Unit 4 Earthquakes
一、语法填空 专题训练（ 巧用派生词，做好语法填空。 专题训练（一） 巧用派生词，做好语法填空。 ◆技巧点拨 英语中有许多单词可带否定前缀或否定后缀， 将该词变成一个与原来 单词意义完全相反的词。在做语法填空时，要仔细领会短文的意思， 理清文章脉络， 注意行文逻辑， 特别注意上下文之间有无转折、 对比、 相反关系，如果有此种关系，文中又没有相应过渡词语，就要考虑利 用构词法知识，即利用单词的否定前缀或否定后缀来解题。? 常用的否定前缀有：? in ?+? adj ?.—? adj. correct—incorrect(不正确的) active—inactive(不积极的) im ?+? adj ?.—? adj polite—impolite(不礼貌的) patient—impatient(不耐烦的)? un ?+? adj ?.—? adj lucky—unlucky(不幸运的)? happy—unhappy(不高兴的) il ?+? adj ?.—? adj logical—illogical(不合逻辑的)? legal—illegal(非法的) ir ?+? adj ?.—? adj regular—irregular(不规则的)? responsible—irresponsible(不负责任的)
dis ?+? adj ?.—? adj
un ?+? v ?.—? v ?
dis ?+? v ?.—? v ?
non ?+? n ?.—? adj ?
常用的否定后缀有：? ? n ?.+? less—? adj ? care — careless( 粗 心 的 ) home — homeless(无家可归的) ? n ?.+free—? adj ?. care—carefree(无忧无虑的)? paper—paper ? free(无纸张的) ◆活学活用? （一）用所给单词的适当形式填空。? Ann walked out of the chemical factory,annoyed at her ? 1
(pleasant)interview with Jack,the vice general manager of the factory.Ann was told the factory had been pouring waste water directly into the river,making the water ? 2 (suit)to drink.Ann thought it was her duty
to ? 3 (close)the matter and had it reported in the newspaper.She also
thought it was ? 4 thought it was ? 5
(responsible)〖JP3〗for the factory to do so.Jack (proper)and ? 6 (legal)for Ann to report the
whole thing in public without telling them in advance.? However,Ann regarded it most important to ensure the residents near the factory to drink ? 7 (pollution)water.She told Jack if his factory kept
on polluting the river,he was sure to answer for what he had done one day. 答案:1.unpleasant ? 2.unsuitable ? 3.disclose ? 4.irresponsible ? 答案: 5.improper ? 6.illegal ? 7.pollution ? free ? （二）语法填空。? In the days when an ice cream cost much less,Tom,? 1 eight ? year
old boy,entered a hotel coffee shop ? 2 sat at a table.A waitress put a glass of water in front of him.“How much is an ice ? cream？” “Fifty cents,” replied the waitress.The little boy pulled ? 3 right hand out of
the pocket and studied a number of ? 4 in it.“How much is a dish of plain ice cream?” asked.Some people were now waiting for her service he and the waitress grew a little ? 5 (patient).“Thirty cents,” she said ? 6 (polite)and loudly,which surprised other 〖JP3〗customers.The .”I will have a plain ice cream,”he
boy counted the coins ? 7
said.The waitress walked ? 8 .The boy finished the ice cream,paid the cashier and left.It was not long ? 9 the waitress came back and then she began to wipe the table and suddenly was surprised at what she saw.There,? 10 (place)neatly beside the empty dish,were two nickels
and five pennies—her tip!? 1.an ? 2.解析：entered 与 sat 并列，所以填 and。? 答案：and 3.his 4.coins ? 5~6.解析：这里指服务员不耐烦(impatient)、不礼貌(impolite),注意用 否定前缀。? 答案：5.impatient 6.impolitely 7.解析：小孩又仔细数了一遍硬币。? 答案：again 8.解析：It is not long before 是常用句型。? 答案：away 9.before ? 10.解析： 倒装句。 顺序为 two nickels and five pennies were placed neatly beside the empty dish.? 答案：placed 二、完形填空 阅读下面短文，掌握其大意，然后从 1~15 各题所给的四个选项（A、 B、C 和 D）中，选出最佳选项。? As a child, I was very shy. I wanted to be successful, but lacked ? 1 .
