Section Ⅰ Use of English Directions： Read the following text。 Choose the best word （s） for each numbered blank and markA,B,C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1.（10 points） In our contemporary culture, the prospect of communicating with -- or even looking at -- a stranger is virtually unbearable. Everyone around us seems to agree by the way they fiddle with their phones, even without a 1 underground. It's a sad reality -- our desire to avoid interacting with other human beings -- because there's 2 to be gained from talking to the stranger standing by you. But you wouldn't know it, 3 into your phone. This universal armor sends the 4 : "Please don't approach me." What is it that makes us feel we need to hide 5 our screens? One answer is fear, according to Jon Wortmann, executive mental coach. We fear rejection, or that our innocent social advances will be 6 as "creepy,". We fear we'll be 7 . We fear we'll be disruptive. Strangers are inherently 8 to us, so we are more likely to feel 9 when communicating with them compared with our friends and acquaintances. To avoid this anxiety, we 10 to our phones. "Phones become our security blanket," Wortmann says. "They are our happy glasses that protect us from what we perceive is going to be more 11 ." But once we rip off the bandaid, tuck our smartphones in our pockets and look up, it doesn't 12 so bad. In one 2011 experiment, behavioral scientists Nicholas Epley and Juliana Schroeder asked commuters to do the unthinkable: Start a 13 . They had Chicago train commuters talk to their fellow 14 . "When Dr. Epley and Ms. Schroeder asked other people in the same train station to 15 how they would feel after talking to a stranger, the commuters thought their 16 would be more pleasant if they sat on their own," the New York Times summarizes. Though the participants didn't expect a positive experience, after they 17 with the experiment, "not a single person reported having been snubbed." 18 , these commutes were reportedly more enjoyable compared with those sans communication, which makes absolute sense, 19 human beings thrive off of social connections. It's that 20 : Talking to strangers can make you feel connected. 1. [A] ticket [B] permit [C] signall [D] record 2. [A] nothing [B] link [C] another [D] much 3. [A] beaten [B] guided [C] plugged [D] brought 4. [A] message [B] cede [C] notice [D] sign 5. [A] under [B] beyond [C] behind [D] from 6. [A] misinterprete [B] misapplied [C] misadjusted [D] mismatched 7. [A] fired [B] judged [C] replaced [D] delayed 8. [A] unreasonable [B] ungreatful [C] unconventional [D] unfamiliar 9. [A] comfortable [B] anxious [C] confident [D] angry 10. [A] attend [B] point [C] take [D] turn 11. [A] dangerous [B] mysterious [C] violent [D] boring 12. [A] hurt [B] resist [C] bend [D] decay 13. [A] lecture [B] conversation [C] debate [D] negotiation 14. [A] trainees [B] employees [C] researchers [D] passengers 15. [A] reveal [B] choose [C] predictl [D] design 16. [A] voyage [B] flight [C] walk [D] ride 17. [A] went through [B] did away [C] caught up [D] put up 18. [A] In turn [B] In particular [C] In fact [D] In consequence 19. [A] unless [B] since [C] if [D] whereas
20. [A] funny [B] simple [C] logical [D] rare Section II Reading Comprehension Part A Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points) Text 1 A new study suggests that contrary to most surveys, people are actually more stressed at home that at work. Researchers measured people‘s cortisol, which is stress marker, while they were at work and while they were at home and found it higher at what is supposed to be a place of refuge. ―Further contradicting conventional wisdom, we found that women as well as men have lower levels of stress at work than at home,‖ writes one of the researchers, Sarah Damaske. In fact women even say they feel better at work, she notes, ―It is men, not women, who report being happier at home than at work.‖ Another surprise is that the findings hold true for both those with children and without, but more so for nonparents. This is why people who work outside the home have better health. What the study doesn‘t measure is whether people are still doing work when they‘re at home, whether it is household work or work brought home from the office. For many men, the end of the workday is a time to kick back. For women who stay home, they never get to leave the office. And for women who work outside the home, they often are playing catch-up-with-household tasks. With the blurring of roles, and the fact that the home front lags well behind the workplace in making adjustments for working women, it‘s not surprising that women are more stressed at home. But it‘s not just a gender thing. At work, people pretty much know what they‘re supposed to be doing: w orking, making money, doing the tasks they have to do in order to draw an income. The bargain is very pure: Employee puts in hours of physical or mental labor and employee draws out life-sustaining moola. On the home front, however, people have no such clarity. Rare is the household in which the division of labor is so clinically and methodically laid out. There are a lot of tasks to be done, there are inadequate rewards for most of them. Your home colleagues- your family- have no clear rewards for their labor; they need to be talked into it, or if they‘re teenagers, threatened with complete removal of all electronic devices. Plus, they‘re your family. You cannot fire your family. You never really get to go home from home. So it‘s not surprising that people are more stressed at home. Not only are the tasks apparently infinite, the coworkers are much harder to motivate. 21. According to Paragraph 1, most previous surveys found that home_______ [A] was an unrealistic place for relaxation [B] generated more stress than the workplace [C] was an ideal place for stress measurement [D] offered greater relaxation than the workplace 22. According to Damaske, who are likely to be the happiest at home? [A] Working mothers [B] Childless husbands [C] Childless wives [D] Working fathers 23. The blurring of working women‘s roles refers to the fact thay_______ [A] they are both bread winners and housewives
[B] their home is also a place for kicking back [C] there is often much housework left behind [D] it is difficult for them to leave their office 24. The word ―moola‖(Line 4, Para 4) most probably means_______ [A] energy [B] skills [C] earnings [D] nutrition 25. The home front differs from the workplace in that_______ [A] home is hardly a cozier working environment [B] division of labor at home is seldom clear-cut [C] household tasks are generally more motivating [D] family labor is often adequately rewarded Text2 For years, studies have found that first-generation college students- those who do not have a parent with a college degree- lag other students on a range of education achievement factors. Their grades are lower and their dropout rates are higher. But since such students are most likely to advance economically if they succeed in higher education, colleges and universities have pushed for decades to recruit more of them. This has created ―a paradox‖ in that recruiting first- generation students, but then watching many of them fail, means that higher education has ―continued to reproduce and widen, rather than close‖ ab achievement gap based on social class, according to the depressing beginning of a paper forthcoming in the journal Psychological Science. But the article is actually quite optimistic, as it outlines a potential solution to this problem, suggesting that an approach (which involves a one-hour, next-to-no-cost program) can close 63 percent of the achievement gap (measured by such factors as grades) between first-generation and other students. The authors of the paper are from different universities, and their findings are based on a study involving 147 students ( who completed the project) at an unnamed private university. First generation was defined as not having a parent with a four-year college degree. Most of the first-generation students(59.1 percent) were recipients of Pell Grants, a federal grant for undergraduates with financial need, while this was true only for 8.6 percent of the students wit at least one parent with a four-year degree. Their thesis- that a relatively modest intervention could have a big impact- was based on the view that first-generation students may be most lacking not in potential but in practical knowledge about how to deal with the issues that face most college students. They cite past research by several authors to show that this is the gap that must be narrowed to close the achievement gap. Many first- generation students ―struggle to navigate the middle-class culture of higher education, learn the ?rules of the game,‘ and take advantage of college resources,‖ they write. And thi s becomes more of a problem when collages don‘t talk about the class advantage and disadvantages of different groups of students. Because US colleges and universities seldom acknowledge how social class can affect students ‘educational experience, many first-generation students lack sight about why they are struggling and do not understand how students‘ like them can improve. 26. Recruiting more first- generation students has_______ [A] reduced their dropout rates [B] narrowed the achievement gao [C] missed its original purpose [D] depressed college students
27. The author of the research article are optimistic because_______ [A] the problem is solvable [B] their approach is costless [C] the recruiting rate has increased [D] their finding appeal to students 28. The study suggests that most first- generation students______ [A] study at private universities [B] are from single-parent families [C] are in need of financial support [D] have failed their collage 29. The author of the paper believe that first-generation students_______ [A] are actually indifferent to the achievement gap [B] can have a potential influence on other students [C] may lack opportunities to apply for research projects [D] are inexperienced in handling their issues at college 30. We may infer from the last paragraph that_______ [A] universities often reject the culture of the middle-class [B] students are usually to blame for their lack of resources [C] social class greatly helps enrich educational experiences [D]colleges are partly responsible for the problem in question Text3 Even in traditional offices, ―the lingua franca of corporate America has gotten much more emotional and much more right-brained than it was 20 years ago,‖ said Harvard Business School professor Nancy Koehn. She start ed spinning off examples. ―If you and I parachuted back to Fortune 500 companies in 1990, we would see much less frequent use of terms like journey, mission, passion. There were goals, there were strategies, there were objectives, but we didn‘t talk about energy; we didn‘t talk about passion.‖ Koehn pointed out that this new era of corporate vocabulary is very ―team‖ -oriented—and not by coincidence. ―Let‘s not forget sports—in male-dominated corporate America, it‘s still a big deal. It‘s not explicitly con scious; it‘s the idea that I‘m a coach, and you‘re my team, and we‘re in this together. There are lots and lots of CEOs in very different companies, but most think of themselves as coaches and this is their team and they want to win.‖ These terms are also intended to infuse work with meaning—and, as Khurana points out, increase allegiance to the firm. ―You have the importation of terminology that historically used to be associated with non -profit organizations and religious organizations: Terms like vision, values, passion, and purpose,‖ said Khurana. This new focus on personal fulfillment can help keep employees motivated amid increasingly loud debates over work-life balance. The ―mommy wars‖ of the 1990s are still going on today, prompting arguments about why women still can‘t have it all and books like Sheryl Sandberg‘s Lean In, whose title has become a buzzword in its own right. Terms like unplug, offline, life-hack, bandwidth, and capacity are all about setting boundaries between the office and the home. But if your work is your ―passion,‖ you‘ll be more likely to devote yourself to it, even if that means going home for dinner and then working long after the kids are in bed. But this seems to be the irony of office speak: Everyone makes fun of it, but managers love it, companies depend on it, and regular people willingly absorb it. As Nunberg said, ―You can get people to think it‘s nonsense at the same time that you buy into it.‖ In a workplace that‘s fundamentally indifferent to your life and its meaning,
office speak can help you figure out how you relate to your work—and how your work defines who you are. 31. According to Nancy Koehn,office language has become_____ [A] more emotional [B] more objective [C] less energetic [D] less strategic 32. ―team‖-oriented corporate vocabulary is closely related to_______ [A] historical incidents [B] gender difference [C] sports culture [D] athletic executives 33.Khurana believes that the importation of terminology aims to______ [A] revive historical terms [B] promote company image [C] foster corporate cooperation [D] strengthen employee loyalty 34.It can be inferred that Lean In________ [A] voices for working women [B] appeals to passionate workaholics [C] triggers dcbates among mommies [D] praises motivated employees 35.Which of the following statements is true about office speak? [A] Managers admire it but avoid it [B] Linguists believe it to be nonsense [C] Companies find it to be fundamental [D] Regular people mock it but accept it Text 4 Many people talked of the 288,000 new jobs the Labor Department reported for June, along with the drop in the unemployment rate to 6.1 percent, as good news. And they were right. For now it appears the economy is creating jobs at a decent pace. We still have a long way to go to get back to full employment, but at least we are now finally moving forward at a faster pace. However, there is another important part of the jobs picture that was largely overlooked. There was a big jump in the number of people who report voluntarily working part-time. This figure is now 830,000(4.4 percent) above its year ago level. Before explaining the connection to the Obamacare, it is worth making an important distinction. Many people who work part-time jobs actually want full-time jobs. They take part-time work because this is all they can get. An increase in involuntary part-time in June, but the general direction has been down. Involuntary part-time employment is still far higher than before the recession, but it is down by 640,000(7.9 percent) from its year ago level. We know the difference between voluntary and involuntary part-time employment because people tell us. The survey used by the Labor Department asks people if they worked less than 35 hours in the reference week. If the answer is ―yes,‖ they are classified as working part-time. They survey then asks whether they worked less than 35 hours in that week because they wanted to work less than full time or because they had no choice. They are only classified as voluntary part-time workers if they tell the survey taker they chose to work less than 35 hours a
week. The issue of voluntary part-time relates to Obamacare because one of the main purposes was to allow people to get insurance outside of employment. For many people, especially those with serious health conditions of family members with serious health conditions, before Obamacare the only way to get insurance was through a job that provided health insurance. However, Obamacare has allowed more than 12 million people to either get insurance through Medicaid or the exchanges. These are people who may previously have felt the need to get a full-time job that provided insurance in order to cover themselves and their families. With Obamacare there is no longer a link between employment and insurance. 36. Which part of the jobs picture was neglected? A. The prospect of a thriving job market. B. The increase of voluntary part-time jobs. C. The possibility of full employment. D. The acceleration of job creation. 37. Many people work part-time because they A. prefer part-time jobs to full-time jobs B. feel that is enough to make ends meet C. cannot get their hands on full-time jobs D. haven‘t seen the weakness of the market 38. Involuntary part-time employment in the US A. is harder to acquire than one year ago B. shows a general tendency of decline C. satisfies the real need of the jobless D. is lower than before the recession 39. It can be learned that with Obamacare, __________. A. it is no longer easy for part-timers to get insurance B. employment is no longer a precondition to get insurance C. it is still challenging to get insurance for family members D. full-time employment is still essential for insurance. 40. The text mainly discusses____________. A. employment in the US B. part-timer classification C. insurance through Medicaid D. Obamacare‘s trouble Part B Directions： Read the following text and answer the questions by choosing the most suitable subheading from the list A-G for each numbered paragraph (41-45).There are two extra subheadings which you do not need to use. Make your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points) [A]You are not alone [B]Experience helps you grow [C]Pave your own unique path [D]Most of your fears are unreal [E]Think about the present moment [F]Don‘t fear responsibility for your life
[G]There are many things to be grateful for Some Old Truths to Help You Overcome Tough Times Unfortunately, life is not a bed of roses. We are going through life facing sad experiences. Moreover, we are grieving various kinds of loss: a friendship, romantic relationship or a house .Hard times may hold you down at what usually seems like the most inopportune time, but you should remember that they won‘t last forever. When our time of mourning is over, we press forward, stronger with a greater understanding and respect for life. Furthermore, these losses make us mature and eventually move us toward future opportunities for growth and happiness. I want to share these old truths I‘ve learned along the way. 41._______________________________ Fear is both useful and harmful. This normal human reaction is used to protect us by signaling danger and preparing us to deal with it. Unfortunately, people create inner barriers with a help of exaggerating fears. My favorite actor Will Smith once said, ―Fear is not real. It is a product of thoughts you create. Do not misunderstand me. Danger is very real. But fear is a choice.‖ I do completely agree that fears are just the product of our luxuriant imagination. 42.________________________________ If you are surrounded by problems and cannot stop thinking about the past, try to focus on the present moment. Many of us are weighed down by the past or anxious about the future. You may feel guilt over your past, but you are poisoning the present with the things and circumstances you cannot change. Value the present moment and remember how fortunate you are to be alive. Enjoy the beauty of the world around and keep the eyes open to see the possibilities before you. Happiness is not a point of future and not a moment from the past, but a mindset that can be designed into the present. 43.________________________________ Sometimes it is easy to feel bad because you are going through tough times. You can be easily caught up by life problems that you forget to pause and appreciate the things you have. Only strong people prefer to smile and value their life instead of crying and complaining about something. 44._______________________________ No matter how isolated you might feel and how serious the situation is, you should always remember that you are not alone. Try to keep in mind that almost everyone respects and wants to help you if you are trying to make a good change in your life, especially your dearest and nearest people. You may have a circle of friends who provide constant good humor, help and companionship. If you have no friends or relatives, try to participate in several online communities, full of people who are always willing to share advice and encouragement. 45._______________________________ Today many people find it difficult to trust their own opinion and seek balance by gaining objectivity from external sources. This way you devalue your opinion and show that you are incapable of managing your own life. When you are struggling to achieve something important you should believe in yourself and be sure that your decision is the best. You live in your skin, think your own thoughts, have your own values and make your own choices. Section III Translation 46. Directions: Translate the following text from English into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET 2. (15 points) Think about driving a route that‘s very familiar. It could be your commute to work, a trip into town or the way home. Whichever it is, you know every twist and turn like the back of your hand. On these sorts of trips it‘s easy
to zone out from the actual driving and pay little attention to the passing scenery. The consequence is that you perceive that the trip has taken less time than it actually has. This is the well-travelled road effect: people tend to underestimate the time it takes to travel a familiar route. The effect is caused by the way we allocate our attention. When we travel down a well-known route, because we don‘t have to concentrate much, time seems to flow more quickly. And afterwards, when we come to think back on it, we can‘t remember the journey well because we didn‘t pay much attention to it. So we assume it was shorter. Section IV Writing Part A 47. Directions: Suppose your university is going to host a summer camp for high school students. Write a notice (1) briefly introduce the camp activities, and (2) call for volunteers You should write about 100 words on the ANSWER SHEET. Do not use your name or the name of your university. Do not write your address. Part B 48. Directions: Write an essay based on the following chart. In your writing, your should (1) interpret the chart,and (2) give your comment. You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET.
2015 考研英语二答案 完型填空题 1 .C signal
2 .D much 3. C plugged 4. A message 5. C behind 6. A misinterpreted 7. B judged 8. D unfamiliar 9. B anxious 10. D turn 11.A dangerous 12. A hurt 13.B conversation 14. D passengers 15.C predict 16. D ride 17.A went through 18.C in fact 19.B since 20 B simple 阅读题答案 Text 1 答案 21. D offered greater relaxation than the workplace 22. B childless husbands 23. A they are both bread winners and housewives
24. C earnings 25. B division of labor at home is seldom clear-cut Text2 答案 26. C miss its original purpose 27. A the problem is solvable 28. C are in need offinancial support 29. D are inexperienced in handling issues at college 30. D colleges are partly responsible for the problem in question Text3 答案 31. A more emotional 32. C sports culture 33.D strengthen employee loyalty 34.A voices for working women 35. C companies find it to be fundamental Text4 36. B the increase of voluntary part-time jobs 37. C cannot get their hands on full-time jobs 38. B shows a general tendency of decline 39. B empolyment is no longer a precondition to get insureance 40.A 阅读新题型 41 .D Most of your fearsare unreal 42. E Think about the [resent moment 43.G There are many things to be grateful for
44.A You are not alone 45. C Pave your own unique path 翻译题 回想一下这样的经历：开车行驶在一条非常熟悉的道路上。这可能是你每天上下班的必经之路，可能 是进城的旅行，亦或是回家的道路。不管是哪一种，你都了解每一个屈折拐弯之处，就像熟悉自己手背上 的纹路一样。在这些所有类型的旅途中，很容易失去驾车的注意力，并且几乎不注意沿途的风景。结果， 比起这段路途实际需要的时间，你的感觉是花费的时间更少。 这就是经常旅行线路效应：人们往往低估了花费在一条熟悉的路线上的时间。 这种效应是由于我们分配注意力的方式引起的。 当我们旅行一条非常著名的路线时， 因为我们不是非 得注意太多，时间似乎流逝得更快。然后，当我们回忆起这段旅程时，因为我们没有花费太多的注意力， 因此我们对之记忆地不太清楚，所以我们认为这段旅行更为短途 作文答案 PART A 【参考范文 1】 Notice In order to enrich high school students‘ life in summer holid ay and the Students Union are going to expand the reputation of our university, The
host a summer camp in our school campus and volunteers are needed.
details about this summer camp and volunteer recruitment are listed as follows. Firstly, the summer camp will begin on September 1st and it will last theme of this summer camp is ―Better volunteers need to have a good activities. If you have any question or suggestion about this summer camp, possible. ABC University PART B 【参考范文 1】 The pie chart above presents the different proportion of residents‘ Spring Festival. To be specific, the consumption in a Chinese city during please contact us at 12345 as soon as including English-speaking contest, drama contest, sports meeting and for ten days. Secondly, the main
English, Better life‖ and there are various activities in this summer camp, dancing part and son on. Thirdly, of
command of English and be enthusiastic in organizing different of kinds
percentage of consumption on New Year‘s gifts, party, traffi c and others
is 40%, 20% , 20% and 20% respectively. Surprisingly, the pertinent figures seem to be, they are connected to one another closely.
number about gifts is 40%. Isolated as the
Undoubtedly, the purpose of the graph is to showcase the diversity What exactly contribute to this phenomenon? It‘s a advertisements of mass
of residents ‘ consumption during communication. pertinent
holidays in China, especially over-consumption on gifts as a frequent way of interpersonal
thought-provoking question. First and foremost, little and limit. Therefore, people, men and
media, such as radio, television and Internet, might be misleading. Plus, mounting numbers are spending too much on holiday gift which floods
action taken by the public to put an end to this trend might be women, old and young, in everywhere.
