information as much as possible. Learning ability goals Enable the students to predict some important information in the process of listening and encourage the students to talk about the situations according to the listening materials. Teaching important and difficult points How to make sure the answers of listening material. Teaching aids A recorder and cassette tapes, a projector, and a computer Teaching procedures Step 1 Warming up Do you know any kind of energy resource? Do you know anything that use energy? things that use energy in a house (Slide show: some pictures of things that use energy in a house.) Things that use energy lights television cassette player computer fridge stove washing machine hairdryer video recorder Sources of energy coal oil natural gas wind(power) sun(solar energy) water(hydro-electric power) the sea ( tidal energy) uranium(nuclear energy) plant waster(biomass energy)

T: Now let’s look at some more pictures and decide whether they are renewable or not. (Slide show: pictures of some forms of energy) wind energy renewable solar energy renewable hydroelectric power renewable geothermal energy renewable

tidal energy renewable biomass energy renewable nuclear power plant, non-renewable (picture) an oil refinery(精炼厂), non-renewable (picture) coal power station, non-renewable (picture) natural gas non-renewable (picture) uranium Ore (铀矿石) non-renewable (picture) The element uranium does not occur in pure form in nature but is found in minerals such as carnotite(钒钾铀矿), pictured above. (picture) Conclusion non-renewable coal oil natural gas Uranium fossil fuels renewable wind (wind power) sun (solar energy) water (hydro-electric power) plant waste (biomass energy) hot springs or geysers (geothermal energy) the sea (tidal energy) Slide show What are fossil fuels? Ancient animal and plant material below the surface of the earth with a high carbon cont ent, such as coal, oil and natural gas, which can be burnt to produce energy. Also known as non-renewable energy because once they are used they have gone forever; they cannot be renewed. Step 2 Pre-listening Read Exercise 1 together: 1. Read the statements below and tick the ones you agree with. 2. Listen to the tape and answer and decide which statement Professor Chen does NOT agree with. 1. We'll have to stop using fossil fuels. 2. About 90% of the world's energy comes from fossil fuels. 3. We can replace fossil fuels with renewable sources of energy. 4. Nuclear power is a good source of energy. 5. In the future, we'll need new technologies to replace fossil fuels. 6. It's the developed countries who are to blame for producing most of the carbon dioxide. 3. Listen again and tick the phrases that Professor Chen uses to agree or disagree with Li Bin. Slide show Exactly. I’m afraid I disagree with you. That’s true. I’m afraid not. That’s right. I don’t think so. That’s correct. No way. I agree. I don’t agree. 4. Listen for the third time and fill in the blanks. 1. Our modern _________ societies depend on the energy we get from_________.

2. It’s a very ____________ and cheap form of energy. 3. Can’t we just ________ fossil fuels with ________ sources of energy like sun or wind power? 4. However, whatever we do, we have to do it as a ________________. 5. The _________ countries are really the ones to ______. Keys: 1.industrial; fossil fuels 2. concentrated 3。replace;renewable 4。global community 5.developed;blame Step 3 Homework 1. Review the new words and expressions you learned in this class. 2. Preview Reading. Unit 4 Global warming Reading Teaching goals Target language words and phrases: energy, light(v.), heat(v.), renewable, non-renewable, run out, compare, phenomenon, graph, fuel, trap, data, climate, catastrophe, consequence, range, per, glance, compare to, come about, fierce debate, result in, build up, keep on Ability goals Enable the students to talk about different sources of energy. Enable the students to read the text, understand what it is about and talk about the causes and effects of global warming. Teaching important & difficult points Enable the students to get a better understanding of articles of this kind. Teaching aids A projector and a blackboard Teaching procedures Step 1 Warming up T:Now let’s look at a picture on the slide and answer the question below.

What is the greenhouse made and used for? A greenhouse is made of glass and is used for growing plants, especially during cold weather. What’s greenhouse effect?

Step 2 Scanning Read the text quickly and find the answer to the questions: 1. Who wrote the magazine article? What is the name of the magazine? Sophie Armstrong, Earth Care. 2. What are the names of the three scientists mentioned in the article? Dr Janice Foster, Charles Keeling, George Hambley. 3. What do they think about global warming? Do they agree with one another? They don't agree with each other. Dr. Janice Foster thinks the effects of global warming could be very serious. George Hambley thinks global warming will be mild with few bad environmental consequences. Charles Keeling believes it is the burning of more and more fossil fuels that is resulting i n a big increase in carbon dioxide. The first graph shows the temperature increase of one degree Fahrenheit between 1860to 2 000. The second graph shows the carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere from 1957 to 197 7. 4. What are the two graphs about? The first graph shows the temperature increase of one degree Fahrenheit between 1860to 2 000. The second graph shows the carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere from 1957 to 1977. 5. What is the main topic of the article? Global warming/ the warming of the earth. Step 3 Skimming Read the passage carefully and judge whether the statements are true or false. 1. The temperature last century didn’t increase much. 2. Everyone believes that global warming is caused by the activities of humans. 3. Janice Foster believes that global warming is caused b the burning fossil fuels. 4. Natural gas is a greenhouse gas. 5. Carbon dioxide is a byproduct of burning fossil fuels. 6. People accept Charles Keeling’s data because he took accurate measurements. 7. Flooding could be one of the effects of future global warming. 8. George Hambley believes scientists are just guessing about the effects of global warming. 9. George Hambley is worried about the effects of carbon dioxide on plant growth. 10. It is clear what the effects of global warming will be. Keys: True: 3, 5, 6, 7, and 8 False: 1, 2, 4, 9, 10 Step 4 Detailed reading Read the text carefully and try to find out how many parts we can divide the text into and find out the main idea of each part.

