定语从句讲解和练习—关系代词 1．Mary is a student who is 21 years old. (主句部分) (从句部分) He who laughs last laughs best. (从句部分) 2..定语从句：修饰主句中名词或代词的从句叫做定语从句。 ） 先行词：被定语从句所修饰的名词或代词叫做先行词。) Mary is a student who is 21 years old. (先行词) (关系代词) The school where he studied is in Shenzhen. (先行词) (关系副词) 3. 关系词的作用 ① 指代先行词； ② 位于从句句首，连接定语从句与主句； ③ 并在定语从句中充当从句某一成分。 4. 关系代词用法 1) that, which Some of the books were gifts (that/which) he got from his Chinese friends and students. The paintings (that/which) David donated to the school are being shown in the exibition room. 归纳：定语从句中，用 that/ which 指代物。 that/which 在从句中作宾语时可以省略。 2) who, whom Most of the students (whom/who) he taught have become his friends. She was the teacher who taught us English Literature. 归纳：定语从句中，用 who/whom 指代人。 在从句中充当主语时，用 who。 在从句中充当宾语时，用 whom(也可以用 who),还可以省略。 3) whose I sat next to a girl whose name was Diana. The club whose members are music fans meet in the school garden every Saturday afternoon. 归纳：定语从句中，用 whose 指代人/物，表示“某人的”“某物的” 、 ，在从句中充当定语。 5. 特殊的用法
（一）which, that 在代替物时，一般可以通用。 但在有些情况下，只用 that。 ⑴ 先行词是最高级形容词或它的前面有最高级形容词修饰时。 例如： ① This is the best that has been used against pollution. ② English is the most difficult subject that you will learn during these years. ⑵ 先行词是序数词，或它前面有一个序数词时。 例如： ① This is the last place (that) I want to visit. ② It is the first American movie of this kind that I’ve ever seen. ⑶ 先行词是 all, much, little, something, everything, anything, nothing, none 等代词时。 例如： ① You should hand in all that you have. ② We haven’t got much that we can offer you. ⑷ 先行词前面有 the only, the very, any, few, little, no, all, much, every 等修饰时。
例如： ① The only thing that we can do is to give you some money. ② The little money (that) he had was stolen. （5） 先行词既有人又有物时。 例如： ① Do you know the things and persons that they are talking about? ② The bike and its rider that had run over an old man were taken to the police station. （6） 主句已有疑问词 who 或 which 时。 例如： ① Which is the bike that you lost? ② Who is the woman that was praised at the meeting? （二）宜用 who, 而不用 that 的一些情况 ⑴ 先行词是 one, ones, anyone 时。 例如： ① One who has nothing to fear for oneself dares to tell the truth. ② Don’t tell anyone about the news who oughtn’t to know it. ⑵先行词是 those 时。 例如： ① Those who were not fit for their work could not see the beautiful clothes made of the magic cloth. （三）与 whose 有关的问题 ⑴ whose 是代词的所有格，它既可以代人也可以代物。 例如： ① I saw a woman whose bag was stolen. ② Please show me the book whose cover is red. ⑵ 当 whose 表示物与物的所有格关系时，亦可用 of which 的形式。 例如： ① The building whose roof you can see from here is a new restaurant. → The building, the roof of which you can see from here, is a new restaurant.或 → The building, of which the roof you can see from here is a new restaurant.
练习题（关系代词部分） 1、This is the school. You studied in the school when you were young. _________________________________________________________ 2、That farm is the one. You can see it from the gate. _________________________________________________________ 3、I know the hospital. You were born in it. _________________________________________________________ 4、I’ll never forget the days. We spent the days in the countryside. _________________________________________________________ 5、My father was born in 1920. My father’s brother is a teacher.
_________________________________________________________ 6、This is Xiao Ming. Xiao Ming is very good at maths. _________________________________________________________ 7、Is this the reason? You gave the the teacher the reason for your being late. _________________________________________________________ 8、I am pleased with the person. You talked of the person in your letter. _________________________________________________________ 9、I found the wallet under the tree. The tree died two years ago. _________________________________________________________ 10、No one know the day. Our master was born on the day. _________________________________________________________ 11、Can you see the house. The house’s roof was broken by a stone. __________________________________________________________ 12、I knew the person. You met the same person in the street yesterday. _________________________________________________________________ 13、I have no such books. You have the books on your bookshelf. 用适当的关系代词填空（which, that, who, whom, whose, as） ： 1、This is the school_________you studied in when you were young. 2、That farm is the one__________ you can see from the gate. 3、I know the hospital___________ you were born in. 4、I’ll never forget the days__________we spent in the countryside. 5、My father ___________ brother is a teacher was born in 1920. 6、This is Xiao Ming______________ is very good at maths. 7、Is this the reason_________you gave the the teacher for your being late? 8、I am pleased with the person_________you talked of in your letter. 9、I found the wallet under the tree____________ died two years ago. 10、No one know the day____________ our master was born on. 11、Can you see the house___________ roof was broken by a stone. 12、I knew the same person________you met in the street yesterday.
13、I have no such books___________you have on your bookshelf. 14、They bought a new car ________ is as big as the old one. 15、The boy_________ schoolbag had been left at scholl was scolded by his dad. 16、That desk is bigger than the one ________ stands in the corner. 17、The old man _______ is sitting by my mother is my grandfather. 18、He is a model worker _________ we should learn from. 19、September is a month ________ comes after October. 20、Jackis the only student ________speaks English in our class. 21、The tall building ________ has just been finished is part of the TV station. 22、Can you still recognize your aunt _________ you haven’t seen for ten years? 23、The finger _______ the teacher put into his mouth was not the second one. 24、Is there anything _______ you don’t understand? 25、That is the place _________ they visited the day before yesterday.