To sum up, there is an upward tendency for people these days to spend money on festival presents rather than other things, which I believe will not change in a short time. To reverse the trend is not a piece of cake, which requires a good awareness of consumption value and interpersonal communication. Only in this way can we have colorful festivals and relaxing times. 【评析】 (饼状图)我国某市民春节假期花销比例(新年礼物 40% ，交通 20% ，聚会吃饭 20% ，其他 20% )这 篇饼状图避开了热点话题，考察主题中规中矩，关于我国某城市居民开销花费问题(生活类话题)。考察的 形式是英语二从未考察过的饼状图(在 1997 年考研英语饼状图出现过一次)，如果事先准备不充分的考 生，很可能会有点恐慌。不过，在我个人的预测班讲义和最后的救命班的课件中已经交代了饼状图的描述 方式。 针对这篇文章，三个段落的写作分别如下： 第一段描述这个饼状图， 包括其中各自的数据组成， 并且可以将其中最大的一部分即新年礼物的数据 突出。最后再简要地交代一句，尽管数字看似孤立，但是数字之间紧密联系。 第二段的写法多种多样， 如果针对这种送新年礼物的风气进行评析， 可以作为一个负面话题来分析原 因或者举例子;也可以作文一个正面话题来谈论，谈一谈这种人际交往的形式--互送礼物 ，增强朋友家人 的感情;甚至可以作文一个中立话题来谈一谈假期开销在不同的方面，消费方式的多种多样。第三段的写 法就是传统地预测一下趋势，对这个事情简要评析一下，在对多姿多彩的社会和假期生活憧憬一下即可。 在单词的考察方面较难的单词也不过是居民(citizen , resident )和消费(consume, consumption )。其他的 单词就比较简单，包括聚会(party ,reunion) ，交通(traffic ) ，新年礼物(gifts )，其他(others ).
2014 年全国硕士研究生入学考试英语(二)试题 Section I Use of English Directions:
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points) Thinner isn‘t always better. A number of studies have __1___ that normal-weight people are in fact at higher risk of some diseases compared to those who are overweight. And there are health conditions for which being overweight is actually ___2___. For example, heavier women are less likely to develop calcium deficiency than thin women. ___3___ among the elderly, being somewhat overweight is often an ___4___ of good health. Of even greater ___5___ is the fact that obesity turns out to be very difficult to define. It is often defined ___6___ body mass index, or BMI. BMI ___7__ body mass divided by the square of height. An adult with a BMI of 18 to 25 is often considered to be normal weight. Between 25 and 30 is overweight. And over 30 is considered obese. Obesity, ___8___,can be divided into moderately obese, severely obese, and very severely obese. While such numerical standards seem 9 , they are not. Obesity is probably less a matter of weight than body fat. Some people with a high BMI are in fact extremely fit, 10 others with a low BMI may be in poor 11 .For example, many collegiate and professional football players 12 as obese, though their percentage body fat is low. Conversely, someone with a small frame may have high body fat but a 13 BMI. Today we have a(an) _14 _ to label obesity as a disgrace.The overweight are sometimes_15_in the media with their faces covered. Stereotypes _16_ with obesity include laziness, lack of will power,and lower prospects for success.Teachers,employers,and health professionals have been shown to harbor biases against the obese. _17_very young children tend to look down on the overweight, and teasing about body build has long been a problem in schools. 1. [A] denied [B] conduced [C] doubled [D] ensured 2. [A] protective [B] dangerous [C] sufficient [D]troublesome 3. [A] Instead [B] However [C] Likewise [D] Therefore 4. [A] indicator [B] objective [C] origin [D] example 5. [A] impact [B] relevance [C] assistance [D] concern 6. [A] in terms of [B] in case of [C] in favor of [D] in of 7. [A] measures [B] determines [C] equals [D] modifies 8. [A] in essence [B] in contrast [C] in turn [D] in part 9. [A] complicated [B] conservative [C] variable [D] straightforward 10. [A] so [B] unlike [C] since [D] unless 11. [A] shape [B] spirit [C] balance [D] taste
12. [A] start [B] quality [C] retire [D] stay 13. [A] strange [B] changeable [C] normal [D] constant 14. [A] option [B] reason [C] opportunity [D] tendency 15. [A] employed [B] pictured [C] imitated [D] monitored 16. [A] [B] combined [C] settled [D] associated 17. [A] Even [B] Still [C] Yet [D] Only 18. [A] despised [B] corrected [C] ignored [D] grounded 19. [A] discussions [B] businesses [C] policies [D] studies 20. [A] for [B] against [C] with [D] without Section II Reading Comprehension Part A Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET. (40 points) Text 1 What would you do with 590m? This is now a question for Gloria Mackenzie, an 84-year-old widow who recently emerged from her small, tin-roofed house in Florida to collect the biggest undivided lottery jackpot in history. If she hopes her new-found for tune will yield lasting feelings of fulfillment, she could do worse than read Happy Money by Elizabeth Dumn and Michael Norton. These two academics use an array of behavioral research to show that the most rewarding ways to spend money can be counterintuitive. Fantasies of great wealth often involve visions of fancy cars and extravagant homes. Yet satisfaction with these material purchases wears off fairly quickly what was once exciting and new becomes old-hat; regret creeps in. It is far better to spend money on experiences, say Ms Dumn and Mr Norton, like interesting trips, unique meals or even going to the cinema. These purchases often become more valuable with time-as stories or memories-particularly if they involve feeling more connected to others. This slim volume is packed with tips to help wage slaves as well as lottery winners get the most "happiness bang for your buck." It seems most people would be better off if they could shorten their commutes to work, spend more time with friends and family and less of it watching television (something the average American spends a whopping two months a year doing, and is hardly jollier for it).Buying gifts or giving to charity is often more pleasurable than purchasing things for oneself, and luxuries are most enjoyable when they are consumed
sparingly. This is apparently the reason MacDonald's restricts the availability of its popular McRib - a marketing trick that has turned the pork sandwich into an object of obsession. Readers of ―HappyMoney‖ are clearly a privileged lot, anxious about fulfillment, not hunger.Money may not quite buy happiness, but people in wealthier countries are generally happier than those in poor ones. Yet the link between feeling good and spending money on others can be seen among rich and poor people around the world, and scarcity enhances the pleasure of most things for most people. Not everyone will agree with the authors‘ policy ideas, which range from mandating more holiday time to reducing ta x incentives for American homebuyers. But most people will come away from this book believing it was money well spent 。 21.According to Dumn and Norton,which of the following is the most rewarding purchase? [A]A big house [B]A special tour [C]A stylish car [D]A rich meal 22.The author‘s attitude toward Americans‘ watching TV is [A]critical [B]supportive [C]sympathetic [D]ambiguous 23.Macrib is mentioned in paragraph 3 to show that [A]consumers are sometimes irrational [B]popularity usually comes after quality [C]marketing tricks are after effective [D]rarity generally increases pleasure 24.According to the last paragraph,Happy Money [A]has left much room for readers‘criticism [B]may prove to be a worthwhile purchase
[C]has predicted a wider income gap in the us [D]may give its readers a sense of achievement 25.This text mainly discusses how to [A]balance feeling good and spending money [B]spend large sums of money won in lotteries [C]obtain lasting satisfaction from money spent [D]become more reasonable in spending on luxuries Text 2 An article in Scientific America has pointed out that empirical research says that, actually, you think you‘re more beautiful than you are. We have a deep-seated need to feel good about ourselves and we naturally employ a number of self-enhancing strategies to research into what the call the ―above average effect‖, or ―illusory superiority‖, and shown that, for example, 70% of us rate ourselves as above average in leadership, 93% in driving and 85% at getting on well with others—all obviously statistical impossibilities. We rose tint our memories and put ourselves into self-affirming situations. We become defensive when criticized, and apply negative stereotypes to others to boost our own esteem, we stalk around thinking we‘re hot stuff. Psychologist and behavioral scientist Nicholas Epley oversaw a key studying into self-enhancement and attractiveness. Rather that have people simply rate their beauty compress with others, he asked them to identify an original photogragh of themselves‘ from a lineup including versions that had been altered to appear more and less attractive. Visual recognition, reads the study, is ―an automatic psychological process occurring rapidly and intuitively with little or no apparent conscious deliberation‖. If the subjects quickly chose a false ly flattering image- which must did- they genuinely believed it was really how they looked. Epley found no significant gender difference in responses. Nor was there any evidence that, those who self-enhance the must (that is, the participants who thought the most positively doctored picture were real) were doing so to make up for profound insecurities. In fact those who thought that the images higher up the attractiveness scale were real directly corresponded with those who showed other makers for having higher self-esteem. ―I don‘t think the findings that we having have are any evidence of personal delusion‖, says Epley. ―It‘s a reflection simply of people generally thinking well of themselves‘. If you are depressed, you won‘t be self-enhancing. Knowing the results of Epley ?s study,it makes sense that why people heat photographs of themselves Viscerally-on one level, they don‘t even recognise the person in the picture as themselves, Facebook therefore ,is a self-enhancer‘s paradise,where people can share only the most flattering photos, the cream of their wit ,style ,beauty, intellect and lifestyle it‘s not that people‘s profiles are dishonest,says catalina toma of Wiscon—Madison university ,‖but they portray an idealized version of themselves. 26. According to the first paragraph, social psychologist have found that ______.
[A] our self-ratings are unrealistically high [B] illusory superiority is baseless effect [C] our need for leadership is unnatural [D] self-enhancing strategies are ineffective 27. Visual recognition is believed to be people‘s______ [A] rapid watching [B] conscious choice [C] intuitive response [D] automatic self-defence 28. Epley found that people with higher self-esteem tended to______ [A] underestimate their insecurities [B] believe in their attractiveness [C] cover up their depressions [D] oversimplify their illusions 29.The word ―Viscerally‖(Line 2,para.5) is closest in meaning to_____. [A]instinctively [B]occasionally [C]particularly [D]aggressively 30. It can be inferred that Facebook is self-enhancer‘s paradise because people can _____. [A]present their dishonest profiles [B]define their traditional life styles [C]share their intellectual pursuits [D]withhold their unflattering sides
Text 3 Crying is hardly an activity encouraged by society. Tears, be they of sorrow, anger, on joy, typically make Americans feel uncomforuble and embarrassed. The shedder of tears is likely to apologize, even when a devastating (毁灭性的) tragedy was the provocation. The observer of tears is likely to do everything possible to put an end to the emotional outpouring. But judging form recent studies of crying behavior, links between illness and crying and the chemical composition of tears, both those responses to tears are often inappropriate and may even be counterproductive. Humans are the only animals definitely known to shed emotional tears. Since evolution has given rise to few, if any, purposeless physiological responset, it is logical to assume that crying has one or more functions that enhance survival. Although some observers have suggested that crying is a way to clicit assistance form others (as a crying baby might from its mother), the shedding of tears is hardly necessary to get help. Vocal cries would have been quite enough, more likely than tears to gain attention, So, it appears, there must be something special about tears themselves. Indeed, the new studies suggest that emotional tears may play a direct role in alleviating stress, University of Minnesota researchers who are studying the chemical composition of tears have recently isolated two important chemicals from emotional tears. Both chemicals are found only in tears that are shed in response to emotion. Tears shed because of exposure to =cut onion would contain no such substance. Researchers at several other institutions are investigating the usefulness of tears as a means of diagnosing human ills and monitoring drugs. At Tulane University’s Teat Analysis Laboratory Dr.Peter Kastl and his colleagues report that they can use tears to detect drug abuse and exposure to medication(药物), to determine whether a contact lens fits properly of why it may be uncomfortable, to study the causes of “dry eye” syndrome and the effects of eye surgery, and perhaps even to measure exposure to environmental pollutants.
At Columbia University Dt.Liasy Faris and colleagues are studying tears for clues to the diagnosis of diseases away from the eyes. Tears can be obtained painlessly without invading the body and only tiny amounts are needed to perform highly refined analyses. 31. It is known from the first paragraph that ________. A) shedding tears gives unpleasant feelings to American B) crying may often imitate people or even result in tragedy C) crying usually wins sympathy from other people D) one who sheds tears in public will be blamed 32. What does “both those responses to tears”(Line 6, Para, 1) refer to? A) Crying out of sorrow and shedding tears for happiness. B) The embarrassment and unpleasant sensation of the observers. C) The tear shedder’s apology and the observer’s effort to stop the crying. D) Linking illness with crying and finding the chemical composition of tears. 33. “Counterproductive” (Lines 6-7, Para,1) very probably means “________” . A) having no effect at all B) leading to tension C) producing disastrous impact D) harmful to health 34. What does the author say about crying? A) It is a pointless physiological response to the environment. B) It must have a role to play in man’s survival.
C) It is meant to get attention and assistance. D) It usually produces the desired effect. 35. What can be inferred from the new studies of tears? A) Emotional tears have the function of reducing stress. B) Exposure to excessive medication may increase emotional tears. C) Emotional tears can give rise to “dry eye” syndrome in some cases. D) Environmental pollutants can induce the shedding of emotional tears.
Text 4 When the government talks about infrastructure contributing to the economy the focus is usually on roads, railways, broadband and energy. Housing is seldom mentioned. Why is that? To some extent the housing sector must shoulder the blame. We have not been good at communicating the real value that housing can contribute to economic growth. Then there is the scale of the typical housing project. It is hard to shove for attention among multibillion-pound infrastructure project, so it is inevitable that the attention is focused elsewhere. But perhaps the most significant reason is that the issue has always been so politically charged. Nevertheless, the affordable housing situation is desperate. Waiting lists increase all the time and we are simply not building enough new homes. The comprehensive spending review offers an opportunity for the government to help rectify this. It needs to put historical prejudices to one side and take some steps to address our urgent housing need. There are some indications that it is preparing to do just that. The communities minister, Don Foster, has hinted that George Osborne, Chancellor of the Exchequer, may introduce more flexibility to the current cap on the amount that local authorities can borrow against their housing stock debt. Evidence shows that 60,000 extra new homes could be built over the next five years if the cap were lifted, increasing GDP by 0.6%. Ministers should also look at creating greater certainty in the rental environment, which would have a significant impact on the ability of registered providers to fund new developments from revenues. But it is not just down to the government. While these measures would be welcome in the short term, we must face up to the fact that the existing ? 4.5bn programme of grants to fund new affordable housing, set to expire in 2015,is unlikely to be extended beyond then. The Labour party has recently announced that it will retain
a large part of the coalition‘s spending plans if returns to power. The housing sector needs to accept that we are very unlikely to ever return to era of large-scale public grants. We need to adjust to this changing climate. 36. The author believes that the housing sector__ [A] has attracted much attention [B] involves certain political factors [C] shoulders too much responsibility [D] has lost its real value in economy 37. It can be learned that affordable housing has__ [A] increased its home supply [B] offered spending opportunities [C] suffered government biases [D] disappointed the government 38. According to Paragraph 5,George Osborne may_______. [A] allow greater government debt for housing [B] stop local authorities from building homes [C] prepare to reduce housing stock debt [D] release a lifted GDP growth forecast 39.It can be inferred that a stable rental environment would_______. [A]lower the costs of registered providers [B]lessen the impact of government interference [C]contribute to funding new developments [D]relieve the ministers of responsibilities 40.The author believes that after 2015,the government may______. [A]implement more policies to support housing
[B]review the need for large-scale public grants [C]renew the affordable housing grants programme [D]stop generous funding to the housing sector Section III Translation Directions: Translate the following text from English into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET 2. (15 points) Most people would define optimism as endlessly happy, with a glass that‘s perpetually half fall. But that‘s exactly the kind of false deerfulness that positive psychologists wouldn‘t recommend. ―Healthy optimists means being in touch with reality.‖ says Tal Ben-Shahar, a Harvard professor, According to Ben- Shalar,realistic optimists are these who make the best of things that happen, but not those who believe everything happens for the best. Ben-Shalar uses three optimistic exercisers. When he feels down-sag, after giving a bad lecture-he grants himself permission to be human. He reminds himself that mot every lecture can be a Nobel winner; some will be less effective than others. Next is reconstruction, He analyzes the weak lecture, leaning lessons, for the future about what works and what doesn‘t. Finally, there is perspective, which involves acknowledging that in the ground scheme of life, one lecture really doesn‘t matter. Section IV Writing Part A 47. Directions: Suppose you are going to study abroad and share an apartment with John, a local student. Write him to email to 1)tell him about your living habits, and 2)ask for advice about living there. You should write about 100 words on answer sheet. Do not use your own name. Part B 48. Directions: Write your essay on ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)