Part (Para_ to Para_ )

Main idea

Part 1 (Para _1_) Part 2 (Para _2__ to _4__) Part 3 (Para _5__ to 10___)

introduce a debate over the issue of global warming illustrate how global warming comes about list two different attitudes among scientists towards global warming

Part 4 (Para _11__ to ___)

It’s up to readers to think and decide whether people should do something about global warming or not.

Step 5 Debate Get into groups of six. Decide which three in your group are going to agree with the statement and which three are going to disagree with the statement. Group A: We shall do something about global warming. Group B: We shall do nothing about global warming. Group A discuss why they agree with the statement; Group B discuss why they disagree. Group A and B get together. Tell each other the reasons why agree or disagree with the statement. Step 6 Homework 1. Read the passage again and review the new words and expressions. 2. Prepare the debate in groups. 3. Surf the Internet for more information about global warming Unit4 Global warming Using language Teaching material NSEFC Book 6 —— Unit 4 Teaching aims Enable the students to learn some information about the current situation of the global warming and know what we should do about it. Teaching important& difficult point How to help the students to get the information about the current situation of the global warming and know what we should do about it. Teaching aids tape recorder, slides Teaching procedures Step1 Lead in Have you ever seen the film The Day After Tomorrow? What kind of disasters have you seen in the film? What have you learnt from the film? Slide show

What causes the global warming? gas emission

What is the effect of global warming?

Step 2 Skimming Skim the first letter, and answer the questions below: 1. Who is the writer? A student named Ouyang Guang. 2. What is the purpose of the email? / What are the two concerns of the email? ① His opinion that, as an individual, he can have no effect on environmental problems. ② getting some suggestions for what he can do about global warming. 3. Read the second email, and answer the question:

Does Earth Care agree with Ouyang Guang’s opinion that individuals can have no effect? No, Earth Care does not agree. Step 3 Scanning Scan the letter and list Earth Care’s suggestions in the chart on P30, and discuss whether you can carry out each suggestion. Give reason for you answers. Earth Care’s suggestion If you are not using electrical appliances, t urn them off. If you’re cold, put on more clothes instead of turning up the heat. Motor vehicles use a lot of energy, so walk or ride a bike if you can. Recycle cans, bottles, plastics and newspape rs and buy things made from recycled mate rials. Get your parents or friends to buy products that are made to save energy. Plant more trees. Talk with your family and friends about gl obal warming and tell them what you’ve learned. Can you carry it out Yes Yes Yes Yes reason save energy save energy save energy save energy

Yes Yes Yes

save energy Plants absorb carbon dioxide from the air. Together, individuals can make a difference.

Step 4 Language points 1. make a difference make a difference(1)有很大差别, 有很大不同(2)有很大的关系/影响 make some/ no difference to对...有些/没有关系 That makes no difference to me. 那对我没有影响。 Exercise can make a great difference to your health. 锻炼对你的健康产生很大的影响。 2. put up with put up with 忍受;忍耐;受苦 That woman, as a housewife, has a lot to put up with. 作为家庭主妇,那女人得忍受很多 烦恼。 知识拓展 put aside 节省(钱、时间);储蓄;把……放在一边 put away 收拾起来;储存(钱);喝掉 put back 放回原处;拖延 put down 写下;记下;控制 put forward 提出(意见、建议);推荐 put off 延期;推迟 put on 假装;增加;上演(戏剧) put out 熄灭;使忧虑;扑灭;出版 put up 举起;张开(伞);张贴;为……提供食宿 3. so long as / as long as

as long as 只要,如果 As long as there is life there is hope. 留得生命在,不怕没希望. You can go out, as / so long as you promise to be back before 11 o'clock. 你可以出去,只要你答应在 11 点以前回来. I'll accept any job as / so long as I don't have to get up early. 只要不必早起,任何工作我都可以接受. 在用as / so long as连接的从句中,当其谓语为be,而主语和主句的主语相同时,则从句的主语 和be可以省略。如: I'm sure we are safe as long as (we are) in his care. 我深信只要在他的保护下,我们就会 平安无事. Step 5 Homework Surf the internet to know more about what we can do about global warming. Unit4 Global warming Language points Teaching material NSEFC Book 6 —— Unit 4 Teaching Aims 4. To learn some new words and phrases. 5. To learn some complicated sentence patterns. Teaching Important Point How to help the students to master the usage of some useful words, expressions and sentences. Teaching Difficult Point How to enable the students to grasp and remember the detailed information of the reading material. Teaching aids A projector, and a blackboard Teaching Procedure Step 1 Revision Retell the text. Step 2 Language points T: Now let’s learn some language points of the text. Slide show 1. It is a rapid increase compared to most natural changes. 1.vt. 比较;对照。如: Compare your answers with those at the back of the book to see if they are right. 把你的答案同书后面的答案对照一下,看看是否正确。 My handwriting can not be compared with my father’s. 我的书法不能与我父亲的相比。

