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雅思写作-小作文范文-柱状图


C1T3 The chart below shows the amount of money per week spent on fast foods in Britain. The graph shows the trends in consumption of fast foods. Write a report a university lecturer describing the information shown below.

The chart shows that high income earners consumed considerably more fast foods than the other income groups, spending more than twice as much on hamburgers (43 pence per person per week) than on fish and chips or pizza (both under 20 pence). Average income earners also favored hamburgers, spending 33 pence per person per week, followed by fish and chips at 24 pence, then pizza at 11 pence. Low income earners appear to spend less than other income groups on fast foods, though fish and

chip remains their most popular fast food, followed by hamburgers and then pizza. From the graph we can see that in 1970, fish and chips were twice as popular as burgers, pizza being at that time the least popular fast food. The consumption of hamburgers and pizza has risen steadily over the 20 year period to 1990 while the consumption of fish and chips has been in decline over that same period with a slight increase in popularity since 1985.

The chart below shows the amount of money per week spent on fast foods in Britain. The graph shows the trends in consumption of fast foods. 两句话,两 个图

The chart shows that high income earners consumed considerably more fast foods than the other income groups, spending more than twice as much on hamburgers (43 pence per person per week) than on fish and chips or pizza (both under 20 pence). ? 说明了高收入人群的两个特点,第一是消耗快餐最多,第二是人群中 hamburger, fish and chips, pizza 的特点 ? spending more than twice as much on hamburgers than on fish and chip and chips or pizza 这是一句令人费解的句子, 含义应为“消耗的汉堡是薯片或匹萨的两 倍多 ”,应用的句型应当为典型的表示倍数关系的句型“n times as…as”,比如 ? This airplane flies two times as fast as that one. 这家飞机的飞行速度是那架 的两倍。 ? He has five times as many books as you. 他拥有的书是你的五倍。 ? 所以,这句话应当为 spending more than twice as much on hamburger as on fish and chips or pizza, 其中 more than 修饰 twice, 表示比较句型为 twice as much…as ? 表示倍数比较的句型中还有一个重要的 n times more than, 也表示“是几倍”, 而非 多几倍,比如 ? China is 22 times larger than Britain. 中国是英国的 22 倍。 ? fish and chips 表示的一组东西“油煎鱼价炸土豆片”,表示的是个不可数的概念 Average income earners also favored hamburgers, spending 33 pence per person per week, followed by fish and chips at 24 pence, then pizza at 11 pence. ? 说明了中收入人群的三类食品的消耗情况。 ? 这句是典型的表示顺序关系的表达, hamburgers, followed by fish and chips, then pizza, 其表达句型为 A, followed by B, then C,这种表达尤其在饼图中应用 尤为广泛 Low income earners appear to spend less than other income groups on fast foods, though fish and chips remains their most popular fast food, followed by hamburgers and then pizza. 是该人群消耗的快餐数量最少,通过 though ? 说明了低收入人群的两个特征, 这个从句说明了 ,那就是该人群消耗三类食品的情形。

?

结合上句,来看看如何表达“最喜欢”,Average income earners favored hamburgers; Fish and chips remains their most popular fast food.

