Module 4 Carnival
I. 模块教学目标 技能目标 Skill Goals ▲ Talk about carnival and other festivals at home and abroad ▲ Express likes, dislikes and preferences ▲ Review the passive voice ▲ Write an email about a Chinese festival II. 目标语言
功 能 句 式
Expressing likes, dislikes and preferences: —Do you like fish? —No, I don?t. I hate it. Yes, I do. I quite like it. I love it. I quite like it. I really like it. It?s OK. I don?t think much of it. I hate it.
1. 四会词汇 carnival, Christian, ghost, costume, confusion, firearm, empire, memory, council, elegant, magic, era, calendar, dove, bean, flour, garlic, onion, pea, pork, sausage, herb, ingredient, relaxing, whistle, tasty, parade, multicultural, plantation, trade, landowner, master, magnificent, celebration, freedom 2. 复习词汇
vocabulary about food: ban, cabbage, chicken, dance, decide, discover, festival, fire, follow, hold, know, origin, mystery, pork, throw, tradition 3. 固定词组 come to an end, dress up, consist of 4. 重点词汇 hide, extend, pretend, book (v.), revive, wander, mark, transport, import, abolish, unite, origin
Passive voice: 1. In the late 1970s the tradition was revived by students. 2. Today, carnival in Venice is celebrated for five days in February.
1. This is when Americans remember the hard times when they first arrived in the country. P31 P31
2. Have you dressed up in special clothes?
3. The sounds and sights change from one country to another but the excitement is the same everywhere. P32 4. As time passed, however, the carnival period was extended, so that it began
重 点 句 子
just after Christmas. P32 5. For weeks on end people walked round the street wearing masks, doing what they wanted without being recognized. P32 6. Ordinary people could pretend to be rich and important, while famous people could have romantic adventures in secret. 7. Many crimes went unpunished. P33 8. If they broke the laws, they were put into prison for up to two years. P33 9. There must be a million people here. P38 P32
10. With the passing of time, the white inhabitants of the island began to take part in the carnival,too. P38 Ⅲ. 教材分析与教材重组 1. 教材分析 本模块以 Carnival 为话题，介绍狂欢节的历史、发展、种类及人们的活动、 饮食和习俗，并由此引导学生联想、讨论中国的节日，旨在通过学习本模块使学 生掌握有关节日和食物的词汇、句型，从而不但了解外国的狂欢节，而且对我国 的节日也有进一步了解，进而拓展社会文化背景、增加跨国文化知识；使学生巩 固表达喜好的方式， 复习并掌握被动语态的用法；能够根据要求描写一个中国的 节日,能表达自己的观点和想法。 1.1 INTRODUCTION Speaking 以五幅关于外国著名节日的图片和它们的
简要描述切入话题，使学生通过讨论激活关于节日话题的背景知识,了解这五个 著名节日的习俗及意义，以激起学生的学习兴趣; 第二个活动引导学生列出中国 节日的名称和日期 ; 第三个活动以一幅图画和几个问题引导学生回顾节日期间 的特殊着装; 第四个活动是选出节日期间做的事情,为本模块的学习作好铺垫。
1.2 READING AND VOCABULARY 课文以 Carnival 为话题， 介绍了狂欢节 的由来和发展、 威尼斯狂欢节和美洲狂欢节的特点及异同。通过课文前后的四个 相关练习，使学生了解、学习相关词汇和课文主旨。 与课文相关的练习：Task 1 是要求学生浏览课文后选出文中涉及话题，潜移 默化中培养学生 skimming 这一重要阅读技巧； Task 2 是考察对文章细节的理解， 有助于学生从微观的角度来理解课文； Task 3 && 4 词汇、短语练习，找出文中 一些较为复杂的词汇和短语的解析，从而为近一步的阅读理解扫除障碍。 1.3 GRAMMAR (Review of the passive voice) 通过一系列语法练习，旨在使 学生复习并掌握被动语态在各种时态中的使用。 1.4 VOCABULARY AND LISTENING 该部分有两项任务，一是复习关于食 物的一些词语，为下一步的听力作铺垫。二是听关于四种节日的材料，然后完成 与录音内容相关的练习，训练学生听和理解各种节日的能力。 1.5 EVERYDAY ENGLISH 通过选择 8 个短语的正确的意思而掌握这些日常 用语。 1.6 FUNCTION（Expressing likes, dislikes and preferences）通过三步训练掌 握表达喜好的方式。 三步练习逐步递近,环环相扣。 1.7 READING AND WRITING 读一封电子邮件，划出其中用来描述氛围、 音乐和食物的形容词，并从这三个方面来描述一个中国节日。 1.8 CULTURAL CORNER 通过阅读有关狂欢节意义的文章， 拓宽学生有关
这一节日的知识面和相关词汇量， 从而让学生了解任何一个节日都是由其历史渊 源的。 1.9 TASK 让学生在小组讨论的基础上，写一段文字介绍一个中国节日。 1.10 MODULE FILE 部分简要总结了本模块的重点词汇、语法、重点句型、 短语及日常用语。总之，通过本模块的系统学习，让学生了解狂欢节以及世界各 国的节日及民俗，学习有关节日和食物的词汇，并能够丰富语言知识，提升用英 语表达观点的能力。 2. 教材重组 2.1 口语课 将 INTRODUCTION、EVERYDAY ENGLISH 和 FUNCTION 三
部分形成一节口语课。 在讨论所给图片上五个著名外国节日的基础上，补充讨论 中国节日的来历、意义和风俗。激活学生尽可能多的关于节日的词汇，为后面的 读、听、写作铺垫，同时激发学生的学习热情。 2.2 阅读课 VOCABULARY AND READING 两部分可以整合为一体，设计 成一节阅读课。 2.3 语法课 本节课前十五分钟用来复习课文内容，复习被动语态结构，练习 WORKBOOK 中相关题目，并链接高考题中对此语法项目的考查点。 2.4 听力课 将课文中的 VOCABULARY AND LISTENING 和 WORKBOOK 中的 Listening and Speaking 整合为一节听力课。 2.5 泛读课 将 CULTURAL CORNER 与 WORKBOOK 中 Reading 部分放在
一起，再加入课外阅读材料，扩大节日这一话题信息量,上一节泛读课。 2.6 写作课 把 READING AND WRITING, TASK 与 WORKBOOK 中
Speaking and writing 放在一起，上一节写作课。 3. 课型设计与课时分配 (经分析教材, 本模块可以用六课时教完) 1st Period 2nd Period 3rd Period 4th Period 5th Period 6th Period Speaking Reading Grammar Listening Extensive Reading Writing