2.vt. 喻为;比拟。如: Man’s life is often compared do a candle. 人生常被比为蜡烛。 Shakespeare compared the world to a stage. 莎士比亚把人世比做舞台。 compare…with…表示“把……与……相比(同类相比) ” compare…to… 表示“把……比做……(异类相比,比喻) ” compared to /with 与……相比, 只能作状语 2.How has this come about and does it matter? come about : 发生,造成 相当于happen When Mother woke up, she didn’t know what had come about. I’ll never understand how it came about that you were late three times a week. Do you know how the air accident came about? 3. There is no doubt that…. 一、作不可数名词,作"疑惑;怀疑” ①肯定句中doubt多接whether (一般不用if代替) 同位语从句。如: There's some doubt whether he'll keep his promise. 他会不会信守诺言还难说。 She had her doubts whether the new book would sell well. 她怀疑新书是否会畅销。 ②否定句中doubt多接that同位语从句。如: There is no doubt that they will ask you for help. 毫无疑问,他们会请你帮忙的。 I have no doubt that you will succeed. 我毫不怀疑你会成功的。 二、作及物动词常用于下列句型中,作"怀疑;不能肯定;不大相信"解,一般不用进行时态。 ①用于否定句或疑问句,后接that引导的宾语从句。如: I don't doubt that he is telling the truth. 我毫不怀疑他在讲真话。 Do you doubt that he will win the match? 你怀疑他会赢这场比赛吗? ②用于肯定句,一般接whether 或if引导的宾语从句.如: I doubt whether we will make a profit out of it. 我认为我们不可能从此事中获利。 We doubt if she will be persuaded. 我们不知道她会不会被说服。 4. He found that the amount of carbon dioxide keep on increasing during that time. ①amount n. 数量 习惯用语: an amount of 相当数量的; 一些 修饰不可数名词 amounts of 相当数量的; 一些 修饰不可数名词 large amounts of money 大量的金钱 ②keep on 继续 +doing sth. 他们虽然很累了,还是继续工作。 They keep on working although they are tired. 5. result in result in 结果; 致使; 导致 主语:起因 in 的宾语:结果 Acting before thinking always results in failure.做事不先考虑总会导致失败。

The accident resulted in the death of two people.这场意外事故造成两人死亡。 result from 起于, 由于, 由…引起, 主语: 结果 from 的宾语:起因 His sickness resulted __in____eating too much. (in / from) 6.concern 一、concern作动词 ① v.使担心;使关心;使烦恼 The boy's poor performance at school concerned his parents. 这个男孩在学校很差的表现,使他父母很担心。 注意:其过去分词concerned通常作形容词用,意为“担心的;烦恼的;忧虑的” 。 The concerned parents were all concerned for the children's safety. 忧心忡忡的家长们都为孩子们的安全担忧。 ②涉及;与……有关或相关 Attend to what concerns you. 注意与你有关的事物。 注意:其过去分词concerned常用来作表语,意为“和……有关;牵涉” 而作定语,则意为“有 ; 关的” 。 It is reported that the pop singer is concerned with selling drug. 据报道,那个流行歌手涉嫌贩毒。 He asked all concerned to take an active part in helping the girl. 他要求所有相关的人积极帮助那个女孩。 二、concern 作名词 有关……的事(可数) That's my concern, so I'll do as I like about it. 那是我的事,因此,我想怎么做就怎么做。 关怀;关心(不可数) Some people don't show much concern for our environment. 有些人不太关心我们的环境。 担心;担忧 She showed great concern about you. 她很为你担心。 7. range range v.排列, 使成行;偏袒,站在…的方面。 n. :范围(尤指从…到…各种种类,可供选择的范围等,可加不定冠词) ;排列 beyond the range of… 超越……的范围 out of one’s range 某人达不到的 这家商店商品品种多。 The shop keeps a wide range of goods. v.排列, 使成行;偏袒,站在……的方面。 主要搭配为:+名词/代词;+介词+名词/代词; 常可用于: 1. 被动结构 2. range oneself; 3. range from… to … / between…and … 从……到……不等。 老师令其学生沿着小径排队。 The teacher _________________along the path.

温度在 15 度到 35 度之间。 The temperature__________________________. 我们应当列身于法律与秩序的一边。 We should __________________ on the side of law and order. Keys:ranged his students;ranges from 15 to 35 degrees;range ourselves 8. build up 逐步建立,增加,增进 build up one’s fortune build up one’s strength build up the business This built up my hope after the interview. Sediment (沉淀物)builds up on the ocean floor. Keys:累积财富; ;养精蓄锐;develop 扩大, 发展; 增加, 支持, 树立;collect 累积, 收集 9.Some byproducts of this process are called “greenhouse” gases, the most important one being carbon dioxide. the most important one being carbon dioxide 是一个独立主格结构, 由名词+分词构成, 在 句中做补充说明或伴随的状况。 ________________(时间允许的话),I will show you around the city. _________________(今天是星期天),I don’t have to go to work. ___________________________(没有人要说的话),the meeting was closed. Keys:Time permitting;Today being Sunday;Nobody having any more to say 10. Without the ‘green house effect’ the earth would be about thirty-three degrees Celsius , cooler than it is. 这是一个含蓄虚拟条件句有时假设的情况并不以条件从句形式表示出来, 而是通过一个介词 短语或其他方式表示。常用的词或短语有:without, but for,but that,otherwise,or,but 等。 Without your help ( = If we had not had your help),we could not have succeeded. 要是没有你的帮助,我们是不会成功的。 Step3 Homework 1. Memorize all the language points by heart. 2. Finish exercises of Discovering useful words and expressions (P28) Unit4 Global Warming Grammar Teaching material NSEFC Book 6 —— Unit 4 Teaching aims Enable the students to master the usage of the form it is/was... that..... Teaching important points How to enable the students to know the structure and the usage of the form it is/was... that.... Teaching difficult points How to help the students to master the usage of the form it is/was... that.... Teaching aids