From the graph we can see that in 1970, fish and chips were twice as popular as burgers, pizza being at that time the least popular fast food. ? 说明三类食品的起点(1970)情况, ? N times as…as 句型说明了 fish and chips 和 burgers 的关系 ? pizza being the least popular fast food at that time 为“独立主格结构” The consumption of hamburgers and pizza has risen steadily over the 20 year period to 1990 while the consumption of fish and chips has been in decline over that same period with a slight increase in popularity since 1985. ? 用一个表示对照的连词 while 说明上升趋势的 hamburgers 和下降趋势的 fish and chips 注意上升和下降的表达 ? 上升 has risen steadily ? 下降 has been in decline ? 表示段时间 over the 20 year period to 1990, over the same period ? with a slight increase in popularity 用 with 从句补充说明大趋势下的小变化 重点和难点是 ? N times as+ 形容词或副词原级…as ? N times+ 形容词或副词的比较级…than 这两者均表示“是几倍”,并非“多出几倍”,特别注意,很多参考书都写错了 A, followed by B, then C,这个表达在饼图中很常用 表示 表示 ? 表示上升 rise, be in increase ? 表示下降 be in decline, drop 八分作文 柱状图显示的是 1970-1990 二十年间英国人每周在快餐上花费了多少钱;曲线图展示 的是这二十年间快餐消费的趋势。 The bar chart shows how much money was spent on fast foods per week in the UK over a span of 20 years from 1970 to 1990 while the graph reveals the trend of fast food consumption over the same period of time. 从柱状图看, 各收入阶层在汉堡和鱼煎薯条这两种快餐上的支出相对高于在皮萨上的消 费;曲线图反映出汉堡与皮萨的消费呈现上升趋势,鱼煎薯条则呈现出波动趋势。 As we can see from the chart, the weekly expenses of people of different income levels on hamburgers and fish and chips were relatively higher than that on pizza. The graph indicates that while hamburger and pizza consumption both revealed a general trend of increase, fish and chips showed a trend of fluctuation.

首先,高收入阶层和中等收入阶层每周在汉堡上的平均消费分别是每人 42 便士和 33 便士,比低收入阶层的 14 便士搞出了很多。在鱼煎薯条方面,高收入阶层的支出略低, 是 17 便士,但中等及低收入阶层的支出都分别达到了 25 便士和 18 便士,相对于在皮 萨方面支出的 12 便士和 8 便士高出了很多。值得一提的是高收入阶层在皮萨上的消费 高于鱼煎薯条 2 便士,为 20 便士。 First, the weekly average expenses of high-income people and middle-income people were 42 pence and 33 pence respectively, a lot higher than that of low-income people which was 14 pence. As for fish and chips, high-income people spent relatively less, only 17 pence, but the expenses of middle-income and low-income groups reached 25 pence and 18 pence, much higher than their expenses on pizza which stood at 12 pence and 8 pence respectively. What is worth mentioning is the amount of money spent on pizza by high-income people which showed only 20 pence, 2 pence more than their expense on fish and chips. 第二,从 1970 年的每周平均 85 克开始,人们在汉堡上的消费缓步增长到了 1975 年的 100 克,然后,消费量加大增速,到 1983 年左右已经达到了 200 多克。接下来,我们 看到的是更强势的增长,到 1990 年达到了图表上的最高峰 550 克。 Second, starting from averagely 85 grams per week in 1970, people’s consumption of hamburgers gradually grew to 100 grams in 1975 and was then followed by a faster growth, reaching more than 200 grams in around 1983. From then on, the growth gained a stronger momentum, hitting the peak across the board at 550 grams in 1990. 第三,皮萨的消费趋势与汉堡相仿,也是很明显的三个增长阶段,但是增幅没有汉堡那 么大。1970 年至 1980 年,皮萨的消费从平均每周 40 克慢慢增长到 80 克;1980 年至 1985 年,增长加快,从 80 克增加到了 130 克;1985 年至 1990 年,增幅加大,从 130 克快速增长到了 280 克。 Third, the consumption of pizza revealed a similar trend of growth as that of hamburgers and could also be clearly cut into three periods, though the growth rate was not that fast. It rose slowly from 40 grams per week in 1970 to 80 grams in 1980 and then grew faster from 80 grams in 1980 to 130 grams in 1985. From 1985, the growth rate was even faster and we see a big increase from 130 grams to 280 grams. 第四, 鱼煎薯条的消费趋势在波动中呈现了三种状态。 1970 年至 1975 年一直是缓慢的 下降,从平均每周 300 克降至 280 克;之后,从 1975 年至 1985 年,下降速度稍有加 快,从 280 克降至 200 克;自此,开始逐渐回升,到 1990 年攀升到了 240 克。 Fourth, the consumption of fish and chips showed three changes in the general trend of fluctuation. From 1970 to 1975, it dropped slowly from the original 300 grams per week in 1970 to 280 grams in 1975. Later on, from 1975 to 1985, it dropped a little bit faster when it fell from 280 grams to 200 grams. From then on, it began to rise gradually and till 1990, it had climbed back to 240 grams. 总之, 英国人在上述所提及的三种快餐方面的消费在图表所标识的二十年里都发生了或 增或降的某些变化。 To sum up, the consumption of the three above mentioned fast foods in Britain

showed certain rises and falls as illustrated in the chart and graph over the designated 20 years.

