牛津英语模块 1 至模块 4 语法总结及练习 第一单元
1. 就像是一个形容词或介词短语修饰名词一样，定语从句也可以修饰名词。定语从句所 修饰的名词称为先行词。 形容词： The green team 介词短语：The team in green 定语从句：The team who were wearing green 定语从句通常由关系代词来引导，如 which, that, who, whom, whose,或关系副词来引 导，如 when, where, why。关系代词可以在定语从句中担当主语，宾语，表语，定语； 关系副词可以在定语从句中担当状语。 如：做主语 The trees which are on the school campus have lost their leaves. 做宾语 The student whom we saw just now is the best runner in our school. 做表语 Jack is no longer the lazy boy that he used to be. 做定语 She has a brother whose name I can’t remember. 做状语 The school where he studied is in Shenzhen.
二 定语从句：关系代词：that，which，who，whom，和 whose
1. 2. 3. 在定语从句中，that 和 which 用来指代物。 eg：This is the story that /which we wrote for our storytelling contest. 在定语从句中，who 用来指代人。 eg：I am going to see a friend who has just come back from the UK. 当 who 在定语从句中做宾语时，可以用 whom 来取代，且 whom 比 who 更正式。 eg：I don’t know the name of the teacher who/whom I saw in the computer room the other day. 当关系代词在定语从句中做宾语时，who，whom，which 和 that 可以被省略。 eg：He likes all the birthday presents(that/which)his friends gave him. Whose 用来表示所属，它既可指人也可指物。 eg：I sat next to a girl whose name was Diane. The club whose members are music fans meet in the school garden every Saturday afternoon.
一 定语从句： 介词提前的定语从句 （preposition＋which; preposition ＋whom）
1. 当关系代词（which/whom）做定语从句中介词的宾语时，可以把介词提到关系代词的 前面。 eg：We thought you were a person from whom we could expect good decisions. 在非正式英语中，介词通常放在定语从句的最后。
eg：Art is the subject which I know little about. 如果介词放在定语从句的最后，which 可以被 that 取代，whom 可以被 that 和 who 取 代。 eg：Dad is a person whom/that/who I can easily talk to. 当关系代词做定语从句中介词的宾语，并且介词又放在定语从句的末尾时，我们通常 省略关系代词 who 和 that。 eg：The topic (which) Eric is interested in is Physics. Daniel is the person (whom) I want to make friends with. 当先行词是 way 时，我们用 in which 或 that 来引导定语从句，这种情况下，in which 或 that 可以被省略。 eg：I didn’t like the way (that /in which) she talked to me.
1． 我们通常用关系副词 when 引导先行词是 time，moment，day，season，year 等的定 语从句。 eg：Do you remember the day when we left you in charge? I often think of the moment when I saw the UFO. 2． 我们通常用关系副词 where 引导先行词是 place，house，city，country，city，world 等的定语从句。 eg：The police searched the house where the thief had stayed. This is not a family where bad behavior goes unpunished. 3． 我们通常用关系副词 why 引导先行词是 reason 的定语从句。 eg：I don’t know the reason why the house is so dirty. 4． 在更加正式的英语中，where，when 和 why 能够被介词＋which 所替代。 eg：The study is the place where/in which I often have talks with my father. This is the reason why/for which my parents got home earlier. It rained the whole day when/on which he traveled with his family.
1． 非限制性定语从句是一个为主句添加额外信息的从句，在非限制性定语从句前通常有 个逗号。 eg：Amy, who took weight-loss pills, now realizes that health is important. My pills are in the bathroom, where I always keep them. 2． 当先行词是整个主句时，可以用 which 来引导定语从句。 eg：He missed the show, which was a great pity. 3． 我们可以用 all＋whom/which 来表示全部数量，用 some of＋whom/which 来表示部分 数量。 eg：I am doing different types of exercises, all of which are quite helpful to my health. Many people, some of whom are not overweight, are going on diet. 定语从句练习 1. Is this the factory __________ you visited the other day?
B. where C. in which D. the one
2. Is this factory __________ some foreign friends visited last Friday? A. that B. where C. which D. the one 3. Is this the factory __________ he worked ten years ago? A. that B. where C. which D. the one 4. The wolves hid themselves in the places __________ couldn’t be found. A. that B. where C. in which D. in that 5. The freezing point is the temperature __________ water changes into ice. A. at which B. on that C. in which D. of what 6. The reason is __________ he is unable to operate the machine. A. because B. why C. that D. whether 7. I’ll tell you __________ he told me last week. A. all which B. that C. all that D. which 8. That tree, __________ branches are almost bare, is very old. A. whose B. of which C. in which D. on which 9. I have bought the same dress __________ she is wearing. A. as B. that C. which D. what
10. We’re talking about the piano and the pianist _________ were in the concert we attended last night. A. which B. whom C. who D. that 11. Anyone __________ this opinion may speak out. A. that againsts B. that against C. who is against D. who are against 12. Didn’t you see the man __________? I nodded just now B. whom I nodded just now D. I nodded to just now
C. I nodded to him just now
13. Is there anything __________ to you? A. that is belonged B. that belongs C. that belong D. which belongs 14. ---- ―How do you like the book?‖ ---- ―It’s quite different from __________ I read last month.‖ A. that B. which C. the one D. the one what
15. Mr. Zhang gave the textbook to all the pupils except __________ who had already taken them. A. the ones B. ones C. some D. the others
16. The train __________ she was travelling was late. A. which B. where C. on which D. in that
17. It’s the third time __________ late this month. A. that you arrived B. when you arrived
C. that you’ve arrived D. when you’ve arrived 18. May the fourth is the day __________ we Chinese people will never forget. A. which B. when C. on which D. about which
19. Is it in that factory __________ ―Red Flag‖ cars are produced? A. in which B. where C. which D. that 20. He must be from Africa, __________ can be seen from his skin. A. that B. as C. who D. what
21. He has two sons, __________ work as chemists. A. two of whom B. both of whom C. both of which D. all of whom 22. I, __________ your good friend, will try my best to help you out. A. who is B. who am C. that is D. what is 23. I don’t like __________ you speak to her. A. the way B. the way in that C. the way which D. the way of which