You should interpret the chart, and give your comments. You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET. (15points)
2014 年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语(二)试题解析 Section I Use of English 1、 【答案】B concluded 【解析】 题干中，一系列的研究已经_____，事实上，正常体重的人的患病风险要高于超重的人。根 据句义，后面的部分实际上是研究的结论，因此 concluded 符合题意，其他选项 denied(否认)与意义相反， doubled(翻倍)与题意较远，ensured(确保)不符合题意，因为研究不能确保后面的事 实，只能得出后面的 事实作为结论。所以正确答案为 B。 2、 【答案】A protective 【解析】 题干中，对于某些健康情况，超重事实上是有_____。根据前文研究的结论，超重能减少罹 患疾病的风险，说明超重具有一定的保护作用。Dangerous 和文章意思相反，sufficient 表示充足， troublesome 表示有麻烦，不符合题意，所以正确答案为 A。 3、 【答案】C likewise
【解析】第三句话中，较重的女人患缺钙的比例低于较瘦的女人。_____，在老年人中，一定程度上 超重……。 需要填入的是和前半句表示顺接的词 语。 A 选项 instead 表示逆接的句意关系， B 选项 however 也表示逆接，D 选项 therefore 表示因此，只有 C 选项 likewise 意为同样 地;也，而且。因此正确答案为 C。 4、 【答案】A indicator 【解析】本句话中，_____，一定程度上超重，经常是健康的_____。A 选项，表示指示器，指标。B 选项 objective 表示客观;C 选 项 origin 表示来源，D 选项 example 表示例子。根据前面的文章内容，已经 明确指出超重代表了健康，因此超重是健康的指标。因此正确答案为 A。 5、 【答案】D concern 【解析】本句话的句意是，需要更加_____是，很难对肥胖加以定义。A、impact(印象);B、relevance(相 关性);C、 assistance(辅助);D、concern(关注)。前文已经说到肥胖事实上有利健康，但是又面临一个问题， 到底如何去定义肥胖，因此需要更加关 注的是对肥的定义，其他选项均不符合题意，所以正确答案为 D。 6、 【答案】A in terms of 【解析】题干中,肥胖经常______体质指数，或称为 BMI 来定义。A、in terms of ，根据……，就…… 而言。B、In case of 表示在某种情况下， C、in favor of 表示赞成，以……来取代，D、in respect of，关 于……。因此正确答案为 A。在医学研究和临床测试中经常使用 BMI 作为衡量受试者健康的重要指标， 希望考生能够记住这一背景知识，方便日后做题。 7、 【答案】C equals 【解析】本题题干中 BMI_____体重除以身高的平方，这里是用文字叙述了 BMI 指数得出的方法， 也就是一个数学公式，所以 equal 符合题 意。A measure(测量)、B determine 表示确定;D modify(修订)。 句义就是 BMI 等于体重除以身高的平方。 8、 【答案】C in turn 【解析】本题题干中，肥胖_____能够分成中度肥胖、重度肥胖和极度肥胖。A、in essence(事实上、 实际上); B、in contrast (相反地);C、in turn(依次); D、in part (部分地)。本句是将肥胖依次分级，所以正确 答案为 C。 9、 【答案】D straightforward 【解析】题干中，相比之下，这样的数字标准看起来_____，实际上不是的。A、complicated (复杂);B、 conservative(保守)、 C、 variable(可变的);D、 straightforward(直截了当);这里的数字标准指 的就是肥胖指数， 肥胖指数分为三类，而且算法比较简单，所以 A 复杂不正确，B 选项保守，用于描述一种数学公式，不 恰当，一名患者或一名受试者的 BMI 一般 是确定的，因此可变的也不符合题意，D 选项 straightforward 表示直截了当，符合题意，因此正确答案为 D。 10、 【答案】B while
【解析】本句中，一些人有很高的 BMI，实际上身材正好，_____其他人有较低的 BMI 指数，可能 _____。从前半句我们可以看出，有些人 的 BMI 指数很高，应该属于体重肥胖的人，事实上身材正好， 这里说明的是反常的现象， 后半句是其他人的 BMI 指数较低， 而_____较差。 A、 so(所 以);B、 while(而);C、 since(因为);D、unless(除非)四个选项中只有 while 有转折的含义，其他选项均不符合题意，所以正确 答 案为 B。 11、 【答案】A shape 【解析】本题可以简化为：Some … are fit, while others … may be in poor .不难看出，前后意义相反， 且 fit(体型健康)与 in poor 对应，与之最相关是 A shape(外形)，故为正确答案。"精神"、"均衡"、"品味" 都相差比较远，可以排除。 12、 【答案】B qualify 【解析】本题顺应前文意义：有一些人体型很好，有些人体型体型肥胖。接下来举例说有些专业足球 运动员 是肥胖的，"开始"不符;"处在"也不符合句意;"退休"内容无关;"被认为"符合句意，正确。 13、 【答案】C normal 【解析】本句不难理解：有些人脂肪过高，但是 BMI 却 。所需词汇明显是正向的，排除 A、B;D 属 中性，且不符合句意，C(正常的)契合，为正确答案。 14、 【答案】D tendency 【解析】本题解题关键是后半句：to stigmatize obesity(抵毁肥胖)，作为划线部分的后置定语，将四个 选项"选择""理由""机会""倾向"代入划线处，最符合句意的是 D(倾向)。后面一句也进 一步证实了(出现在 媒体中的肥胖者脸都是打了马赛马的)。 15、 【答案】C pictured 【解析】空格所在句提到了媒体，根据语境，上句讲到当今我们都污蔑肥胖，所以本句的意思应该是 媒体污蔑肥胖，四个选项中，跟媒体相关系的词汇只有 C picture 意思为刻画，描写，描述。 16、 【答案】D associated 【解析】空格所在句的意思是与肥胖_____的原型包括懒惰，缺乏意志力，对成功的期望值不高。空 格后面提到的懒惰， 缺乏意志力和对成功的期望 值不高都是与肥胖相关的表现， 分析四个选项， A. 与。 。 。 相比;B 与。 。 。相结合;C. 和。 。 。和解;都不符合题意，只有 D 与。 。 。相联系，相关符合句意。 17、 【答案】A even 【解析】空格所在句的意思是_____小孩子蔑视超重，而且对身材的嘲笑一直是学校的一个问题。本 空格缺少一个副词，根据语境记忆常识，此处应该填入表示让步关系的词汇，分析四个选项，只有 A even 即使符合题意。 18、 【答案】D grounded
【解析】根据语境，空前讲到对肥胖的负面态度，空后讲到对健康的关注， 激发一批反肥胖的____。本句没有出现任何转折词，说明空前后所表达的意思是一致的，反对肥胖， 是基于对健康的关注，分析四个选项，能够表达此意思的词汇，只有选项 D grounded,意思是基于。 19、 【答案】D policies 【解析】解答此题需要联系空格后面紧跟着的句子。空后的句子出现了一系列表示同一个语义场的词 汇，比如 hospital system ; ban; many employers institute, 指向的意思是一个系统中所出台的政策的问题， 浏览四个选项，D 选项 policies 符合题意，直接入选。 20、 【答案】B against 【解析】本段的主题是反对肥胖，本句话属于细节的句子，用来支持这个主题，空格所在句讲到米歇 尔奥巴马已经发起了一个高知名度的_____儿童 肥胖， 甚至告诉奥兹博士， 它代表了我们国家最大的安全 威胁。空格中缺少词汇应该含有反对，反抗的意思，纵观四个选项，只有 B against 符合题意。 Section II Reading Comprehension Part A Text 1 21、【答案】B A special tour 【解析】细节题。答案定位在第二段的"it is far better to spend money on experiences…like interesting trips…"，意思是"花钱消费在经历方面更好……，比如说有趣的旅行……"，由此可以得知答案是 B 选项" 一场特别的旅行"。 22、【答案】A critical 【解析】观点态度题。答案定位在第三段的"something the average American spends a whopping two months a year doing, and is hardly jollier for it"，意思是"普通美国人一年花两个月的时间看电视，并且看电 视几乎不可能更愉快"，因此可以得知作者对于看电视的态度是 A 选项"批判的"。 23、【答案】D rarity generally increases pleasure 【解析】观点例证题。答案定位在第三段，文章中提到 Mc Rib 这个例子，用这个例子证明的论点是 "luxuries are most enjoyable when they are consumed sparingly"，大意是"有节制地消费奢侈品最令人愉悦"， D 选项正是这句论点句的同义替换。 24、【答案】B may prove to be a worthwhile purchase 【解析】细节题。答案定位在最后一段的最后一句"most people will come away from this book believing it was money well spent"，大意是"大多数人看完这本书后，认为物有所值"，因此可以推知 B 选项是正确 答案。
25、【答案】A balance feeling good and spending money 【解析】主旨题。纵观全文可知，全文主要谈论花钱消费和心情愉悦之间的关系，因此答案定位在 A 选项。 Text 2 26、【答案】A our self-ratings are unrealistically high 【解析】题目问 "根据第一段，社会心理学家发现了什么?"对应于文章第一 段第三句"社会心理学家 对所谓的?高于均数效应‘或者?虚幻的优越感‘进行大量的研究，发现我们中 70%的人认为自己的领导力在 平均水平之上……—这些数 据明显都是不可能的。"由此可知，我们对自己评价过高。故答案为[A] our self-ratings are unrealistically high。 27、【答案】C intuitive response 【解析】题目问"视觉识别被认为是人们的什么?"对应于文章第三段第三句"视觉识别是自动的心理过 程，这个过程依靠直觉快速发生，且并不是故意的。"由此可知，视觉识别被认为是人们的直觉反应。故 答案为[C] intuitive response。 28、【答案】B believe in their attractiveness 【解析】题目问"Epley 发现有更高自尊的人倾向于怎样"。对应到第四段，第二句讲到"没有证据显示 那些自我提升最多的人这样做是为了掩饰自 己的不安全，接着讲到：事实上，那些认为自己的形象高于 吸引力标准的人就是那些表现出更高自尊的人，故答案为[B] believe in their attractiveness。 29、【答案】[A] instinctively 【解析】题目问"最接近 viscerally 的意思的是?"。对应到第五段，viscerally 所在句讲到"许多人讨厌 照片中的自己，从某种 层面上说，他们甚至不承认照片中的人是他们自己。"而下文又讲到 facebook 是 自我拔高者的天堂，在那里人们可以分享最满意的的照片。"由此可 知，viscerally 在本句中是"本质上地" 意思，故答案为[A] instinctively。 30、【答案】[D]withhold their unflattering sides 【解析】题干问"我们可以推理出脸书(facebook)之所以是一个自我拔高者的天堂，是因为人们可以做 什么?"对应于文章最后一段的第二 句，该句讲到"在脸书(facebook)中，人们可以分享最满意的照片。"下 文接着讲到"不是人们不诚实， 而是人们展示了自己最理想的形象。 "故答案为 [D]withhold their unflattering sides。 Text 4 36、【答案】[B] involves certain political factors 【解析】 根据本题题干中的关键词 housing sector 可以对应到文章的第二段， 中间说的很多，我们 注意到最后有 but 出现， 最后应该是作者真正想要表达的观点， 另外这里用了 the most significant 最高级，
所以最后这个是最重要的一个原因，politically charged 和选项 B 的 political factors 有对应关系，故选 B involves certain political factors。 A 项的吸引注意没有提及，C 项的承担太多责任，原文说的 shoulder the blame，D 项说的丧失价值， 原文说的是不善于表明真正价值，两者不一致，故排除。 37、【答案】[C] suffered government biases 【解析】经济适用房曾受到政府的偏见。答案定位到文章第三段最后一句话 It needs to put historical prejudices to one side and take some steps to address our urgent housing need. 政府需要把历史的偏见放在一 边并且采取一些策略解决我们迫切的住房需求。 Suffered 是过去式， 是对于原文 history 的同义反复， biases 是对原文 prejudices 的同义反复。 38、【答案】[A] allow greater government debt for housing 【解析】根据人名 George Osborne 定位得知，此人将会让当地政府用来偿还建房借贷的限额变得更 加宽松，并且在借贷限额放宽的情况下，将会另有 60,000 所房屋在未来的五年 中建立，并由此拉动国内 生产总值的百分之零点六。 因此 A(允许更大的政府的建房借贷)是正确的， 而 B(禁止当地政府建房)， C(准 备减少建房借 贷)，D(发布国内生产总值增长的预报)都与原文意思不符。 39、【答案】[C] contribute to funding new developments 【解析】推断题。根据文章题干定位到第五段，题干考察的是对稳定的租赁环境的理解。A 项的意思 是"减少注册供应者的成本"，其中"成本一词"并 未在文中出现，属于无中生有。B 项的意思是"减少政府 接介入的影响"，其中"政府介入"并未在文中出现，属于无中生有。B 项的意思是"有助于为新发展提供 资 金支持"，其中"为新发展提供资金支持"对应文中的"fund new developments";C 选项中的"contribute to"(意 思是有助于)对英文中的 have a significant impact(意思是有重要影响)，符合正解的同义复现原则，所以是 正确选项。 40、【答案】[D] stop generous funding to the housing sector 【解析】推断题。根据题干定位到最后一段第三行。考察的是 2015 年以后政府的可能性动作。A 项 的意思是"推行更多的政策来支持住房"与原文意 义相反。 B 项的意思是重新审视大规模公共拨款的需求， 与原文倒数第二段意义相违背。 C 项的意思是更新可负担的住房拨款项目并没有提到 renew 一词。 D项 的 意思是停止对住房部门的大额资助，与原文的倒数第二句相匹配，故为正确选项。 Section III Translation 46、 【参考译文】 大多数人愿意把乐观定义为无尽的欢乐， 就像一只总是装着半杯水的杯子。 但那是一种绝不会为积极 心理学家所推荐的虚假快乐。哈佛大学的 Tal Ben-Shahar 教授说，―健康的乐观主义，意味着要处于现实 之中。‖在 Ben-Shahar 看来，现实的乐观主义者，会尽最大努力做好一件事，而不是相信每件事都会有最 好的结果。
Ben-Shahar 会进行三种乐观方面的练习。比如说，当他进行了一次糟糕的演讲，感到心情郁闷的时 候，他会告诉自己这是人之常情。他会提醒自己：并不是每一次演讲都可以获 得诺贝尔获，总会有一些 演讲比其它演讲效果差。接着是重塑，他分析了这个效果不好的演讲，并且从那些起作用和不起作用的演 讲中吸取教训为将来做准备。最 后，需要有这样一种观点，那就是承认，在广阔的生命当中，一次演讲 根本算不上什么。 Section IV Writing Part A 47. Directions: Suppose you are going to study abroad and share an apartment with John, a local student, write him an email to 1) tell him about your living habits, and 2) ask for advice about living there Dear John, I am Li Ming who will go to study in your university and live together with you in one department. Now I am writing this letter to tell you some of my habits and ask you for some suggestions to adapt myself there. To begin with, I usually get up early in the morning at six o‘clock and then go out to do some exercise. To continue, I would like to spend my spare time in reading in the library. Meanwhile, I wonder if you could be so kind to offer me some proposals on how to get used to the life there. I am looking forward to seeing you soon and wish everything goes well. Yours sincerely, Li Ming Part B 48. Directions: Directions: Write an essay based on the following chart. In your essay, you should 1) interpret the chart, and 2) give your comments.
You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points) Writing B What is clearly presented in the above chart is the different numbers of urban residents and rural population among 1990,2000 and 2010.The number of urban residents climbed steadily from 300 million in 1990 to 660 million or so in 2010， while rural population decreased slightly from about 820 million to 680 million or so in the same period. It is not difficult to come up with some possible factors accounting for this trend. On the one hand, with the rapid development of economy and society, people in mounting numbers crowd into cities in search of employment, a decent living and the excitement of urban life recently. On the other hand, the economy in the rural districts is comparative less developed and thus the opportunity to make money and pursue their future is as well lean. As a result, an increasing number of folks are trying to escape this destiny by flocking into the urban areas. Given the analyses above, I firmly believe that such established trend will surely continue for quite a while in the forthcoming years and due importance should be attached to this evident situation.
2013 年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试 英语（二）试题
Section I Use of English
Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word （s） for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1.（10 points） Given the advantages of electronic money, you might think that we would move quickly to the cashless society in which all payments are made electronically.1, a true cashless society is probably not around the corner. Indeed, predictions of such a society have been2for two decades but have not yet come to fruition. For example, Business Week predicted in 1975 that electronic means of payment ―would soon revol utionize the very3of money itself,‖ only to 4itself several years later. Why has the movement to a cashless society been so5in coming? Although e?money might be more convenient and may be more efficient than a payments system based on
paper, several factors work6the disappearance of the paper system. First, it is very7to set up the computer, card reader, and telecommunications networks necessary to make electronic money the8form of payment. Second, paper checks have the advantage that they9receipts, something that many consumers are unwilling to10. Third, the use of paper checks gives consumers several days of ―float‖—it takes several days11a check is cashed and funds are12from the issuer?s account, which means that the writer of the check can earn interest on the funds in the meantime.13electronic payments are immediate, they eliminate the float for the consumer. Fourth, electronic means of payment may14security and privacy concerns. We often hear media reports that an unauthorized hacker has been able to access a computer database and to alter information15there. The fact that this is not an16occurrence means that dishonest persons might be able to access bank accounts in electronic payments systems and17from someone else?s accounts. The18of this type of fraud is no easy task, and a new field of computer science is developing to19security issues. A further concern is that the use of electronic means of payment leaves an electronic20that contains a large amount of personal data on buying habits. There are worries that government, employers, and marketers might be able to access these data, thereby violating our privacy.
1. ［A］ However ［B］ Moreover ［C］ Therefore ［D］ Otherwise
2. ［A］ off ［B］ back ［C］ over ［D］ around
3. ［A］ power ［B］ concept ［C］ history ［D］ role
4. ［A］ reward
［B］ resist ［C］ resume ［D］ reverse
5. ［A］ silent ［B］ sudden ［C］ slow ［D］ steady
6. ［A］ for ［B］ against ［C］ with ［D］ on
7. ［A］ imaginative ［B］ expensive ［C］ sensitive ［D］ productive
8. ［A］ similar ［B］ original ［C］ temporary ［D］ dominant
9. ［A］ collect ［B］ provide ［C］ copy ［D］ print
10. ［A］ give up ［B］ take over
［C］ bring back ［D］ pass down
11. ［A］ before ［B］ after ［C］ since ［D］ when
12. ［A］ kept ［B］ borrowed ［C］ released ［D］ withdrawn
13. ［A］ Unless ［B］ Until ［C］ Because ［D］ Though
14. ［A］ hide ［B］ express ［C］ raise ［D］ease
15. ［A］ analyzed ［B］ shared ［C］ stored ［D］ displayed
16. ［A］ unsafe ［B］ unnatural ［C］ uncommon
17. ［A］ steal ［B］ choose ［C］ benefit ［D］ return
18. ［A］ consideration ［B］ prevention ［C］ manipulation ［D］ justification
19. ［A］ cope with ［B］ fight against ［C］ adapt to ［D］ call for
20. ［A］ chunk ［B］ chip ［C］ path ［D］ trail
Section II Reading Comprehension
Part A Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.（40 points） Text 1 In an essay entitled ―Making It in America,‖ the author Adam D avidson relates a joke from cotton country
about just how much a modern textile mill has been automated: The average mill has only two employees today, ―a man and a dog. The man is there to feed the dog, and the dog is there to keep the man away from the machines.‖ Davidson?s article is one of a number of pieces that have recently appeared making the point that the reason we have such stubbornly high unemployment and declining middle ?class incomes today is also because of the advances in both globalization and the information technology revolution, which are more rapidly than ever replacing labor with machines or foreign worker. In the past, workers with average skills, doing an average job ，could earn an average lifestyle. But, today, average is officially over. Being average just won?t earn you what it used to. It can?t when so many more employers have so much more access to so much more above average cheap foreign labor, cheap robotics, cheap software, cheap automation and cheap genius. Therefore, everyone needs to find their extra—their unique value contribution that makes them stand out in whatever is their field of employment. Yes, new technology has been eating jobs forever, and always will. But there?s been an acceleration. As Davidson notes, ― In the 10 years ending in 2009, ［U.S.］ factories shed workers so fast that they erased almost all the gains of the previous 70 years; roughly one out of every three manufacturing jobs —about 6 million in total—disappeared.‖ There will always be changed—new jobs, new products, new services. But the one thing we know for sure is that with each advance in globalization and the I.T. revolution, the best jobs will require workers to have more and better education to make themselves above average. In a world where average is officially over, there are many things we need to do to support employment, but nothing would be more important than passing some kind of G.I.Bill for the 21st century that ensures that every American has access to post?high school education.
21.The joke in Paragraph 1 is used to illustrate. ［A］ the impact of technological advances ［B］ the alleviation of job pressure ［C］ the shrinkage of textile mills ［D］ the decline of middle?class incomes
22.According to Paragraph 3, to be a successful employee, one has to. ［A］ work on cheap software
［B］ ask for a moderate salary ［C］ adopt an average lifestyle ［D］ contribute something unique
23.The quotation in Paragraph 4 explains that. ［A］ gains of technology have been erased ［B］ job opportunities are disappearing at a high speed ［C］ factories are making much less money than before ［D］ new jobs and services have been offered
24.According to the author, to reduce unemployment, the most important is. ［A］ to accelerate the I.T. revolution ［B］ to ensure more education for people ［C］ to advance economic globalization ［D］ to pass more bills in the 21st century
25.Which of the following would be the most appropriate title for the text? ［A］ New Law Takes Effect ［B］ Technology Goes Cheap ［C］ Average Is Over ［D］ Recession Is Bad
Text 2 A century ago, the immigrants from across the Atlantic included settlers and sojourners. Along with the many folks looking to make a permanent home in the United States came those who had no intention to stay, and who would make some money and go home. Between 1908 and 1915, about 7 million people arrived while about 2 million departed. About a quarter of all Italian immigrants, for example, eventually returned to Italy for good. They even had an affectionate nickname, ―uccelli di passaggio,‖ birds of passage. Today, we are much more rigid about immigrants. We divide newcomers into two categories: legal or illegal, good or bad. We hail them as Americans in the making, or brand them as aliens to be kicked out. That framework has contributed mightily to our broken immigration system and the long political paralysis over how to fix it. We
don?t need more categories, but we need to change the way we think about categories. We need to look beyond strict definitions of legal and illegal. To start, we can recognize the new birds of passage, those living and thriving in the gray areas. We might then begin to solve our immigration challenges. Crop pickers, violinists, construction workers, entrepreneurs, engineers, home health?care aides and physicists are among today?s birds of passage. They are energetic participants in a global economy driven by the flow of work, money and ideas. They prefer to come and go as opportunity calls them. They can manage to have a job in one place and a family in another. With or without permission, they straddle laws, jurisdictions and identities with ease. We need them to imagine the United States as a place where they can be productive for a while without committing themselves to staying forever. We need them to feel that home can be both here and there and that they can belong to two nations honorably. Accommodating this new world of people in motion will require new attitudes on both sides of the immigration battle. Looking beyond the culture war logic of right or wrong means opening up the middle ground and understanding that managing immigration today requires multiple paths and multiple outcomes, including some that are not easy to accomplish legally in the existing system.
