Module 2 No Drugs
I. 模块教学目标 技能目标 Skill Goals ▲ Talk about smoking and drug use ▲ Talk about results ▲ Practise expressing strong opinions ▲Learn to use the infinitive of purpose and adverbial clause of result ▲ Learn to prepare a presentation on the dangers of smoking II. 目标语言 Practise expressing strong opinions I totally agree with you! I couldn’t agree more. I’m not sure I agree with that. Absolutely! 功 I’m not sure about that. 能 That’s right. 句 That’s a good point. 式 You can’t be serious! I completely disagree. Talk about results ... so ... ... as a result ... ... as a result of ... 1. 四会词汇 drug, cancer, cigarette, tobacco, addictive, danger, addict, inject, needle, powerful, reduce, nearby, burglary, crime, criminal, connection, illegal, ratio, shoplifting, treatment, likely, adult, café, disagree, ban, horrible, affect, 词 participant, recognize, leaflet, distraction, jogging, gymnastic 汇 2. 认读词汇
Adam Rouse, Paul, California, bronchitis, cannabis, cocaine 3. 词组 related to, break into, belong to, become addicted to, take one’s advice, in order to, so as so, give up The infinitive of purpose I stole something every day to pay for the drugs. How many of them break the law in order to pay for their drugs? Adam went to the man so as to buy cannabis. 语 Adverbial clause of result 法 Some people feel so nervous that they call the police. It was such a dangerous drug that he nearly died. 1. Users become addicted to crack cocaine much more easily if they smoke it. P13 重 2. There are such a lot of people that there isn’t time to help them all. 点 3. Drug use in Britain has increased by 30% in the last five years. P16
句 4. A quarter of young people who smoke more than ten cigarettes a day will die 子 prematurely as a result of smoking. P77
5. Decide which of these actions are most likely to stop teenagers from smoking. P77
Ⅲ. 教材分析与教材重组 1. 教材分析 本模块以 No Drugs 为话题，通过本模块的几篇阅读材料使学生对 drugs 和 smoking 有所了解，并通过对这两个问题的讨论使学生更深刻地认识到 drugs 和 smoking 对人体的害处，对社会的危害，以及可能引起的一些社会性问题，如： burglary, shoplifting 等。 从而鼓励学生远离烟和毒品，养成良好的生活习惯，关 爱社会关爱他人，并通过所学知识运用恰当方式规劝他人也远离烟和毒品。 1.1 INTRODUCTION 通过对抽烟数据的检测， 让学生了解吸烟的危害， 并
通过英英释义的方式进一步熟悉词汇， 最后利用对三个问题的讨论来引出另一个 话题: drug use。
READING AND VOCABULARY 阅读部分是打乱顺序的两篇不同类
型的文章，通过给两篇文章选标题的方式培养学生的逻辑分析能力。然后通过练 习使学生掌握有关 drug use 的词汇，并培养学生获取准确信息的能力。 1.3 GRAMMAR 1 是学习不定式作目的状语的用法。在练习前先列出 to
的几种不同用法来引出 to 可作目的状语。接着又引出了其它可作目的状语的短 语： in order (not) to, so as (not) to。 1.4 FUNCTION 这一部分先展现例句引出要学的短语，然后通过练习来巩
固所学内容。 1.5 LISTENING AND VOCABULARY 是关于 drug users 的一些信息。在听 之前通过问答的方式先巩固词汇， 然后采用问答和完成句子的形式对所听内容进 行检测，培养学生获取信息并再现的能力。 1.6 GRAMMAR 2 通过不同类型的例句引出引导结果状语从句的词: so 与 such 以及对 so 与 such 区别的讨论，然后通过练习来巩固其用法。 1.7 PRONUNCIATION 学会在日常交际中表达语气和情感。 1.8 SPEAKING 通过回答问题的方式，继续展开对 smoking 这个话题的讨 论。 1.9 WRITING 根据电子邮件的内容选择合适的题目， 并对其内容做出讨论， 根据讨论后的结果写一封回信。 1.10 EVERYDAY ENGLISH 学习关于同意或不同意的表达方式，并通过真 实语境来练习运用。 1.11 CULTURAL CORNER 通过介绍多种戒烟的方法给烟民提供一个适合 自己的戒烟方式。并通过对问题的讨论，认识吸烟的害处，使自己成为一个有意 志并且健康的人。 1.12 TASK 让学生收集有关抽烟危害的资料，然后进行讨论，并提交一个调 查报告。 2. 教材重组 2.1 将 INTRODUCTION, SPEAKING 和 EVERYDAY ENGLISH 整合在一起， 上一节口语课。 2.2 将 READING AND VOCABULARY 设计成一节精读课。
2.3 将 GRAMMAR 1, FUNCTION 和 GRAMMAR 2 以及 WORKBOOK 中的 Grammar 整合在一起，上一节语法课。 2.4 将 LISTENING AND VOCABULARY, PRONUNCIATION 和
WORKBOOK 中的 Speaking and listening 整合在一起，上一节听力课。 2.5 将 CULTURAL CORNER 和 WORKBOOK 中的 Reading 整合在一起， 上 一节泛读课。 2.6 将 WRITING， TASK 和 WORKBOOK 中的 Writing 整合在一起， 上一节 写作练习课。 3. 课型设计与课时分配 1st Period 2nd Period 3rd Period 4th Period 5th Period 6th Period IV. 分课时教案 The First Period Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言 a. 重点词汇及短语 bronchitis, burglary, cancer, cigarette, tobacco, injured, danger, ban, horrible, affect b. 重点句式 P18 Speaking Speaking Reading Grammar Listening Extensive Reading Writing
I don’t agree with you. / I totally agree with you. / I couldn’t agree more. I’m not sure I agree with... That’s a good point. I’m not sure about that. You can’t be serious. I completely disagree. 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Enable the Ss to discuss the dangers of smoking.
3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Help the Ss learn how to talk about the dangers of smoking and taking drugs. Teaching important & difficult points 教学重点和难点 Make sure the Ss realize smoking is harmful to health. Teaching methods 教学方法 Discussion. Teaching aids 教具准备 A multimedia computer and a recorder. Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式 Step I Lead-in T: Good morning, everyone! Look at the screen please, what can you see on the screen? Show three pictures on the screen.