（以上课时分配与教材重组，仅供参考，教师可因时因地因人而异，不必拘泥于 此。) IV. 分课时教案 The First Period Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言 a. 重点词汇和短语 carnival, Christian, ghost b. 交际用语 1. This is a ... festival which comes in... Speaking
2. The festival is at the end of ..., when... 3. Have you ever dressed up in special clothes? 4. Expressing likes, dislikes and preferences: —Do you like fish? — No, I don?t. I hate it. Yes, I do. I quite like it. I hate it. I love it. It?s OK. I quite like it. I really like it. I don?t think much of it. 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Enable the students to talk about some foreign festivals and customs. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Help the Ss learn how to talk about festivals with the target language. Teaching important &difficult points 教学重难点 How to talk about festivals and customs at festivals and how to express likes, dislikes and preferences. Teaching methods 教学方法 Elicitation, discussion, listening and pair work. Teaching aids 教具准备 A computer, a projector and a tape recorder. Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式 Step I Lead-in Show the word “FESTIVALS” on the screen and then encourage the students to talk about as much about festivals in China as possible. T: Hello, everybody! As we all know, China, our great motherland, has a long history. So we have various festivals today. Look at the screen, please. What do you think of after you read the word “festivals”? Why do you think so? Ss: We like festivals very much. That’s because we can get together to eat, drink and have fun with each other. Festivals let us enjoy life, be proud of our customs and forget our daily life.
Step II Speaking 1 T: Who can talk something about festivals in China? Volunteers! S1: The Spring Festival is the most important festival in our country, when I usually get much lucky money from my parents, grandparents and my relatives. At the Spring Festival I needn’t go to school and there is lots of delicious food to eat. How great it is! What’s more, I can meet my cousins and old friends who I haven’t seen for a long time and we can have a very good time together. T: Excellent work! Now let?s talk more about FESTIVALS, which are meant to celebrate important events and persons. Please think about other Chinese festivals and when they are celebrated. FESTIVALS Chinese Festivals Date Chinese Festivals Date
S2: New Year (January 1st), Yuanxiao Festival (15 days after the Spring Festival). S3: That’s also called the Lantern Festival. It’s the 15th day of the first lunar month, when we eat special sweet dumplings called Yuanxiao and enjoy displayed lanterns. And we enjoy beautiful fireworks, too. T: You have done a good job. What are the other festivals? S4: International Women’s Day. It is on March 8. S5: Arbor Day on March 12th. S6: International Labor Day and Chinese Youth Day. S7: International Children’s Day. T: Yes. Do you know other Chinese festivals?
S8: Army Day is on August 1st and Teachers’ Day is on September 10th. S9: National Day on October 1st. T: Excellent work! Those are mostly the legal holidays in our country. There are also some traditional Chinese festivals celebrated according to the lunar calendar. Do you know some other traditional festivals? List some of them, please. S10: Qingming Festival in memory of the dead or the heroes on April the fifth. T: It?s called Tomb Sweeping Festival. Another one? S11: Dragon Boat Festival on the fifth day of the fifth lunar month in memory of the great poet - Qu Yuan. S12: Mid-Autumn Festival on the fifteenth day of the eighth lunar month. T: You?ve done a good job, boys and girls! You have named so many festivals. I?m proud of you for you are so well-informed. Look at the screen and I?ll show you a table: Chinese Festivals New Year Date January 1st International Women?s March 8. Day Arbor Day March 12th International Labor Day Chinese Youth Day May 1st May 4th. Pure Brightness Day Dragon Festival International Children?s June 1st Day Army Day August 1st Mid-Autumn Festival Lantern Festival April the fifth. the Spring Festival. Lunar New Year National Day October 1st Chinese Festivals Teachers? Day Date September 10th
Boat the fifth day of the fifth lunar month the 5th day of the 8th lunar month. the 15 day of the 1st lunar month.