26.―Birds of passage‖ refers to those who. ［A］ immigrate across the Atlantic ［B］ leave their home countries for good ［C］ stay in a foreign country temporarily ［D］ find permanent jobs overseas
27.It is implied in Paragraph 2 that the current immigration system in the U.S..
［A］ needs new immigrant categories ［B］ has loosened control over immigrants ［C］ should be adapted to meet challenges ［D］ has been fixed via political means
28.According to the author, today?s birds of passage want. ［A］ financial incentives
［B］ a global recognition ［C］ opportunities to get regular jobs ［D］ the freedom to stay and leave
29.The author suggests that the birds of passage today should be treated. ［A］ as faithful partners ［B］ with economic favors ［C］ with legal tolerance ［D］ as mighty rivals
30.Which is the best title for the passage? ［A］ Come and Go: Big Mistake ［B］ Living and Thriving: Great Risk ［C］ Legal or Illegal: Big Mistake ［D］ With or Without: Great Risk
Text 3 Scientists have found that although we are prone to snap overreactions, if we take a moment and think about how we are likely to react, we can reduce or even eliminate the negative effects of our quick, hard ?wired responses. Snap decisions can be important defense mechanisms; if we are judging whether someone is dangerous, our brains and bodies are hard?wired to react very quickly, within milliseconds. But we need more time to assess other factors. To accurately tell whether someone is sociable, studies show, we need at least a minute, preferably five. It takes a while to judge complex aspects of personality, like neuroticism or open?mindedness. But snap decisions in reaction to rapid stimuli aren?t exclusive to the interpersonal realm. Psychologists at the University of Toronto found that viewing a fast?food logo for just a few milliseconds primes us to read 20 percent faster, even though reading has little to do with eating. We unconsciously associate fast food with speed and impatience and carry those impulses into whatever else we?re doing. Subjects exposed to fast ?food flashes also tend to think a musical piece lasts too long. Yet we can reverse such influences. If we know we will overreact to consumer products or housing options when we see a happy face (one reason good sales representatives and real estate agents are always smiling), we
can take a moment before buying. If we know female job screeners are more likely to reject attractive female applicants, we can help screeners understand their biases—or hire outside screeners. John Gottman, the marriage expert, explains that we quickly ―thin slice‖ in formation reliably only after we ground such snap reactions in ―thick sliced‖ long?term study. When Dr. Gottman really wants to assess whether a couple will stay together, he invites them to his island retreat for a much longer evaluation: two days, not two seconds. Our ability to mute our hard?wired reactions by pausing is what differentiates us from animals: dog can think about the future only intermittently or for a few minutes. But historically we have spent about 12 percent of our days contemplating the longer term. Although technology might change the way we react, it hasn ?t changed our nature. We still have the imaginative capacity to rise above temptation and reverse the high ?speed trend.
31.The time needed in making decisions may. ［A］ vary according to the urgency of the situation ［B］ prove the complexity of our brain reaction ［C］ depend on the importance of the assessment ［D］ predetermine the accuracy of our judgment
32.Our reaction to a fast?food logo shows that snap decisions. ［A］ can be associative ［B］ are not unconscious ［C］ can be dangerous ［D］ are not impulsive
33.To reverse the negative influences of snap decisions,we should. ［A］ trust our first impression ［B］ do as people usually do ［C］ think before we act ［D］ ask for expert advice
34.John Gottman says that reliable snap reaction are based on. ［A］ critical assessment
［B］ ―thin sliced‖ study ［C］ sensible explanation ［D］ adequate information
35.The author?s attitude toward reversing the high?speed trend is. ［A］ tolerant ［B］ uncertain ［C］ optimistic ［D］ doubtful
Text 4 Europe is not a gender?equality heaven. In particular, the corporate workplace will never be completely family?friendly until women are part of senior management decisions, and Europe?s top
corporate?governance positions remain overwhelmingly male. Indeed, women hold only 14 percent of positions on Europe corporate boards. The Europe Union is now considering legislation to compel corporate boards to maintain a certain proportion of women—up to 60 percent. This proposed mandate was born of frustration. Last year, Europe Commission Vice President Viviane Reding issued a call to voluntary action. Reding invited corporations to sign up for gender balance goal of 40 percent female board membership. But her appeal was considered a failure: only 24 companies took it up. Do we need quotas to ensure that women can continue to climb the corporate ladder fairly as they balance work and family? ―Personally, I don?t like quotas,‖ Reding said recently. ―But I like what the quotas do.‖ Quotas get action: they ―open the way to equality and they break through the glass ceiling,‖ according to Reding, a result seen in France and other countries with legally binding provisions on placing women in top business positions. I understand Reding?s reluctance—and her frustration. I don?t like quotas either; they run counter to my belief in meritocracy, government by the capable. But, when one considers the obstacles to achieving the meritocratic ideal, it does look as if a fairer world must be temporarily ordered. After all, four decades of evidence has now shown that corporations in Europe as well as the US are evading the meritocratic hiring and promotion of women to top position—no matter how much ―soft pressure‖ is put upon them. When women do break through to the summit of corporate power—as, for example, Shery Sandberg
recently did at Facebook—they attract massive attention precisely because they remain the exception to the rule. If appropriate pubic policies were in place to help all women —whether CEOs or their children?s caregivers—and all families, Sandberg would be no more newsworthy than any other highly capable person living in a more just society.
36.In the European corporate workplace, generally. ［A］ women take the lead ［B］ men have the final say ［C］ corporate governance is overwhelmed ［D］ senior management is family?friendly
37.The European Union?s intended legislation is. ［A］ a reflection of gender balance ［B］ a reluctant choice ［C］ a response to Reding?s call ［D］ a voluntary action
38.According to Reding, quotas may help women. ［A］ get top business positions ［B］ see through the glass ceiling ［C］ balance work and family ［D］ anticipate legal results
39.The author?s attitude toward Reding?s appeal is one of. ［A］ skepticism ［B］ objectiveness ［C］ indifference ［D］ approval
40.Women entering top management become headlines due to the lack of. ［A］ more social justice
［B］ massive media attention
［C］ suitable public policies ［D］ greater ―soft pressure‖
Part B Directions: You are going to read a list of headings and a text. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A?G for each numbered paragraph (41?45).Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. （10 points） ［A］ Live like a peasant ［B］ Balance your diet ［C］ Shopkeepers are your friends ［D］ Remember to treat yourself ［E］ Stick to what you need ［F］ Planning is everything ［G］ Waste not, want not The hugely popular blog the Skint Foodie chronicles how Tony balances his love of good food with living on benefits. After bills, Tony has ￡60 a week to spend, ￡40 of which goes on food, but 10 years ago he was earning ￡130,000 a year working in corporate communications and eating at London?s best restaurants at least twice a week. Then his marriage failed, his career burned out and his drinking became serious.―Th e community mental health team saved my life. And I felt like that again, to a certain degree, when people responded to the blog so well. It gave me the validation and confidence that I?d lost. But it?s still a day?by?day thing.‖Now he?s living in a council flat and fielding offers from literary agents. He?s feeling positive, but he?ll carry on blogging—not about eating as cheaply as you can—―there are so many people in a much worse state, with barely any money to spend on food‖—but eating well on a budget. Here?s his advice for economical foodies. 41. Impulsive spending isn?t an option, so plan your week?s menu in advance, making shopping lists for your ingredients in their exact quantities. I have an Excel template for a week of breakfast, lunch and dinner. Stop laughing: it?s not just cost effective but helps you balance your diet. It?s also a good idea to shop daily instead of weekly, because, being human, you?ll sometimes change your mind about what you fancy.
42. This is where supermarkets and their anonymity come in handy. With them, there?s not the same embarrassment as when buying one carrot in a little greengrocer. And if you plan properly, you ?ll know that you only need, say, 350g of shin of beef and six rashers of bacon, not whatever weight is pre ?packed in the supermarket chiller. 43. You may proudly claim to only have frozen peas in the freezer —that?s not good enough. Mine is filled with leftovers, bread, stock, meat and fish. Planning ahead should eliminate wastage, but if you have surplus vegetables you?ll do a vegetable soup, and all fruits threatening to ―go off‖will be cooked or juiced. 44. Everyone says this, but it really is a top tip for frugal eaters. Shop at butchers, delis and fish ?sellers regularly, even for small things, and be super friendly. Soon you?ll feel comfortable asking if they?ve any knuckles of ham for soups and stews, or beef bones, chicken carcasses and fish heads for stock which, more often than not, they?ll let you have for free. 45. You won?t be eating out a lot, but save your pennies and once every few months treat yourself to a set lunch at a good restaurant— ￡1.75 a week for three months gives you ￡ 21—more than enough for a three?course lunch at Michelin?starred Arbutus. It?s ￡16.95 there—or ￡12.99 for a large pizza from Domino?s: I know which I?d rather eat.
Section III Translation
46.Directions: Translate the following text from English to Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET 2. （15 points） I can pick a date from the past 53 years and know instantly where I was, what happened in the news and even the day of the week. I?ve been able to do this, since I was 4. I never feel overwhelmed with the amount of information my brain absorbs. My mind seems to be able to cope and the information is stored away neatly. When I think of a sad memory, I do what everybody does—try to put it to one side. I don?t think it?s harder for me just because my memory is clearer. Powerful memory doesn?t make my emotions any more acute or vivid. I can recall the day my grandfather died and the sadness I
felt when we went to the hospital the day before. I also remember that the musical Hair opened on Broadway on the same day—they both just pop into my mind in the same way.
Section IV Writing Part A 47.Directions: Suppose your class is to hold a charity sale for kids in need of help. Write your classmates an email to 1) inform them about the details and 2) encourage them to participate. You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use ―Li Ming‖ instead. Don?t write your address.（10 points） Part B 48.Directions: Write an essay based on the following chart. In your writing, you should 1) interpret the chart, and 2) give your comments. You should write about 150 words.（15 points）
［考点］ 上下文逻辑关系 ［解析］ 此类考题形式表明本题考查上下文之间存在的逻辑关系，理解上下文并破解其逻辑关系是 解题的关键。空格所在句的上句大意为：我们可能马上就进入一个无现金社会；而本句大意为：一个无现 金社会不太可能很快出现，由此可见上下文之间有转折关系。 ［A］项 However 意为―然而‖，表转折，符 合题意； ［B］项 Moreover 意为―而且‖，表递进； ［C］项 Therefore 意为―因此‖，表结果； ［D］项 Otherwise 意为―否则‖，表对比。
2.［答案］ ［D］ ［考点］ 句内语义理解与介词辨析 ［解析］ 根据空格所在句中的 but 可知，本句前后两个分句存在转折关系。第二个分句大意为：这 样一个（无现金）社会的预言没有实现，所以第一个分句大意应该为：这样的预言已经进行（或存在）了 二十年。 ［D］项 around 作表语，表示―在存在，在使用中‖，符合题意。
3.［答案］ ［B］ ［考点］ 上下文逻辑与名词辨析 ［解析］ 该句大意为： 《商业周刊》于 1975 年就预言电子支付―将很快彻底改变金钱的‖。在无法猜 测空格所需要词义的时候，我们可以采用―代入法‖，即：把四个选项分别放入句子试验，从而确定正确选 项。 ［A］项 power 意为―力量，权利‖； ［B］项 concept 意为―理念，概念‖； ［C］项 history 意为―历史‖； ［D］ 项 role 意为―角色‖。电子支付将会改变金钱这一概念，由此可知［B］项符合题意。
4.［答案］ ［D］ ［考点］ 句内语义理解与动词词义辨析 ［解析］ 本句空格之前部分大意为：商业周刊于 1975 年就预言说电子支付―将彻底改变金钱这一概 念‖，only to 意为―却；不料竟会‖，表示结果出乎意料，itself 指代商业周刊，由此推测空格中需要―否定‖ 或者―推翻‖等类似词义。 ［A］ 项 reward 意为―奖赏； 报答‖； ［B］ 项 resist 意为―抵制， 抵抗‖； ［C］ 项 resume 意为―重新开始，继续‖； ［D］项 reverse 意为―推翻；使倒退；逆转‖，故［D］符合题意。
5.［答案］ ［C］ ［考点］ 上下文逻辑与形容词词义辨析 ［解析］ 上文说明了早在 1975 年就有预言说无现金社会可能即将到来， 而作者认为实际上真正的无 现金社会不会马上到来，并通过事例证明。空格所在句子就是提问为什么会这样，也就是为什么无现金社
会只可能缓慢到来，所以本题答案为［C］项 slow。 ［A］项 silent 意为―安静的，沉默的‖； ［B］项 sudden 意为―突然的‖； ［D］项 steady 意为―平稳的；固定的‖，都与题意不符，故［D］排除。