S: There are some flowers. T: Are they beautiful? S: Yes. T: What is the name of these flowers? S: 罂粟花；大烟花 T: What is this kind of flowers used for? S: They are used for making drugs. T: Yes, the flower is very beautiful. But if we use it in an incorrect way, it will become a kind of poison. Look at another two pictures on the screen. Show another two pictures on the screen.
T: What is the boy doing? S: He is smoking. T: What does the man in the second picture look like? S: He is very thin. T: Why is he so thin? S: I guess he suffers a lot from drugs. T: Yes, if a man takes drugs, he will become thinner and thinner till he dies. Do you like smoking? S: No. Smoking is harmful to our health. It can cause cancer. S: Smoking can make smokers cough badly. S: Smoking can pollute our environment. Because when people smoke, much smoke that can pollute the air will be given out. S: I don’t smoke, for it is harmful not only to our own health but also to the health of the people around us. T: Good. Anything else? S: Smokers have more chances to die than nonsmokers. S: I can’t stand the smell of the smokers and I hate to talk with them. S: Well, the smokers usually have yellow teeth. They make me uncomfortable. S: Every year large amount of money will be spent buying the cigarettes. S: There are many fires caused by smoking. T: Good jobs. Since there are so many disadvantages of smoking, we should not smoke. If our family members are smokers, we should try to persuade them not to smoke. Only by doing this can we have a healthy body and a clear environment to live in. Step II Warming up
T: Now, open your books and turn to page 11. Look at some facts about smoking in Activity 1. I’d like you to discuss them with your partners. After about five minutes. T: Have you finished? Which ones do you think are correct? … T: From these facts, we can see every year there are many people who die as a result of smoking. Among these people there are many young men. There are also many people killed or injured in fires caused by smoking. And many diseases occur as a result of smoking. So smoking is like a poison that can kill you slowly. We should say “Don’t smoke.” T: Now let’s come to Activity 2. Since smoking has so many disadvantages, let’s look at some negative words related to smoking. Show the following words on the screen, and ask the Ss to choose some to fill in the blanks in Activity 2. Then translate them into Chinese. bronchitis, cancer, cigarette, death die, heart disease, injured, tobacco Step III Speaking T: Since there are so many smokers in the world, do you know why people smoke? S: Some people smoke because they are addicted to it. They feel uncomfortable without smoking. S: People smoke because they want to get high spirit. In the cigarette there is a substance called cocaine, it can make people feel energetic. T: Very good, thank you. How do you know it? S: I get the information from a magazine. T: Is there any anti-smoking advertising? S: Yes. “酷儿一脚踢开烟灰” Queers Kick Ash）. It is an anti-smoking advertising （ in America. T: Do you know where people can smoke and where they can’t smoke? S: In some public places, there is usually a special room for smoking. So smokers can smoke in this kind of room.
S: People can’t smoke in public places. In most public places there are usually signs saying “No Smoking”. S: People can’t smoke in the airport, the train station, or the gas station. ... T: Good. Has anyone been to our school to talk about the dangers of smoking? S: No. Even some teachers are heavy smokers. S: Usually, our teachers tell us not to smoke and tell us many disadvantages of smoking. T: Quite right. I know that your head teacher is a heavy smoker. But now he is trying to give it up. Are your friends and family members smokers or nonsmokers? S: My father is a smoker. He usually smokes 20 cigarettes a day. When he is at home, our house is always full of smoke. My mother usually asks him to smoke in the balcony. S: My father is also a smoker. When he smokes, my mother often quarrels with him. After the quarrel, my father always says, “I want to stop smoking, but I can’t.” S: In my family, there is no smoker. We usually have clean air in our house. When I ask my father why he does not smoke, he usually says, “Smoking isn’t a habit with me.” So I think smoking is a habit, if we want to get rid of it, we can. It depends on ourselves. T: I agree with you. Many smokers succeed in giving up smoking, because they want to stop it. S: My father used to be a smoker, but now he does not smoke any longer. In the past years, he coughed badly, especially in winter. So he made up his mind to give up smoking. T: Did you do something to help your father? S: Yes, in the beginning, when my father wanted to smoke, I hid all his cigarettes. I usually gave him something else to eat to help him forget it. T: You are a good boy. Do you think you will be a smoker when you leave school and start work? S: No, I won’t. Because I know smoking is harmful.