24. The two things ______they felt very proud are Jim’s gold watch and Della’s hair. A. about which B. of which C. in which D. for which 25. Do you know which hotel __________? A. she is staying B. she is staying in C. is she staying D. is she staying in 26. Who can think of a situation __________ this idiom can be used? A. which B. that C. where D. in that 27. The astronaut did many experiments in the spaceship, ___much help for knowing space. which we think it is B. which we think are of C. of which we think is D. I think which is of 28. The great day we looked forward to __________ at last
29. I like the second football match __________ was held last week. A. which B. who C. that D. /
30. This is the very film _______ I've long wished to see. A. which B. that C. who D. whom
31.The house ______the capitalist used to live in is now a nursery. A. that B. where C. what D. when
32.The doctor did all_______ to save the wounded boy. A. what he could B. he could C. everything which he could D. for which he could do 33. _____you know, he is a famous musician. A. As B. which C. That D.／
34.He is the only one of the three______ got the new idea. A. who have B. whom have C. who has D. whose had 35.This is the baby____________ tomorrow. A. after whom I shall look C. whose I shall look after B. whom I shall look after D. after whom I shall look after
36. These students will graduate from the university next summer, __ they will have studied here for four years. A. by then B. by that time C. by what time D. by which time
37. This is the house the window __________ faces the south. A. of which B. which C. of it D. whose
38. It is five o’clock in the afternoon _________ they arrived at the hotel. A. since B. before C. when D. that
39. In some countries, _____is called ―equality‖ does not really mean equal rights for all people. A. which B. what C. that D. one 40. --- How about the games? ---Very interesting, and the ones _____the young men competed were really exciting A. what B. for whom C. where D. in which
1． 附加疑问句是放在陈述句后面的短问句。它们通常被用在口语中来引出一段对话，以 一个更加礼貌的方式来询问信息，温柔的发号施令或要求某人做某事。我们用附加疑 问句来询问意见或征求同意。 当我们用附加疑问句来询问意见时，为了期待对方能同意我们的观点，附加疑问句会 用降调来表达。 当我们用附加疑问句来征求同意时，我们实际上是在询问我们自己也不太能确信的事 情，这时候附加疑问句会用升调来表达。 2． 附加疑问句的构成有以下几种： 1） 在肯定的陈述句之后，我们会用否定的附加疑问句。在否定的陈述句之后，我们会用 肯定的附加疑问句。 eg：We can still be friends, can’t we? He doesn’t like ice cream, does he? 当主句中有像 neither，none，nobody，nothing，few，little，never，hardly 或 seldom 这类词时，它们被认为是否定的，因此后面会跟个肯定的附加疑问句。 eg：Neither of you will have coffee, will you? No one has found my CD, have they? Nobody understood his speech, did they? His sister seldom argues with people, does she? 人称代词如 I，we，you，he，she，it 或 they 会放在附加疑问句中。 eg：I was pretty silly, wasn’t I? Everyone has advises you not to go on a diet, haven’t you? 助动词，情态动词或 be 动词会放在附加疑问句中。 eg：You like traveling, don’t you? There is something wrong, isn’t there? You can’t speak Italian, can you? 祁使句后用 will you， Let’s 后用 shall we eg：Post a letter for me, will you? Let’s have a break, shall we? 反意疑问句 1 He hurt his leg when playing football. He is very unlucky, ____ he? A is B didn’t C isn’t D does
2 John is a diligent student who spends most of his time studying, ____ he? A hadn’t B had C does D isn’t
3 –They don’t answer the phone when I call. --There isn’t any one at home then, ___? A isn’t there B is there C is it D isn’t it 4 It seldom snows in winter in Shanghai, ___? A doesn’t it B isn’t it C is it D does it
5 She has already plans for the summer holidays, ____? A hasn’t she B isn’t she C doesn’t she D hadn’t it
6 Mother loves reading. She never spends time watching TV, ____? A does she B will she C have she D doesn’t she
7 It is the first time that she has been to the United States, ____? A isn’t she B isn’t it C hasn’t she D hasn’t it
8 I don’t think he is right, ___? A do I B don’t I C is he D isn’t he
1． 我们用现在完成时态来表示在最近的过去发生的但跟现在有联系的事情。 eg：The disappearance of Justin has made Kelly very unhappy. 2． 我们也用现在完成时态来表示在过去刚开始，并且现在还没结束的事情。 eg：I have not seen Justin since last Friday night. 当动作发生的确切时间不清楚或不重要时，我们也用现在完成时态。经常连用的时间 短语有： already, ever, for, just, lately, never, recently, since, yet, already 用于肯定句， yet 用于否定句。 eg：The boy has already come home. I haven’t heard anything from him yet. for+一段时间 since+点时间 eg：We haven’t seen him for two years. We haven’t seen him since 2002. 注：当已给定具体的时间时，我们往往用一般过去时态，而不是现在完成时态。 我们用现在完成时态来谈论刚刚完成的动作。 eg：The police have just finished searching the area. 我们也用现在完成时态来表示重复的动作。 eg：Some villages say that they have seen UFOs many times. 现在完成时态的构成是：have/has+动词的过去分词
1． 我们用现在完成进行时态来表示在过去发生的并且仍将继续的动作。 eg：I have not been sleeping well since I returned home. 2． 我们用现在完成进行时态来表示刚刚结束但以某种方式和现在有联系的动作。 eg：--- Sorry I’m late. Have you been waiting long? --- Yes, I’ve been waiting for an hour. 3． 现在完成进行时态的构成：have/has +been +doing 注：for 和 since 和现在完成进行时态连用。
eg：I have been waiting for a long time. He has been waiting since nine o’clock.
1． 我们用现在完成时态来谈论刚刚完成的动作，用现在完成进行时态来表示发生在过去 并且现在仍在发生的动作。 eg：Li Jia has read a book about Stonehenge. (She finished reading the book.) Li Jia has been reading a book about Stonehenge. (She is still reading the book.) 2． 我们用现在完成时态表示重复的动作，用现在完成进行时态来表示不停的动作。 eg：I have visited Egypt twice this month. I have been touring Egypt for two months. 现在完成时态用于回答 how many/much 的提问，现在完成进行时态用于回答 how long 的提问。 eg：How many times have you swum in the lake? How long have you been swimming in the lake? 3．状态动词和动作动词都可以用在现在完成时态中，但只有动作动词可以用在现在完成进 行时态中。 eg：I have had this camera for five years. (状态动词) I have taken photos of UFO with this camera. （动作动词） I have been taking photos of UFO with this camera. （动作动词） 注：动作动词表示发生或变化的动作，如 go，play。状态动词表示保持不变的动作， 如 like， know，exist 4． 当 never，yet，already，ever 出现在句子中时，只用现在完成时态，而不用现在完成 进行时态。 eg：I’ve never visited Paris. I’ve already been to Paris.
1． 我们用将来进行时态来： 1） 谈论将来一段时间正在进行的事情。 eg：Toby will be climbing in the Himalayas all next week 2） 谈论从将来的某一点开始并且有可能要持续一段时间的事情。 eg：Toby will not be in London next Tuesday. He will be climbing in the Himalayas. 3） 没有任何意图的表达将来的事情。 eg：The weather report says that it will be raining when we arrive in London. (在这种情况下表示事情是很自然的发生的，没有人为的安排.) 4） 礼貌地询问有关其他人将来的计划。 eg：Will you be visiting your uncle in Tanzania?