Step III Speaking 2 T: Ok! We have got lots of information about Chinese festivals. Would you like to
know something about some foreign festivals? Ss: Yes! Of course! T: What?s the most important festival in western countries? Ss: Christmas! T: That?s right! Please look at the pictures on page 31, and then match the festivals with the descriptions. If you know some information about the festivals, please talk about them with your partners. S1: Christmas is both a legal and religious holiday, which observes the anniversary of the birth of Jesus. All states and all those of the Christian faith celebrate this holiday on which people give each other presents and best wishes while the children believe that the presents come from Father Christmas. So I think the first description can be matched with the festival of Christmas. S2: Yes. I can’t agree with you more. I guess Holi is a festival with color, which marks the beginning of spring in India. That’s because the people in the picture are colored heavily. But I know no more about it. T: That?s Ok. The festival of Holi is celebrated on the day after the full moon in early March every year. Apart from the usual fun with colored powder and water, Holi is marked by vibrant processions that are accompanied by folk songs, dances and a general sense of abandoned vitality. Who?d like to say something else about other festivals and their descriptions? S3: There is so much delicious food on Thanksgiving Day, so it must be when Americans remember the hard times when they first arrived in the country. T: The food is turkey( 火鸡 ), corn and pumpkin pies( 南瓜派 ). Thanksgiving Day is a traditional American festival on the fourth Thursday in November, when families get together and have a big dinner. How about the next one? S4: Judging from the pictures, there are two festivals for which people love wearing special clothes. So I’m not sure which one is suitable for the description. S5: Have you paid attention to the fifth description? I’m sure Halloween(万圣节) is the festival at the end of October, when “ghosts” come out, for it’s said that witches
(女巫) ride through the air on broomstick. T: Yes! Halloween is a time to have fun and it comes on October 31st. It ?s one of the most favorite holidays for children. Parties are very popular, too. People wear scary clothes and masks(面具), for example, dress up like a witch(巫婆). S6: Then for Carnival people love wearing special clothes and it seems that people usually dress up and wear a mask at this festival. T: That?s true. People walk on the street wearing masks, doing what they want to do without being recognized. Look at the picture lower in this page. What is the person wearing? S7: The person is wearing so special clothes and a mask that it’s hard to say it is male or female. T: Have you ever dressed up in special clothes? Ss: No. At the Spring Festival we usually wear beautiful and new clothes but there are no special clothes. Maybe the Chinese minorities wear special clothes on their festivals. T: Yes. As we all know, different countries have different culture and social customs. Then what do you usually do during festivals? Let?s come to part four of this page, and please check out the thing you do. S8: We eat special food at different festivals. For example, on Mid-Autumn Day we usually eat moon cakes and other delicious food, Zongzi is the traditional food for the Dragon Boat Festival and jiaozi for the Spring Festival. S9: We give and receive gifts, have holidays from school and enjoy ourselves with friends and family at the Spring Festivals. On Lantern Festival and the Dragon Boat Festival we take part in different traditional ceremonies, such as enjoying displayed lanterns, rowing dragon boats and so on. S10: We sometimes dance and listen to music at festivals, but usually we enjoy all kinds of entertainment programs. T: I am very proud of you because you know so much about festivals at home and abroad. Step IV Everyday English Expressing likes, dislikes and preferences.