S: I will smoke lightly. When people meet each other, they usually use cigarettes to start their talk. I think I will smoke, but I will control myself not to be addicted to it. T: Nowadays many people usually give cigarettes to start talk, it is a bad habit. We can start our talk in other ways. OK! You did a good job. Smoking has nothing good but harm, we should not smoke ourselves, and we should try to persuade others not to smoke. Step IV Everyday English Let the Ss do Activities 1 ＆ 2 on page 18. Then check the answers. After that, play the tape. While listening, ask the Ss to pay attention to the intonation, then practice Activity 2 with their partners according to the tape. Step V Homework T: Time is limited. Now let’s come to the homework: Preview READING AND VOCABULARY. The Second Period Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言 a. 重点词汇和短语 addictive, cannabis, crack cocaine, danger, drug addict, drug dealer, heart attack, heart rate, inject, needle, powerful, reduce, break into, nearby b. 重点句式 I used to be ... P12 He offered me ... P12 Users who ... are also in more danger if they ...P12 Users become addicted to crack cocaine much more easily if they ... P13 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Enable the Ss to talk about the harm of drugs. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Help the Ss learn how to express their feelings and opinions. Teaching important points 教学重点 Let the Ss gain more information about the harm of drugs. Reading
Teaching difficult points 教学难点 Let the Ss realize that they must keep away from drugs forever. Teaching methods 教学方法 Fast reading, intensive reading and discussion. Teaching aids 教具准备 A projector, a computer and a recorder. Teaching procedures& ways 教学过程与方式 Step I Warming up T: Good morning / afternoon, boys and girls. Yesterday we talked about the disadvantages of smoking. Among those smokers there are many young men. Why is cigarette so attractive? S: Because in the cigarette there is a substance called cocaine. This kind of thing can make people addicted to it. T: You are right. Then do you know more about cocaine? S: It is a powerfully addictive drug and can make people feel energetic for a short period of time. T: How do you know this? S: I have ever read a passage introducing cocaine in a newspaper. T: Good. I think all of you have heard about the harm done by cocaine to people. The most serious result is that it can cause people to die. Around you are there any people using drugs? S: No, we haven’t seen such people ourselves. We only see people using drugs on TV and in the newspaper. T: I’m very glad to hear that. We should keep away from drugs. Now please open your books and turn to page 12. Look at the words. I will give you five minutes to discuss the meanings of them. After five minutes, make sure the Ss have mastered these words. Then give them two minutes to finish Activity 3 by themselves. Step II Pre-reading T: Now look at the picture. From the expression of the man can you tell me what’s the
matter with him? S: He is unhappy. T: Do you know why he is unhappy? S: Perhaps he is addicted to the drugs. T: Very good. In fact he is really addicted to the drugs. Are you eager to know about his experiences of becoming a drug addict and what happened to him later? S: Yes. T: Well. Now let’s look at Activity 2. Above the passage there are three topics, I will give you three minutes to look through Article 1 and find the topic of this passage. After three minutes, ask some students to share their answers. T: OK, time’s up. Have you finished? Who’d like to share your answers? S: I choose the first one. T: Do you agree with him/her? Ss: Yes. T: Very good. Since you have known what Article 1 talks about, I will give you 10 minutes to look through Activity 4 and find which parts in Activity 4 belong to Article 1. After 10 minutes, check the answers. ... T: Now, look through Article 2 and choose a best topic for it from the two topics left. Then read through Activity 4 again and decide which parts belong to Article 2. A few minutes later, check the answers. T: Quite right. Since you have known the relation between Article 1, Article 2 and the parts in Activity 4, I will give you six minutes to read Article 1 and Parts 2, 3, 5 && 6 and then Article 2 and Parts 1 && 4. After six minutes, ask the Ss to finish Activities 5 ＆ 6, then check the answers. Step III Reading Text analyzing T: OK, you’ve done well. Now I will give you six minutes to read Article 1 again. After you finish, I will ask some of you to retell the story.
Six minutes later, ask some students to retell the story. A sample version: Adam Rouse used to be a drug addict. He is now giving a description of his past experiences. He started using drugs at the age of 15. He continued for about 6 months. Before long he became addicted to drugs. He was in such terrible pain that one day he broke into a house for money. In the end he was taken to the police station. A doctor came to treat him. He took the doctor’s advice and stopped taking drugs immediately. Now he works in a center for drug addicts, helping others to stop taking drugs. T: You are excellent. Next, please read the whole text. Then I will ask you several questions about the writing characteristics. A few minutes later. T: Time’s up. Who would like to tell me the structure of the text? S: Let me have a try. The whole text is a brief introduction of the harm of smoking. The text can be divided into two parts. One part uses an example of a drug addict to give a live instruction of the influence of the cocaine. The other part introduces cocaine and its harmful influence. T: Very good. Then what is the main idea of the text? S: The text is about the harm of cocaine. Cocaine is a powerfully addictive drug. Once you are addicted to it, you can’t live without it. Adam Rouse, a 19-year-old boy, used to be a drug addict. In order to buy drugs, he broke into house for money and was arrested by police. At last, he stopped using drugs and helped others stop taking drugs. T: You have done a good job. The last question: What is the writer’s purpose of writing this text? S: Through a brief description of a 19-year-old boy’s smoking experiences and a short introduction of cocaine and its harmful influence, the writer warns the students not to smoke and keep away from drugs. Language points T: Now let’s deal with some difficult language points. 1. danger: chance of suffering damage
e.g. His life was in danger. 2. share: n. part or portion of a large amount of which is divided among several or many people e.g. Your share of the cost is 10$. v. give a share of something to others e.g. Please share 100$ between 5 people. There is only one bedroom, so we’ll have to share 3. break into: enter by force e.g. His house was broken into last week. Step IV Post-reading T: What can you learn from the text? Ss: From the text, we have known that drugs are very harmful to our health. We should keep away from drugs and live a healthy life. The most important thing is that not only should we ourselves keep away from cigarettes and drugs but also we should help others not smoke and use drugs. T: Your answer is perfect, thank you. Step V Homework Memorize the important sentences in the text. The Third Period Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言 重点句式 ... in order (not) to ... P14 ... so as (not)to ... P14 ... so ... P15 ... as a result ... P15 ... as a result of ... P15 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Enable the Ss to use the infinitive of purpose and adverbial clause of result correctly. Grammar
3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Help the Ss learn how to use the infinitive of purpose and adverbial clause of result. Teaching important & difficult points 教学重点和难点 The usages of the infinitive of purpose and adverbial clause of result. Teaching methods 教学方法 Explanation and practice. Teaching aids 教具准备 A projector and a computer. Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式 Step I Revision Check the Ss’ homework by asking some of them to translate some important sentences. T: Good morning / afternoon, boys and girls. Have you finished your homework? Who’d like to translate the important sentences we learned last class? S: I’d like to. T: 我曾经是个吸毒者。 S: I used to be a drug addict. T:当我十五岁的时候，我第一次吸烟。 S: I first started smoking when I was 15. T: 他给我一些烈性可卡因。 S: He offered me some crack cocaine. T: 可卡因是一种强性的使人上瘾的药品。 S: Cocaine is a powerfully addictive drug. T: Good. Thank you. Step II Preparation T: Look at the sentences on the screen please. Pay attention to the underlined word in each sentence. Read them quickly and find out what usage each underlined word belongs to. Here I have provided you some choices. 1. They came to help me. 2. The train is to leave at 7:00.