tape recorder, slides Teaching procedures Step1 Revision T: First let’s check answers. (slide show) Discovering useful words and expressions. (P28) 1. Charles Keeling collected ______on the carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere over a forty-year period. He found that the amount of carbon dioxide _______ increasing durin g that time. 2. Although we are burning coal in huge _________ every year, we won't ________ of it for centuries. 3. If the amount of greenhouse gases continues to _______ we could be facing a global __________. 4. Many scientists believe that global warming has __________ through the burning of fos sil fuels. They do not think that ignoring the issue is worth the ____. 5. ______ describes weather conditions over a period of years in a particular place. 6. The _____________ of a rising sea level would be widespread flooding. 7. The use of energy in Susanna's country is low ______________ the use of energy in t he USA. 8. The warming of the earth is a _____________ that causes great concern. 9. The ________ shows temperature changes during the 20th century. 10. One hectare of forest can absorb 23 tons of carbon dioxide ____ year. Keys:1.data kept on 2. quantities; run out 3. build up; catastrophe 4. come about; risk 5. Climate 6. consequence 7.compared to 8.phenomenon 9. graph 10. per Answer keys for Ex.2 on Page 28: The first graph shows the global _______________ between ________ and _________The temperature __________ and decreased over this period but on the whole it _________ by around _________ and its highest in 2000. There was a steady _________________ in th e temperature during the twenty years after 1980. We can see from the graph that the ear th has become ___________ since early last century. The second graph shows the amount of ______________in the atmosphere from ________ to _______ .The carbon dioxide __________ steadily over this forty-year period. It went up from 315 to 370 parts ___________million. Keys: Temperature;1860;2000;increased;rose;1910;increase/rise;warmer carbon dioxide;1957;1997;increase/ went up;per Step2 Grammar 强调句结构 常考的强调句结构是it 引导的句子。 一、It is (was) 被强调部分+ that (who) + 句子其他部分。此结构强调的成分仅限于主语, 宾语和状语。 It is from the sun that we get light and heat. It was not until I had read your letter that I understood the true state of affairs. Karl bought Marva a bicycle on her birthday.卡尔在玛瓦生日那天给她买了一辆自行车。

It was Karl that/who bought Marva a bicycle on her birthday. (强调主语) It was Marva for whom Karl bought a bicycle on her birthday. (强调间接宾语) It was a bicycle that Karl bought Marva on her birthday. (强调直接宾语) 注意区别强调句中的that/who分句与定语从句: It was the student that/who asked the silly question.是一个学生问了这么一个愚蠢的问题。 (分裂句) He was the student who asked the silly question.他就是问了这么一个愚蠢问题的学生。 (划线 部分是定语从句) 二、not ... until ... 的强调形式: It is not until + 被强调部分 + that ... “直到…才…” , 主要用于强调时间状语的强调句型。 We did not begin studying French until we entered university.我们进了大学才开始学法语。 要 强调until we entered university,就成了: It was not until we entered university that we began studying French. ______ the 18th century that man realized that the whole of the brain was involved in the working s of the mind. A. During B. In C. It was until D. It was not until D对。直到十八世纪,人们才意识到:心理活动与整个大脑有关。 三、强调句的疑问句句型 1.强调句的一般疑问句句型: Is / Was +it +所强调的部分+that / who/ whom +其它? 2.强调句的特殊疑问句句型: 特殊疑问词 + is/was it that / who/ whom+其它 ? Why is it that you hate winter?你究竟为什么不喜欢冬天? How was it that you missed such a wonderful lecture?你怎么会错过这么精彩的报告? When was it that they went abroad?他们什么时候出国的? 四、判断强调句的方法 判断是否是强调句是,可把 It is / was …that 去掉,剩余部分在不增减任何词的情况下还 是一个完整的句子,那么这种句子是强调句。 It was in the street that I met her father. →In the street I met her father. It was because she was ill that they didn’t ask her to do the job. →Because she was ill, they didn’t ask her to do the job. Step 3 Exercises 一、根据划线部分把下列句子变成强调句。 1. Peter lent us the money. 2. They want money. 3. All this happened on Monday. 4. I didn’t hear form her until last summer. 5.Why does everyone think I am narrow-minded? Keys: 1. It was Peter who lent us the money. 2. It is money that they want. 3. It was on Monday that all this happened. 4. It was not until last summer that I heard from her.

5.Why is it that everyone thinks I am narrow-minded? 二、Multiple choices 1. It was in this village ___ I was brought up. A. where B. that C. on which D. which 2. Is it the factory______ this type of cars are produced? A. which B. where C. that D. / 3. It was _____ the old worker came that we _____ the experiment. A. until; didn’t begin B. not until; began C. until began D. not until; didn’t begin 4. It was in the lab ___was taken charge of by Mr. Harris ____they did the experiment. A. which,that B. that,which C. that, whom D. which,where 5. It was ___he did ___frightened me. A. what,that B. that,that C. what,what D. that,what 6. _____ on Monday night that all this happened? A. Is it B.? It is C. Was it D. It was Keys:BBBAAC Step4 Homework 1. Finish exercises of discovering useful structures (P29) and using structures on P64. 2. Preview Using Language. Unit 4 Global Warming Extensive reading and writing Teaching goals Ability goals Enable the Ss to talk about environmental pollution and write a composition on environmental problems. Learning ability goals Help the Ss to write a composition on environmental problems. Teaching important & difficult points How to help the Ss to write a composition on environmental problems. Teaching aids A computer and a projector Teaching procedures Step1 Extensive reading Read Tom’s essay about litter. Make a summary for each paragraph, and then fill in the following table.

First Para.