C2T2 The chart below shows the amount of leisure time enjoyed by men and women of different employment status. Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown below.

The chart shows the number of hours enjoyed by men and women in a typical week in 1998 – 9, according to gender and employment status. Among those employed full-time, men on average had fifty hours of leisure, whereas women had approximately thirty-seven hours. There were no figures given for male part-time workers, but female part-timers had forty hours of leisure time, only slightly more than women in full-time employment, perhaps reflecting their work in the home. In the unemployed and retired categories, leisure time showed an increase for both sexes, as might have been expected. Here too, men enjoyed more leisure time – over eight hours, compared with seventy hours for women, perhaps once again reflecting the fact that women spend more time working in the home than men. Lastly, housewives enjoyed approximately fifty-four hours of leisure, on average. There were no figures given for househusbands! Overall, the chart demonstrates that in the categories for which statistics on male leisure time were available, men enjoyed at least ten hours of extra leisure time.

The chart below shows the amount of leisure time enjoyed by men and women of different employment status. ? 简单的题目, 但是把文章的三个指标都给谈到了, 时间 the amount of leisure time, 性别 by men and women,工作种类 of different employment status

The chart shows the number of hours enjoyed by men and women in a typical week in 1998 – 9, according to gender and employment status. ? 典型的通过改写题目,提示图表的内容 ? 看作者是如何谈论三个指标的, 时间 the number of hours, 性别 men and women, 工作种类 according to gender and employment status(再次谈到了性别) ,另外补充说明了图形标题的一点内容 in a typical week in 1998 – 9. Among those employed full-time, men on average had fifty hours of leisure, whereas women had approximately thirty-seven hours. ? 用一个 whereas 连词,对比说明了 men 和 women 的时间情形, ? 工作组别信息:among those employed full-time ? 性别信息: men, women ? 时间信息: had fifty hours of leisure, had thirty-seven hours ? 表示平均 on average, 表示大约 approximately There were no figures given for male part-time workers, but female part-timers had forty hours of leisure time, only slightly more than women in full-time employment, perhaps reflecting their work in the home. ? 这句话说明了两点内容,第一是 part-time workers 的情况,第二是与 full-time employment 作了比较 ? 工作组别和性别信息:for male part-time workers, female part-timers ? 时间信息:There were no figures given (表示缺失值),had forty hours of leisure time ? 比较 part-time 和 full-time 妇女的休息时间 (Female part-timers had) only slightly more than women in full-time ? employment, 注意短语的逻辑主语,还有必须注意 part-time 和 full-time 妇女的不 同表示法 ? 适度的评价,perhaps reflecting their work in the home, 这句其逻辑主语为前面那 句 only slight more than women ? in full-time employment,这句话的含义是“虽然为 part-time females, 但是相应的 承担了更多的家务,所以休息时间只 ? 是比 full-time females 多那么一点点” ? 很多同学争论需不需要发表议论,准确的说应当是就图论图,不作评价,但是这 个原则也不是死的, 根据图形的特征, 作一点适当的评论也是可以的, 这里就是“适 度评价” In the unemployed and retired categories, leisure time showed an increase for both sexes, as might have been expected. ? 这句将 unemployed and retired categories 这两个组和其他组别比较的特征做了 说明,图上也很明显,这两组人的 leisure time 非常多,

as might have been expected, as 为代词,指代前面这句话内容,意思为“正如”; 这是个插入语,经常用到 Here too, men enjoyed more leisure time – over eight hours, compared with seventy hours for women, perhaps once again reflecting the fact that women spend more time working in the home than men. ? 说明了 men 和 women 的比较,比较词为 compared with ? (Eight hours are) compared with seventy hours, 注意比较的成分应当是对等的, 时间对应时间,compare 这个词在 雅思写作中以被动态比较常见,很少出现 comparing with 的形式,切记 ? Lastly, housewives enjoyed approximately fifty-four hours of leisure, on average. There were no figures given for househusbands! ? 说明了 housewives 的 leisure time,很明显,househusbands 为缺失值 Overall, the chart demonstrates that in the categories for which statistics on male leisure time were available, men enjoyed at least ten hours of extra leisure time. ? Overall 代表是文章的总结句,但是作者从另外一个逻辑角度,即按照总体性别来 看,men 比 women 的 leisure time 要多,这就说明了应当按照清晰的逻辑顺序, 把文章中各个信息都需要描述