3. He hurried home only to find his money stolen. 4. He wants me to go. 5. John was the first to arrive. A: To indicates arrangement. B: To indicates purpose. C: To indicates result. D: To follows certain verbs. E: To has an adjectival function. A few minutes later. T: Have you finished? S: 1－B; 2－A; 3－C; 4－D; 5－E. T: Very good! Step III Grammar 1 Let the Ss do Activity 1. A few minutes later, check the answers. … T: From the practice, we can see to has many different uses. But today we’ll learn one of them. That is, to indicates purpose. Now read the two sentences in Activity 2. What are the uses of in order to and so as to? S: Both of them indicate purpose. T: Well, we know that to can indicate purpose, but we can also use other forms, such as in order to and so as to. Now finish the four sentences using in order to or so as to. Let the Ss do Activity 2. A few minutes later, check the answers. ... T: Now let’s come to Activity 3. Read the two sentences quickly. The two sentences
use the negative forms of in order to and so as to. We should pay attention to the position of not in the two phrases. Now complete the five sentences according to the meaning of each sentence. A few minutes later, check the answers with the whole class. Then deal with Ex. 1 in WORKBOOK on page 73. Step IV Function
Ask the Ss to read the sentences and translate them into Chinese. Let the Ss understand the meanings of so, as a result and as a result of. Then ask them to read the sentences again and pay attention to the differences in usage of the three. Especially as a result and as a result of. At last finish the six sentences. … T: Very good. Now let’s compare the usages of them. Look at the following on the screen: (cause) + as a result + (result) (result) + as a result of + (cause) (cause) + so + (result) as a result + clause so + clause as a result of +n. / pronoun. / doing T: Do you know the differences between them? S: Yes. Then deal with Ex. 4 in WORKBOOK on page 73. Step V Grammar 2 Ask the Ss to read the six sentences in Activity 1 on page 16 and then answer the two questions. ... T: Then what’s the difference between so and such? Ss: so + adj. / adv. such + a / an + adj. + noun T: Very good! Any other differences? Ss: No. T: OK. I’ll tell you. When the adjectives are many, much, few, little etc. we should use so. Besides, we should also pay attention to another use of so and such. so + adj. + a / an + noun = such + a / an + adj. + noun For example, such an interesting book. We can also express it like this: so interesting a book.
So far, do you know the usages of so and such? S: Yes. T: Now, complete the six sentences in Activity 2 with so or such. A few minutes later, check the answers to the six sentences and then turn to page 73, deal with Ex. 2. Step VI Homework T: In this lesson, we have learnt the infinitive of purpose, phrases talking about results and adverbial clause of result. After class, have a revision of them. The Fourth Period Teaching goals 教学目标 1 Target language 目标语言 a. 重点词汇和短语 burglary, crime, criminal, connection, illegal, ratio, shoplifting, treatment, be likely to b. 重点句式 Is she sure about the number of...? P15 Listening
Some of them behave so badly that ... P16 There are such a lot of people that ... P16 Two students out of ten have smoked at least once. P76 A quarter of young people who ... will die prematurely as a result of ... P77 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Enable the Ss to learn more about drug users. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Help the Ss learn how to use the words about drug addiction and crime. Teaching important & difficult points 教学重点和难点 Listen to an interview to learn how to express results. Teaching methods 教学方法 Listening and cooperative learning. Teaching aids 教具准备 A tape recorder and a slide projector.
Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式 Step I Revision Choose the correct answers. 1. —Why did he make marks on some trees? —_____his way back easily. A. Find C. Finding B. To find D. In order to finding
2. After twenty years abroad, Mr. Wang came back only _____ his hometown completely changed. A. to find C. to have found B. finding D. found
3. _____ little water is not enough for _____many people. A. Such; so C. Such; such B. So; so D. So; such
4. John is ______honest boy that everyone likes him. A. so B. such C. so an D. such an
5. In order to make our city green, _____. A. it’s necessary to have planted more trees B. many more trees need to plant C. our city needs more trees D. we must plant more trees Key: BABDD Step II Listening and Vocabulary Deal with vocabulary first to make preparations for listening. Then let the Ss hear a conversation between a professor and a reporter about drug users. T: First let’s have a revision of some words. Take out your exercise books and we’ll have a dictation. Write down the words according to the following explanations. Listen to me carefully. First one, it refers to a place where you can buy things. S: Shopping center. T: If something is against the law, we say it is ...?
S: Illegal. T: If someone do sth. against the law, we say he ...? S: Breaks the law. T: It describes someone who breaks the law. S: Criminal. T: It refers to the crime of stealing sth. from a shop. S: Shoplifting. T: It refers to the crime of stealing sth. from a house. S: Burglary. T: It means that make a judgment about the lost, the size etc. of sth. S: Estimate. T: That’s all for our dictation. Now exchange your exercise books with your partners to check the answers. At last check the answers together. Listen to the tape for the first time and pause where it’s necessary. T: Go through the five questions in Activity 2. They are all Yes or No questions. When you listen, pay attention to the key words in each question so that you can get the correct answers. Play the tape. T: Have you got the answers? S: No, not all of them. T: Now we’ll listen to the tape again. Pay special attention to the questions that you haven’t got the answers to. Play the tape again. T: Have you got all the answers this time? S: Yes. Check the answers. T: Now turn to page 16. Go through the five sentences in Activity 3. Then we’ll listen again. When play the tape, pause at the key sentences so that the Ss can have enough time to
write them down. T: Have you completed all the sentences? S: Yes. T: Very good. Now we’ll check the answers. Ask several students to read their answers. Step III Pronunciation This practice is to help the Ss pay attention to the intonation of mood and feeling. 1. Ask several students to show different mood and feeling with different intonation. That’s, surprised, angry, happy and sad. Then ask other students to judge if they show the right feeling. 2. Listen to the tape and judge the feeling of the speaker. 3. Collect the answers and have the Ss say the sentences in correct way. If they can’t, listen to the tape again and ask them to repeat after the tape. 4. Let the Ss practice it after class and pay attention to the intonation of different moods and feelings. Step IV Listening Ask the Ss to read the four statements in Ex. 16 on page 77 quickly and guess the main idea of the conversation. Let them listen to the tape and decide which statement best describes the situation. And then ask them to go through the eight sentences in Ex. 17 and let them listen again to finish it. … T: Have you got all the answers? S: Yes. T: Now exchange your answers with your partners. Then check the answers with the whole class. Step V Homework T: This class we have listened to two materials about drug users and smokers. After class listen to the materials again and get familiar with them. Next class we’ll translate some sentences. The Fifth Period Extensive Reading
Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言 a. 重点词汇和短语 participant, recognize, leaflet, distraction, jogging, gymnastic, set a date, breathe out, give up, make a list of, increase by, one in twelve, in order of b. 重点句式 Whatever you’re doing when you want to smoke — do something else! P19 Drug use ... has increased by 30% ... P75 ... because they have nothing better to do with their time. P75 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Enable the Ss to talk about the ways of keeping away from smoking and drug addiction. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Help the Ss learn how to be far away from smoking and drug addiction. Teaching important & difficult points 教学重点和难点 Talk about the ways of giving up smoking and have a full understanding of drug problem in the UK. Teaching methods 教学方法 Fast reading and discussion. Teaching aids 教具准备 A slide projector and a computer. Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式 Step I Revision T: Last class we listened to two materials about drug users and smokers. Now we’ll translate some important sentences in them. Show the sentences on the slide. 1. 这位教授是研究犯罪和毒瘾之间联系的专家。 2. 他们犯了什么罪？ 3. 他们中的一些人行为如此恶劣以至于公众叫来了警察。
4. 大多数是 20 来岁的年轻人。 5. 他们都有共同点。 6. 毒品使用者在学校有可能陷入困境。 7. 事实上他们如此危险，以至于都有好几百万的人每年死于抽烟。 8. 第一件要做的事情是远离抽烟的人几周。 Ask some Ss to translate. Sample answers: 1. The Professor is an expert on the connection between crime and drug addiction. 2. What kind of crimes do they commit? 3. Some of them behave so badly that members of the public call the police. 4. The majority are young people in their twenties. 5. They all have something in common. 6. Drug users are more likely to get into trouble at school. 7. In fact, they are so dangerous that millions of people die every year as a result of cigarette smoking. 8. The first thing to do is keeping away from people who smoke for a few weeks. Step II Cultural Corner This reading supplies the Ss with the ways to stop smoking. Advise the Ss who smoke to follow the advice and to be a healthy person. T: Do you like smoking? S: No. S: No. S: Yes. T: When did you start smoking? S: Last year. T: Do you have any problems with smoking? S: No. T: Whose parents or grandparents smoke? S: My father smokes. T: Does he have any trouble with smoking?
S: Yes. His teeth and fingers are yellow. S: My grandfather smokes. T: Does he have any trouble? S: Yes. He often coughs. T: Does he want to give up smoking? S: Yes. But he can’t. T: Do you want to help him? S: Of course. But I don’t know how to help him. T: OK. Today we’ll learn some ways to help people give up smoking. Turn to page 19 and go through the three questions on the top of the page. Then read the passage quickly and find the answers. Several minutes later, ask some Ss to express their opinions. T: Have you finished? Ss: Yes. T: After reading the passage, which of the four Ds do you think is the best idea? S: In my opinion, the second one is the best idea. If someone who wants to smoke is busy doing something else, he can forget smoking for a short period of time. Then gradually he can resist the cigarettes. T: Good. Which of the other ideas do you like best? S: I like the fourth one best. If you have developed some other interests, you will have many things to do. Of course, the time for smoking is less. T: I agree with you. Do you think you would follow the advice if you were a smoker? Why or why not? S: If I were a smoker, I would follow the advice. Besides it, I will also take some other good advice to stop smoking. Because I have known the harm smoking does. T: The passage has provided us many methods to stop smoking. You can help yourself stop smoking if you are a smoker, and you also can help people around you stop smoking using these methods. Step III Reading This passage on page 75 is about drug use in the UK. First ask the Ss to look through
the passage and match the headings with the paragraphs. Then show them some figures and ask Ss to find out what these figures refer to in the article and at last answer some questions. T: We have read two passages. One is A Story of a Drug Addict, the other is the Dangers of Using Cocaine. From the two passages we can see the bad effect of drug use. So we should be far away from it. The passage we’ll read today is about drug problem in the UK. Now read it quickly and match the five headings with the paragraphs. After a few minutes. T: Have you finished? Ss: Yes. Ask one or two Ss to present their answers and then check the answers with the whole class. T: Now, I’ll show you some figures. What I want you to do is to find out what these figures refer to. Finish it as quickly as you can. Show the following figures on the screen. 30%, 35%, one in twelve, 500,000, ￡390 million, ￡3,000, 3,800 Note: Tell the Ss not to use the sentences directly from the passage. They should make a change. They shouldn’t say: Drug use in Britain has increased by 30% in the last five years. They should say: 30% refers to the increase of drug use in Britain in the last five years. Give the Ss some help when necessary. After a few minutes, collect answers from the whole class. T: Now please answer the questions in Ex. 10 on page 76. Find the answers quickly. Then talk about the answers with your partners. Step IV Extra-reading Show some other passages about drug use on the screen. Background Cocaine, the most potent stimulant of natural origin, is extracted from the leaves of the coca plant. It was originally used in South America in the mid-19th century by natives of the region to relieve fatigue. Pure cocaine (cocaine hydrochloride) was first