When I discovered climbing, I found something I was good at. I began to be ? 2 by my friends and this gave me the desire to climb ? 3
and higher mountains. I found that nothing was impossible if I could find the ? 4 to try to achieve my goals.? Both personal determination and teamwork are ? 5 when you climb. You need to rely on the ? 6 of your team and share in the
achievement. But personal focus and determination to keep going despite any difficulty are also very helpful to team success.? My greatest achievement in ? 7 was being the first ever to reach the
top of the 5,000 ? foot Troll Wall in Norway, which has the highest and most vertical(垂直的) rock face in Europe. A stone dropped from the top of the mountain will ? ? 8 nothing until it lands on the valley floor one
9 below. So it was very adventurous.?
Before our climb, the experts in Europe had said it was ? 10 to climb the Troll Wall. But with three companions, I decided to ? 11 . It took
ten days to make the climb and we ? 12 on ledges(岩石架)no more than a foot wide when we were tired. Thankfully, we ? 13 .?
Afterwards, I said to myself, “If I can do that, I can do anything.” Some years later, I climbed up Mount Everest-the highest mountain in the world. Adventure to me is not just ? 14 a rope along the side of a mountain, but is one field where adventurous people can often ? 15 themselves. If we look at every day as an adventure, we can test ourselves and continue to grow throughout our life. That is the final adventure.?
1.A.money C.purposes 2.A.denied C.recognized 3.A.harder C.smaller 4.A.place C.courage 5.A.suitable C.equal 6.A.comfort C.interest 7.A.science C.climbing 8.A.touch C.pollute 9.A.meter C.centimeter 10.A.easy C.exciting 11.A.try C.return
B.confidence ? D.chances ? B.attacked ? D.tricked ? B.farther ? D.safer ? B.secret ? D.time ? B.simple ? D.important ? B.support ? D.doubt ? B.medicine ? D.engineering ? B.stop ? D.hurt ? B.inch ? D.mile ? B.impossible ? D.useful ? B.learn ? D.escape ?
12.A.ate C.rested 13.A.worked C.continued 14.A.bending over C.hanging onto 15.A.hold C.punish
B.lived ? D.stood ? B.decided ? D.succeeded ? B.falling off ? D.leaning against ? B.forgive ? D.challenge ? 7.C ? 8.A 9.D 10.B 11.A
解答:1.B 2.C 3.A 4.C 5.D 6.B 12.C ? 13.D 14.C 15.D ? 三、阅读理解
专题训练（一）阅读中的猜词技巧（4）? 专题训练（ 阅读中的猜词技巧（ ） 根据同等关系猜测词义 ◆方法点拨 同等关系指一组词在句中作同一成分，且它们的词义属于同一义域， 这些词常用 and 或 or 来连接。如：? At fifty he is in his prime of life and always full of energy. 根据 full of energy 可判断出 in his prime of life 的意思为 “最好的时候、 精力旺盛之际” 。?
1.He is a serious person who always does everything conscientiously.? 2.If you don ? t stop doing like this,you ? ll impair your health.??? 3.He strayed because of the darkness,and didn，t know where he was.?? 4.In the ancient city of Rome,we visited every mansion,battle site,theatre and other public halls.??? （二）阅读下列短文，按要求完成读写任务。? (2008 年广东卷)Parents and kids today dress alike,listen to the same music,and are friends.Is this a good thing？Sometimes,when Mr.Ballmer and his 16 ? year ? old daughter,Elizabeth,listen to rock music together and talk about interests they both enjoy,such as pop culture,he remembers his more distant relationship with his parents when he was a teenager.? “I would never have said to my mom,‘Hey,the new Weezer album is really great.How do you like it?’ says Ballmer.“There was just a ” complete gap in taste.”? Music was not the only gulf.From clothing and hairstyles to activities and expectations,earlier generations of parents and children often appeared to move in separate orbits.? Today,the generation gap has not disappeared,but it is getting narrow in many families.Conversations on subjects such as sex and drugs would not have taken place a generation ago.Now they are comfortable and common.And parent-child activities,from shopping to sports,involve a feeling of trust and friendship that can continue into adulthood.?