2． 将来进行时态的构成： 1） 陈述句：will(not)+v-ing eg：Toby and his brother, Colin, will (not) be flying to Morocco. 2） 疑问句：will 提到主语的前面 eg：Will they be flying to Morocco on 15th July? 3） 回答：will（not） eg：Yes, they will. /No, they will not(won’t)
1． 我们用过去将来时态和过去进行时态来： 1） 表示过去的将来某一时间要发生的动作。 eg：They set off at 9 a.m. and would reach the airport an hour later. 2) 暗指一个过去的目的。 eg：I was going to leave, but then it rained. 3) 暗指一个过去的安排。 eg：Colin called Jennifer to say that he was seeing her later that afternoon. 4) 指代实际已经发生过的将来的动作。 eg：The journey that was to change Toby’s life started in July that year. 2． 陈述句中过去将来时态的构成： 1） would +动词原形 eg：I told you Colin and I would spend a few weeks traveling. 2) was/were going to，was /were to , was/were about to eg：We were going to see the wild animals, but then we didn’t have time. It was his last day at school---he was to leave the next morning. Colin was about to get off the camel when a child ran towards him.
1． 我们用一般过去时态来谈论一个过去的动作。当我们想要谈论比过去更早的时间里发 生的事情时，就用过去完成时态。 eg：Upon entering the tomb, Carter ’s lucky pet bird, which had led him to the place, was eaten by a snake. 2． 在直接引语中，我们用过去完成时态来指代说话的时候就已经发生的动作。直接引语 中的一般过去时态和现在完成时态在间接引语中改为过去完成时态。 eg： “We emptied the tomb of everything it contained,‖ said Carter.------Carter said that they had emptied the tomb of everything it contained. 3． 过去完成时态只是指在另一个过去的动作之前发生的动作，并不是指发生在一长段时 间以前的动作。 eg：I had done my homework this morning before I went to the museum. 4． 过去完成时态经常跟以下引导的时间短语连用，如 when, after, before, as soon as, until, since, by, for, already.
eg：Then a few months after Carter had opened the tomb, Lord Carnarvon fell ill with a fever and died. 5． 过去完成时态的构成：had+v-ed eg：Howard Carter had received money from Lord Carnarvon before he made his most amazing discovery.
1. 2. 当我们谈论一个与现在有关的过去的事情时，我们用现在完成时态。 eg：Howard Carter is one of the most famous explorers the world has ever known. 当我们在谈论过去，并要说明一个更早发生的动作的时候，我们就要用过去完成时态。 eg：Not long after the tomb had been opened, people in Carter ’s team began to fall ill and die strangly. 模快二
I 1—Alice’s second-hand computer_____ wrong although she used it only once. A goes B has gone C is going D had gone
2 Robert _____me his address the other day, but I’m afraid I ____it. A had given; lost B has given; have lost C gave ; have lost D gives; lost
3 I____ nothing about it before you told me the news A know B knew C had known D has known 4 --What ____these days? Still busy writing your new book? --Yes, I think I can finish it next week. A do you do B have you been doing C have you done D did you do
5 --what was the film like? --Well，I____ it____ very interesting. A thought; would be B thought; may be C think; is going to be D think; will be
6 It was the third time that he ____us about his story. A has told B told C is telling D had told
7 I forget what I was taught, I only remember what I_____. A learn B learned C have learned D had learned
8 My younger sister____ the Youth League ____2004. A has joined; in B has joined; since C had joined; since D joined; in 9 –Where ____my pen? I cann’t find it anywhere. --I ___it on this table, but now, it’s gone. A did you put; have put B have you put; put
C had you put; was putting D were you putting; have put 10 She was praised for what she___. A had done B has done C would do D does
11 I____ he would help me with my English, in fact he didn’t. A has thought B thoughtC think D had thought
12 -- Tom, your shirt is so dirty? -- Mom, I ___our storeroom downstairs and I will wash it after finishing the cleaning. A cleaned B have cleaned C was cleaning D have been cleaning 13 They___ friends since they met in New York. A have made B have become C have been D have turned 14 Nobody but the twins___ some interest in the project till now. A shows B show C have shown D has shown 15.The students don’t want to have their supper until they ____ their experiment. A finished B have finished C had finished D will finish 16 By now students in Grade One ____ 1,700 English words and phrases. A should learn B have learned C learned D learn 17 –Sorry to have kept you waiting! --I _____ here for fifty minutes. A have arrived B have got C have reached D have been 18 –Where have you been? I ____you the whole day. --I was in the library reading magazines. A have been telephoning B had telephoned C telephoned D was telephoned 19 –Hi, Tracy , you look tired. --I am tired. I____ the living room all day. A painted B had painted C have been painting D have painted
20 –why didn’t you come yesterday? --I ____ ,but I had an unexpected visitor. A had B would C was going to D did 21 –Will you be free at three o’clock tomorrow afternoon. --No, I __ a meeting at that time.
A will have
B was going to have
C will be having
D would have
22 –What were you doing when I phoned you yesterday. --I ____ just finished my homework and ___to watch TV. A have; am going B have; was going C had; was going D had; am going
23 –My father will be here tomorrow. --Oh, I thought that he ___ today. A was coming B is coming C will come D comes 24 When we reach New York, it ____. A probably will rain Bwill probably be raining C is probably raining D has probably rained 25—Is this the last exam we have to take this term? --Yes, but there ___ another test three months from now. A has B is C was D will be
26 It was said that the machine ___ sometime the next week. A had been repaired B would repair C was to be repaired D needs repairing
27 –Why did you buy this paint so early? --I ___ my bedroom tomorrow, but I changed my mind. A was going to paint B am going to paint C am painting D will paint
28 At this time tomorrow I __ a report in my office and I __ by noon. A will be writing C will have finished B will write 29 _____(打算) see Mr. Li this evening. 30--Have you cleaned your room? --Sorry, I haven’t. But I ____(表意愿）go and clean it at once. 31 The journey that _______change Toby’s life started in July that year. (必然的情况) 32 I told you Colin and I _______spend a few weeks traveling. (过去将来时) 33 We __________ see the wild animals, but then we didn’t have time.(过去的打算) 34 I ____ show you the photo ___ I was interrupted.(正打算) D will finish
1、连接代词：who, whose, whom, what, which。有词义，在从句中担任成分，如主语、 表语、宾语、或定语等。 2、连接副词：when, where, why, how。有词义，在从句中担任成分，作状语。 3、连接词：that, whether, if, as if。that 无词义，在从句中不担任成分，有时可省略；if (whether), as if 虽有词义，但在从句中不担任成分。 注意：连接代词与连接副词在句中不再是疑问句，因而从句中谓语不用疑问式。连接 代词与连接副词在从句充当句子成分，连接词 whether 和 if（是否） ，as if（好象）在从句中 不充当句子成分，只起连接作用。根据句义，如果连接代词与连接副词，whether、if 和 as if 都用不上时，才用 that 作连接词（that 本身无任何含义） 。
1、主语从句在复合句作主语。 e.g. Who will go is not important. 2、用 it 作形式主语，主语从句放在句末。 e.g. It doesn’t matter so much whether you will come or not. 3、that 引导主语从句时，不能省略。 e.g. That he suddenly fell ill last week made us surprised.