T: Now please turn to page 37. Let?s come to the function of this module. Task 2: Number the phrases from the most negative (1) to the most positive (6). Ss: In my opinion, No.1 should be “ I hate it” ; No. 2 should be “I don?t think much of it”; the third one should be “It?s OK”; next might be “I quite like it”; the fifth one “I really like it”; the most positive one must be “I love it”. T: Yes. What you said is quite right. Now please work in pairs and discuss your
preferences for food to eat at festivals, using the phrases in Activity 2 of page 37 and following the example. Sa: Do you like pork? Sb: Yes, I do. I really like it, especially the dumplings with pork. How about you? Sa: No, I don’t. I don’t think much of it. I prefer chicken to pork. ... Step V Summary and homework T: Boys and girls you did very well today. We have talked about festivals around the world, so I believe all of us have broadened our horizon. Here is your homework today: 1. If you have a chance to decide a new holiday that is most likely to be necessary in your opinion, please create a new holiday and give your reasons. 2. Do Everyday English on page 37. The Second Period Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言 a. 重点词汇和短语 carnival, Christian, ghost, costume, confusion, firearm, empire, memory, council, elegant, magic,hide, extend, pretend, book (v.), revive, wander, come to an end, dress up b. 重点句式 The sounds and sights change from ... to another but ... is the same... As time passed, however, so that it... For weeks on end people walked round the street wearing masks, doing what wanted Reading
without being recognized. Ordinary people could pretend to ..., while famous people could have romantic... Many crimes went unpunished. If they broke the laws, they were put in prison for up to two years. 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Enable the students to talk about the origins of carnivals and two different kinds of carnivals. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Help the Ss learn how to talk about the development of carnivals. Teaching important points 教学重点 Get to know the customs of carnivals. Teaching methods 教学方法 Fast reading, task-based method && discussion. Teaching aids 教具准备 A computer, a projector and a tape recorder. Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式 Step I Revision Check the students? homework — creating a new holiday. T: Boys and girls, as we all know, all the festivals are created for certain reasons and needs. I have given you the opportunity to create a new holiday. Now it ?s time for you to present your holiday and give us your reasons. Who?d like to tell us your creation? Sa: In my opinion, the new holiday should be Nature Day. It should be celebrated on March 13th, when people should persuade the people around to protect environment and wildlife by delivering papers and giving lectures and no pollution or destruction of nature is allowed. I think this is the most necessary because our surroundings are being polluted faster than nature and man’s present effort can prevent it and it is high time we did what we could to protect our home. Sb: I think the new holiday should be Peace Day. On this day, no fighting or conflicts are allowed. People will learn and talk about peace and send olive (橄榄枝) and doves. That’s because the world is full of wars, killings and terrorism and some
countries start wars in the name of freedom and democracy, so many people died, many are homeless and the world economy is influenced. On the country, most people long for peace. Sc: In my personal opinion, the new holiday should be Relaxation Day, when people can do what they want to, as long as they don’t break the law. As most of us, old and young, live a busy life under certain pressure, we need the holiday to relax ourselves and to make the friends and relatives happy. Sd: I think the new festival should be the Students’ Day, which will be held on the first Sunday after June 9 every year. On that day no students need to study just doing what they like to without homework, without papers or orders of parents’ and teachers’. You know, we are so tired under great pressure. On June 9 the entrance exam is over, the school-leavers can hold a party to celebrate their graduation. T: Wonderful ideas! I can?t agree with you more. We need some way to relax ourselves indeed. There happens to be a festival called Carnival when people can do what they want to without being recognized. Would you like to know more about it? Ss: Yes. T: OK. Let?s come to the passage on page 32. Please skim through the passage and then check the topics it mentions. This time, read just for the general ideas of the passage. Six minutes for you to complete the 450 words. Step II Revision T: I think you must know something about Carnival. Carnival is a traditional time of celebration before the Christian season of Lent. Lent is a forty-day period of spiritual renewal before the holiday of Easter. Carnival ends with a wild celebration on Mardi Gras, the Tuesday before the start of Lent. Each year, hundreds of thousands of people gather in the city. They enjoy a series of lively parties and parades. Carnival today is an international, multicultural experience. It has become a celebration of life itself. But how did it become so? And do you know what the symbol of Carnival is? Ss: People always wear masks at Carnival. But I want to know why people wear masks at carnival. ... T: Today we are going to learn more about Carnival. Now please read The Magic of