No wonder greeting cards today carry the message,“To my mother,my best friend.”? But family experts warn that the new equality can also result in less respect for parents.? “There，s still a lot of strictness and authority on the part of parents out there,but there is a change happening, ” says Kerrie,a psychology professor at Lebanon Valley College.“In the middle of that change,there is a lot of confusion among parents.”? Family researchers offer a variety of reasons for these evolving roles and attitudes.They see the 1960s as a turning point.Great cultural changes led to more open communication and a more democratic process that encourages everyone to have a say.? “My parents were on the ‘before’ side of that change,but today ? s parents,the 40 ? year ? olds,were on the ‘after’ side,” explains Mr.Ballmer.“It ? s not something easily accomplished by parents these days,because life is more difficult to understand or deal with,but sharing interests does make it more fun to be a parent now.”? Ⅰ.根据短文，写一篇 30 词左右的摘要。? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________? Ⅱ.根据所读短文，选出最佳答案。?
_______________.? A.interest C.difference B.distance ? D.separation ?
2.Which of the following shows that the generation gap is disappearing? A.Parents help their children develop interests in more activities.? B.Parents put more trust in their children ? s abilities.? C.Parents and children talk more about sex and drugs.? D.Parents share more interests with their children.? 3.The change in today,s parent ? child relationship is _____________. A.more confusion among parents ? B.new equality between parents and children ? C.less respect for parents from children ? D.more strictness and authority on the part of parents ? 4.By saying“today ? s parents,the 40 ? year ? olds,were on the‘after’ side.” the author means that today ? s parents _______________.? A.follow the trend of the change ? B.can set a limit to the change ? C.fail to take the change seriously ? D.have little difficulty adjusting to the change ? 5.The purpose of the passage is to _______________.? A.describe the difficulties today ? s parents have met with ?
B.discuss the development of the parent ? child relationship ? C.suggest the ways to handle the parent ? child relationship ? D.compare today ? s parent ? child relationship with that in the past ? 三、? （一）? 1.解析：根据 serious 可判断出 conscientiously 为“认真地”之意。? 答案：认真地 2.解析：从 if 条件句的意思可推断出句中 impair your health 的意思为“损害健康” 。? 答案：损害 3.解析： 由句中的 because of the darkness 可推断出 stray 的意思为 “迷 路” 。? 答案：迷路 4.解析：因为 mansion 与“战场遗址”“剧院”“其它公众厅”并列， 、 、 所以 mansion 也应属 于建筑物或场所。? 答案：大厦 （二）? Ⅰ.? The text tells us that nowadays parents and their children have a lot in common and they are equal in many ways,which makes it more fun to be a parent.?
Ⅱ.? 1.解析： 可以通过同等关系推测词义的技巧来找出答案， 即通过 There was just a complete gap in taste 和 move in separate orbits 来推测词义。 ? 答案：B 2.解析：细节理解题 由文章的第一段可以知道答案。? 答案：D 3.解析：细节推断题,由文章的第五段可知,现在父母和孩子的关系趋 于平等。? 答案：B 4.解析： 世纪 60 年代被看作一个转折点,以前的父母高高在上,固执 20 保守,而现在的父母与孩子一起分享共有兴趣的快乐,所以 A 项 “紧 随潮流的变化”最符合题意。? 答案：A 5.解析：推理判断题,要求推断作者的写作意图,纵观全文,只有 B 项符 合。? 答案：B