1、表语从句在复合句中作表语，位于系动词之后。 e.g. The question was who could go there. 2、引导表语从句的连接词 that 有时可省去。 e.g. My idea is (that) we can get more comrades to help in the work.
1、宾语从句在复合句中作宾语。引导宾语从句的连词 that 一般可省略。 e.g. I hope (that) everything is all right. 2、介词之后的宾语从句，不可用 which 或 if 连接，要分别用 what 或 whether。 e.g. I’m interested in whether you’ve finished the work.. I’m interested in what you’ve said. 3、whether 与 if 都可以引导宾语从句，常可互换。但下面情况不能互换。 ①宾语从句是否定句时，只用 if，不用 whether。 e.g. I wonder if it doesn’t rain. ②用 if 会引起误解，就要用 whether。 e.g. Please let me know whether you want to go. （此句如果把 whether 改成 if， 容易当成条 件句理解） ③宾语从句中的 whether 与 or not 直接连用，就不能换成 if；不直接连用，可换。 e.g. I don’t know whether or not the report is true. I don’t know whether/ if the report is true or not. ④介词后的宾语从句要用 whether 引导。whether 可与不定式连用。whether 也可引导主 语从句、表语从句、同位语从句，还可引导让步状语从句，以上均不能换成 if。但引导条件 从句时，只能用 if，而不能用 whether。 e.g. It depends on whether we have enough time. They don’t know whether to go there. Please come to see me if you have time.
同位语从句在句中作某一名词的同位语， 一般位于该名词 （如： news, fact, idea, suggestion, promise 等）之后，说明该名词的具体内容。 e.g. I have no idea when he will be back.
The fact that he had not said anything surprised everybody. 练习： 1.The fact ____ she works hard is well known to us all. A. that B. what C. why D. which 2.The fact ____ he was successful proves his ability. A. that B. what C. which D. why 3.The news ____ he was kidnapped surprised us greatly. A. what B. that C. why D. when 4.His suggestion ____ the meeting be delayed was turned down. A. which B. that C./ D. it 5.I have no idea ____ he will start. A. when B. that C. what D./ 6.I've come from the government with a message ____ the meeting won't be held tomorrow. A. if B. that C. whether D. which 7.The thought ____ he might fail in the exam worried him. A. when B. which C. what D. that 8.The order ____ the prisoner be set free arrived too late. A. which B. whether C. that D. what 9.The nurses are trying their best to reduce the patient's fear ____ he would die of the disease. A. that B. as C. of which D. which 10.He often asked me the question ____ the work was worth doing. A. whether B. where C. that D. when 11. Along with the letter was his promise ____ he would visit me this coming Christmas. A. which B. that C. what D. whether 12. The other day, my brother drove his car down the street at ____ I thought was a dangerous speed. A. as B. which C. what D. that 13. Luckily, we’d brought a road map without ____ we would have lost our way. A. it B. that C. this D. which 14.There are signs ____ restaurants are becoming more popular with families. A. that B. which C. in which D. whose 15. We can see the same signs ____ stand out throughout the city. A. that B. which C. in which D. whose
1、以单数名词或代词、动词不定式短语、动名词短语或从句作主语时，谓语动词一般 用单数形式； 主语为复数时， 谓语动词用复数形式。 如： His father is working on the farm. / To study English well is not easy. / What he said is very important for us all. / The children were in the classroom two hours ago. / Reading in the sun is bad for your eyes.
注意：由 what 引导的主语从句，后面的谓语动词多数情况用单数形式，但若表语是复
数或 what 从句是一个带有复数意义的并列结构时，主句的谓语动词用复数形式。如：What I bought were three English books. / What I say and do is (are) helpful to you. 2、由连接词 and 或 both … and 连接起来的合成主语后面，要用复数形式的谓语动词。 如：Lucy and Lily are twins. / She and I are classmates. / The boy and the girl were surprised when they heard the news. / Both she and he are Young Pioneers.
注意：① 若 and 所连接的两个词是指同一个人或物时，它后面的谓语动词就应用单数
形式。如：The writer and artist has come.; / ② 由 and 连接的并列单数主语前如果分别有 no, each, every more than a (an) , many a (an)修饰时， 其谓语动词要用单数形式。 如： Every student and every teacher was in the room.. / No boy and no girl likes it. 3、主语为单数名词或代词，尽管后面跟有 with, together with, except, but, like, as well as, rather than, more than, no less than, besides, including 等引起的短语，谓语动词仍用单数形式； 若主语为复数，谓语用复数形式。如：Mr Green, together with his wife and children, has come to China. / Nobody but Jim and Mike was on the playground. / She, like you and Tom, is very tall. 4、either, neither, each, every 或 no +单数名词和由 some, any, no, every 构成的复合不定 代词，都作单数看待。如：Each of us has a new book. / Everything around us is matter.
注意：① 在口语中当 either 或 neither 后跟有“of+复数名词（或代词） ”作主语时，其
谓语动词也可用复数。如：Neither of the texts is (are) interesting. ② 若 none of 后面的名词 是不可数名词，它的谓语动词就要用单数；若它后面的名词是复数，它的谓语动词用单数或 复数都可以。如：None of us has (have) been to America. 5、在定语从句时，关系代词 that, who, which 等作主语时，其谓语动词的数应与句中先 行词的数一致。如：He is one of my friends who are working hard. / He is the only one of my friends who is working hard. 6、如果集体名词指的是整个集体，它的谓语动词用单数；如果它指集体的成员，其谓 语动词就用复数形式。这些词有 family, class, crowd, committee, population, audience 等。如： Class Four is on the third floor. / Class Four are unable to agree upon a monitor.
注意： people, police, cattle 等名词一般都用作复数。 如： The police are looking for the lost
child. 7、 由 “a lot of, lots of, plenty of, the rest of, the majority of + 名词” 构成的短语以及由 “分 数或百分数+名词”构成的短语作主语，其谓语动词的数要根据短语中后面名词的数而定。 如：There are a lot of people in the classroom. / The rest of the lecture is wonderful. / 50% of the students in our class are girls.