the Mask and then answer my questions. Skimming Ask the Ss to skim through the questions and then read the text silently. Get the Ss comprehend the passage quickly and accurately and at the same time help them to form a good habit of reading. Show the questions on the screen. 1. What do you think of when you think of carnival? (We think of crowds, costumes, masks, and confusion.) 2. Where and why does the word “carnival” come from? Where does Carnival originate from? What did people see Carnival as? (“Carnival”comes from two Latin words, meaning “no more meat”. In Europe, where it began, carnival was followed by forty days without meat, as people prepared for the Christian festival of Easter. People saw Carnival as a last chance to have fun at the end of the winter season. Having fun meant eating, drinking, and dressing up.) 3. How was the Carnival in Venice? (It was the most famous carnival in Europe. The first carnival in Venice lasted for just one day. As time passed, the carnival period was extended, so that it began just after Christmas. For weeks on end people walked round the streets wearing masks, doing what they could without being recognized.) 4. How did the different kinds of people behave in the carnival in Venice? (Ordinary people could pretend to be rich and important, while famous people could have romantic adventures in secret. Many crimes went unpunished.) 5. Why were masks banned when Venice became part of the Austrian empire, at the end of the eighteenth century? (Because the government realized that wearing masks had become a problem. Their use was limited by laws. First men were not allowed to wear masks at night, and they were not allowed to dress up as women in the fourteenth century. In later times more laws were passed. People who wore masks could not carry firearms; and no one could enter a church wearing a mask. If they broke the laws, they were put into prison for up to two years. Finally, masks were banned and carnival became just a memory.) 6. When and why was the tradition wearing masks revived? And by whom? (In the late 1970s the tradition was revived. The idea to start the carnival again came from
students. They began making masks and organizing parties, and threw bits of brightly coloured paper at tourists. The town council realized that carnival was good for business, and the festival was developed for tourists.) 7. How long and when is carnival in Venice celebrated today? (For five days in February.) 8. Is the spirit of Venice carnival the same as the great American carnivals? (No. The spirit of Venice carnival is not quite the same as the great American carnivals. If the key to Rio is music and movement, then in Venice it is the mystery of the mask. If the masks come off, the magic is lost.) Give the Ss six minutes to look through the text, allow them to discuss with their partners encourage them to express themselves with their own words. Step III Intensive Reading Let the Ss have enough time to read the passage carefully this time to understand the main ideas of each paragraph and get the details. T: Read the text loudly for a second time and then complete the sentences with the correct words and phrases. At the same time underline the important phrases and sentences and make a mark where you have problems. Five minutes later, talk about Exercise 2 with the students, meanwhile encouraging the students to analyse some long and complex sentences. T: Time is up. Which is the correct answer of the first sentence? S: European. T: Yes. How did you get the answer? S: According to the sentence: In Europe, where it began, Carnival was followed by forty days without meat, as people prepared for the Christian festival of Easter. T: You are quite right. Can you analyze the sentence? S: Sure. There are two clauses in this sentence, the former used as attributive clause and the other as adverbial clause of reason. ... T: Now it?s time for you to complete tasks 3 and 4 and then read the text once more to check your answers. After you have finished them you can also discuss them with
your partners. Language points In this part try to help the students to analyze the difficult, long and complex sentences and talk about the meaning of the new words and ask them to deal with the language points in the context. T: Well, please look at the screen and I?ll show you some important sentences and phrases in the passage. Now look at these sentences and pay attention to the boldface words. I?ll ask you about their part of speech, meaning in the context and the important usages of them. Let?s talk about them together. 1. As time passed, however, the carnival period was extended, so that it began just after Christmas. P32 ⑴ as： when; while “当??之时”(此处表示两个渐进的动作)“随着??” As he grew older, he became less active. As the society develops, the living conditions get better and better. = With the development of the society, the living conditions get better and better. ⑵ so that 引导结果状语从句 2. Ordinary people could pretend to be rich and important, while famous people could have romantic adventures in secret. P32
⑴ pretend: make oneself appear ( to be sth., to be doing sth.) 佯装，伪装 He pretended / to be reading the book / to have read the book / to be asleep / that he was reading / when his mother came in. ⑵ while “而，却”并列连词，表对比之意一般连接两个句式结构一致，而意 义相对或相反的两个句子。 (04?广西 35.) I do every single bit of housework ______my husband Bob just does the dishes now and then. A. since Ｂ. while Ｃ. when Ｄ. as
⑶ in secret (表情况或状态) = secretly in despair 在绝望中 in poverty 在贫困中 in wonder 惊奇地 in public 公开地
in love 恋爱中 in tears 在哭泣 in a trouble state 在烦恼 in poor health 健康不佳 3. If they broke the laws, they were put in prison for up to two years. P33
⑴ put / keep somebody in prison= send somebody to prison 把某人关进监狱（无冠 词） be in / go to prison 坐牢（表动作） go to school / church / hospital 上学 / 去做礼拜 / 去看病（表动作） go to the school / the church / the hospital 去学校 / 去教堂 / 去医院 （表地点） at table 在吃饭 （无冠词表动作） at the table 在桌旁 （有冠词表地点） ⑵ up to = as far as 直到 up to now / then 到现在 / 那时 reach up to add up to 多达 总计
4. The town council realized that carnival was good for business, and the festival was developed for tourists. good: adj.有益的，有利的 e.g. be good for 对??有益 Milk is good for children. n. 利益，好处， e.g. do good to Fruit does good to you. 5. If the masks come off, the magic is lost. come off: become separated (from) （从某物上）脱落，分离，掉下 e.g. One of my buttons has come off. 我的一粒扣子掉了。 Step IV Listening T: Now I will play the tape for you. You can just listen with your books closed or look at your books or read in a low voice together with the tape. It?s up to you. While listening, please pay attention to the pronunciation and intonation. Step V Discussion T: This text is made up of six paragraphs. Who can tell us the main idea of each