Point of view First point of the argument

Second Para. Evidence

Second point of the argument Third Para. Evidence Fourth Para. Point of view

Step2 Discussion Discuss the environmental problems that concern people most in groups of four. List as many environment topics as possible, and then write them on a piece of paper. A sample list of environment topics: air pollution, noise, soil erosion, water pollution, litter classification, desertification, and ma ke green by planting trees Step 3 Writing Choose a topic from the list that you feel strongly about. Make notes on your topic using headings similar to the table in the reading task. Use the passage as a model. Writing tips: Step 1: Write out the thesis statement. (point of view) Step 2: Write out the topic sentence of the first body paragraph. Step 3: Give the supporting points and details about the first subtopic. Step 4: Write out the topic sentence of the second body paragraph. Step 5: Give the supporting points and details about the second subtopic. (more body para graphs ...) A sample version: The Environmental Effects of Fossil Fuels There is no doubt that fossil fuels bring a lot of good to us. But do you know that man y of the environmental problems our country faces today result from our fossil fuel depen dence. The environment faces air pollution, global warming, acid rain, and several other very seri ous problems because of our use of fossil fuels. Over the last 150 years, burning of fossil fuels has resulted in more than 25 percent increase in carbon dioxide in our atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is one of the main factors in global warming which is negatively affecting everyone. Fossil fuels also affect water pollution, land pollution, and thermal pollution (heat pollutio

n). Coal mining is one of the causes of pollution in the environment. After the mining is completed, the land will remain barren. Materials other than coal are also brought to the surface in the coal mining process and these are left as solid wastes. The production, transportation, and use of fossil fuels are to blame for the effects of pollu tion on the environment. Then what should we do? We should spare no effort to improve our environment. Please save energy and use fewer fossil fuels in our daily lives. Step 4 Homework Finish your composition on environmental problems. Unit5 The Power of Nature Warming Up, Pre-reading and Reading I.单元教学目标 (技能目标) talk about volcanoes and the work of volcanologists practise expressing fear and anxiety learn the –ing form used as adverbial in a sentence write about an experience in a nature disaster II.目标语言 1. 功能句式: expressing fear and anxiety. I was so excited about what I had done and where I was, I forgot my fear. I was very worried that… I was very relieved when… I was trembling almost as much as the ground under my feet. I was still terrified. I was so nervous that my whole body was damp with sweat. I was so anxious that I couldn’t move for a long time. I had to force myself not to panic. Then I got up the courage to … 2.词汇 四会词汇:volcano erupt eruption ash hurricane adventure bore excite evaluate unfortunate unfortunately fountain absolute absolutely fantastic crater potential impress cancel effort relieve tremble sweat anxiety anxious panic diversity unique bathe swallow guarantee 词组:compare …with burn to the ground make an effort make one’s way precious novelist

courage typhoon heaven diverse

glance through

vary from … to

3. 语法:the –ing form used as adverbial in a sentence looking carefully at the ground , I made my way to the edge of the crater. Having experienced quite a few earthquakes in Hawaii already, I didn’t take much notice. III.教材分析 本单元以 the power of nature 为话题, 旨在通过本单元教学使学生了解火山爆发, 地震, 台风,洪水,海啸等自然现象,认识到自然的伟大力量,并会用所学词汇描述在经历自然灾 害时的感受,思考人类应对自然灾害的态度和方法,提高自我保护意识。 Warming up 通过对火山爆发示意图的探讨激活学生了解与本单元话题相关的背景知 识, 而后通过讨论人类应对自然灾害的措施引发学生对本单元话题的思考, 激发学生的求知 欲,为随后进行的听说读写打下基础。 Pre-reading 通过回答问题测试自己是否适合作火山学家,让学生了解这一陌生职业, 为阅读做好准备。 Reading 部分一味火山学家以第一人称的形式讲述了自己的工作及第一次目睹火山爆 发时的情景和心情, 描写了人与自然的斗争与和谐相处的乐趣, 使学生认识到火山是美丽的, 但同时极具破坏力,而火山学家的工作可以减少由火山引发的损失。 Comprehending 设计了两种题型:第一题要求学生在阅读后发表对火山学家这一职业的 看法;第二题检测学生对文章细节的理解。 Learning about language 分为词汇和语法两部分。 词汇部分着重从词的意义用法和表达方 面对学生学习词汇给予指导;语法部分学习-ing 形式在句子中作状语表原因,时间及结果。 Using language 以语言实践为目的,包括四个部分的内容。Listening 三位火山学家 讲述了他们各自最惊险的一次经历。学生在练习听力的同时学会描述害怕和紧张的词汇。 Speaking 是 listening 的延续。要求学生讲述自己类似的经历,同时在运用中巩固单词。 Reading 介绍了旅游胜地 the lake of heaven, 培养学生快速获取信息的能力。Reading 与 writing 属于同一话题,要求根据所给信息写一篇介绍 hot springs 的作文。 Sunning up 部分要求学生就火山,火山学家,天池,本单元词语,-ing 形式和表达情感 的日常交际用语等方面进行自我评价,判定呢感学习情况。 learning tip 部分介绍单词记忆方法:利用构词法或话题分类记忆单词;利用图表,图 片等记忆单词;随身携带生词本;多 说多写。

IV.分课时教案(多媒体教学)

The first period Warming up and pre-reading

1. Warming up In order to talk about what volcanoes are and how they are formed, students need to learn Some new words: lava erupt/eruption crater active/dormant/extinct volcanoes 1) Show some pictures of disasters Ask student to name disasters as much as they know. Sample answer: cyclone typhoon Hurricane tornado snowstorm landslide Volcano tsunami 2) earthquake flood hailstorm sandstorm

ask them What they feel when they see the power of nature showing in the pictures: Have you ever experienced one ? Share you experience and feelings ? (were you frightened and how frightened were you?) Some expressions tips: scared to death frightened worried unforgettable unbelievable

3) Have you ever seen a volcano ? Ask Ss to complete exercise 1 in groups. Then check their answers orally as a whole class. Ask students to help you make a list of words connected with volcanoes Discuss with students where in the world active and extinct volcanoes occur. 2. pre-reading 1) Can you tell me who will climb into a live volcano in order to take the temperature of the boiling rock inside ? volcanologists——do they take up a crazy job?