注意： a number of“许多” ，作定语修饰复数名词，谓语用复数；the number of“…的
数量” ，主语是 number，谓语用单数。 8、 在倒装句中， 谓语动词的数应与其后的主语一致。 如： There comes the bus./ On the wall are many pictures. / Such is the result. / Such are the facts.
1、 what, who, which, any, more, all 等代词可以是单数， 也可是复数， 主要靠意思来决定。 如：Which is your bag? / Which are your bags? / All is going well. / All have gone to Beijing. 2、表示“时间、重量、长度、价值”等的名词的复数作主语时，谓语动词通常用单数 形式，这是由于作主语的名词在概念上是一个整体， 如： Thirty minutes is enough for the work. 3、若英语是书名、片名、格言、剧名、报名、国名等的复数形式，其谓语动词通常用 单数形式。如： ―The Arabian Nights‖is an interesting story-book. 4、表数量的短语“one and a half”后接复数名词作主语时，其谓语动词可用单数形式 （也可用复数。如：One and a half apples is (are) left on the table. 5、 算式中表示数目 （字） 的主语通常作单数看待， 其谓语动词采用单数形式。 如： Twelve plus eight is twenty. / Fifty-six divided by eight is seven. 6、一些学科名词是以 –ics 结尾，如：mathematics, politics, physics 以及 news, works 等，都属于形式上是复数的名词，实际意义为单数名词，它们作主语时，其谓语动词要用单 数形式。如：The paper works was built in 1990. / I think physics isn’t easy to study. 7、trousers, glasses, clothes, shoes, 等词作主语时，谓语用复数，但如果这些名词前有 a (the) pair of 等量词修饰时，谓语动词用单数。如：My glasses are broken. / The pair of shoes under the bed is his. 8、 “定冠词 the + 形容词或分词” ，表示某一类人时，动词用复数。
一致。 1、 当两个主语由 either … or, neither … nor, whether … or …, not only … but also 连接时， 谓语动词和邻近的主语一致。 如： Either the teacher or the students are our friends. / Neither they nor he is wholly right. / Is neither he nor they wholly right? 2、there be 句型 be 动词单复数取决于其后的主语。如果其后是由 and 连接的两个主语， 则应与靠近的那个主语保持一致。如：There are two chairs and a desk in the room..
练习： 1.I, who____ your friend, will try my best to help you with your English. A.am D.be 2. The rich ____ not always happy. A.are A.are A. are studying A.am B.is B.am B. have studied B.is C.has C.is C. studies C.are D.have D.was D. study D.be 3. Neither Tom nor Jack and I ____ his students. 4. Mary as well as her sisters ____ Chinese in China. 5. Neither my father nor I ____ at home. B.is C.are
6. Not only my brother but also I ____ good at painting. Both of us ____ good painters., A.are;are A.wish A.was A.is A. have been A. was punished A.is A. is an old man C. is an old man and a young man A.are A. are are. A. doesn' t change A. is A. has been A. is to being A.is;four world. A.is A. are B.are B.have C.was C.has
B.am;am B.wishes B.is B.are B.is to be B. punished B.was
C.ani;are C.is like C. would be C.has C.are to be C. were punished C.are B. are both old men D. were two Chinese C.has C. is
D.is;is D.like D.are D.have D. has been D. being punished D.is being
7. Every' boy and every girl ____ to attend the evening party. 8. Over 80 percent of the population of China ____ peasants. 9. The population of China ____ larger than that of .any other country in the world. 10. Every means ____ tried but without any result. 11. Alice, together with two boys,____ for having broken the rule. 12. The League secretary and the monitor____ asked to attend the .meeting this afternoon. 13. The great writer and professor____.
14. There ____ a pen, two pencils and three books on the desk. B.is B. was D.have D. be 15. A large number of students in our class____ girls. 16. The number of deer, mountain lions and wild roses ____ much if people leave things as they B.don't change B. are B.have been B.have been B.are;four C.change C. was C.was C. were to C.is;five D.changed D. were D.is D.has been D.are;five
17. The Arabian Nights ____ well known to the English. 18. Chairman Mao' s works ____ published. 19. A chemical works____ built there. 20. The Olympic Games ____ held every ____ years. 21 .The United States of America one of the most developed countries in the D.were D.is
22.He is the only one of die students who ____ elected.
23.Theis is one of the most interesting questions that ____ asked. A.have A.have A.is;is A. is searching for C. are searching for A.is;il A.is B.are;it B.be B.has B.has B.are;are C. have been C.is C.are;is D.has been D.are D.is;are 24.Many a man ____ come to help us. 25."All____ present and all____ going on well," our monitor said. 26. The police ____ the murderer everywhere when he suddenly appeared in a theatre. B. were searching for D. were searching C.are;them C.are D.is;them D.were
27.Your trousers____ dirty.You must have____ washed. 28.This pair of trouseis ____ too long for him. 29. One and a half bananas ____ left on the table. A.is A.is B.are B.are C.has C.get D.have D.equal 30. Eight times eight ____ sixty - four.
1） 情态动词不能表示正在发生或已经发生的事情，只表示期待或估计某事的发生。 2） 情态动词 除 ought 和 have 外，后面只能接不带 to 的不定式。 3） 情态动词没有人称，数的变化，即情态动词第三人称单数不加-s。 4） 情态动词没有非谓语形式，即没有不定式，分词，等形式。 2 比较 can 和 be able to 1）can could 表示能力；可能 (过去时用 could), 只用于现在式和过去式(could)。be able to 可以用于各种时态。 They will be able to tell you the news soon. 他很快就能告诉你消息了。 2）只用 be able to a. 位于助动词后。 b. 情态动词后。 c. 表示过去某时刻动作时。 d. 用于句首表示条件。 e. 表示成功地做了某事时，只能用 was/were able to， 不能用 could。 He was able to flee Europe before the war broke out. = He managed to flee Europe before the war broke out. 注意：could 不表示时态 1）提出委婉的请求， （注意在回答中不可用 could） 。 --- Could I have the television on? --- Yes, you can. / No, you can't. 2）在否定，疑问句中表示推测或怀疑。
He couldn't be a bad man. 他不大可能是坏人。 3 比较 may 和 might 1） 表示允许或请求；表示没有把握的推测；may 放在句首，表示祝愿。 May God bless you! He might be at home. 注意： might 表示推测时，不表示时态。只是可能性比 may 小。 2） 成语： may/might as well，后面接不带 to 的不定式，意为"不妨"。 If that is the case, we may as well try. 典型例题 Peter ___come with us tonight, but he isn't very sure yet. A. must B. may C. can D. will 答案 B. 表可能性只能用 may. 此句意可从后半句推出。 4 比较 have to 和 must 1) 两词都是'必须'的意思，have to 表示客观的需要， must 表示说话人主观上的看法，既 主观上的必要。 My brother was very ill, so I had to call the doctor in the middle of the night. 我弟弟病得 很厉害，我只得半夜里把医生请来。(客观上需要做这件事) He said that they must work hard. 他说他们必须努力工作。 （主观上要做这件事） 2) have to 有人称、数、时态的变化，而 must 只有一种形式。但 must 可用于间接引语中 表示过去的必要或义务。 He had to look after his sister yesterday. 3） 在否定结构中： don't have to 表示"不必" mustn't 表示"禁止"， You don't have to tell him about it. 你不一定要把此事告诉他。 You mustn't tell him about it. 你一定不要把这件事告诉他。 5 must 表示推测 1) must 用在肯定句中表示较有把握的推测，意为"一定"。 2) must 表对现在的状态或现在正发生的事情的推测时， must 后面通常接系动词 be 的原 形或行为动词的进行式。 You have worked hard all day.You must be tired. 你辛苦干一整天，一定累了。 （对现 在情况的推测判断） He must be working in his office. 他一定在办公室工作呢。 比较： He must be staying there. 他现在肯定呆在那里。 He must stay there. 他必须呆在那。 3) must 表示对已发生的事情的推测时，must 要接完成式。 I didn't hear the phone. I must have been asleep. 我刚才没有听到电话，我想必是睡着 了。 4) must 表示对过去某时正发生的事情的推测，must 后面要接不定式的完成进行式。 ---Why didn't you answer my phone call? ---Well, I must have been sleeping, so I didn't hear it.