paragraph? Now you can discuss in groups. S1: The first paragraph tells us the whole impression of Carnival. S2: Paragraph 2 tells us the meaning of the word "carnival". S3: Paragraph 3 tells us the most famous carnival in Europe was in Venice. S4: Paragraphs 4 && 5 tell us the history of masks which were banned completely and the tradition was revived by students. S5: The last paragraph tells us today's carnival in Venice. T: Good. We know there are all kinds of festivals around the world and different festivals have different reasons. It is not difficult to understand there are common human deeds and desires that are met in different ways around the world. We should enlarge our knowledge about the social customs of the English-speaking countries and the history of festivals. We should love our colorful life and work hard to make the world more beautiful. Festivals are meant to celebrate important events. Different countries have different festivals. Here I have several questions for you to think about. 1. How does your family celebrate the Spring Festival? 2. Why do we celebrate the Spring Festival and other festivals? Do festivals help us understand our history and culture? 3. What kinds of gifts and things do people buy during major festivals like Christmas and the Spring Festival? 4. Many festivals around the world are celebrated around the same time. Why do we celebrate these festivals at these times? Let the Ss work in groups and discuss them. S1: Before the Spring Festival, my whole family begin to prepare for it. We are busy to have houses thoroughly cleaned, debts repaid, and new clothes purchased. On the day, we let off fire-crackers, eat dumplings, fish and meat, and my parents gives us children luck money. S2: When we celebrate the Spring Festival, we can get together to eat, drink and have fun with each other. It lets us enjoy life, be proud of our customs and forget our daily life for a little while. It can also help us understand our history and culture. S3: First I want to say that we Chinese people go shopping to buy new clothes,
firecrackers, all kinds of food before the Spring Festival. And after the Spring Festival they buy wines, cakes and other gifts to visit relatives. But at Christmas people buy all kinds of colorful cards to post them to good friends and teachers to show best wishes. S4: I think many holidays celebrate the arrival of a new season or a new harvest. I think these festivals are all the international festivals to celebrate the same history and the same culture in order that we keep our international culture alive. For example, May Day is celebrated because it is the day when the working people get their legal rights. T: That?s right. Some of the festivals like Christmas are getting to become international. Because people from all over the world love to get together to have fun with each other and enjoy life, and some to give people all over the world a warning. For example, the Environment Day is celebrated to protect the earth, water and air from pollution. Step VI Summing up and homework T: In this class we have learned about Carnival and the usage of some words and phrases. All right, boys and girls, that?s all for today. Here is your homework: Go over the text after class and try to write a summary of the text (about 100 words) and retell the test according to the summary. Underline the sentences with the passive voice in the passage. If possible try to find out as much information as possible about festivals around the world. You can surf the Internet or refer to the books. The Third Period Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言 a. 重点词汇和短语 era, the Christian calendar b. 重点句子 In the late 1970s the tradition was revised by students. Today, carnival in Venice is celebrated for five days in February. Grammar
2. Ability goals 能力目标 Enable the Ss to learn to use the passive voice. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Let the students lean how to use the passive voice. Teaching important points 教学重点 Discovering the passive voice structures. Teaching methods 教学方法 Practicing independently & explanation. Teaching grammar in real situations. Teaching aid 教具准备 A multiple-media computer & a blackboard. Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式 Step I Revision T: Good morning, class! Yesterday we learned a passage on Carnival. So I?d like some of you to introduce this festival with your books closed. You may use you own key words or refer to the summary on the slide. The suggested key words: 1. The origins of carnival: European, followed by, prepared for, as last chance to 2. Different carnivals: in Venice, the mystery of the masks, in American, music and movement 3. Carnival in Venice: one day, limited, banned, revised, developed for tourists, masks The suggested summary: When Carnival began in __________, people saw it the last chance to have ______. Having fun meant ______, drinking and ______. The most famous carnival was in ______. At first, it ______ for just one day. ______ time passed, the Carnival period was ______. People walking round the streets wearing ______, doing ______ they wanted without being recognized. Later, wearing masks was ______ by law. Finally, at the end of the 18th century, masks were ______ completely. But in the late 1970s, the tradition was ______ by students and the festival was ______ for tourists. Today, Carnival in Venice is ______ for five days in February. Hotels are fully ______ and