2) get the students to answer the six questions in pre-reading to find out whether they will enjoy working as a volcanologist. Students could do this activity as a survey by asking others in their class these questions Or they could do it individually. 3) after they have completed the task, survey the class to find out how many might enjoy the work of a volcanologist. their guesses were. Period Two Reading Teaching Aims 1. Enable the students to grasp and remember the detailed information of the reading material. 2. Let students understand the general idea of the passage. Teaching Important & Difficult Points How to help the students to grasp and remember the detailed information of the reading material. Teaching aids: a tape recorder, a projector, slides and pictures Teaching method: Grop or pair disscussion, individual task. Teaching Procedure Step1 Pre-reading 1.Can you imagine climbing into an active volcano to take the temperature of the boiling rock inside? 2. To be a volcanologist, what qualities are needed? Step 2 Quiz Are you suitable for being a volcanologist? Questions 1 Do you like working outside as well as inside? 2 Do you enjoy travelling to unusual places? Yes No

3 Do you enjoy taking risks? 4 Do you dislike doing the same thing every day? 5 Do you like adventure in your life? 6 Are you interested in studying rocks and other things that make up the surface of the earth? What kind of work do you think a volcanologist do? Step 3 Skimming Skim the text and answer the following questions. 1.What is the writer? He is a volcanologist working for the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. He mainly collects information about Mount Kilauea. 2.When did he first see an eruption? How did it look like? It was in the second week after he arrived in Hawaii. It was very bright although it was night. Red lava fountained hundreds of meters into the air and it was a fantastic sight. 3. What was he wearing when getting close to the crater? And what was the result? He was wearing white protective suits that covered his whole body, helmets, big boots and special gloves, just like a spaceman. As a result, it made him difficult to walk. Step 4 Scanning Scan the text and answer the following questions. 1. Why is a volcanologist’s job important? Volcanologists study volcanoes so that they can warn people when the volcano is going to erupt and so save many lives. 2. Why is the lava that flows on Mount Kilauea more dangerous than the actual eruption? The lava flows down the mountain and can cover up or burn villages in its path. The rocks that erupt from the volcano usually don’t damage anything because no one lives near the crater. 3. Why did the scientists have to get close to the volcano after it began erupting? The scientists needed to get samples of the lava so they could study them. 4. What does the writer find impressive about volcanoes even after studying them for 20 years?

The author is impressed by the beauty of the eruption and also by its potential to cause great destruction. Step 5 Detailed reading Read the text more carefully and answer the following questions. 1. What made the author realize that an eruption occurred? my bed began shaking a strange sound My bedroom became as bright as day an absolutely fantastic sight red hot lava was fountaining hundreds of meters into the air 2. What did the scientists do after the eruption? put on white protective suits, helmets, big boots dropped as closed as possible to the crater slowly make our way to the edge of the crater looked down into the red boiling center Step 6 Homework 1.Find out words, expressions and sentences which you think are useful, important or difficult to understand. 2.Finish exercises in Learning about Language. (Ex. 1, 2) Unit 5 The power of nature Vocabulary and Useful Expressions Teaching material NSEFC Book 6 —— Unit 5 Teaching Aims 6. To learn some new words and phrases. 7. To learn some complicated sentence patterns. Teaching Important Point How to help the students to master the usage of some useful words, expressions and sentences. Teaching Difficult Point How to enable the students to grasp and remember the detailed information of the reading

material. Teaching Procedure Step1 Revision 1. Check the answers to Ex. 1 on page 35. 2. Check the answers to Ex. 2 on page 36. 1.The eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79AD took people in Pompeii by surprise. It was s o quick and so severe that the town was soon covered in _____ and ______. Many hous es in the town were __________________. It was an ________ disaster for many people who could not get away in time. A writer named Pliny, who was there during the ______ __, described how lava was thrown into the air like a ________. ______________ many of the townspeople, _________at the _________ sight of Vesuvius eruption, stayed too lon g and failed to escape in time. Keys: 1. bored; 2. volcano 3. made my way 4. compare with 5. erupt 6.impressive 2.The eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79AD took people in Pompeii by surprise. It was s o quick and so severe that the town was soon covered in _____ and ______. Many hous es in the town were __________________. It was an ________ disaster for many people who could not get away in time. A writer named Pliny, who was there during the ______ __, described how lava was thrown into the air like a ________. ______________ many of the townspeople, _________at the _________ sight of Vesuvius eruption, stayed too lon g and failed to escape in time. Keys: ash; lava; burnt to the ground; absolute; eruption Fountain; Unfortunately; amazed; fantastic Step 2 Language Points 1.volcano n. pl. volcanoes an active volcano 活火山 an extinct volcano 死火山 a dormant volcano休眠火山 知识拓展 火山学 volcanology -logy: “…… 学/论。 ” oceanology climatology 火山学家 volcanologist -ist “……学家 ” pianist physicist 2. Have you ever considered how weak humans are compared with a volcano, hurricane o r earthquake? consider 大致有两种含义。含义不同,用法有别。 知识拓展 ①consider 作“考虑”解,常用于以下句型: consider+名词/代词/动名词 consider+从句或“疑问词+不定式”。 You’d better__________________________. 你最好考虑我的建议。 I’m _________________abroad some day.