5) 否定推测用 can't。 If Tom didn't leave here until five o'clock, he can't be home yet. 如果汤姆五点才离开这 儿，他此时一定还未到家。 6 表示推测的用法 can, could, may, might, must 皆可表示推测，其用法如下： 1）情态动词+动词原形。 表示对现在或将来的情况的推测，此时动词通常为系动词。 I don't know where she is, she may be in Wuhan. 2）情态动词+动词现在进行时。 表示对现在或将来正在进行的情况进行推测。 At this moment, our teacher must be correcting our exam papers. 这时，我们老师想必在批改试卷。 3）情态动词+动词完成时。 表示对过去情况的推测。 We would have finished this work by the end of next December. 明年十二月底前我们很可能已完成这项工作了。 The road is wet. It must have rained last night. 地是湿的，昨天晚上一定下雨了。 4）情态动词+动词的现在完成进行时。 表示对过去正在发生事情的推测。 Your mother must have been looking for you. 你妈妈一定一直在找你。 5）推测的否定形式，疑问形式用 can't, couldn't 表示。 Mike can't have found his car, for he came to work by bus this morning. 迈克一定还没有找回他的车，因为早上他是坐公共汽车来上班的。 注意：could, might 表示推测时不表示时态，其推测的程度不如 can, may。 7 情态动词+ have +过去分词 1) may(might) have + done sth, can (could) have + done sth 表示过去， 推测过去时间里可能发 生的事情。 Philip may (might) have been hurt seriously in the car accident. Philip can (could) have been hurt seriously in the car accident. 2) must have +done sth，对过去时间里可能发生的事情的推测，语气较强，具有"肯定"，" 谅必"的意思。 --- Linda has gone to work, but her bicycle is still here. ---She must have gone by bus. 3) ought to have done sth, should have done sth 本应该做某事，而事实上并没有做。否定句表示"不该做某事而做了"。 You ought to (should) have been more careful in this experiment. He ought not to have thrown the old clothes away.（事实上已扔了。 ） ought to 在语气上比 should 要强。 4) needn't have done sth 本没必要做某事 I dressed very warmly for the trip, but I needn't have done so. The weather was hot. 5) would like to have done sth 本打算做某事 I would like to have read the article, but I was very busy then.
8 should 和 ought to should 和 ought to 都为"应该"的意思，可用于各种人称。 ---Ought he to go? ---Yes. I think he ought to. 表示要求，命令时，语气由 should（应该） 、had better 最好） 、must（必须）渐强。 9 had better 表示"最好" had better 相当于一个助动词，它只有一种形式，它后面要跟动词原形。 had better do sth had better not do sth It is pretty cold. You'd better put on my coat. She'd better not play with the dog. had better have done sth 表示与事实相反的结果，意为"本来最好"。 You had better have come earlier. 10 would rather 表示"宁愿" would rather do would rather not do would rather? than? 宁愿??而不愿。 还有 would sooner, had rather, had sooner 都表示"宁愿"、"宁可"的意思。 If I have a choice, I had sooner not continue my studies at this school. I would rather stay here than go home. = I would stay here rather than go home. 典型例题 ---- Shall we go skating or stay at home? ----Which ___ do? A. do you rather B. would you rather C. will you rather D. should you rather 答案 B。本题考查情态动词 rather 的用法，would rather +do sth 意为"宁愿"，本题为疑问句， would 提前，所以选 B。 11 will 和 would 注意： 1）would like； Would like to do = want to 想要，为固定搭配。 Would you like to go with me? 2）Will you?? Would you like?? 表示肯定含义的请求劝说时，疑问句中一般用 some, 而不是 any。 Would you like some cake? 3）否定结构中用 will，一般不用 would, won't you 是一种委婉语气。 Won't you sit down? 12 情态动词的回答方式 问句 肯定回答 否定回答 Need you?? Yes, I must. No,I needn't Must you?? /don't have to. 典型例题 1）---Could I borrow your dictionary? ---Yes, of course, you____. A. might B. will C. can D. should 答案 C.could 表示委婉的语气，并不为时态。答语中 of course，表示肯定的语气，允许
某人做某事时，用 can 和 may 来表达，不能用 could 或 might。复习： will 与 you 连用， 用来提出要求或下命令。should 与 you 连用，用来提出劝告。 2）---Shall I tell John about it? ---No, you ___. I've told him already. A. needn't B. wouldn't C. mustn't D. shouldn't 答案 A。needn't 不必，不用。 wouldn't 将不, 不会的。 mustn't 禁止、不能。 shouldn't 不应该。本题为不需要，不必的意思，应用 needn't。 3）---Don't forget to come to my birthday party tomorrow. ---______. A. I don't B. I won't C. I can't D. I haven't 答案 B. will 既可当作情态动词，表请求、建议、也可作为实义动词表"意愿、意志、 决心"，本题表示决心，选 B。 13 带 to 的情态动词 带 to 的情态动词有四个：ought to, have to, used to, be to, 如加上 have got to ,(=must), be able to，为六个。它们的疑问，否定形式应予以注意： Do they have to pay their bill before the end of the month? She didn't use to play tennis before she was fourteen. You ought not to have told her all about it. Ought he to see a heart specialist at once.? ought to 本身作为情态动词使用。其他的词作为实义动词使用，变疑问，否定时，须有 do 等助动词协助。 典型例题 Tom ought not to ___ me your secret, but he meant no harm. A.have told B.tell C.be telling D. having told 答案 A。由于后句为过去时，告诉秘密的动作又发生在其前因，此地应用过去完成时，但 它在情态动词 ought to 后，所以用 have。 14 比较 need 和 dare 这两词既可做实义动词用，又可做情态动词用。作为情态动词，两者都只能用于疑问句， 否定句和条件句。 need 作实义动词时后面的不定式必须带 to，而 dare 作实义动词用时, 后 面的 to 时常可以被省略。 1) 实义动词： need （需要, 要求） need + n. / to do sth 2) 情态动词： need，只用原形 need 后加 do，否定形式为 need not。 Need you go yet? Yes, I must. / No, I needn't. 3) need 的被动含义：need, want, require, worth（形容词）后面接 doing 也可以表示被动： need doing = need to be done 练习： 1. He ______ you more help, even though he was very busy. A. might have given B. might give C. may have given D. may give 2. Jenny______ have kept her word. I wonder why she changed her mind. A. must B. should C. need D. would 3. . -Could I borrow your dictionary? -Yes, of course you_________