6.［答案］ ［B］ ［考点］ 上下文语义与动词词组辨析 ［解析］ 上一段最后提问―为什么无现金社会的到来如此缓慢‖， 本段将分析其原因； 同时， although 引导的让步状语从句肯定了电子货币 might be more convenient and may be more efficient(便捷，高效)，空 格所在主句与从句之间存在转折关系，意思是说几个因素使得纸币系统不会消失。空格之前的动词 work 意为―起作用‖；与［B］项构成 work against,意为―违背，妨碍；起反作用‖，符合题意；与［C］项构成 work with,意为―与……共事，对……起作用‖；与［D］项构成 work on，意为―从事……工作，对……起作 用‖，都不符合题意，排除。
7.［答案］ ［B］ ［考点］ 句内语义理解与形容词词义辨析 ［解析］ 空格所在句为纸币支付―不会‖消失的第一个原因，同时，空格中的形容词是对 to set up the computer, card reader, and telecommunications networks（安装电脑、读卡器，建立通讯网络）的说明。 ［A］ 项 imaginative 意为―富有想象力的‖，明显不符合句意； ［B］项 expensive 意为―昂贵的‖，符合句意； ［C］ 项 sensitive 意为―敏感的，灵感的‖，不符合句意； ［D］项 productive 意为―多产的‖，不符合句意。
［解析］ 本段探讨电子货币不能取代纸币的原因， 空格所在句意为―使得电子货币成为 （什么性质的） 支付方式‖，由此推断，空格中需要―主流，主要，流行‖等类似词义。 ［A］项 similar 意为―相似的‖； ［B］ 项 original 意为―原始的，独创的‖； ［C］项 temporary 意为―暂时的，临时的‖，与题意不符，排除。 ［D］ 项 dominant 意为―统治的，处于支配地位的‖，符合题意。
［解析］ 空格所在句是电子货币不会取代纸质货币的第二个原因， 就是纸质支票的一个优点； 能 （什 么）receipt（收据，发票；收入） ，由此推测空格中需要―提供‖等类似词义。 ［A］项 collect 意为―收集‖， 与句意不符，排除； ［B］项 provide 意为―提供‖，符合句意； ［C］项 copy 意为―复印‖； ［D］项 print 意为 ―打印‖，不符合句意，排除。
［解析］ 空格中动词短语的宾语是 something，指代上文的 advantage，即：纸质支票支付具有能够 提供收据这一优势， 而这一优势人们自然是不会放弃的。 由此推测空格中需要填入意为―放弃‖之类的单词。 ［A］项 give up 意为―放弃‖，符合题意； ［B］项 take over 意为―接管‖； ［C］项 bring back 意为―拿回来； 回想起‖； ［D］项 pass down 意为―使流传，一代传一代‖，均不符合题意，可排除。
［解析］ 空格中是连接词，连接两个分句，前一分句大意为：需要花几天，后一分句大意为：纸质 钞票兑现； 同时本句最后 which 引导的定语从句也对空格所在部分发生的事情做了解释： 这就意味着可以 获得利息。 由此推断空格所在部分大意为： 支票开出几天后才会兑现， 由此确定本题答案为 ［A］ 项 before。
［注意］ ...time/times/number/amount/all...before…可视为固定句式，表示―多长时间/多少次数/多少数 量/所有的都……才……‖之意。
［解析］ 空格所在部分与 a check is cashed（支票兑现）通过 and 连接，为并列关系，语义相近；同
时空格中被动态动词的主语为 funds（资金） 。由此推断空格中需要―提取，提款‖等类似词义。 ［A］项 kept 意为―保持，保存‖； ［B］项 borrowed 意为―借，借款‖； ［C］项 released 意为―释放，发布‖，均不符合题 意，可排除。 ［D］项 withdrawn 意为―取钱，提款；撤退‖，符合题意。
［解析］ 空格所在句子的上一句已经说明一个事实：the use of paper checks gives consumers several days of ―float‖,由此推断 electronic payments are immediate （电子支付是即时的） 是 they eliminate the float for the consumer(排除了消费者的在途资金)的原因。 ［A］项 Unless 意为―除非‖，表条件关系； ［B］项 Until 意为―直到‖，表示时间关系； ［C］项 Because 意为―因为，由于‖，表因果关系，符合题意； ［D］项 Though 意为―然而‖，表让步关系。
［解析］ 空格中的动词为本句谓语动词，其主语是 electronic means of payment（电子支付方式） ，宾 语是 security and privacy concerns（安全及隐私担忧） 。由此推断空格中需要―引起‖等类似词义。 ［A］项 hide 意为―躲藏；隐瞒‖； ［B］项 express 意为―表达‖； ［C］项 raise 意为―引起；抬高；抚养‖，符合题意； ［D］项 ease 意为―减轻，缓解‖。
［解析］ 空格之前提到 hacker（黑客）能够进入电脑数据库，那么下一个动作就是修改存储于数据 库的信息。 ［A］项 analyzed 意为―分析‖； ［B］项 shared 意为―分享，共有‖； ［C］项 stored 意为―储存‖， 符合题意； ［D］项 displayed 意为―陈列，展示‖。
［解析］ 上一段最后一句提到我们常常听到黑客进入电脑数据库修改信息的事实，空格所在句中的 this 指代这一事实；同时，本句表示肯定，而前面又出现了否定词，所以要用双重否定，选填词汇意思应 为不普遍的。 ［A］项 unsafe 意为―不安全的‖； ［B］项 unnatural 意为―不自然的‖； ［C］项 uncommon 意为 ―不是普遍的‖，符合题意。 ［D］项 unclear 意为―不清楚的‖。
［解析］ 空格中动词与 access bank accounts in electronic payments systems(进入电子支付系统的银行 账户)是并列谓语，其主语是 dishonest persons（不诚实的人们） ，由此可以推断他们进入银行账户的下一 个动作就是―偷窃‖。 ［A］项 steal 意为―偷盗，偷窃‖，符合题意； ［B］项 choose 意为―挑选‖； ［C］项 benefit 意为―收益，有利于‖； ［D］项 return 意为―归还，返回‖。
［解析］ 空格所在句中的 this type of fraud（这种诈骗） 指代上文进入银行账户盗取他人资金的行为， 结合空格之后的 no easy task（并非易事）可以推断空格中需要―解决，应对‖或―预防‖等类似词义。 ［A］ 项 consideration 意为―考虑‖； ［B］项 prevention 意为―阻止，防止‖，符合题意； ［C］项 manipulation 意为 ―操纵‖； ［D］项 justification 意为―正当理由‖。
［解析］ 空格所在句子用 and 与上句连接，是并列关系，上句提到预防此类诈骗并非易事，本句大 意为：计算机科学的一个崭新领域正在发展，由此推断其目的便是解决这个问题。 ［A］项 cope with 意为 ―妥善处理，解决‖，符合题意； ［B］项 fight against 意为―反对‖； ［C］项 adapt to 意为―适应‖； ［D］项 call for 意为―需要，需求‖。
［解析］ 空格所在句子指出了人们对电子支付的另一个担忧：电子支付会留下电子形式的痕迹，其 中包括大量有关个人购物习惯的信息。 ［A］项 chunk 意为―厚块,大块‖； ［B］项 chip 意为―芯片；薯条‖； ［C］项 path 意为―小路，路‖； ［D］项 trail 意为―痕迹，踪迹‖，符合题意。
【全文翻译】 想到电子货币的种种优势，你可能会认为我们会很快进入无现金社会，在这里，所有支付都以电子形 式完成。 然而， 真正意义上的无现金社会不会很快到来。 的确， 早在二十年前就出现了无现金社会的预言， 但是至今仍没有实现。例如， 《商业周刊》于 1975 年就预言说电子支付形式将很快彻底改变金钱本身的概 念，而结果却是几年后推翻了自己的预言。为什么进入无现金社会的过程这么缓慢呢？ 尽管比起纸质货币支付系统，电子支付更便捷、更高效，然而几个因素使得纸币支付系统不会消失。 首先，要使电子货币成为主流支付方式，就必须安装电脑和读卡器并建立通讯网络，这是非常昂贵的；第 二，纸质支票的优势是它能提供凭证，而很多顾客不愿放弃凭证；第三，使用纸质支票，顾客就有几日的 在途资金，也就是说：要过几天支票才兑现，账户中的资金才被提取，这就意味着写支票的人可以得到几 日的利息。由于电子支付时是即时的，就排除了顾客的在途资金；第四，电子支付可能会引起人们对安全 和隐私问题的担忧。我们经常听到这样的媒体报道：黑客未经授权就能够进入电脑数据库，篡改其中存储 的信息。 此类事件的发生并非异常， 这就意味着不诚实的人会进入电子支付系统的账户， 从他人账户中盗走资 金。预防此类诈骗行为并非易事，计算机科学的一个新领域正在发展，试图解决这一难题。人们对电子支 付形式的另一种担忧是电子支付方式会留下一些痕迹， 其中包含大量有关个人购物习惯的信息。 人们担忧 政府部门、雇主、销售人员可以获取这些信息，进而侵犯个人隐私。 21.［答案］ ［A］ ［考点］ 例证题
［正确项精解］ 例证题的解题思路是：先找到事例，如果事例出现在文章开头，其作用往往是引出 主题或阐明观点；如果事例出现在行文之中，其作用是为了证明某一观点。本题中的 joke 出现在文章开 头，其作用首先是引出文章主题，但是也有证明观点的作用。阅读得知，第一段全段都是 joke 的内容， 于是要证明的观点应该出现在第二段，阅读第二段得知本段便是 joke 所要阐明的观点，其大意为：高失 业率和中产阶层收入下降的一个原因是全球化和信息技术的进步。由此确定［A］为本题答案。是对该句 内容的―概括和同义替换‖。 ［干扰项分析］ ［B］就业压力的缓解，与本文谈论话题相反，属于―正反混淆‖； ［C］纺织厂规模 的缩减，与文章内容无关，属于―无中生有‖， ［D］中产阶级收入减少，不是文章谈论的重点，文章重在 谈论造成中产阶级收入减少的原因（技术进步的影响） ，属于―偷换概念‖。
22. ［答案］ ［D］ ［考点］ 细节题 ［正确项精解］ 限定在第三段。根据题干关键词 to be a successful employee,精确定位到文章第三段 的最后一句 Therefore, everyone needs to find their extra—their unique value contribution that makes them stand out in whatever is their field of employment，其中，stand out (突出)对应题干中的 to be successful, 由此理解 到要成为成功的员工，everyone needs to find their extra（人人都需要找到自己超常的价值） ，也就是说 their unique value contribution （他们独特的贡献） 。 ［D］ 项中的 contribute something unique 是对 their unique value contribution 的同义改写，为本题的答案。属于―同义替换‖。 ［干扰项分析］ ［A］ 项的干扰来自于第三段:It can?t when so many more employers have so much more access to so much more above average cheap foreign labor, cheap robotics, cheap software, cheap automation and cheap genius.文中意思是，雇主（employer）可以购买到便宜的软件，而不是说员工（employee）的情 况，属于―偷换概念‖。 ［B］项 a moderate salary 在文中没有相关信息，属于―无中生有‖。 ［C］项的干扰来 自第三段第一句 In the past, workers with average skills, doing an average job ，could earn an average lifestyle. （过去，掌握一般技术，从事一般性工作的人可以通过劳动过上普通的正常生活。 ）显然文中是说过去平 庸的人可以过上一般的生活，而［C］项将 an average lifestyle 安插在 successful employee 身上，属于―张 冠李戴‖。
23. ［答案］ ［B］ ［考点］ 例证题
［正确项精解］ 本题中的 quotation 出现在第四段，属于文中引用（举例） ，要证明的观点便是其上 一句：Yes, new technology has been eating jobs forever, and always will. But there?s been acceleration（新技 术一直并将继续吞噬工作岗位，但是近来有加速的趋势） 。由此可见［ B］项为本题答案。如果前一句话 确实理解不透，便可认真领会例子本身传递的道理。 ［B］项和［D］项内容相反，一般其中之一正确。 ［干扰项分析］［A］ 项 gains of technology have been erased 中的 been erased 在文中找不到依据， ［C ］ 项 factories are making much less money than before 也没有相关内容提及，属于―无中生有‖。文章第三段说 明，工作岗位正在减少，而［D］项正好相反，属于―正反混淆‖。 ［技巧点拨］ 事例、引用和数据在文章中具有相同的作用：引出文章主题或者证明某个观点，此类 题目都可归为例证题。解题思路是：先找到事例，再看其在文中的位置，如果出现在文章开头，其作用是 引出主题或者阐述一个观点，如果出现在行文之中，其作用一定是证明某个观点，并且要证明的观点一般 都在事例本身所在句子的上一句，有时候也可能在下一句。
24. ［答案］ ［B］ ［考点］ 细节题 ［正确项精解］ 根据本题关键词 to reduce unemployment, 精确定位到最后一段： there are many things we need to do to support employment(需要很多东西来支持就业)，所谓支持就业便是减少失业，之后的 but nothing would be more important than(但最重要的是)给出了本题答案：passing some kind of G. I. Bill for the 21st century that ensures that every American has access to post?high school education,其大意为：通过某些法 案确保每个美国人都有机会接受高中以后的教育。由此可见，减少失业最重要的是让人们接受教育， ［B］ 项为本题答案。属于―同义替换‖。 ［干扰项分析］ ［A］项和［C］项的干扰都来自第二段：the reason we have such stubbornly high unemployment and declining middle?class incomes today is also because of the advances in both globalization and the information technology revolution， 即失业率一直居高不下、 中产阶层收入下降的原因是全球化以及 信息技术革命的进步，可见全球化以及信息技术革命是导致失业增多的原因，而非减少失业的措施，属于 ―因果倒置‖。 ［D］项的干扰来自文章最后一句，文章提及要颁布更多法案，但颁布法案的目的是为了保 障教育，这属于―偷换概念‖。
25. ［答案］ ［C］ ［考点］ 主旨题
［正确项精解］ 第一段和第二段均属于对 Adam Davidson 文章的引用和说明，主题就在第三段，第 三段第一句话为 In the past, workers with average skills, doing an average job, could earn an average lifestyle, 但第二句的转折词 But 立刻把中心转移到：today, average is officially over,大意为：如今，平庸（一般化） 时代正式结束了。第四段进一步阐述技术进步给就业形势造成的严峻冲击，接下来是从业者的解决措施： 接受更多更好的教育，使自己超越普通人。最后一段重申主题：平庸时代正式结束。由此可见， ［ C］项 为本题答案。属于―概括性‖。 ［干扰项分析］ ［A］项和［B］项在文中都有所体现，但都是片面之词，并非文章主旨，属于―以 偏概全‖。文章根本没有提及经济萧条这一情况，故［D］―萧条很糟糕‖属于―无中生有‖。 ［技巧点拨］ 主旨题大多都可以通过第一段的理解、对文章引出主题方式的辨认来解答。首段提问、 转移中心、事例开头、类比开头都是引出主题的方式。本文开头显然是引用，属于事例开头法引出主题的 形式。 【全文翻译】 Adam Davidson 在其题为―成功在美国‖的文章中讲述了这样一个棉花生产国的笑话，是关于现代棉织 厂高度自动化的：如今一般工厂只有两名员工，―一个人和一条狗，人的职责是喂狗，狗的职责是不让人 靠近机器。‖ Adam Davidson 的文章只是众多类似文章的代表,这些文章都阐明了同一个观点：失业率一直居高不 下、 中产阶层收入下降的原因也是全球化以及信息技术革命的进步， 而这一进步比以往更加迅速地用机器 和外籍工人来代替劳动力。 过去，掌握一般技术、从事一般性工作的人可以通过劳动过上普通的生活。但如今平庸时代正式结束 了。平庸无法使你过上过去那样的生活。当更多的雇主有更多的途径招募到非凡廉价的外国劳动者，购买 到廉价的机器人和软件，低成本实现自动化，也可以挖掘到廉价的人才时，平庸无法使你过上过去那样的 生活。所以，每个人都不得不找到自己的额外价值，也就是能使其在任何职业领域都突出的特有的价值贡 献。 的确，新技术一直并将继续吞噬工作岗位，但是近来有加速的趋势。正如 Adam Davidson 所说，2000 到 2009 的十年间美国工厂裁员速度如此之快， 以至于裁减人数几乎到了以前 70 年招工人数的总和； 大约 三分之一的制造业岗位消失不见，失业总数高达 600 万。 将来也一直会有改变：新工作、新产品和新服务。但我们可以肯定的是，随着全球化和 IT 技术的进 步，将来最好的工作都会对从业者提出新的要求：他们必须接受更多更好的教育，使自己超越普通人。 在平庸时代正式结束的社会，我们不得不采取多种措施保障就业，但最重要的莫过于通过某种《退伍 军人权利法案》之类的法案，确保每个美国人在 21 世纪都有机会接受高中之后的教育。
26. ［答案］ ［C］ ［考点］ 猜词题 ［正确项精解］ 根据题干 Birds of passage，精确定位到第一段最后一句。分析该句中 birds of passage 所指，其作 nickname 的同位语；是 they 的绰号，这时理解的重点就是 they。根据代词回指的特点去上 句寻找答案，―About a quarter of all Italian immigrants, for example, eventually returned to Italy for good.‖（大 约四分之一的意大利移民最终还是返回意大利） ，they 指代的就是四分之一最终回国的意大利移民。由此 确定选项［C］为本题答案。 ［干扰项分析］ ［A］项利用首段第一句 the immigrants from across the Atlantic 设置干扰，此处说的 是 100 年前的移民，而不是 birds of passage 所指，属于―张冠李戴‖。 ［B］项与文中表达意思刚好相反，属 于―正反混淆‖。 ［D］项在文中没有相关信息体现。 ［技巧点拨］ 猜词题必须放到该词所在的语境中猜测，有时利用该词所在句子便可推测；当本句没 有足够猜词信息时，就得利用该词所在句子与上句或下句的语义关系猜测。
27. ［答案］ ［C］ ［考点］ 推断题 ［正确项精解］ 本题关键词是 the current immigration system in the U.S.，该信息点出现在第二段第四 句话： That framework has contributed mightily to our broken immigration system and the long political paralysis over how to fix it （那样的构架导致移民制度漏洞百出， 也导致了长期以来没有能力在政治上修改移民制度 的事实） ， 这就暗示美国移民制度问题较多， 需要修改； 随后指出了修改的目标： We might then begin to solve our immigration challenges（那时我们可能开始解决移民的挑战） ，由此确定［C］项为本题答案。 ［干扰项分析］［A］ 项与文章内容 We don?t need more categories 表达的意思相反； ［B］ 项与 Today, we are much more rigid about immigrants （如今对移民更加严格） 相反， 都属于―正反混淆‖； ［D］ 项 has been fixed 在文中没有体现，属于―无中生有‖。
28. ［答案］ ［D］ ［考点］ 细节题 ［正确项精解］ 本题关键词是 today?s birds of passage。该信息点出现在文章第三段第一句，但是 本句话说明他们的职业构成，跟本题无关；第三句的 They 也指代 today?s birds of passage，句中的 prefer
（宁愿，更喜欢）表达了 want 之意：to come and go as opportunities call them（他们宁愿随着机会的需要 而迁移） 。由此确定［D］项为本题答案，属于典型的―同义替换‖。 ［干扰项分析］ ［A］项的干扰来自 a global economy driven by the flow of work, money and ideas，此 处受金钱驱动的是全球经济，而不是说短暂移民，属于―张冠李戴‖。 ［B］项在文中找不到依据。 ［C］项 的干扰在第三段最后一句： 他们能够设法在一地工作， 而在另一地安家， 此处没有提到固定工作， 属于―无 中生有‖。
29. ［答案］ ［C］ ［考点］ 细节题 ［正确项精解］ 本题关键词是 the birds of passage today should be treated（应该以何种方式被对待） 。 第五段第一句话 Accommodating this new world of people in motion will require new attitudes on both sides of the immigration battle 中的 require new attitudes（需要新的态度）表明本段涉及如何对待短期移民的信息。 根据上下文连贯的原则我们可以确定，下句将说明什么样的态度：Looking beyond the culture war logic of right or wrong means opening up the middle ground and understanding that managing immigration today requires multiple paths and multiple outcomes，including some that are not easy to accomplish legally in the existing system（超越文化战争逻辑的对错意味着，我们要开辟（合法与非法的）中间地带，充分意识到 当今的移民管理体系需要各种途径和多样化结果，包括当前移民体系下用法律手段很难解决的问题） 。由 此确定［C］项为本题答案，这属于典型的―正话反说，反话正说‖。 ［干扰项分析］ ［A］项、 ［B］项和［D］项在文中均没有内容提及，属于―无中生有‖。
30. ［答案］ ［C］ ［考点］ 主旨题 ［正确项精解］ 本文第一段介绍过去的移民状况，并引用数据，在第二段开头引入主旨： Today， we are much more rigid about immigrants（如今，关于移民我们更加严格） ，下句指出如何严格：We divide newcomers into two categories：legal or illegal，good or bad（我们把新移民分为两类：合法和不合法，好与 坏） 。由此可见，本文作者要论证的就是对移民严格划分成合法与非法两种情况的错误政策， ［C］项为本 题答案。 ［干扰项分析］ 本文论述的是移民迁徙自由问题，目前的移民制度漏洞百出，应鼓励移民来去自由， ［A］项与文章主旨相悖，属于―正反混淆‖； ［B］项和［D］项的 Great Risk 在文中根本没有提及，属于―无
中生有‖。 【全文翻译】 100 年前，跨越大西洋而来的移民中有定居者，也有旅居者。伴随很多打算在美国永久安家的移民 而来的，还有一些无意定居美国的人，他们赚了钱就会返回家乡。1908 到 1915 年间，大约 700 万人来到 这里，与此同时有 200 万人离开。大约四分之一的意大利移民最终永久地回到祖国，他们甚至有了一个亲 切的绰号：―候鸟‖。 到了今天，我们对待移民更加严格。我们把新来的移民划分为两类：合法与不合法、好与坏。我们把 他们当作即将成为美国公民的人来欢迎， 又或者当成是需要驱逐的外国人。 这种思想体系使我们的移民制 度漏洞百出，同时导致了修改移民制度方面的长期政治僵局。我们不需要更多的分类，而是需要改变我们 考虑分类的方式。我们应该超越合法与非法的严格定义（来思考移民类别） 。首先，我们应该承认那些新 来的短期移民， 也就是那些在灰色地带生活并发展的人们。 那样， 我们才能开始解决移民问题的诸多难题。 如今的短期移民中有收粮工人、小提琴家、建筑工人、企业家、工程师、家庭医护助理、物理学家等 等。他们精力充沛地参与到受劳动力流动、金钱和信念驱动的全球经济之中。他们宁愿随着机会的需要而 迁移。他们能够设法在一地工作，而在另一地安家。 不管有没有许可，他们都可以轻而易举地跨越法律、权限和身份。我们需要他们把美国想象成他们可 以暂时取得成果而无需承诺永久居留的地方；我们需要他们感觉到家可以安在这里，也可以在其他地方， 他们可以光荣地成为两个国家的公民。 调和这个人口在不断流动的新世界需要在移民问题上争论的双方抱有新的态度。 超越文化战争逻辑的 对错意味着，我们要开辟（合法与非法的）中间地带，充分意识到当今的移民管理体系需要各种途径和多 样化结果，包括当前移民体系下用法律手段很难解决的问题。
31. ［答案］ ［D］ ［考点］ 细节题 ［正确项精解］ 本题关键词是 The time needed in making decision。第一段的 if we take a moment and think about ...体现了该关键词，if we take a moment and think about how we are likely to react ，we can reduce or even eliminate the negative effects of our quick，hard?wired responses（如果我们在做出反应之前花点时 间来思考，将会减少甚至消除我们快速反应所带来的负面影响） ，这也就是说，我们做决定所花的时间决 定了我们判断的准确性。 另外， 本题关键词还出现在第二段第二、 三句： But we need more time to assess other factors. To accurately tell whether someone is sociable，studies show，we need at least a minute，preferably five
（我们需要更多时间评估其他因素，要准确说出某人友好，我们需要至少一分钟，五分钟更好） 。由此得 出结论：决策所用时间决定判断的准确性。所以［D］项为本题答案。 ［干扰项分析］ ［A］项中的 urgency of the situation 和［C］项中的 importance of the assessment 在 文章中没有信息提及， 属于―无中生有‖， ［B］ 项中的 complexity 根据 It takes a while to judge complex aspects of personality 设置，属于―偷换概念‖。
32. ［答案］ ［A］ ［考点］ 细节题 ［正确项精解］ 本题关键词是 Our reaction to a fast?food logo，该关键词出现在第三段第二句话： viewing a fast?food logo for just a few milliseconds primes us to read 20 percent faster ，even though reading has little to do with eating（看到快餐商标会使我们阅读速度加快 20%，而实际上阅读与吃几乎无关） 。本段 第三句 We unconsciously associate fast food with speed and impatience and carry those impulses into whatever else we?re doing （人们无意识的将快餐与速度和不耐烦联系在一起， 并将这些冲动付诸行动） 。 由此可见， 对一件事情的快速反应也会影响到对其他事情的行为，所以［A］项为本题答案。 ［干扰项分析］ ［B］项的干扰来自 We unconsciously associate fast food with speed and impatience... ， 与文中意思相反，属于―正反混淆‖， ［C］项 dangerous 一词在文中没有依据，属于―无中生有‖， ［D］项与 文章 carry those impulses into whatever else we?re doing 的意思相反，属于―正反混淆‖。