the narrow streets are crowed with wonderful costumes. The key to Rio is music and ______ while in Venice it is the ______ of masks. Suggested answers： When Carnival began in Europe, people saw it the last chance to have fun. Having fun meant eating, drinking and dressing up. The most famous carnival was in Venice. At first, it lasted for just one day. As time passed, the Carnival period was extended. People walking round the streets wearing masks, doing what they wanted without being recognized. Later, wearing masks was limited by law. Finally, at the end of the 18th century, masks were banned completely. But in the late 1970s, the tradition was revived by students and the festival was developed for tourists. Today, Carnival in Venice is celebrated for five days in February. Hotels are fully booked and the narrow streets are crowded with wonderful costumes. The key to Rio is music and movement while in Venice it is the mystery of masks. ... T: That?s all for the revision of the text. Let?s translate the following Chinese into English with the given words or phrases. 1. 随着社会的发展，生活状况越变越好。 （as） As the society develops, living conditions are getting better and better. 2. 他进来时我假装正在读书。(pretend) I pretended to be reading when he came in. 3. 丈夫正在做饭而妻子正在照顾孩子。(while) The husband was cooking while the wife was looking after the baby. 4. 他们被秘密逮捕了。(put into prison, in secret) They were put into prison in secret. 5. 早睡早起对健康有益。 （be good for） Going to bed early and getting up early is good for your health. Step II Lead-in T: I have asked you to underline the sentences with the passive voice. Have you found them? Ss:
1. In Europe, where it began, carnival was followed by forty days without meat. 2. As time passed, however, the carnival period was extended, so that it began just after Christmas. 3. Their use was limited by laws. 4. Men were not allowed to wear masks and they were not allowed to dress up as women. 5. In later times, more laws were passed. 6. If they broke the laws, they were put in prison for up to two years. 7. Masks were banned completely. 8. But in the late 1970s, the tradition was revived by students 9. The festival was developed for tourists. 10. Today, Carnival in Venice is celebrated for five days in February. 11. Hotels are fully booked. Step III Explanation 英语的语态有两种：主动语态和被动语态。 被动语态一般用于以下几种情况： ⑴ 动作的承受者是谈话的中心。 ⑵ 不知道或不愿说出动作的发出者。 主动语态和被动语态的转化:
主语 + 谓语(及物)do + 宾语 ＋状语
主语 一般式 be done
＋ be done 进行式
+ by + 动作的执行者 完成式
be being done
have been done
Step IV Practice T: Now please complete the passage on page 34, using the correct form of the verb. The passage is talking about the origins of carnival. Please pay attention to the tense and voice of the verbs. If you have any difficulty in understanding them you can
talk about them with your partners. Five minutes for the students to do the job, and then check the answers with the whole class. Emphasize on the passive voice of different tenses. 高考链接： （作者认为此语法项目较为简单且为复习内容，因此，可以提升到高 考高度，让学生接触各种时态的被动语态,注重语境。 ） 1. All the preparations for the task ______ and we?re ready to start. (?00 春招) A. completed B. complete
C. had been completed D. have been completed 2. Hundreds of jobs ________ if the factory closes. (?00 春招) A. lost B. will be lost C. are lost D will lose
3. A new cinema ________ here. They hope to finish it next month. (?00 春招) A. will be built C. has been built B. is built D. is being built
4. Visitors ______ not to touch the exhibits. (?01 全国) A. will request C. are requesting B. request D. are requested
5. —How long _________ at this job? (?03 北京春招) —Since 1990. A. were you employed B. have you been employed C. had you been employed D. will you been employed 6. The silence of the library ________ only by the sound of pages being turned over. (?03 春招) A. has been broken C. broke B. breaks D. was broken
7. The mayor of Beijing says that all construction work for the Beijing Olympics ______ by 2006. (?04 北京) A. has been completed B. has completed
C. will have been completed D. will have completed 8. The first use of atomic weapons was in 1945, and their power ______ increased enormously ever since. (?04 上海) A. is B. was C. has been D. had been
9. All the employees except the manager ______ to work online at home. (?04 广东) A. encourages C. is encouraged B. encourage D. are encouraged
10. More patients ______ in hospital this year than that year. (?04 江苏) A. treated C. had been treated B. have treated D. have been treated
11. —The window is dirty. (?04 广西) —I know. It ______ for weeks. A. hasn?t cleaned C. wasn?t cleaned B. didn?t clean D. hasn’t been cleaned
12. When Mark opened the door, he saw a woman standing there. He ____ her before. (?05 北京 21 ) A. never saw C. never sees B. had never seen D. has never seen
13. I can?t see any coffee in this cupboard. ______? (?05 北京春) A. Has it all been finished C. Has it all finished B. Was it all finished D. Did it all finish
14. —Why did you leave that position? (?05 北京 31) — I _____ a better position at IBM. A. offer C. am offered B. offered D. was offered
15. Millions of pounds? worth of damage _______ by a storm which swept across the north of England last night. (?05 重庆 29 ) A. has been caused C. will be caused B. had been caused D. will have been caused
Step V Summing up Consolidation: T: Boys and girls, today we have practised the useful words and phrases of this unit and the usage of the passive voice. I think it?s not easy for you to master them, after class you should review them. And I?ll give you a quiz on the passive voice.. The quiz is based on the testing evaluation in the Teachers? Book in the form of a paper. Step VI Homework 1. Practice of WB P85 Exx. 2 and 4. 2. Please find out 5 sentences with the passive voice in different tenses, and try to compare them. The Fourth Period Listening Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言 重点词汇和短语 flour, former, garlic, onion, peas, sausage, tradition 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Enable the students to listen and speak about carnivals and food at festivals to develop their higher-order thinking skills and to make them more flexible in their use of English. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Help the students learn how to get the specific information to understand the conversation about the carnivals in different places, to talk about the festivals they like best and to master the food eaten at festivals. Teaching important points 教学重点 Listen to the material to get to know the characteristics of different carnivals and some specific information. Teaching methods 教学方法 Listening skill directing, task-based activity and discussion.