used as a local anesthetic for surgeries in the 1880s and was the main stimulant drug used in tonics and elixirs for treatment of various illnesses in the early 1900s. Crack, the freebase form of cocaine, derives its name from the crackling sound made when heating the sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) or ammonia used during production. Crack became popular in the mid-1980s because of its immediate high and its inexpensive production cost. Cocaine most often appears as a white crystalline powder or an off-white chunky material. Powder cocaine is commonly diluted with other substances such as lactose, inositol, mannitol, and local anesthetics such as lidocaine to increase the volume of the substance and the profits of the drug dealers. Powder cocaine is usually snorted or dissolved in water and injected. Crack, or “rock”, is most often smoked. Effects The effects of cocaine normally occur immediately after ingestion and can last from a few minutes to a few hours. The duration of the drug’s effects depends on how it is ingested. Snorting cocaine produces a slow onset of effects that can last from 15 to 30 minutes, while the effects of smoking cocaine last from 5 to 10 minutes and produce a more intense high. Cocaine produces euphoric effects by building up dopamine in the brain, causing the continuous stimulation of neurons. Users often feel euphoric, energetic, talkative, and mentally alert after taking small amounts of cocaine. Cocaine use can also temporarily lessen a user’s need for food or sleep. Short-term physiological effects include constricted blood vessels, dilated pupils, increased temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure. Ingesting large amounts of cocaine can intensify the user’s high, but can also lead to bizarre, erratic, and violent behaviors. Users who ingest large amounts may experience tremors, vertigo, muscle twitches, and paranoia. Other possible effects of cocaine use include irritability, anxiety, and restlessness. Cocaine is a powerfully addictive drug. A tolerance is often developed when a user is seeking to achieve the initial pleasure received from first use, increases the dosage to intensify and prolong the euphoric effects. Step V Homework
Ask the Ss to collect passages about drug use and smoking after class. The Sixth Period Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言 a. 重点词汇 illegal, danger b. 重点句式 I hope you don’t mind answering ... P17 Decide which ... are most likely to stop ... from smoking. P77 I think I have a right to ... P78 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Enable the Ss to prepare a presentation or a letter on the dangers of smoking. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Help the Ss learn how to prepare a presentation on smoking and write a letter of reply to show personal attitudes toward smoking. Teaching important & difficult points 教学重点和难点 How to prepare a presentation on the dangers of smoking and write a letter of reply. Teaching methods 教学方法 Task based learning, discussion and writing. Teaching aids 教具准备 A projector and a computer. Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式 Step I Revision Let the Ss exchange the passages about drug use and smoking they have collected. Step II Writing The purpose of this writing is to let the Ss talk about the problem of smoking in China. Through asking and answering questions, the Ss can learn something about the situation of smoking in China. T: We have learned something about smoking in this module. Here’s an email from a student in the US. Look through it quickly and choose the correct subject for it. Writing
After a while. T: Which do you choose? S: No. 2, Smoking. T: Do you all agree with him? Ss: Yes. T: Now, I’ll divide you into groups of four. Each group should discuss the e-mail and write a reply and then US. Walk around the classroom to help them if necessary. After a few minutes. T: Have you finished? Ss: Yes. T: Now I’ll ask some groups to present your reply and questions. Sample version 1: Dear Paul, I’m very glad to receive your email. Through our survey, we have got that most adults smoke in China. It’s not against the law to smoke in public buildings, but in some public buildings, smoking is not allowed. As far as I see, our government isn’t planning to change the law about smoking in public. Best wishes, Zhou Kai Our questions are: 1. Do most adults smoke in the US? 2. What do people in your country think about the law against smoking? 3. Do young people smoke in the US? 4. Is smoking a serious problem in your country? Sample version 2: Dear Paul, I’m very glad to receive your email. Our answers to your questions are: Most adults smoke in China. But less and less young people smoke, because they have realized the importance of health. Now it’s not against the law to smoke in public present some questions about the situation of smoking in the
buildings. But I think our government will change the law about smoking in public and reduce dangers of fires. Best wishes, Zhou Kai Our questions are: 1. What’s people’s attitude towards the law against smoking in your country? 2. What other measures do you take to stop smoking? 3. Do you smoke? What’s your opinion about smoking? T: You’ve done a very great job! Now turn to page 77. Step III Speaking and Writing Get the Ss to work in pairs to finish Ex. 18 on page 77. Then collect answers from the whole class. Sample versions: S: In my opinion, the second and the seventh actions are likely to stop teenagers from smoking. First, tell them the possible harm done by smoking. Then, get people with serious smoking-related diseases to visit them, let them see the bad body condition of these people. They probably can stop smoking. S: I think the third, the fourth and the fifth ones are likely to stop teenagers from smoking. Only when the country establishes law to make tobacco illegal can smoking be stopped. In my opinion, other methods such as teaching the dangers of smoking are useless. T: Now turn to page 78. Read this letter and find out if the writer is for or against smoking. After a while. T: Is the writer for or against smoking? S: He’s for smoking. Because he’s a smoker and his parents are smokers, too. T: OK! You are right. Now, write a letter of reply to show your personal opinions about smoking according to Ex. 20. After a while, ask some Ss to read their letters. Sample version 1:
Dear friend, I’m also a student but I’m against teenagers smoking. When you smoke, you can become addicted to nicotine. Nicotine is as addictive as the drug heroin and cocaine. Before long, you may have problems with your teeth and gums. Your teeth, fingers and fingernails will be stained with nicotine. You’ll have bad breath, too. So your friends won’t stay with you. Actually, you have the right to smoke. But when you smoke in public places, nonsmokers will inhale the smoke which comes directly from the burning cigarette or that is exhaled by you. This will violate others’ right, won’t it? If you want to smoke, you should stay in your own room or when you’re alone. Yours truly, A nonsmoker Sample version 2: Dear friend, I’m a student and I like to smoke, too. My grandparents are smokers but they’re very healthy. So I don’t think smoking is so bad for my health. But my parents don’t allow me to smoke, I’m very annoyed. Although the law doesn’t stop me from smoking in some public places, I still get much complaint from other people. I totally agree with you that we have the right to smoke. I wish I could smoke freely whenever and wherever I want! Yours truly, A smoker Step IV Task T: Turn to page 20. Please work in groups of four to make a list of the dangers of smoking and then discuss the questions in Activity 3. After discussion, prepare a presentation based on your discussions. A few minutes later. T: Have you finished? Who can make a list of the dangers of smoking? S: Let me have a try. The dangers of smoking are: 1. It can cause lung cancer and other lung diseases. 2. It can cause heart disease.