33. ［答案］ ［C］ ［考点］ 细节题 ［正确项精解］ 本题关键词是 reverse the negative influences of snap decisions。该关键词出现在第四 段第一句话：Yet we can reverse such influences（然而，我们可以扭转这样的影响） ，下一句是：If we know we will overreact to consumer products or housing options when we see a happy face （one reason good sales representatives and real estate agents are always smiling） ，we can take a moment before buying（如果知道我们 在面对销售代表和房屋代理人的笑脸时会感情用事，我们可以在买之前花点时间考虑） ，也就是说思考一 会再买。由此可见［C］项为本题答案，属于典型的―同义替换‖。 ［干扰项分析］ ［A］项正好与 we can take a moment before buying 相反，属于―正反混淆‖；文章中 没有出现 people usually do 这一信息， ［B］项属于―无中生有‖； ［D］项根据 the marriage expert 设置干扰， 作者举婚姻专家的例子是用来说明需要更长的时间来做决定，而［ D］项―听取专家建议‖之意，属于―张
34. ［答案］ ［D］ ［考点］ 细节题 ［正确项精解］ 本题关键词是 reliable snap reactions are based on，同时限定在 John Gottman 研究范 围内。由此精确定位到第五段。第一句是 John Gottman，...explains that we quickly ―thin slice‖ information reliably only after we ground such snap reaction in ―thick sliced‖long?term study，其中的 quickly―thin slice‖ information reliably 对应 reliable snap reaction； ground 在此为动词， 意为―以……为基础‖， 对应 are based on。 本句大意为：我们快速反应的信息的可靠性是以长期的研究为基础的。由此可见［D］项为本题答案。如 果本句难以理解，可以再阅读下一句：When Dr. Gottman really wants to assess whether a couple will stay together，he invites them to his island retreat for a much longer evaluation：two days，not to second，本句用 Gottman 自己为例说明他如何做出评判， 意为： 当 Gottman 真想评判一对恋人是否最终会走到一起的时候， 他会邀请他们去他闲居的小岛，从而有更长的时间评价。由此也可以确定可靠的快速判断基于充足信息。 ［干扰项分析］ ［A］项―critical assessment‖和［C］项 sensible explanation 在文中没有信息提及，属 于―无中生有‖； ［B］项―thin sliced‖ study 与文中 ground such snap reaction in ―thick sliced‖ long?term study 意思正好相反，属于―正反混淆‖。
35. ［答案］ ［C］ ［考点］ 态度题 ［正确项精解］ 根据关键词 reversing the high?speed trend 精确定位到最后一段。最后一段最后两句 是：Although technology might change the way we react,it hasn?t changed our nature. We still have the imaginative capacity to rise above temptation and reverse the high?speed trend（尽管技术可能改变我们反应 的方式，但是并没有改变我们的本性。我们仍然有想象力去克服诱惑并扭转这种快速反应的趋势） 。其中 的 we still have the imaginative capacity 表明了作者的态度是乐观的， ［C］项为本题答案，属于典型―同义 替换‖。 ［干扰项分析］ 文章没有信息表明作者的宽容态度，故［ A］项属于―无中生有‖；文中最后一段作 者对扭转快速反应的态度是明确，因此［B］项和［D］项都属于―正反混淆‖。 【全文翻译】 科学家已经发现人们很容易快速做出感情用事的决定， 但是如果花时间考虑一下我们可能做出怎么样
的反应，就可以减少或者消除快速本能反应的负面影响。 快速决策可能是重要的防御机制， 如果我们要判断某个人是否危险， 我们的大脑和身体会本能地在几 毫秒内快速做出反应。但是，我们需要更多时间评估其他因素。研究表明：要准确判断某人是否友善，人 们至少需要一分钟来判断，五分钟更好。人们需要一点时间判断性格的复杂层面，比如是神经质还是思维 开阔。 但是，快速刺激下的快速反应并不只限于人际范畴。多伦多大学的心理学家发现，看快餐商标短短几 毫秒就会使人们阅读速度提高 20%，虽然阅读和进餐几乎没任何关系。人们无意识地把快餐与速度、不 耐烦联系在一起， 并把这些冲动付诸于我们的所有行动。 接触过快餐广告的实验对象往往也会认为一小段 音乐持续太长。 然而，我们可以扭转这种影响。如果我们知道面对销售代表和房屋代理人的笑脸，会对消费产品或房 屋选择感情用事，我们就应该花点时间（考虑） ，然后再（决定）购买。如果我们知道女性招聘者更有可 能拒绝有魅力的女性求职者（的事实） ，我们就可以帮助招聘者了解其偏见，或者雇佣外来招聘者。 婚姻专家 John Gottman 解释说，只有我们把快速反应建立在多方面的长期研究上，快速反应的信息 才能准确。Gottman 要是想真正评判一对恋人是否最终走到一起，他就会邀请他们去他闲居的小岛，用更 长的时间来评价：两天，而不是两秒。 我们有能力通过暂停的办法减少本能反应，这使人类有别于动物。狗可以考虑未来，但思考过程不连 续，持续时间很短。但是从历史上来看，我们一天内会用 12%的时间进行长远的思考。尽管技术可能会 改变我们做出反应的方式， 但是没有改变我们的天性。 我们仍然有想象力去克服诱惑并扭转快速反应的趋 势。
36. ［答案］ ［B］ ［考点］ 细节题 ［正确项精解］ 本题关键词是 the European corporate workplace。根据关键词 the European corporate workplace ， 精 确 定 位 到 文 章 的 第 一 段 第 二 句 ： the corporate workplace will never be completely family?friendly until women are part of senior management decisions,and Europe?s top
corporate?governance positions remain overwhelmingly male，本句话中并列连词 and 说明企业职场的两个 特点： (1)never be completely family?friendly （永远不会有利于家庭） ； (2)top corporate?governance positions remain overwhelmingly male（高层管理岗位男性数量是压倒性的） ，也就是说：男性统治着企业。由此确 定［B］项为本题答案,属于―同义替换‖。 ［ 干 扰 项 分 析 ］ 干 扰 项 ［ A ］ 与 原 文 Europe?s top corporate?governance positions remain overwhelmingly male 正好相反， ［D］项也与原文意思相反，属于―正反混淆‖。 ［C］项中的 overwhelmed
37. ［答案］ ［A］ ［考点］ 细节题 ［正确项精解］ 本题关键词是 European Union?s intended legislation。该关键词可以精确定位到第二 段第一句：The European Union is now considering legislation to compel corporate boards to maintain a certain proportion of women—up to 60 percent，其中的 is now considering legislation 对应 intended legislation。其大 意为：欧盟正在考虑通过立法强制公司董事会保持一定比例的女性——可高达 60%。由此可见：立法是 为了保持性别比例的平衡。所以［A］项为本题答案，属于―同义替换‖。 ［干扰项分析］ ［B］项的―reluctant‖是根据第五段的 Reding?s reluctance 设置的干扰项,并不是说 European Union 的立法， 属―张冠李戴‖［ ；C］ 项 a response to Reding?s call 不正确， Reding 号召的是 voluntary action，属于―偷换概念‖。 ［D］项也是干扰项，欧盟的立法是 compel（被迫） ，而不是自愿行动，属于―正 反混淆‖。
38. ［答案］ ［A］ ［考点］ 细节题 ［正确项精解］ 本题关键词是 quotas may help women。该关键词可以精确定位到第四段第一句话： ―Personally，I don?t like quotas，‖Reding said recently，―But I like what the quotas do.‖，其中 I like what the quotas to 暗示 quotas 的作用。 接着说： Quotas get action： they ―open the way to equality and they break through the glass ceiling，‖according to Reding, a result seen in France and other countries with legally binding provisions on placing women in top business positions，由此可见 quotas 的作用就是 get action，冒号之后内 容是对 get action 的解释，即 quotas 的作用： （1）开辟通向平等之路； （2）突破了职场障碍。a result 为同 位语，大意为：在法国和其他国家能看到这一效果，这些国家以法律约束条款让女性身居商业高层职位。 由此可见［A］项为本题答案，属于―同义替换‖。 ［干扰项分析］ ［B］项根据原文 break through the glass ceiling 设置干扰，但 see through 并非 break through 之意，属于―偷换概念‖； ［C］项的干扰来自 Do we need quotas to ensure that women can continue to climb the corporate ladder fairly as they balance work and family?（我们需要制定限额确保女性在平衡工作和 家庭的同时，又能继续公平地攀爬事业的阶梯吗？）此句为作者的观点，并且使用的是疑问语气，而非 Reding 的观点，属于―张冠李戴‖。 ［D］项 anticipate legal results 在文中找不到依据，属于―无中生有‖。
39. ［答案］ ［D］ ［考点］ 态度题 ［正确项精解］ 本题关键词是 attitude toward Reding?s appeal。Reding 的 appeal 最早出现在第二段 Reding issued a call to voluntary action（发出号召呼吁自愿行动） ，但第二段没有作者的评论。根据题目编 排顺序与文章顺序一致的原则，上一题答案在第四段，所以本题答案很可能在第五段：第五段第一句本身 就是作者对 Reding 观点的评论：作者先是说可以理解 Reding，自己本身也不喜欢 quotas，而下一句的 But 起转折作用，提出自己的见解：When one considers the obstacles to achieving the meritocratic ideal，it does look as if a fairer world must be temporarily ordered（考虑到实现精英管理理想的诸多障碍，看起来似乎更 加公平的世界应该暂时被规定） 。其中，a fairer world 含义为职场男女平等，就此，作者和 Reding 有相同 观点，认为企业高级管理层应当有更多女性，所以［D］项为答案。 ［干扰项分析］ ［A］属于―无中生有‖，文中找不到作者对 Reding?s appeal 的怀疑态度。文章第五 段作者表明了对 Reding?s appeal 的支持，故［B］项不正确，属于―无中生有‖。 ［C］项属于―典型错误‖， 一般来说作者的态度不可能是漠不关心的。
40. ［答案］ ［C］ ［考点］ 细节题 ［正确项精解］ 本题关键词是 women entering top management become headlines，该关键词可定位到 第六段第二句话：when women do break through to the summit of corporate power，they attract massive attention （女性实现突破达到企业最高权力层时， 总会引来大量的关注） ， 引起大量关注意味着成为 headlines （重要新闻） 。随后的 because 说明了原因：they remain the exception to the rule（她们仍然是规则的例外） 。 ―正话反说‖就是规则不合理。其实本题还有另一处更明显、更直接的定位：最后一段 If appropriate public policies were in place to help all women，...Sandberg would be no more newsworthy... （如果有合理的国家政 策来帮助所有女性，Sandberg 也就没有报道价值了）暗示 Sandberg 之所以成为有价值的新闻原因就是国 家政策不合理。基于以上两次定位及理解，可以确定［C］项为本题答案。 ［干扰项分析］ ［A］项的干扰来自 living in a more just society，此处的社会公平说的是―能力出众 的人不受性别的限制‖，属于―偷换概念‖； ［B］项根据 they attract massive attention 设置干扰，与原文意思 相反，属于―正反混淆‖。 ［D］项 ―soft pressure‖ 来自文中 After all, four decades of evidence has now shown that corporations in Europe as well as the US are evading the meritocratic hiring and promotion of women to top
position—no matter how much ―soft pressure‖ is put upon them. （毕竟， 四十年的证据表明， 不管受到多大―软 压力‖， 欧洲以及美国的企业都在规避精英选才原则， 拒绝把女性提拔到高层。 ） 选项与文意相反， 属于―正 反混淆‖。 【全文翻译】 欧洲并非性别平等的天堂。 除非女性成为高级管理决策层的组成部分， 否则企业办公室永远不会有利 于家庭生活；而且欧洲企业高层管理岗位上，男性仍然占绝对多数。的确，在欧洲企业董事会中，女性所 占比例仅为 14%。 欧盟正在考虑通过立法强制公司董事会保持一定比例的女性——可高达 60%。这一提议一出来就遭 到挫败。去年，欧盟委员会副主席 Viviane Reding 发出号召呼吁自愿行动。Reding 邀请公司签署性别均衡 协议，该协议要求女性在董事会中占 40%。但是她的呼吁被认为是失败之作，仅有 24 家公司接受。 我们需要制定限额确保女性在平衡工作和家庭的同时，又能继续公平地攀爬事业的阶梯吗？ Reding 最近说过：―我个人不喜欢定额，但是我喜欢定额达到的效果。‖根据 Reding 所言，定额确实 起到了作用，它们―开启了平等之门，打破了无形的职场障碍‖，在法国和其他国家能看到这一效果，这些 国家以法律约束条款让女性身居商业高层职位。 我理解 Reding 对定额的不情愿，也理解她的挫败感。我也不喜欢定额，其与我任人唯贤的精英管理 理念相悖。但是考虑到实现精英管理理想的诸多障碍，看起来似乎更加公平的世界应该暂时被规定。 毕竟，四十年的证据表明，不管受到多大―软压力‖，欧洲以及美国的企业都在规避精英选才原则，拒 绝把女性提拔到高层。女性一旦有所突破进入到企业权力高层，就会引起很大关注，毕竟她们是这个社会 规则的例外。Shery Sandberg 进入 Facebook 高层就是这样一个例子。 如果出台合理的国家政策帮助所有女性和家庭，无论是 CEO 或是她们的保姆，Sandberg 的事迹就会 和其他生活在公平社会中能力出众的人一样，不再有报道价值。
［解析］快速阅读本段，第一句后半句出现了结论性的词 so，因此是做题时需关注的重点，本句大 意为：因此要提前计划（plan）好你每周的饮食；第二句和第三句是作者以自己的例子来论证提前计划的 好处。因此本段的主题是提前做好计划，由此确定［F］项为本题答案。
［解析］快速阅读本段，第一句话提到，This is where supermarkets and their anonymity come in handy （这就是超市和不记名的好处） ， 读到这里不明白好处是什么， 于是接着往下看， 第二句话提到 there?s not the same embarrassment as when buying one carrot in a little greengrocer( 不会有在小菜摊买一根胡萝卜那样 的尴尬)， 言外之意是去超市购物不会因只买一点点自己需要的东西而尴尬； 最后一句话提到 you?ll know that you only need…not whatever weight(知道你只需要……而不是包装的重量)。由此可见，本段的主题是 只买自己需要的东西， ［E］项为本题答案。
［解析］快速阅读本段，本段的主题在第三句：Planning ahead should eliminate wastage, if you have surplus vegetables you?ll do a vegetable soup, and all fruits threatening to ―go off‖ will be cooked or juiced( 提 前计划应杜绝浪费，如果你有多余的蔬菜，可以做个蔬菜汤，快要变质的水果可以煮熟或榨汁)。由此可 见，本段主要内容是不能浪费， ［G］项为本题答案。
［解析］快读本段，第一句说 it really is a top tip for frugal eaters(对节俭的人来说，这是最好的建议)； 第二句是建议：and be super friendly(要特别友好)；第三句是去小店购物并友好的好处：Soon you?ll feel comfortable asking…they?ll let you have for free(很快你就可以很自在地问……他们会免费给你)。由此可 见，本段的主题是对店主友好，店主就会友好待你， ［C］项为本题答案。
［解析］ 快读本段， 本段共两句话， 第一句话说： You won?t be eating out a lot, but save your pennies and once every few months treat yourself to a set lunch at a good restaurant( 你不经常出去吃饭， 但每隔几个月要用 节省的钱去高档饭店招待自己一顿丰盛午餐)，第二句讲到了丰盛午餐的花费，因此本段的主要内容是适 时款待自己一下。故［D］项为本题答案。 【全文翻译】 人气很旺的 Skint Foodie 博客详细记录了 Tony 如何平衡喜爱美食与靠救助生活。 付过各种账单之后， Tony 每周可支配金额为 60 英镑，其中 40 英镑用于食物。但是 10 年前，他在企业通讯行业工作，年收 入为 130 000 英镑，每周至少两次在伦敦最好的餐厅就餐。后来，他离婚了，事业毁了，并且开始酗酒。
―社区精神健康小组挽救了我的生命。当人们在我的博客积极回应时，在一定程度上，我又有了那种感觉。 这让我重新得到了认可，也让我重拾信心。但是，日子仍然是要一天天过。‖现在，他居住在政府提供的 公寓，正在答复出版商提供的工作机会。他感觉自己是积极向上的，但他会继续写博客，内容不是关于吃 得尽可能便宜，而是在预算之内吃得健康，毕竟有很多人经济条件很差，几乎没钱购买食物。以下是他为 经济美食家提供的建议。 41.［F］计划很重要 冲动消费不是一种选择，所以事先筹划一周食谱，做一份购物清单，写明食材的确切用量。我做了一 个关于一周早餐、午餐和晚餐的 Excel 表格模板。先别笑：这不只是节约花销，还有助于你平衡饮食。还 有一个好主意：一天而不是一周购物一次，毕竟，喜欢吃什么随时都会改变。 42.［E］只买需要的 这就是超市和其匿名购物的好处。有了这些，便不会出现在小菜摊上买一根胡萝卜那样的尴尬时刻。 如果筹划得当，你就知道你仅仅需要 350 克牛肉、6 片培根，而不是冰柜中包装好的那么多的量。 43.［G］不浪费，不愁缺 你可能会得意地说我的冰箱里只剩下冻豌豆了，这并不是好事。我的冰箱里塞满了剩菜剩饭、面包、 汤料、肉和鱼。提前计划应杜绝浪费，要是有剩余蔬菜，就可以做个蔬菜汤；即将变质的水果可以煮熟或 者榨汁。 44.［C］店主是朋友 大家都这么说，但这确实是对节俭的食者最好的建议。定期去肉店、熟食店、鱼摊购买哪怕是一丁点 东西，一定要特别友好。很快，在问他们有没有炖汤的猪腿骨、牛骨、鸡骨头或鱼头的时候，你就不会不 好意思了，而且他们多半会免费送你。 45.［D］记得款待自己 你不会经常去餐馆吃饭，要节省每一便士，这样每隔几个月就去一家高档餐厅款待一下自己，每周节 省 1.75 镑的话， 三个月就会有 21 镑， 这足够在 Michelin?starred Arbutus 点三道菜。 这一顿饭会花掉 16.95 镑，或者可以花 12.99 镑去 Domino?s 点一大份比萨，我知道我宁愿吃这款。
46. 我能从过去的 53 年中挑个日子，然后很快反应出自己在哪儿，当天有什么新闻，甚至是星期几。 从四岁起，我就有了这种能力。 我从来不会因为大脑吸收的信息量庞大而感到难以承受。 我的大脑似乎有能力应对， 并且信息的储存 也有条有理。当我想起伤心往事的时候，我做的也和大家一样——尽量搁到一边不管。我不认为因为我的 记忆更清楚我就更难忘记。 惊人的记忆力并没有使我的情感变得更为敏感或者更加细腻。 我能够记得祖父 去世的那天以及前一天我们去医院时我有多么难过。我也记得音乐剧《毛发》是在这天首登百老汇的——
这两件事情以同样的方式迅速跳进我的脑海。 47. Dear classmates, I am writing this letter to inform that our class is going to hold a charity sale for the needy children in rural area of our province who have dropped out of school because their parents cannot afford their education. This activity will be held on our school‘s playground on next Monday, January 22. It is universally acknowledged that children are regarded as flowers and future of our nation; however, because of poverty, a growing number of kids in remote villages lost their learning opportunities which are not only crucial for their personal growth, but also essential for the sound development of the whole society. Consequently, there is no doubt that it is a noble cause to donate money to needy children through charity sale. I really appeal to all the students to take part in this event and I will be grateful if you could come and give your donation. Yours sincerely, Li Ming
【参考译文】 我写这封信来告知大家，我们班要举行一场慈善义卖，目的是资助我省农村地区的贫困儿童，因为他 们的父母无法负担他们的教育费用，很多这样的孩子辍学了。这项活动将于下星期一（1 月 22 日）在我 们学校的操场上举行。 众所周知，少年儿童是我们祖国的花朵和希望，然而，由于贫困，越来越多的偏远乡村的孩子失去了 他们的学习机会，而学习机会不仅是他们的个人成长的关键，对于整个社会的健康发展也是必不可少的。 因此，毫无疑问，通过义卖捐钱给贫困儿童是一个崇高的事业。 我在此真心呼吁所有的学生参加这次活动，如果大家能来捐款，我会很感激。 你们真诚的：李明
What can be seen from the chart is the proportion change of students having part-time jobs during the four
years‘ college study. The proportion increases slightly from the first year to the third year, however, the fourth year has witnessed a dramatic increase, surging to 88.24%. There is no denying the fact that this trend is very pervasive in current colleges and, to some extent, quite proper. It is not difficult to come up with some possible factors accounting for this trend. To begin with, the major jobs of freshman and sophomore are to study, and to lay a solid foundation for their future work. What‘s more, when students are going to step out of school and enter into society, they have to master lots of practical skills, for example, how to deal with challenges outside, so they have to take part in some part-time jobs. Apparently, doing part time job has many advantages. On the one hand, students can learn how to get along well with others and know the society more profoundly. On the other hand, to take a part-time job provides students with a valuable opportunity to put what they have learned from books into practice and make some money, which helps to reduce their families‘ financial burden. Due to the analysis above, this trend will continue for quite a while in the future. And it should be pointed out that study is the major task for college students though work experience is valuable. Students have to strike a balance between study and part-time job.