我一直考虑有一天出国。 Have you considered_________________? 你们考虑他的建议了吗? We must consider________________. 我们必须考虑下一步要做什么。 Keys: consider my suggestion considering going what he suggested; what to do next ②consider 作“认为”解时,常用于以下句型: consider sb. /sth+ (as) +形容词/名词 其中,as 可以省略。 consider +sb./sth.+不定式 其中,不定式通常是 to be (可以省略) 或其他动词的完成式。 consider +it+形容词/名词+不定式短语 consider+宾语从句 At first they considered me___________________. 起初他们认为我是医生。 We consider this matter________________________________.我们认为这件事很重要。 We all consider him _______________the bike.我们都认为他偷了自行车。 We________________________________________. 我们认为学好英语很难。 I consider____________________________________________. 我认为帮助你学习英语是我 的职责。 We________________________________________________. 我们这首音乐很值得一听。 Keys: (as) a doctor (to be) very important to have stolen consider it hard to learn English well it my duty to help you with your studies consider that the music is well worth listening to 3. Sometimes working indoors…, I’m never bored. bore vt 使(人)厌烦 ---I am sorry I spoke for so long ---I hope I didn’t bore you. bored adj. (人) 厌烦的 boring adj. (物)令人厌烦的 Are you getting bored of doing the same thing every day? The movie was so boring that I fell asleep The life is more and more boring, so many people become more and more bored. 生活越来越无聊,所以很多人也变得越来越无聊 4. Many houses have been covered with lava or burnt to the ground. burn to the ground (楼房等)完全烧毁 他无处栖身因为他的房子被烧掉了. He has no place to live in because his house has been burnt to the ground. 知识拓展 burn up 烧完; 烧尽; 烧光;烧旺起来 burn down烧成平地(烧毁,烧光) burn off烧掉 burn out烧掉

Don't leave the gas on you might burn the house down. 别忘了关煤气炉--不然会把房子烧掉的. The house burnt down in half an hour. 那所房子在半小时之内就被焚为平地. All the wood has been burnt up. 木柴全部烧光了。 burn off 烧掉 Burn the old paint off before re-painting the door. 先把门上的旧漆烧掉再上新漆. burn out 烧掉 The hotel was completely burnt out. 该旅馆毁於大火. If he doesn't stop working so hard, he'll burn himself out. 他继续这样拚命地工作,就会累垮的。 5. We slowly made our way to the edge of the crater. make one’s way (向某地)走(去) make one's way in life 事业有所成就 make way (for) 让路,让位 He made his way through the crowd to greet us. 他穿过人群向我们打招呼。 All the traffic has to make way for a fire engine. 所有的车辆都得给救火车让道。 If you want to make your way in the world, you must learn to work hard while you are still young. 你若想要有 出息,趁年轻的时候要学会发奋。 知识拓展 feel one’ way摸索前进 push one’s way挤过 find one’s way找到路,设法到达 go one’s way走自己的路,我行我素 fight one’s way奋勇前进 wind one’s /its way蜿蜒前进 lose one’s way迷路 6. Today, I am just as enthusiastic about my job as the day I first started. be enthusiastic (about) 感兴趣的,热心的 He is enthusiastic about helping others .他热心助人。 I'm really very enthusiastic about it.我对此真的非常热心。 Despite all our efforts we still lost the game. 7. She made an effort to be nice to her boss. effort n. 努力; 力气; 努力的成果 make an effort to do sth 努力做某事: It took a lot effort to lift the boxes. 抬起那些箱子要花很大的力气。 Despite all our efforts we still lost the game. 尽管我们尽了全力,我们还是输掉了比赛。

Put more effort into your work. 你要更加努力地工作。 Your success lies upon your effort. 你成功与否取决于你的努力。 He made an effort to arrive on time 他尽量准时到达。 8. Having collected and evaluated the information, I help other scientists to predict where lava from the volcano will flow next and how fast it will flow. 本句为–ing形式的完成式作状语。如果分词表示的动作在谓语动词表示的动作之前发生,该 分词用完成式。 例如: Not having met the man before, I couldn't recognize him at first. Having finished my homework, I went to play football. ______ the programme, they have to stay there for another two weeks. (C) A. Not completing B. Not completed C. Not having completed D. Having not completed Step 3 Homework 1. Master and go over the use of the words and phrases above. 2. Pre-view the usage of –ing form. Unit5 The power of nature Listening , Speaking and Writing Teaching goals Enable the students to listen for details and catch the specific information as much as possible. Learning ability goals Enable the students to predict some important information in the process of listening and encourage the students to talk about the situations according to the listening materials. Teaching important and difficult points How to make sure the answers of listening material and help them to describe the disaster they have experienced. Teaching aids A recorder and cassette tapes, a projector, and a computer Teaching procedures Step 1 Pre-listening Can you imagine the volcanologists’ work? They often face the dangerous situation. Can you guess what the following three volcanologists’ most frightening experiences are? Step 2 Listening

Look at the pictures of volcanologists at work on page 38. Then listen to them talking about their most frightening experience. Write their names under the picture. A. Frank Gore B. Jane Small C. Sarah Tang Listen to the tape again, and answer the following questions. 1. How long has she been a volcanologist? 2. In what country was the volcano he/she talks about? 3. Why did he/she forget to be frightened? Jane Small 1.How long has she been a volcanologist? Five years. 2. In what country was the volcano she talks about? Alaska 3. Why did she forget to be frightened? She was excited about what she had done. Frank Gore 1. How long has he been a volcanologist? Ten years. 2. In what country was the volcano he talks about? Hawaii. 3.Why did he forget to be frightened? The pilot had to fly low to get under the clouds. Sarah Tang 1. How long has she been a volcanologist? Twenty years. 2. In what country was the volcano she talks about? New Zealand. Why did she forget to be frightened? She felt the ground tremble.