3. It can cause stroke. 4. It can cause infertility. 5. It can cause fire. A sample presentation: The biggest danger of smoking for people is that it affects people’s health. I take the bus to school every day. Often I meet people who smoke on the bus. They smell bad when they pass by me. They often cough and their fingers are yellow. Some of my neighbors who are smokers suffer from different illnesses. Even a few died of lung cancer and emphysema. Giving up smoking is not easy once you have addicted to it. But compared with other strange diseases, such as SARS and bird flu, we can handle smoking more easily. So the most important is whether you have made up your mind. So long as you want to be healthy, so long as you want to live longer, you should make a plan to give up smoking. All the ideas in Cultural Corner are good. Choose some that are most suitable for you. T: Your presentation is excellent! But time is limited. We don’t have enough time to ask more students to present. Please hand in your papers after class. That’s all for today. Step V Homework Sum up the whole module.
Is there a safe way to smoke?
Questions About Smoking, Tobacco, and Health
No. All cigarettes can damage the human body. Any amount of smoke is dangerous. Cigarettes are perhaps the only legal product whose advertised and intended use-smoking — is harmful to the body and causes cancer. Although some people try to make their smoking habit safer by smoking fewer cigarettes, most smokers find it hard to do so. Some people think that switching from high-tar and high-nicotine cigarettes to those with low tar and nicotine makes smoking safer, but this is not true. When people switch to brands with lower tar and
nicotine, they often start smoking more cigarettes, or more of each cigarette, to get the same nicotine dose as before. A low-tar cigarette can be just as harmful as a high-tar cigarette when a person takes deeper puffs, puffs more frequently, or smokes it to a shorter butt length. Even if smokers who switch to lower-tar brands do not make these changes to compensate, the health benefits are very small when compared to the benefits of quitting for good. Is cigarette smoking really addictive? Yes. The nicotine in cigarette smoke causes an addiction to smoking. Nicotine is an addictive drug (just like heroin and cocaine) for three main reasons. When taken
in small amounts, nicotine creates pleasant feelings that make the smokers want to smoke more. Smokers usually become dependent on nicotine and suffer withdrawal symptoms when they stop smoking. These symptoms include nervousness, headaches, irritability, and difficult sleeping. Because nicotine affects the chemistry of the brain and central nervous system, it can affect the mood and nature of the smokers. What does nicotine do? Nicotine in large doses is a poison and can kill people by stopping a person’s breathing muscles. Smokers usually take in small amounts that the body can quickly break down and get rid of. The first dose of nicotine causes a person to feel awake and alert, while later doses result in a calm, relaxed feeling. Nicotine can make new smokers, and regular smokers who get too much of it, feel dizzy or sick to their stomachs. The resting heart rate for young smokers increases two to three beats per minute. Nicotine also lowers skin temperature and reduces blood flow in the legs and feet. It plays an important role in increasing smokers’ risk of heart disease and stroke. Because nicotine is such a powerful constrictor of arteries, many vascular surgeons refuse to operate on patients with peripheral artery disease unless they stop smoking. Who is most likely to become addicted? Anyone who starts smoking is at risk of becoming addicted to nicotine. Studies
show that cigarette smoking is most likely to become a habit during the teen years. When young people become cigarette smokers they are more likely to become addicted. They are also more likely to suffer from the health problems caused by cigarette smoking. How many people smoke cigarettes? Among US adults, cigarette smoking has declined from about 42% of the population in 1965 to about 23% in 2002 (the latest year for which numbers are available). About 46 million adults smoked cigarettes in 2002. About 25% of men and 20% of women were smokers. Education seems to affect smoking rates, as shown by a steady decrease in the smoking rates in groups with a higher level of education. Is smoking common among young people? Yes. Tobacco use, including smoking cigarettes, chewing tobacco, and dipping snuff, remains common among American youth, according to the most recent government surveys. Despite declines in recent years, more than 1 in 4 high school students (28%) used some type of tobacco in 2003, and more than 1 in 5 (22%) were considered current cigarette smokers. Cigar smoking was also common among high school students (about 15%). About 13% of middle school students used some form of tobacco, with cigarettes (10%) being the most common. Tobacco use is higher among male students for all products except cigarettes, where the numbers for boys and girls are now about the same. Students who smoke are more likely to use other drugs, get in fights, carry weapons, attempt suicide, and engage in high-risk sexual behaviors. Does smoking cause cancer? Yes. Tobacco use accounts for about one third of all cancer deaths in the United States. Smoking causes almost 90% of lung cancers. Smoking also causes cancers of the larynx (voice box), oral cavity, pharynx (throat), and esophagus, and contributes to the development of cancers of the bladder, pancreas, liver, uterine cervix, kidney, stomach, colon, and rectum; it is also linked to the development of some leukemias.