【参考译文】 从图中可以看到大学生在四年的大学学习中，参加兼职工作的人数比例的变化。从第一年至第三年， 比例略有增加，然而，第四年已经发生了急剧的增长，上升到 88.24%。 不可否认的事实是，在当前高校这种趋势是非常普遍的，并且在某种程度上也是合适的。解释这一趋 势并不困难。首先，对大学一年级和二年级的学生来说，其主要任务是学习，为自己的将来打下坚实的基 础。其次，当学生们要走出学校进入社会时，他们必须掌握许多实践技能，例如如何应对外界的挑战，因 此他们不得不参加一些兼职工作。 显然， 做兼职工作有许多优势。 一方面， 学生可以学习如何与别人相处， 从而更深刻地了解社会。另一方面，做兼职工作为学生提供了一个宝贵的机会，可以将他们从书本中学到 的东西运用到实践中，同时赚一些钱，这有助于减轻其家庭的经济负担。 根据以上的分析，这种趋势在未来相当长的一段时间还将继续下去。值得注意的是，虽然工作经验是 有价值的，但是学习是大学生的主要任务。学生必须平衡学习和兼职工作。
2012 年全国硕士研究生入学考试英语二试题 National Entrance Test of English Ⅱ for MA/MS Candidates (NETEM) Section Ⅰ Use of English Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A], [B], [C] or [D]on ANSWER SHEET 1. ( 10 points) Millions of Americans and foreigners see GI.Joe as a mindless war toy, the symbol of American military adventurism, but that‘s not how it used to be. To the men and women who they liberated, the GI. was the who paid, 3 5 2 1 in World WarⅡand the people 4 of food and shelter, man grown into hero, the poor farm kid torn away from his home, the guy
all the burdens of battle, who slept in cold foxholes, who went without the an average guy up 6
who stuck it out and drove back the Nazi reign of murder. This was not a volunteer soldier, not someone well the best trained, best equipped, fiercest, most brutal enemies seen in 7 .Government Issue, and it was on all of the 9 it to the top. Joe Blow, Joe had a president or vice-president or centuries. His name isn't much. GI. is just a military abbreviation articles 8 to soldiers. And Joe? A common name for a guy who never
Palooka. Joe Magrac...a working class name. The United States has 10 secretary of state Joe. G.I. Joe had a 12 11
career fighting German, Japanese, and Korean troops. He appears as a character. or a 13 portrayed themselves in the film. Pyle was famous 16 the ―Willie‖ cartoons of famed Stars and 18 of civilization that 19 Egypt,
of American personalities, in the 1945 movie The Story of G.I. Joe, based on the last days of war 14 side of the war, writing about the dirt-snow-and-mud soldiers not how many miles were 17 the dirt and exhaustion of war, the 20
correspondent Emie Pyle. Some of the soldiers Pyle for covering the 15
or what towns were captured or liberated. His reports
Stripes artist Bill Maulden. Both men
the soldiers shared with each other and the civilians: coffee, tobacco, whiskey, shelter, sleep. France, and a dozen more countries, G.I. Joe was any American soldier, their lives. 1.[A] performed 2.[A] actual 3.[A] bore 4.[A] necessities 5.[A] and 6.[A] for 7.[A] meaning 8.[A] handed out 9.[A] pushed 10.[A] ever 11.[A] disguised 12.[A] company 13.[A] employed [B] served [B] common [B] cased [B] facilities [B] nor [B] into [B] implying [B] turn over [B] got [B] never [B] disturbed [B] collection [B] appointed [C] rebelled [C] special [C] removed [C] commodities [C] but [C] form [C] symbolizing [C] brought back [C] made [C] either [C] disputed [C] community [C] interviewed [D] betrayed [D] normal [D] loaded [D] properties [D] hence [D] against [D] claiming [D] passed down [D] managed [D] neither [D] distinguished [D] colony [D] questioned
the most important person in
14.[A] ethical 15.[A] ruined 16.[A] paralleled 17.[A] neglected 18.[A] stages 19.[A] With
[B] military [B] commuted [B] counteracted [B] avoided [B] illusions [B] To
[C] political [C] patrolled [C] duplicated [C] emphasized [C] fragments [C] Among [C] from the outset
[D] human [D] gained [D] contradicted [D] admired [D] advances [D] Beyond [D] at that point
20.[A] on the contrary [B] by this means
Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension
Text 1 Homework has never been terribly popular with students and even many parents, but in recent years it has been particularly scorned. School districts across the country, most recently Los Angeles Unified, are revising their thinking on his educational ritual. Unfortunately, L.A. Unified has produced an inflexible policy which mandates that with the exception of some advanced courses, homework may no longer count for more than 10% of a student‘s academic grade. This rule is meant to address the difficulty that students from impoverished or chaotic homes might have in completing their homework. But the policy is unclear and contradictory. Certainly, no homework should be assigned that students cannot do without expensive equipment. But if the district is essentially giving a pass to students who do not do their homework because of complicated family lives, it is going riskily close to the implication that standards need to be lowered for poor children. District administrators say that homework will still be a pat of schooling: teachers are allowed to assign as much of it as they want. But with homework counting for no more than 10% of their grades, students can easily skip half their homework and see vey little difference on their report cards. Some students might do well on state tests without completing their homework, but what about the students who performed well on the tests and did their homework? It is quite possible that the homework helped. Yet rather than empowering teachers to find what works best for their students, the policy imposes a flat, across-the-board rule. At the same time, the policy addresses none of the truly thorny questions about homework. If the district finds homework to be unimportant to its students‘ academic achievement, it should move to reduce or eliminate the assignments, not make them count for almost nothing. Conversely, if homework does nothing to ensure that the homework students are not assigning more than they are willing to review and correct. The homework rules should be put on hold while the school board, which is responsible for setting educational policy, looks into the matter and conducts public hearings. It is not too late for L.A. Unified to do homework right. 21.It is implied in paragraph 1 that nowadays homework_____. [A] is receiving more criticism [B]is no longer an educational ritual [C]is not required for advanced courses [D]is gaining more preferences 22.L.A.Unified has made the rule about homework mainly because poor students_____. [A]tend to have moderate expectations for their education [B]have asked for a different educational standard
[C]may have problems finishing their homework [D]have voiced their complaints about homework 23.According to Paragraph 3,one problem with the policy is that it may____. [A]discourage students from doing homework [B]result in students' indifference to their report cards [C]undermine the authority of state tests [D]restrict teachers' power in education 24. As mentioned in Paragraph 4, a key question unanswered about homework is whether______. [A] it should be eliminated [B]it counts much in schooling [C]it places extra burdens on teachers [D]it is important for grades 25.A suitable title for this text could be______. [A]Wrong Interpretation of an Educational Policy [B]A Welcomed Policy for Poor Students [C]Thorny Questions about Homework [D]A Faulty Approach to Homework Text 2 Pretty in pink: adult women do not remember being so obsessed with the colour, yet it is pervasive in our young girls‘ lives. It is not that pink intrinsically bad, but it is a tiny slice of the rainbow and, though it may celebrate girlhood in one way, it also repeatedly and firmly fused girls‘ identity to appearance. Then it presents that connection, even among two-year-olds, between girls as not only innocent but as evidence of innocence. Looking around, despaired at the singular lack of imagination about girls‘ lives and interests. Girls' attraction to pink may seem unavoidable, somehow encoded in their DNA, but according to Jo Paoletti, an associate professor of American Studies, it's not. Children were not colour-coded at all until the early 20th century: in the era before domestic washing machines all babies wore white as a practical matter, since the only way of getting clothes clean was to boil them. What's more, both boys and girls wore what were thought of as gender-neutral dresses. When nursery colours were introduced, pink was actually considered the more masculine colour, a pastel version of red, which was associated with strength. Blue, with its intimations of the Virgin Mary, constancy and faithfulness, symbolised femininity. It was not until the mid-1980s, when amplifying age and sex differences became a dominant children's marketing strategy, that pink fully came into its own, when it began to seem innately attractive to girls, part of what defined them as female, at least for the first few critical years. I had not realised how profoundly marketing trends dictated our perception of what is natural to kids, including our core beliefs about their psychological development. Take the toddler. I assumed that phase was something experts developed after years of research into children's behaviour: wrong. Turns out, according to Daniel Cook, a historian of childhood consumerism, it was popularised as a marketing gimmick by clothing manufacturers in the 1930s. Trade publications counseled department stores that, in order to increase sales, they should create a "third stepping stone" between infant wear and older kids' clothes. It was only after "toddler" became common shoppers' term that it evolved into a broadly accepted developmental stage. Splitting kids, or adults, into ever-tinier categories has proved a sure-fire way to boost profits. And one of the easiest ways to segment a market is to magnify gender differences – or invent them where they did not previously exist.
26. By saying "it is ... The rainbow"(line 3, Para 1), the author means pink _______. A should not be the sole representation of girlhood B C D should not be associated with girls' innocence cannot explain girls' lack of imagination cannot influence girls' lives and interests
27. According to Paragraph 2, which of the following is true of colours? A Colors are encoded in girls' DNA B Blue used to be regarded as the color for girls C Pink used to be a neutral color in symbolizing genders D White is preferred by babies 28. The author suggests that our perception of children's psychological devotement was much influenced by ________. [A] the marketing of products for children [B] the observation of children's nature [C] researches into children's behavior [D] studies of childhood consumption 29. We may learn from Paragraph 4 that department stores were advised ________. A focuses on infant wear and older kids' clothes B C D attach equal importance to different genders classify consumers into smaller groups create some common shoppers' terms
30. It can be concluded that girl's attraction to pink seems to be _____. A clearly explained by their inborn tendency B fully understood by clothing manufacturers C mainly imposed by profit-driven businessmen D well interpreted by psychological experts Text 3 In 2010. a federal judge shook America's biotech industry to its core. Companies had won patents for isolated DNA for decades-by 2005 some 20% of human genes were patented. But in March 2010 a judge ruled that genes were unpatentable. Executives were violently agitated. The Biotechnology Industry Organisation (BIO), a trade group, assured members that this was just a ―preliminary step‖ in a longer battle. On July 29th they were relieved, at least temporarily. A federal appeals court overturned the prior decision, ruling that Myriad Genetics could indeed hold patents to two genes that help forecast a woman's risk of breast cancer. The chief executive of Myriad, a company in Utah, said the ruling was a blessing to firms and patients alike. But as companies continue their attempts at personalised medicine, the courts will remain rather busy. The Myriad case itself is probably not over. Critics make three main arguments against gene patents: a gene is a product of nature, so it may not be patented; gene patents suppress innovation rather than reward it; and patents' monopolies restrict access to genetic tests such as Myriad's. A growing number seem to agree. Last year a federal
task-force urged reform for patents related to genetic tests. In October the Department of Justice filed a brief in the Myriad case, arguing that an isolated DNA molecule ―is no less a product of nature... than are cotton fibres that have been separated from cotton seeds.‖ Despite the appeals court's decision, big questions remain unanswered. For example, it is unclear whether the sequencing of a whole genome violates the patents of individual genes within it. The case may yet reach the Supreme Court. AS the industry advances, however, other suits may have an even greater impact. Companies are unlikely to file many more patents for human DNA molecules - most are already patented or in the public domain .firms are now studying how genes interact, looking for correlations that might be used to determine the causes of disease or predict a drug‘s efficacy. Companies are eager to win patents for ?connecting the dots‘, explains Hans Sauer, a lawyer for the BIO. Their success may be determined by a suit related to this issue, brought by the Mayo Clinic, which the Supreme Court will hear in its next term. The BIO recently held a convention which included sessions to coach lawyers on the shifting landscape for patents. Each meeting was packed. 31. It can be learned from paragraph I that the biotech companies would like______ A. their executives to be active B. judges to rule out gene patenting C. genes to be patentable D. the BIO to issue a warning 32. Those who are against gene patents believe that_____ A. genetic tests are not reliable B. only man-made products are patentable C. patents on genes depend much on innovations D. courts should restrict access to genetic tests 33. According to Hans Sauer, companies are eager to win patents for_____ A. establishing disease correlations B. discovering gene interactions C. drawing pictures of genes D. identifying human DNA 34．By saying ―each meeting was packed‖(line4,para6)the author means that_____ A. the Supreme Court was authoritative B. the BIO was a powerful organization C. gene patenting was a great concern D. lawyers were keen to attend conventions 35. Generally speaking, the author‘s attitude toward gene patenting is_____ A. critical B. supportive C. scornful D. objective
Text 4 The great recession may be over, but this era of high joblessness is probably beginning. Before it ends, It will likely change the life course and character of a generation of young adults. And ultimately, it is likely to reshape our politics, our culture, and the character of our society for years. No one tries harder than the jobless to find silver linings in this national economic disaster. Many said that unemployment, while extremely painful, had improved them in some ways; they had become less materialistic and more financially prudent; they were more aware of the struggles of others. In limited respects, perhaps the recession will leave society better off. At the very least, it has awoken us from our national fever dream of easy riches and bigger houses, and put a necessary end to an era of reckless personal spending. But for the most part, these benefits seem thin, uncertain, and far off. In The Moral Consequences of Economic Growth, the economic historian Benjamin Friedman argues that both inside and outside the U.S. , lengthy periods of economic stagnation or decline have almost always left society more mean-spirited and less inclusive, and have usually stopped or reversed the advance of rights and freedoms. Anti-immigrant sentiment typically increases, as does conflict between races and classes. Income inequality usually falls during a recession, but it has not shrunk in this one. Indeed, this period of economic weakness may reinforce class divides, and decrease opportunities to cross them--- especially for young people. The research of Till Von Wachter, the economist in Columbia University, suggests that not all people graduating into a recession see their life chances dimmed: those with degrees from elite universities catch up fairly quickly to where they otherwise would have been if they had graduated in better times; it is the masses beneath them that are left behind. In the internet age, it is particularly easy to see the resentment that has always been hidden within American society. More difficult, in the moment, is discerning precisely how these lean times are affecting society‘s character. In many respects, the U.S. was more socially tolerant entering this recession than at any time in its history, and a variety of national polls on social conflict since then have shown mixed results. We will have to wait and see exactly how these hard times will reshape our social fabric. But they certainly it, and all the more so the longer they extend. 36.By saying ―to find silver linings‖（Line 1,Para.2）the author suggest that the jobless try to___. [A]seek subsidies from the government [B]explore reasons for the unemployment [C]make profits from the troubled economy [D]look on the bright side of the recession 37. According to Paragraph 2,the recession has made people_____. [A]realize the national dream [B]struggle against each other [C]challenge their lifestyle [D]reconsider their lifestyle 38. Benjamin Friedman believed that economic recession may_____. [A]impose a heavier burden on immigrants [B]bring out more evils of human nature [C]Promote the advance of rights and freedoms [D]ease conflicts between races and classes
39. The research of Till Von Wachther suggests that in recession graduates from elite universities tend to _____. [A]lag behind the others due to decreased opportunities [B]catch up quickly with experienced employees [C]see their life chances as dimmed as the others‘ [D]recover more quickly than the others 40. The author thinks that the influence of hard times on society is____. [A]certain [B]positive [C]trivial [D]destructive
Directions: Read the following text and answer the questions by finding information from the left column that corresponds to each of the marked details given in the right column. There are two extra choices in the right column. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEERT 1.(10 points) Universal history, the history of what man has accomplished in this world, is at bottom the History of the Great Men who have worked here,‖ wrote the Victorian sage Thomas Carlyle. Well, not any more it is not. Suddenly, Britain looks to have fallen out with its favourite historical form. This could be no more than a passing literary craze, but it also points to a broader truth about how we now approach the past: less concerned with learning from forefathers and more interested in feeling their pain. Today, we want empathy, not inspiration. From the earliest days of the Renaissance, the writing of history meant recounting the exemplary lives of great men. In 1337, Petrarch began work on his rambling writing De Viris Illustribus - On Famous Men, highlighting the virtus (or virtue) of classical heroes. Petrarch celebrated their greatness in conquering fortune and rising to the top. This was the biographical tradition which Niccolo Machiavelli turned on its head. In The Prince, the championed cunning, ruthlessness, and boldness, rather than virtue, mercy and justice, as the skills of successful leaders. Over time, the attributes of greatness shifted. The Romantics commemorated the leading painters and authors of their day, stressing the uniqueness of the artist's personal experience rather than public glory. By contrast, the Victorian author Samual Smiles wrote Self-Help as a catalogue of the worthy lives of engineers , industrialists and explores . "The valuable examples which they furnish of the power of self-help, if patient purpose, resolute working and steadfast integrity, issuing in the formulation of truly noble and many character, exhibit,"wrote Smiles."what it is in the power of each to accomplish for himself." His biographies of James Walt, Richard Arkwright difficult life. This was all a bit bourgeois for Thomas Carlyle, who focused his biographies on the truly heroic lives of Martin Luther, Oliver Cromwell and Napoleon Bonaparte. These epochal figures represented lives hard to imitate, but to and Josiah Wedgwood were held up as beacons to guide the working man through his
be acknowledged as possessing higher authority than mere mortals. Communist Manifesto. For them, history did nothing, it possessed no immense wealth nor waged battles: ―It is man, real, living man who does all that.‖ And history should be the s tory of the masses and their record of struggle. As such, it needed to appreciate the economic realities, the social contexts and power relations in which each epoch stood. For:―Men make their own history, but they do not make it just as they please; they do not make it under circumstances chosen by themselves, but under circumstances directly found, given and transmitted from the past.‖ This was the tradition which revolutionized our appreciation of the past. In place of Thomas Carlyle, Britain nurtured Christopher Hill, EP Thompson and Eric Hobsbawm. History from below stood alongside biographies of great men. Whole new realms of understanding - from gender to race to cultural studies - were opened up as scholars unpicked the multiplicity of lost societies. And it transformed public history too: downstairs became just as fascinating as upstairs.
[A] emphasized the virtue of classical heroes. 41. Petrarch 42. Niccolo Machiavellli 43. Samuel Smiles 44. Thomas Carlyle 45. Marx and Engels [B] highlighted the public glory of the leading artists. [C] focused on epochal figures whose lives were hard to imitate. [D] opened up new realms of understanding the great men in history. [E] held that history should be the story of the masses and their record of struggle. [F] dismissed virtue as unnecessary for successful leaders. [G] depicted the worthy lives of engineer industrialists and explorers.