A. might B. will C. can D. should 4. I told Sally how to get here, but perhaps I ______ for her. A. had to write it out B. must have written it out C. should have written it out D. ought to write it out 5. —Shall I tell John about it? —No, you ______ . I've told him already. A. needn't B. wouldn't C. mustn't D. shouldn't 6. ─There were already five people in the car but they managed to take me as well. ─ It______ a comfortable journey. A. can't be B. shouldn't be C. mustn't have been D. couldn't have been 7. It's nearly seven o'clock. Jack______ be here at any moment. A. must B. need C. should D. can 8. .When he was there, he______ go to that coffee shop at the corner after work every day. A. would B. should C. had better D. might 9. .Sir, you _____ be sitting in this waiting room. It is for women and children only. A. oughtn't to B. can't C. won't D. needn't 10. The fire spread through the hotel very quickly but everyone ______ get out. A. had to B. would C. could D. was able to 11. --When can I come for the photos? I need them tomorrow afternoon. --They _____be ready by 12:00. A. can B. should C. might D. need 12. .--I stayed at a hotel while in New York. --Oh, did you? You_ ____with Barbara. A. could have stayed B. could stay C. would stay D. must have stayed 13. －Will you stay for lunch? －Sorry,＿＿＿＿＿ ,My brother is coming to see me. A. I mustn't B.I can't C. I needn't D.I won't 14. Sorry I'm late. I ______ have turned off the alarm clock and gone back to sleep again. A. might B. should C. can D. will 15. I should have been there, but I _______ not find the time. A. would B. could C. might D. should ? 16. My sister met him at the Grand Theatre yesterday afternoon, so he ___ your lecture. A. couldn't have attended B. needn't have attended C. mustn't have attended D. shouldn't have attended 17. --- Are you coming to Jeff's party? --- I'm not sure. I ________go to the concert instead. A．must B．would C．should D．might 18. Mr. Bush is on time for everything. How _________ it be that he was late for the opening ceremony? A．can B．should C．may D．must 19 He hesitated for a moment before kicking the ball, otherwise he ________ a goal. A．had scored B．Scored C．would score D．would have scored
20. —Write to me when you get home. —_________ A．I must B．I should C．I will D．I can 21. I was really anxious about you. You _____ home without a word. A. mustn't leave B. Shouldn't have left C. Couldn't have left D. needn't leave 22. Oh, I’m not feeling well in the stomach, I______ so much fried chicken just now. A. shouldn’t cut B. mustn’t have eaten C. shouldn’t have eaten D. mustn’t eat 23. --I heard they went skiing in the mountains last winter. --It _____ be true because there was little snow there. A may not be B won’t be C couldn’t be D mustn’t be 24. It has been announced that candidates_____ remain in their seats until all the papers have been collected. A can B will C may D shall 25. A left-luggage office is a place where bags ______ be lefe for a short time, especially in a railway station. A. should B. can C. must D. will 26. --- I don't mind telling you what I know. --- You . I'm not asking you for it. A. mustn't B. may not C. can't D. needn’t 27. I often see lights in that empty house. Do you think I _____ report it to the police? A. should B. may C. will D. can 28. Mr.White _____ at 8:30 for the meeting, but he didn’t’ show up. A. should have arrived B. should arrive C. should have had arrived D. should be arriving 29. You ______ be tired - you've only been working for an hour. A. must not B. won' t C. can' t D. may not 30. — Who is the girl standing over there ? — Well , if you know , her name is Mabel. A. may B. can C. must D. shall
语态(Voice)，作为一个语法范畴，是表示主语和动词之间的主动或被动关系的动词行式。英 语动词有两种语态： 主动语态(Active Voice)和被动语态(Passive Voice)。 当主语为动作执行者 即施动者时， 动词用主动态； 如果主语是动作的承受者即受动者时， 动词便用被动态。 例如： (1) John helped Peter. (2) Peter was helped by John. 句(1) helped 是主动态；句(2)was helped 是被动态,可见主动态是无标记的，而被动态是有标 记的。 构成 被动语态由助动词 be 的时态之一和及物动词的过去分词构成。被动语态可用于各种时态， 其时态变化通过助动词 be 的不同形式来体现。如：一般现在时的被动态构成形式为助动词 am/is/are + 过去分词；而一般过去时的被动态构成形式为 was/were + 过去分词。本册要掌 握的被动语态形式有：
一般现在时：am/is/are + 过去分词 e.g. Football is played all over the world. I’m often asked to do this work. 我常常被派做这项工作。 一般过去时：was/were +过去分词 e.g. The terracotta warriors were found in 1974 near Xi’an. They were discovered by workers in a field outside the city. When was the building completed? 这座大楼什么时候建成的？ 一般将来时：will (shall) + be +过去分词 be going to + be + 过去分词 e.g. The result of the exam will be known soon. They are going to be given a difficult test. 一般过去将来时：should(would) be+过去分词 e.g. The teacher said the results would be published soon. He told me that the film would be shown the next week. 现在进行时：am/is/are + being +过去分词 e.g. The new airport is being built by a foreign company. 一家外国公司正在承建这座新机场。 The song is being sung by the girls now. 过去进行时：was/were being+过去分词 e.g. The song was being sung by the girls when I got there. The student was being criticized when I went into the teacher’s office. 将来完成时：will have been+过去分词 e.g. By the end of next term 2000 English words will have been learned. The building will have been built by next year. 现在完成时：has/have + bee n +过去分词 e.g. All the tickets have been sold . The book has been translated into many languages. 这本书已被译成多种语言。 过去完成时：had been+过去分词 e.g. Forty schools had been visited by last year. All the tickets had been sold out when I got to the cinema. 过去将来完成时：would have been+过去分词 e.g. He said many words would have been learned by 2001. They promised that ten books would have been published by the next month. 情态动词：情态动词 + be + 过去分词 e.g. This road must be mended. The machine parts may be needed in our work. 工作中可能需要这些机器零部件。 动词不定式：to be + 过去分词