What in cigarette smoke is harmful? Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic compounds produced by the burning of tobacco and additives. The smoke contains tar, which is made up of more than 4,000 chemicals, including over 60 known to cause cancer. Some of these substances cause heart and lung diseases, and all of them can be deadly. You might be surprised to know some of the chemicals found in cigarette smoke. They include: cyanide benzene formaldehyde methanol (wood alcohol) acetylene (the fuel used in welding torches) ammonia Cigarette smoke also
contains the poisonous gases nitrogen oxide and carbon monoxide. Its main active ingredient is nicotine, an addictive drug. Why do smokers have “smoker’s cough”? ” Cigarette smoke contains chemicals that irritate the air passages and lungs. When a smoker inhales these substances, the body tries to protect itself by producing mucus and coughing. The “early morning” cough of smokers happens for several reasons. Normally, tiny hairlike formations (called cilia) beat outward and sweep harmful material out of the lungs. Cigarette smoke slows the sweeping action, so some of the poisons in the smoke remain in the lungs and mucus remains in the airways. When a smoker sleeps, some cilia recover and begin working again. After waking up, the smoker coughs because the lungs are trying to clear away the poisons that built up the previous day. The cilia stop working after long-term exposure to smoke. Then the smokers’ lungs are even more exposed and susceptible than before, especially to bacteria and viruses in the air. Does cigarette smoking affect the heart? Yes. Smoking cigarettes increases the risk of heart disease, which is the number one cause of death in the United States. Smoking, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, physical inactivity, obesity, and diabetes are all risk factors for heart
disease, but cigarette smoking is the biggest risk factor for sudden heart death. Also, smokers who have a heart attack are more likely to die within an hour of the heart attack than nonsmokers. Cigarette smoke can cause harm to the heart at very low levels, much lower than what causes lung disease. How does smoking affect pregnant women and their babies? Pregnant women who smoke risk the health and lives of their unborn babies. Smoking during pregnancy is linked with a greater chance of miscarriage, stillbirth, infant death, and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Up to 10% of infant deaths would be prevented if pregnant women did not smoke. When a pregnant woman smokes, the nicotine, carbon monoxide, and other harmful chemicals enter her bloodstream, pass directly into the baby’s body, and prevent the baby from getting essential nutrients and oxygen for growth. What are some of the short-term and long-term effects of smoking cigarettes? Smoking causes many types of cancer, which may not develop for years. The truth is cigarette smokers die younger than nonsmokers. In fact, according to a study of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted in the late 1990s, smoking shortened male smokers’ lives by 13.2 years and female smokers’ lives by 14.5 years. Both men and women who smoke are much more likely to die during middle age (between the ages of 35 and 69) than those who have never smoked. Smoking also causes many short-term effects, such as decreased lung function. Because of this, smokers often suffer shortness of breath and nagging coughs, and they often will tire easily during physical activity. Some other common short-term effects: a diminished ability to smell and taste, premature aging of the skin, and increased risk of sexual impotence in men. Why do people begin to smoke? Most people begin smoking as teens, generally because of peer pressure and curiosity. Also, people with friends and/or parents who smoke are more likely to take up smoking than those who don’t. The younger a person is when he or she begins to smoke, the more likely he or she is to develop nicotine addiction. Another common influence in our society is the tobacco industry’s ads and other
promotional activities for its products. The tobacco industry spends billions of dollars each year to create and market ads that show smoking as an exciting, glamorous, and healthy adult activity. Is there a vaccine to help smokers quit? Researchers are currently studying a vaccine that may one day help smokers fight nicotine addiction and reduce the burden of illness and death from smoking. The vaccine — a form of nicotine attached to a large protein — stimulates the immune system to make antibodies. When a vaccinated person smokes, the antibodies bind to any nicotine that enters the bloodstream. The result is an extra-large molecule that is too big to enter the brain, thereby blocking most of the effects of the nicotine. Clinical trials on people began in 2002. So far, the vaccine appears to be safe and well tolerated and produces a good antibody response. However, it’s still not known if it will actually help people quit smoking. To make it more effective, the vaccine would likely be used along with other medicines and stop-smoking programs. Another possible use of the vaccine is to help people who have quit smoking avoid relapse. Nicotine acts on the pleasure centers in the brain-and this is especially powerful in former smokers-but the vaccine prevents nicotine from ever reaching those areas. The vaccine also shows promise as a smoking-prevention drug, by immunizing people who have never smoked against the effects of nicotine. If progress on the vaccine continues, it will be at least 2007 before the last phase of clinical trials could be completed. After that, an application to the FDA would need to be made to request approval of the vaccine. Am I at risk for developing lung cancer from smelling smoke odors on clothing or being in a room where people have been smoking (but are not smoking presently)? There is no research in the medical literature about the cancer — causing effects of cigarette odors, but the literature shows that secondhand smoke can seep into hair, clothing, and other surfaces. The unknown cancer — causing effects would likely be minimal in comparison to direct secondhand smoke exposure, such as living in a household that has a smoker. What is being done to protect people from the hazards of smoking?
Both the public and private sectors have acted to help decrease smoking-related deaths and illnesses in this country. Since 1966, the US Surgeon General’s health warnings have been required on all cigarette packages and, since 1987, on all smokeless tobacco products. As of 2001, the 7 major cigar manufacturers in the US began providing 5 health warnings that rotate on cigar labels, similar to those on cigarette packages. Congress banned television and radio cigarette advertising on TV and radio in 1971 and smokeless tobacco advertising in 1987. The American Legacy Foundation and many states conduct creative antismoking public service messages that are featured on television, radio, and billboards. Taxes on cigarettes have been shown to discourage young people from starting to smoke and to encourage smokers to quit. State taxes on tobacco vary from less than 10 cents a pack in some state to more than 2 dollars a pack in others. Laws in all 50 states and the District of Columbia restrict or do not allow smoking in certain public places. Many federal worksites, including the White House, are smoke-free. Also, smoking is banned on all domestic airplane flights. What are the health risks of smoking pipes or cigars? Smoking cigars or pipes is not a safe alternative to smoking cigarettes. Most of the same cancer — causing substances found in cigarettes are found in cigars. Most cigars have as much nicotine as several cigarettes. When cigar smokers inhale, nicotine is absorbed as rapidly as it is with cigarettes. For those who do not inhale, it is absorbed more slowly through the lining of the mouth. Both inhaled and exhaled nicotine are highly addictive. Smoking cigars causes cancers of the lung, oral cavity, larynx, esophagus, and probably cancers of the bladder and pancreas. Cigar smokers have a greater risk of dying from cancer of the oral cavity, larynx (voice box), or esophagus compared with nonsmokers. The risk of death from lung cancer is not so high as it is for cigarette smokers, but is still several times higher than the risk for nonsmokers. Cigar smokers who inhale deeply and smoke several cigars a day are also at increased risk for heart disease and chronic lung disease.
Pipe smokers are at increased risk of dying of cancers of the lung, esophagus, larynx, pancreas, colon and rectum. They are also at increased risk of dying of heart disease, stroke, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The level of these risks seems to be about the same as that for cigar smokers. What are the chances that smoking will kill you? About half of all those who continue to smoke will die because of the habit. In the U.S., tobacco causes nearly 1 in 5 deaths, killing about 435,000 Americans each year. Smoking is the single most preventable cause of death in our society. Based on current smoking patterns, smoking will kill about 500 million people alive in the world today. Tobacco — caused deaths worldwide are expected to increase from about 5 million per year today to about 10 million per year by the 2030s. Most of these deaths will occur in developing countries.