Listen to the tape once more. Write the name of the person beside the things they said. 1. I was so excited about what I had done and where I was, I forgot my fear. ( )

2. I was very worried that the volcano might erupt while I was still inside it. ( ) ) )

3. I was very relieved when we finally reached our camp. ( 4. I was trembling almost as much as the ground under my feet. ( 5. I was still terrified. ( )

6. I was so nervous that my whole body was damp with sweat. ( 7. I was so anxious that I couldn’t move for a long time. ( 8. I had to force myself not to panic. ( ) ) )

)

9.Then I got up the courage to bend over the boiling lava. ( Step 3 Speaking

Think of a powerful natural disaster (such as an earthquake, food, typhoon, storm) that you have experienced. You can use your imagination if you have not experienced any of these things. Tell your partner about your experience and how you felt. Step 4 Writing 1. Choose one of the natural disasters or any other disaster you have experienced. 2. Make a timeline to show the order in which the events happened. For example: 10am 12am 12:30pm 1:00pm … left holiday house to walk in the mountains saw dark clouds in the sky, started to go back snowstorm started we were completely lost …

3. Spend a few minutes on your own imagining your experiences and how you felt. Now imagine you are safely back home. Write a dairy entry about your experience. A possible version: Jane and I had been waking in the mountains when we noticed some dark clouds coming down the mountain. We decided to turn around and go home. As we walked the clouds got nearer and nearer and the day grew darker. Then all of a sudden it

began to snow. It was soon snowing so hard we couldn’t see very far in front of us. Holding each others’ hands so we couldn’t get separated, we continued down the mountain. Butthe snow got deeper and deeper. Walking became harder and harder. We began to get very tired and very frightened. After a while the path became buried under the snow and we didn’t know which way to go. We were completely lost. We found some shelter behind a big rock. Hugging each other for warmth, we stayed like that until the storm was over. Luckily it only lasted an hour or two. Then the sun came out again and we could see our house in the distance. We were so relieved we both burst into tears. Step 5 Homework Finish your writing. Unit5 The Power of Nature Grammar and Useful Structures Review the usage of –ing form: 1.Write the following pairs of sentences(or other similar ones)on the board. I was feeling tired. I went to bed early→ feeling tired I went to bed early I worked hard all day. I went to bed early→ Having worked hard all day, I went to bed early. 2.Ask student to consider when the action in each pair of sentences happened and Lead them to understand that in the first pair of sentences, the feeling and the action are happening at the same time; whereas in the second pair, the working all day happened before he/she was tired 3.Examine the sentences below and discuss in what way the structures similar to each other and in what way they are different Looking carefully at the ground, I made my way to the edge of the crater.

Having experienced quite a few earthquakes in Hawaii already, I didn’t take much notice. Having + past participle (the perfect –ing form) to refer to an action that took place before the time expressed by main verb.

4. Read and discuss Exercise 1 in the SB 5. Set Exercise 2. check answers and discuss structures. 6. Set Exercise 3,4 and 5. check answers after each exercise and discuss reasons for the structures used. 7. 小结-ing 形式的用法

1) –ing 形式作状语
用法 时间 例句 Walking along the street, I met Mary. (= While I was street….)在街上走的时候,我遇到了玛丽。 条件 Turning to the left, you will find the school. (= If you turn to the left, ….)向左 走,你就会找到那个学校 让步 Knowing where I live, he never come to see me .(= Though he knows where I live, ….)尽管他知道我的住处,但从不来看我。 伴随 I stood there, waiting for her. (= …, and waited for her.)我站在那儿等她 walking along the

原因

Being tired , I stopped to take a rest. (= Because I was tired, ….)因为疲倦, 我停 下来休息。

结果

It rained heavily, causing severe flooding in the area.(= It rained heavily so that it caused severe flooding in the area.)在这个地方雨下的如此大,以至引发了 洪灾。

2) –ing 形式的完成式

句 型

主 动 被 动

Having +p.p. …, 主语+谓语

(Having been)+p.p. …, 主语+谓语

用法

–ing形式的完成式所表示的时间在谓语动词之前 表示被动可直接用过却分词

例句

Having finished my work, I went home. (= After I had finished my work, ….)工作做完只后,我就回家了。

3). 使用-ing 形式需注意的几个问题:

.①分词(短语)作状语时,其逻辑主语必须与句子的主语一致。如果不一致,必须 用独立主格结构来表示,也就是在分词前面加上它的逻辑主语。 My wife had a long talk with Sally, explaining why she didn’t want the children to play together 我妻子与莎莉谈了很长时间,解释她为什么不想让 孩子们在一起玩。(现在分词 explaining 是句子主语 my wife 做的动作,它 们之间是主动关系,即 explaining 的逻辑主语,就是句子的主语 my wife 。) The train having gone, we had to wait another day.(the train 逻辑主语 + having gone 既为独立主格结构)

②分词短语做状语时,前面可以加上连词或 介词,但是分词短语和句子之间不能用并列连 词(如 but,and),因为并列连词接的是两个并列成分,而分词短语只是全句的一个状语部 分。分词和主句之间可用逗号。

例如: 误: Having been told many times,but he still couldn’t understand it. 正: He was told many times, but he still couldn’t understand it.或 Having been told many times, he still couldn’t understand it.

③-ing 的一般式和完成式现在分词都可以表示先后接连发生的动作。 在可能引起误解的场合 应该用完成式现在分词表示先发生的动作。 例如: Opening the drawer,he took out his wallet. (=He opened the drawer and took out his wallet.)他打开抽屉,拿出钱包。

Coming into the room,he put down his bag. (=he came into the room and put down his bag.)他走进房间,放下提包。 Having brushed his teeth,Mr. Brown came downstairs for breakfast. 布朗先生刷过牙,就下楼来吃早饭。 (此句如写成:Brushing his teeth, Mr. Brown came downstairs for breakfast.可能指“边刷牙,边下楼’。

④分词的否定形式是在分词短语前面加上 not, never 等否定词构成。 例如: Not fearing the fire, the child touched and got a finger burnt. 小孩儿不知道怕火,用手去摸,把手指烫了。 Not knowing how to find the subway, I asked a policeman for help. 我不知道怎 样找到地铁,就去找警察帮忙。


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