e.g. I’m glad to be asked questions. It is impossible for lost time to be made up. 失去的时间不可弥补。 主要用法 被动态常用于下列几种场合： 1．当不知道或不必提出动作的执行者时（这时都不带由 by 引起的短语） ； Printing was introduced into Europe from China. 印刷术是从中国引入欧洲的。 The airplane was made in U.S. Such books are written for children. 这种书是为儿童写的。 2. 动作的承受者是谈话的中心（这时可带有由 by 引起的短语） ； The song was composed by a student. 这首歌曲是一个学生谱写的。 Thousands of rivers are polluted in the country. 3. 出于礼貌措词等原因而不愿说出动作执行者是谁。 You are requested to get here in time. 请您准时来这儿。 带行为主体的被动态 行为主体就是动作的执行者，即执行动词所表达的动作的人或物。在被动句中，往往不提及 行为主体；但当强调动作的执行者时，可用介词 by 引出行为( by +主体行为主体),置于被动 态句的末尾，说明是什么人或物应对有关事件负责。 e.g. The village was destroyed by a bomb. 这个村庄毁于炸弹。 The painting is very valuable. It was painted by Van Gogh. 这幅画很值钱，它是梵·高画的。 其它用法补充 1.“It + 被动语态+ that 从句” 。表示谨慎或不太肯定的语气。常用于该结构的动词有：say, think, believe, agree, expect, consider, feel, know, decide, report, suggest, prove 等。 e.g. It is said that prices will rise again this month. 据说本月物价还将上涨。 It is thought that about a million dogs are born each year. 据认为每年约有一百条狗出生。 It is reported that all the passengers died in the crash. 据报导所有乘客在那次飞机坠毁中遇难。 It is agreed that we will have two weeks holiday this year. 2. 用于通告标题广告等的被动态往往省去助动词 be。 e.g. No Chinese spoken here. Shoes repaired. Famous Painting Stolen. 名画被盗。 练习： 1._____ a new library _____ in our school last year? A.Is; built B.Was; bulit C.Does; build D.Did; build 2.An accident ____ on this road last week. A.has been happened B.was happened C.is happened D.happened
3.Cotton ____ in the southeast of China. A.is grown B.are grown C.grows D.grow 4.So far,the moon ____ by man already. A.is visited B.will be visited C.has been visited D.was visited 5.A talk on Chinese history _____ in th school hall next week. A.is given B.has been given C.will be given D.gives 6.A lot of things ____ by people to save the little girl now. A.are doing B.are being done C.has been done D.will be done 7.The doctor _____ for yet. A.isn't sent B.hasn't been sent C.won't be sent D.wasn't sent 8.--When ___ this kind of computers______? --Last year. A.did; use B.was; used C.is; used D.are; used 9.Who _____ this book _____? A.did; written B.was; written by C.did; written D.was;written 10.Mary ____ show me her new dictionary. A.has asked to B.was asked to C.is asked D.asks to 11.A story _____ by Granny yesterday. A.was told usB.was told to us C.is told us D.told us 12.The monkey was seen _____ off the tree. A.jump B.jumps C.jumped D.to jump 13.Older people ____ well. A.looks after B.must be looked after C.must look after D.looked after 14.Our teacher ______ carefully. A.should be listened to B.should be listen C.be listened D.is listened 15. In some part of the world, tea _______ with milk and sugar. A. is serving B. is served C. serves D. served 16. It was reported that the murderer _______ arrested. A. has been B. had been C. has D. had 17. Do you think that the bridge ______ in a year? A. would be completed B. will be completed C. had been completed D. is being completed 18. Great changes _______ in China since the People’s Republic of China _______ in 1949. A. have taken place; was founded B. has taken place; was founded C. have been taken place; founded D. took place; founded 19.—Why does Ling Ling look so unhappy? —She has _______ by her classmates. A. laughed B. laughed at C. been laughed D. been laughed at 20. Doctors _______ in every part of the world. A. need B. are needing C. are needed D. will need 21. I promise that matter will _______. A. be taken care B. be taken care of C. take care D. take care of 22. No permission has ________ for anybody to enter the building. A. been given B. given C. to give D. be given 23. I _______ ten minutes to decide whether I should reject the offer. A. gave B. was given C. was giving D. had given
24. Can such a thing _____ happening again? A. prevent from B. prevented from C. be prevented from D. to prevent from 25. A new house ________ at the corner of the road. A. is building B. is being built C. been built D. be building 26. This bike ________ last year. A. bought B. has been bought C. was bought D. had been bought 27. Did you see the house that _______ by fire last year? A. was destroying B. destroyed C. would destroy D. was destroyed 28. It _______ whether she will get her work in the hospital. A. hasn’t been decided B. isn’t deciding C. doesn’t decide D. hasn’t decided 29. The pen _______ me. It is hers. A. isn’t belong to B. wasn’t belong to C. doesn’t belong to D. didn’t belong to 30. I can’t use my bike because it _______. A. is repairing B. is being repaired C. will repair D. was repairing 31. The chairman told the speaker that she ______ to speak a little louder so as to make herself _____. A. was expected; heard B. had expected; hear . had hoped; hear D. was hoped; heard 32．— The window is dirty. — I know. It _____ for weeks. A. hasn’t cleaned B. didn’t clean C. wasn’t cleaned D. hasn’t been cleaned 33. By the end of last year, another new gymnasium _______ in Beijing. (2003 上海春季, 27) A.would be completed B.was being completed C.has been completed D.had been completed 34.—How long _______ at this job? —Since 1990. A.were you employed B. have you been employed C.had you been employed D.will you be employed 35.—What happened to the priceless works of art? —_______. A.They were destroyed in the earthquake B.The earthquake was destroying them C.They destroyed in the earthquake D.The earthquake destroyed them 36. This is Ted’s photo.We miss him a lot.He _______ trying to save a child in the earthquake. A.killed B.is killed C. was killed D.was killing 37. Rainforests and burned at such a speed that they will disappear from the earth in the near future. A.cut B.are cut C.are being cut D.had been cut 38. Selecting a mobile phone for personal use is no easy task because technology _______ so rapidly. A.is changing B.has changed .will have changed D.will change 39. Hundreds of jobs _______ if the factory closes. A.lose B.will be lost C.are lost D.will lose 40. A new cinema _______ here.They hope to finish it next month. A.will be built B.is builtC.has been built D.is being built