两个事物的对比说明,这是必考内容之一,所采用的方法有 ? 采用 while, whereas 来补充说明对比关系 ? 还可以用 compared with more…than, n times as…as 等句型来作直接比较 ? 还有一种就是用 对一个变量含有较多的值,比如这里的工作种类就有 5 种,将其合并成为 3 项;还有多 个种类的随时间变化趋势,我们也可以将其按照上升或下降的趋势分类,当然这个需要 图形本身的特征来考虑。

C2T4 The table below shows the figures for imprisonment in five countries between 1930 and 1980. Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown below.

The table shows that the figures for imprisonment in the five countries mentioned indicate no overall pattern of increase of decrease. In fact there is considerable fluctuation from country to country. In Great Britain the numbers in prison have increased steadily from 30,000 in 1930 to 80,000 in 1980. On the other hand in Australia, and particularly in New Zealand, the numbers fell markedly from 1930 to 1940. Since then they have increased gradually, apart from in 1980 when the numbers in prison in New Zealand fell by about 30,000 from the 1970 total. Canada is the only in which the numbers in prison have decreased over the period 1930 to 1980, although there have been fluctuations in this trend. The figures for the United States indicate the greatest number of prisoners compared to the other four countries but population size needs to be taken into account in this analysis. The prison population in the United States increased rapidly from 1970 to 1980 and this must be worrying trend.

The table below shows the figures for imprisonment in five countries between 1930 and 1980. ? 平凡无奇的题目,眼花缭乱的图形 The table shows that the figures for imprisonment in the five countries mentioned indicate no overall pattern of increase or decrease. ? The figures indicate no overall pattern of increase or decrease. 一句话就将这个

图形的无明显特征说出来了。

In Great Britain the numbers in prison have increased steadily from 30,000 in 1930 to 80,000 in 1980. ? 说明英国的情况,上升趋势 On the other hand in Australia, and particularly in New Zealand, the numbers fell markedly from 1930 to 1940. Since then they have increased gradually, apart from in 1980 when the numbers in prison in New Zealand fell by about 30,000 from the 1970 total. ? on the other hand 引出了澳大利亚和新西兰的情况,因为两者的变化情况类似, 均是先降后升再降 ? 表示时间的表达:from 1930 to 1940, since then, in 1980, from the 1970 total ? 表示升降关系的表达:fall markedly, increase gradually ? 注意将一个变化阶段用介词短语的形式表达,如 apart from in 1980 when… 这样 就能够将句子表达复杂 Canada is the only in which the numbers in prison have decreased over the period 1930 to 1980, although there have been fluctuations in this trend. ? 说明加拿大的情况,整体上是下降,注意对有波动的表达 although there have been fluctuations in this trend. The figures for the United States indicate the greatest number of prisoners compared to the other four countries but population size needs to be taken into account in this analysis. ? 说明了美国犯罪率高位波动的情形,注意 compared to the other countries 修饰的 是 the United States ? but population size needs to be taken into account in this analysis 作者还做了一 点小小的发挥 The prison population in the United States increased rapidly from 1970 to 1980 and this must be worrying trend. ? 美国的变化也是波动,但是作者只是谈到了 1970-1980 的情况 澳大利亚和新西兰的变化趋势的描述是一个典型的波动详细描述, 波动描述主要涉及到 时间、趋势和数量三个基本要素,而且需要注意的是,需要将某些波动归纳在一起,形 成一个复杂句,否则句子将显得过于琐碎。 ? 1:The numbers fell markedly from 1930 to 1940. 2:Since then they have increased gradually,since then(the year 1940)将 ? 这句和上面那句联系起来 ? 3:apart from in 1980 when the numbers fell from the 1970 total. 一个 apart from 引出了第三阶段变化,而且这个是先说终点(in 1980) ,再说起点 from the 1970 total

C3T3 The charts below show the levels of participation in education and science in developing and industrialized countries in 1980 and 1990. Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown below.