Directions: Read the following text carefully and then translate it into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. ( 15 points) When people in developing countries worry about migration, they are usually concerned at the prospect of their best and brightest departure to Silicon Valsey or to hospitals and universities in the developed world. These are the kind of workers that countries like Britain Canada and Australia try to attract by using immigration rules that privilege college graduates. Lots of studies have found that well-education people form developing counting are particularly likely to emigrants , A big survey of Indian households in 2004found that nearly 40% of emigrants had morn than a high-school education ,compared with around 3.3%of all Indian over the age of 25. This "brain drain" has long bothered policymakers in poor counties .They fear that it hurts their economies, depriving them of much-needed skilled worker who could have taught at their universities, worked in their hospital and come up with clever new product for their factories to make Section IV Writing Part A
47. Directions Suppose you have found something wrong with the electronic dictionary that you bought from an online store the other day, Write an email to the customer service center to 1) Make a complaint and 2) Demand a prompt solution You should write about 100words on ANSERE SHEET 2 Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter, Use "zhang wei "instead. 48、write an essay based on the following table .In your writing you should 1) Describe the table, and 2) Give your comments You should write at least 150 words (15points)
2012 年全国硕士研究生入学考试英语二答案 Section Ⅰ Use of English 1-5 BBAAC 6-10 DCADB 11-15 DBCDC 16-20 ACBBD Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension Part A Text 1 21-25 Text 2 26-30 Text 3 31-35 Text 4 36-40 Part B 41-45 AFGCE ACABD ABDCC CBACD DDBDA
Part C 当发展中国家的人们提起对移民的担忧， 他们通常是在担心本国最优秀、 最聪明的人前往发达国家的 ―硅谷‖、医院和大学之后本国的前景。英国、加拿大和澳大利亚这样的国家给予了大学毕业生优先的移民 政策，试图吸引的就是这些优秀的劳动者。 大量调查表明，发展中国家中受过良好教育的人们更倾向于移民。2004 年，一项对印度家庭的大规 模调查显示，接近 40%的印度移民接受过高中以上的教育，而年龄在 25 岁以上的印度人当中受过高中以 上教育的人只有 3.3%。―人才流失‖一直困扰着落后国家的政策制定者。他们担心这种状况会损害本国的 经济发展，使其失去急需的技术人才，而这些人本应当留在国内教书、行医，并创造出新的先进产品让本 国的工厂生产制造。 Section IV Writing
Part A Directions: Suppose you have found something wrong with the electronic dictionary that you bought from an online store the other day. Write an email to the customer service center to 1) make a complaint, and 2) demand a prompt solution. You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use ―Zhang Wei‖ instead. Do not write the address. (10 points) 审题谋篇： 2012 再次考查书信的写法，这已经是英语二在出台以来第三次考查书信，第一次考察感谢信，第二 次考察祝贺信。此次考察投诉信。英语二作为和英语一并行的英语试卷，和英语一在保持主流体型一致的 情况下，又不得不和英语一进行区别，考察了工作实用的投诉题材，体现了专业硕士的特点。不过这应用 文考查的电子辞典却是常考话题，考生应该不会出现措手不及，无话可写的情况。和英语一样，仍然围绕 学生能够接触到的学校生活的进行考察。 首先，根据题干要求明确写作对象，语域和结尾礼词。 本文的写作对象是即网店的客服部门或客服经理。 所以称呼可以使用 Dear Sir or Madam。 本文是一篇 以学生消费者名义写出的一篇投诉信，属于公务信函，写作过程中应尽量使用正式语体。 结尾礼词可以 使用 Yours sincerely/ Sincerely yours,署名要严格遵守题目要求，使用 Zhang Wei. 其次， 根据题目规定的话题， 构思作文。 此处通常是考生犯下致命错误的地方： 漏掉题目要求的要点， 这样的错误在阅卷过程中是要严重。1) make a complaint 购物，还应提供相应的发票信息等以供查询。 参考范文 Dear Sir or Madam, I am writing to express my disappointment regarding the electronic dictionary that I bought from your on-line store last week, with the invoice number of ED53407. I have to complain about the poor quality of the dictionary. For one thing, the dictionary often automatically turns off at the very moment I am eager to see the word explanations. For another, it seems loose in the 2) demand a prompt solution. 另外，因为是网络
conjunction part. The screen part can not be properly settled. Since the problems are unaccepted to me, I would like to get a refund or a new dictionary that can work well. Your prompt response will be highly appreciated. Yours sincerely, Zhang Wei 范文分析： 本篇范文很好地完成了题目规定的任务： 陈述对产品进行投诉和要求厂家尽快给出解决方案， 内容要 点完整。文章开篇直奔主题，表达了写信目的，因为上周在网店买了一本电子辞典，使用后很失望，因要 投诉。第二段具体列出了建议的产品在性能方面不能正常运转的具体方面，使用了必要连贯手法，比如 For one thing, For another,之类的介词短语，让表达流畅有序、环环相扣。最后，针对出现的问题，要求退 款或者更换产品，文章层次清晰，结构完整，语言流畅，句式丰富，达到了应用文的基本要求。 译文： 尊敬的先生/女士： 我写这封信是为了对于上周我从你们的网上商店购买的电子词典表达我失望,发票号码是ED53407。 我买的电子词典的质量很差，让我非常不满意。一方面，它经常在我急于浏览一个单词的解释的时候 突然自动关机。另一方面，词典两个部分结合的部分好像很松，不能很好的支撑住屏幕部分。 既然这次点的问题都使我不能接受， 我希望你们能够为我办理退款， 或者给我更换一台新的功能良好 的词典。希望能这问题能够得到尽快的解决。 忠诚的客户, 张 Part B Directions: Write an essay based on the following table. In your writing, you should 1) describe the table, and 2) give your comments. You should write at least 150 words. Write your essay on ANSWER SHEET 2. (15 points) 某公司员工工作满意度调查 伟
满意度 满意 年龄组 ≤40 岁 41~50 岁 ＞50 岁 16.7% 0.0% 40.0% 50.0% 36.0% 50.0% 33.3% 64.0% 10.0% 不清楚 不满意
审题谋篇： 考研英语二短短 3 年的历史上，基本上都考察图表作文。图标作文的类型基本可以分为 table(表格)、 line graph(曲线图)、bar chart／column graph(条形图／柱形图)、pie chart(饼图)四种。其中 2010 年考察柱 状图，2011 年还是柱状图，2012 年考察表格作文。可见四种体型在未来几年都有可能涉及。而从话题上 来讲，2010 年考察手机订阅数据，2011 年考察中国市场外资和国产汽车品牌的销售数据，2012 年考察不 同年龄段职场人士工作满意度的调查数据。 1 描述图表。 图表类型及对策。 表格作文有一定的难度， 所以不少考生在表格图这部分栽了跟头． 表 格中数字较多，考生要很好的完成任务需要做到详略得当。表格数据凌乱、繁多，图形不够直观、数据间 的关系较为隐蔽。这就要求考生有较强的判断与分析能力，在复杂的数据中进行量化比较和趋向分析，得 到一个一般性的结论（general idea） 。本题员工满意度的人群分类是按年龄段来区分的，并且这几个年龄 段的工作满意度呈现不同的趋势， 可以把年龄作为一个突破口来分析得出年龄越大满意度越大这样的一般 性结论。 2．对图表内容进行论述。 针对本篇文章具体结论， 可以在论证部分进行出现上述趋势的原因。 工作满意度高或低的原因可以 从工作本身以及社会背景和个人人生态度等方面来论证。 最后需要说明的是，无论何种表格，对于数据都可以进行加减乘除的运算，其目的是算出增减规律。 这样做就避免了表格作文中简单地数据罗列， 既可以使文章的描写手段变化多样， 又能得到更好的对比效 果。 参考范文： The table above revealed an overall picture of job satisfaction among employment of different age groups. Based upon the data of the table, most people under 40 are unclear or dissatisfied with their job, and 64% of those between 40 and 50 are not satisfied. For people over 50, the degree of satisfaction largely exceeds the younger groups under 40, amounting to 40%. The phenomenon that elder people find more pleasure in job compared with the young may be rooted in the following reasons. First, people between 30 and 50 face more pressure to support the family, both the children and the senior, so that they neglect to enjoy in work. Second, the senior citizens have developed a lot in personality, so they are more prone to see the optimistic aspects of the work. Last, the current family pattern of ―one family one Child‖ cause the aging of the society, which has posed more social responsibility to people under 50. To sum up, the senior citizens enjoys more content than the young people. In order to improve this situation, and make life of those who are between 40s and 50s easier, the authorities, relevant departments and certain enterprises, should adopt some measures to increase salaries and perfect welfare system. What‘s more, adults under 40 themselves should also treat their work with a positive and proper attitude and spare more time on physical practice after long-hour work. Only in this way can we assure that as many people as possible will live a contented life. 亮点词汇： job satisfaction: 工作满意度 exceed : v 超过 be rooted in: 根源于 support: 赡养，供养 be prone to: 易于……；有……的倾向 senior: 年老的
family pattern: 家庭体制 content：n. 满足 亮点句型： 1. The phenomenon that elder people find more pleasure in job compared with the young may be rooted in the following reasons. 句子成分分析： The phenomenon 主语 may be rooted 谓语 in the following reasons. 介词短语作宾语
引导同位语从句 find 谓语动词 more pleasure 宾语 in job 介词短语作状语 compared with the young 过去分词短语作状语
句子写作过程： 第一步：先写出简单句：The phenomenon may be rooted in the following reasons. 第二步：写出定语从句 that elder people find more pleasure in job compared with the young 解释主语 phenomenon。 句子写作策略： 本句写作策略是同位语从句。 2. In order to improve this situation, and make life of those who are between 40s and 50s easier, the authorities, relevant departments and certain enterprises, should adopt some measures to increase salaries and perfect welfare system. 句子成分分析： In order to improve this situation, 介词短语作目的状语 the authorities 主语 and 并列连词 should adopt 并列谓语动词 1 perfect 并列谓语动词 2 and 并列连词 make life of those easier, 并列不定式 to increase salaries 不定式作目的状语
some measures 宾语 1
welfare system. 宾语 2 who who are between 40s and 50s 引导定语从句
relevant departments and certain enterprises, 句子写作过程：
第一步： 先写出简单的并列句： the authorities, should adopt some measures to increase salaries and perfect welfare system. 第二步：加连词插入语 relevant departments and certain enterprises, 限定主语 the authorities。 第三步：加入 in order to 引导的介词短语作目的状语，其中包含两个并列的不定式。 句子写作策略： 本句写作策略是不定式、插入语、和并列结构。 范文分析： 这篇作文考察到一个现代社会的流行话题：工作满意度（job satisfaction)。本次短文写作考察图表作 文的写法。 本范文基本符合图表写作的要求。首先第一段首句 The table above revealed an overall picture of job satisfaction among employment of different age groups. 总体描述图表的主要内容。 然后首段用两个句子勾画 出了图表所代表的大体趋势是 50 岁以上的中老年人工作满意度明显高于 40 所以下的年轻人。 在描写过程 中，适当引用了具体数字。 第二段简要分析了这种趋势发生的原因。一方面是 50 岁以下的年轻人正值当年，面临着工上有老下 有小的压力。另一方面，从 50 岁以上的人来讲，他们性格和事业都趋于稳定。而看待问题的态度也更趋 于乐观。这是原因之二。 结尾段进一步总结了图表所反映的趋势， 建议给 50 岁以下年轻人减压和增强满意度的的措施和方法。 从社会机制保障上和个人生活方式的改变两个方面来改变。 本文描述图表简要，准确，并且能够适时点出图表所反映的内容和一般概念。语言形式上丰富多样， 用词准确，很好的完成了写作任务。
译文： 上面的表格揭示出一个不同年龄段的工作满意度的总体情况。基于表中数据，40 岁以下大多数人都 不清楚或不满意他们的工作, 40 到 50 岁之间的人群多达 64%的人不满意。对于 50 岁以上的人，工作满意 程度上远远超过了 40 岁以下的年轻群体，高达 40%。 年老的人在工作中能够发现更多的乐趣这一现象中可能有以下原因导致。首先，30 到 50 岁之间的人 面临更大压力，以支持家庭，养孩子和老人等，使他们忽视享受工作的乐趣。第二，50 岁以上中老年人 在人格方面已经趋于成熟，更容易乐观的看待工作中的不快。最后，当前的家庭模式的―一个家庭一个孩 子‖导致老化的社会，其中为 50 岁以下的年轻人提出了更多的社会责任。 总之，中老年人比年轻人在工作中享受到更多的满意度。为了改善这一状况，使那些 40 到 50 岁之间 的人的生活更容易。政府，有关部门和某些企业，应该采取一些措施来提高工资和完善的福利制度。更重 要的是， 中年人本身也应该把他们的长久的工作以外的时间更多进行身体锻炼。 只有用这种方法我们才能 确保尽可能多的人过上满意的生活。
Section I Use of English Directions： Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered black and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points) The Internet affords anonymity to its users, a blessing to privacy and freedom of speech. But that very anonymity is also behind the explosion of cyber-crime that has 1 across the Web. Can privacy be preserved 2 bringing safety and security to a world that seems increasingly 3 ?
Last month, Howard Schmidt, the nation‘s cyber-czar, offered the federal government a 4 to make the Web a safer place-a ―voluntary trusted identity‖ system that would be the high -tech 5 of a physical key, a fingerprint and a photo ID card, all rolled 6 one. The system might use a smart identity card, or a digital credential 7 to a specific computer .and would authenticate users at a range of online services. The idea is to 8 a federation of private online identity systems. User could 9 which system to join, and only registered users whose identities have been authenticated could navigate those systems. The approach contrasts with one that would require an Internet driver‘s license 10 by the government.
Google and Microsoft are among companies that already have these ―single sign -on‖ systems that make it possible for users to 11 just once but use many different services.
12 .the approach would create a ―walled garden‖ n cyberspace, with safe ―neighborhoods‖ and bright ―streetlights‖ to establish a sense of a 13 community.
Mr. Schmidt described it as a ―voluntary ecosystem‖ in which ―individuals and organizations can complete online transactions with 14 ,trusting the identities of each other and the identities of the infrastructure 15 which the transaction runs‖. Still, the administration‘s plan has 16 privacy rights activists. Some applaud the approach; others are concerned. It seems clear that such a scheme is an initiative push toward what would 17 be a compulsory Internet ―drive‘s license‖ mentality. The plan has also been greeted with 18 by some computer security experts, who worry that the ―voluntary ecosystem‖ envisioned by Mr. Schmidt would still leave much of the Internet 19 .They argue that all Internet users should be 20 to register and identify themselves, in the same way that drivers must be licensed to drive on public roads. 1. A. swept 2. A. for 3. A. careless 4. A. reason 5. A. information 6. A. by 7. A. linked 8. A. dismiss 9. A. recall 10. A. released 11. A. carry on 12. A. In vain 13. A. trusted B. skipped B. within B. lawless B. reminder B. interference B. into B. directed B. discover B. suggest B. issued B .linger on B. In effect B. modernized C. walked C. while C. pointless C. compromise C. entertainment C. from C. chained C. create C. select C. distributed C. set in C. In return c. thriving D. ridden D. though D. helpless D. proposal D. equivalent D. over D. compared D. improve D. realize D. delivered D. log in D. In contrast D. competing
14. A. caution 15. A. on 16. A. divided 17. A. frequently 18. A. skepticism 19. A. manageable 20. A. invited
B. delight B. after B. disappointed B. incidentally B. relevance B. defendable B. appointed
C. confidence C. beyond C. protected C. occasionally C. indifference C. vulnerable C. allowed
D. patience D. across D. united D. eventually D. enthusiasm D. invisible D. forced
Section II Part A Directions:
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40points) Text 1 Ruth Simmons joined Goldman Sachs‘s board as an outside director in January 2000: a yea r later she became president of Brown University. For the rest of the decade she apparently managed both roles without attracting much eroticism. But by the end of 2009 Ms. Simmons was under fire for having sat on Goldman‘s compensation committee; how could she have let those enormous bonus payouts pass unremarked? By February the next year Ms. Simmons had left the board. The position was just taking up too much time, she said. Outside directors are supposed to serve as helpful, yet less biased, advisers on a firm‘s board. Having made their wealth and their reputations elsewhere, they presumably have enough independence to disagree with the chief executive‘s proposals. If the sky, and the share price is falling, outside directors should be able to give advice based on having weathered their own crises. The researchers from Ohio University used a database hat covered more than 10,000 firms and more than 64,000 different directors between 1989 and 2004. Then they simply checked which directors stayed from one proxy statement to the next. The most likely reason for departing a board was age, so the researchers concentrated on those ―surprise‖ disappearances by directors under the age of 70. They fount that after a surprise departure, the probability that the company will subsequently have to restate earnings increased by nearly 20%. The likelihood of being named in a federal class-action lawsuit also increases, and the stock is likely to perform worse. The effect tended to be larger for larger firms. Although a correlation between them leaving and subsequent bad performance at the firm is suggestive, it does not mean that such directors are always jumping off a sinking ship. Often they ―trade up.‖ Leaving riskier, smaller firms for larger and more stable firms. But the researchers believe that outside directors have an easier time of avoiding a blow to their reputations if they leave a firm before bad news breaks, even if a review of history shows they were on the board at the time any wrongdoing occurred. Firms who want to keep their outside directors through tough times may have to create incentives. Otherwise outside directors will follow the example of Ms. Simmons, once again very popular on campus. 21. According to Paragraph 1, Ms. Simmons was criticized for [A]gaining excessive profits [B]failing to fulfill her duty [C]refusing to make compromises [D]leaving the board in tough times 22. We learn from Paragraph 2 that outside directors are supposed to be . .
[A]generous investors [B]unbiased executives [C]share price forecasters [D]independent advisers 23. According to the researchers from Ohio University after an outside director‘s surprise departure, the firm is likely to . [A]become more stable [B]report increased earnings [C]do less well in the stock market [D]perform worse in lawsuits 24. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that outside directors [A]may stay for the attractive offers from the firm [B]have often had records of wrongdoings in the firm [C]are accustomed to stress-free work in the firm [D]will decline incentives from the firm 25. The author‘s attitude toward the role of outside directors is [A]permissive [B]positive [C]scornful [D]critical Text 2 Whatever happened to the death of newspaper? A year ago the end seemed near. The recession threatened to remove the advertising and readers that had not already fled to the internet. Newspapers like the San Francisco Chronicle were chronicling their own doom. America‘s Federal Trade commission launched a r ound of talks about how to save newspapers. Should they become charitable corporations? Should the state subsidize them ? It will hold another meeting soon. But the discussions now seem out of date. In much of the world there is the sign of crisis. German and Brazilian papers have shrugged off the recession. Even American newspapers, which inhabit the most troubled come of the global industry, have not only survived but often returned to profit. Not the 20% profit margins that were routine a few years ago, but profit all the same. It has not been much fun. Many papers stayed afloat by pushing journalists overboard. The American Society of News Editors reckons that 13,500 newsroom jobs have gone since 2007. Readers are paying more for slimmer products. Some papers even had the nerve to refuse delivery to distant suburbs. Yet these desperate measures have proved the right ones and, sadly for many journalists, they can be pushed further. Newspapers are becoming more balanced businesses, with a healthier mix of revenues from readers and advertisers. American papers have long been highly unusual in their reliance on ads. Fully 87% of their revenues came from advertising in 2008, according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD). In Japan the proportion is 35%. Not surprisingly, Japanese newspapers are much more stable. The whirlwind that swept through newsrooms harmed everybody, but much of the damage has been concentrated in areas where newspaper are least distinctive. Car and film reviewers have gone. So have science and general business reporters. Foreign bureaus have been savagely cut off. Newspapers are less complete as a result. But completeness is no longer a virtue in the newspaper business. 26. By saying ―Newspapers like … their own doom‖ (Lines 3-4, Para. 1), the author indicates that newspaper . . .
[A]neglected the sign of crisis [B]failed to get state subsidies [C]were not charitable corporations [D]were in a desperate situation 27. Some newspapers refused delivery to distant suburbs probably because [A]readers threatened to pay less [B]newspapers wanted to reduce costs [C]journalists reported little about these areas [D]subscribers complained about slimmer products 28. Compared with their American counterparts, Japanese newspapers are much more stable because they [A]have more sources of revenue [B]have more balanced newsrooms [C]are less dependent on advertising [D]are less affected b