These data shows the differences between developing country and industrialized countries’ participation in education and science. In terms of the number of years of schooling received, we see that the length of time people spent at school industrialize countries was much greater at 8.5 years in 1980, compared to 2.5 years in developing countries. The gap was increased further in 1980 when the figures rose to 10.5 years and 3.5 years respectively. We can see a similar pattern in the second graph, which shows that number of people working as scientists and technicians in industrialized countries increased from 55 to 1,000 people between 1980 and 1980, while the number in developing countries went from 12 to 20. Finally, the figures for spending on research and development show that industrialized

countries more than doubled the spending, from $200bn to $400bn, whereas developing countries actually decreased theirs, from $75bn down to $25bn. Overall we can see that not only are there very large difference between the two economies but that these gaps are widening.

The charts below show the levels of participation in education and science in developing and industrialized countries in 1980 and 1990. ? 虽然是多个图,但都是围绕着 education and science 进行的 These data shows the differences between developing country and industrialized countries’ participation in education and science. ? 典型的改写,当然还可以将题目的名词性短语改写成句子,如开头也可以写成 These data shows how the developing and industrialized countries participated in science and education. 这种改写的关键是 将核心名词 participation 改用 成谓语动词 participated. In terms of the number of years of schooling received, we see that the length of time people spent at school in industrialize countries was much greater at 8.5 years in 1980, compared to 2.5 years in developing countries. ? 说明了 1980 年 developing and industrialized countries 的情形 ? 用 compared to 表示比较, (8.5 years were) compared to 2.5 years, compared to 为过去分词短语作补充说明, 需要注意的是注意其逻辑主语 ? in terms of/in respect of 就某个方面而言,这个表达在范文系列中出现很多次了 ? 注意同义表达 the number of years of schooling received 改写为 the length of time people spent at school The gap was increased further in 1980 when the figures rose to 10.5 years and 3.5 years respectively. ? 说明了两点:第一是与 1980 对比,差距增大;第二是 1990 年两者的数据 We can see a similar pattern in the second graph, which shows that number of people working as scientists and technicians in industrialized countries increased from 55 to 1,000 people between 1980 and 1980, while the number in developing countries went from 12 to 20. ? We can see a similar pattern in the second graph 说明图一与图二的关系 ? which shows 接的从句说明了该图的特征,while 表示对比,连接了 industrialized countries 的变化情形和 developing ? countries 的变化情形 ? 表示上升的表达 increase from 55 to 1,000; go from 12 to 20

Finally, the figures for spending on research and development show that industrialized countries more than doubled the spending, from $200bn to $400bn, whereas developing countries actually decreased theirs, from $75bn down to $25bn. ? The figures show 接从句表明图三的特征,whereas 表示比较,连接了 industrialized countries 和 developing countries 的变化情形 ? 注意表示变化的主语是 countries, 并非是主体二段中的 numbers, 因此宾语也变 成了 spending, from…to…接具体数据补充说明 Overall we can see that not only are there very large difference between the two economies but that these gaps are widening. :雅思图表的特征都是一些常识性的东西,不会出现一些 ? Overall 总结说明, 雷人的发现

表示 本文展示了两种, ? The number of people increased from 55 to 85. 这句的主语为 the number, 表示 变化的不及物动词为 increase, ? Industrialized countries doubled their spending ,from $200bn to $420bn. 这句的 主语为 countries, 表示变化的及物动词为 double,当然也可以为及物动词 increase, decrease (这些词可以是及物动词,也可以是不及物动词),宾语类似于 上句的 number 的句型 表示 :The length of time people spend at school in ? compared to industrialized countries was much greater at 8.5 years in 1980, compared to 2.5 years in developing countries. ? than 也可以; The length of time people spend at school in industrialized was more 6 years than that in developing countries (8.5 VS 2.5).


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