Teaching aids 教具准备 A tape recorder, a blackboard && some slides. Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式 Step I Revision After checking the WB Exx 2,4, ask the students to give examples about the passive voice in different tenses and try to explain them. T: Morning, everyone! We talked about the passive voice yesterday. I will ask you to give several sentences as examples. Volunteers! S1: Four books have been learned. S2: The new school is being built. S3: His leg was hurt yesterday. S4: English is spoken all over the world. S5: The project will be completed by the end of next month. T: Good. After class you should go on to collect some sentences with passive voice of different kinds and try to understand them. Step II Warming up T: By the way, what?s the topic of this unit? Ss: Carnival T: Would you like to know more about various carnivals all over the world?
Ss: Of course. T: OK. This class we will listen to dialogues about various carnivals. First look at the four pictures in listening part to find out their characteristic. Step III Listening T: I will play the tape for you. Please listen carefully and pay much attention to the important points and the pictures and then you are to match the names of the festivals with the photos. Check the answer with the whole class. The suggested answers are in the Teachers? Book. ... T: Now I?ll play the tape again. Please complete the table. For this time you are to
make notes in the table. For the third time, you should complete the table and then check them with your partners. It is important to encourage the students to adapt their present knowledge and skill to a variety of situations wherever they can. Make sure to allow various expressions of the answers. Do not demand the same words from all students. Play the tape twice first and check the answer with the whole class. Then let the students listen to the material a third time for them to get more information and at the same time correct their mistakes. This time teachers can show the listening text on the slide or not, which is up to the English level of the students. Step IV Listening task The purpose of this listening passage is to extend the knowledge of the festival. Students should be encouraged to understand there are common human deeds and desires that are met in different ways around the world. Teach them how to grasp the specific information. T: There is about 15 minutes left. Let?s come to Listening and Speaking on WORKBOOK. Turn to page 88 and look through the sentences of task 11 on page 89. At the same time predict the main idea of each conversation and then focus on them while listening. Play the tape once first and check the answer with the whole class. Then let the students listen to the dialogue twice for them to get more information and at the same time correct the false sentences. T: That?s right. I will play the tape for you. For the first time you should check the true sentences and for the second time you should correct the false sentences. ... T: For the next two times you can do Ex12. You can make a brief note first and then
complete the table, and then check. For the fifth time teachers can show the listening text on the slide or not, which is up to the English level of the students. The suggested answers are in the Teachers? Book. Step V Summing up
Consolidation: T: Today we have listened to passages about carnivals all over the world, enlarging our knowledge of festivals. You should pay attention to some Listening skills as follows. 1) Read the Questions or the chart first to form the important points so that you can focus on them while listening. 2) Listen once and make notes beside the questions. 3) Listen again to fulfill or correct the notes. 4) Learn to pay great attention to what you are listening to and what you are to listen to; that?s to say, you must give up the past part, whether you have understand it or not, especially in the exam. Step VI Homework Collect the information about Chinese festivals and make a report. Pay attention to the food on page 35 and enlarge the vocabulary of food eaten at Chinese festivals. The Fifth Period Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言 a. 重点词汇和短语 an international multicultural experience, take ... by force, hold their own carnival celebrations, bring good luck, abolish, take over, a celebration of freedom, join the fun b. 重点句子 ①With the passing of time, the white inhabitants of the island began to take part in the carnival, too ... and they were welcomed by their former slaves. ②Carnival became a way to unite different communities, as people forgot their everyday problems and enjoyed themselves eating, drinking, and dancing. ③Cards are a good way of keeping in touch with family and friends who live far away. Extensive Reading
2. Ability goals 能力目标 Enable the Ss to talk about the development of carnival and get to know that people in different countries and in different times may celebrate similar festivals in different ways. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Help the Ss learn how to get more information about festivals all over the world by offering extra reading material. Teaching important points 教学重点 How to talk about the development of carnival. Teaching methods 教学方法 Fast-reading and discussion. Teaching aids 教具准备 A multiple-media computer & a blackboard. Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式 Step I Revision Check homework. T: Last period we listened to some material about Carnivals in different places. Now I would like you to talk about the food and vegetables at Chinese festivals. Volunteer! S1: At Spring Festival, we mainly eat a traditional food called Jiaozi, which is similar to the dumpling in western countries. There are a variety of Jiaozi in our country, and it’s made of flour and pork mixed with different kinds of vegetables. It not only tastes delicious but also looks pretty. I enjoy it very much. S2: I prefer sweet dumplings called yuanxiao to jiaozi, and I’d like to eat all kinds of candy. S3: At festivals I like vegetables best that contain lots of vitamins. It’s said that too much fat and sugar will do harm to our health. S4: I agree with you. At festivals we usually have more fat than what we need, such as chicken, pork, beef and cookies. I think it’s a waste of money. Now, as the living conditions are getting better, we can eat what we want in everyday life, so I don ’t like the food at festivals.
T: You all have done excellent jobs. Thank you for you opinions. Step II Reading (1) T: As we all know, there are different kinds of carnivals around the world. Today we are going to read a passage, which is to introduce the development of carnival. Please look through the passage on page 39 and then answer the following questions: 1. What’s the meaning of carnival? 2. How did carnival become more colorful and more exciting after 1838? Five minutes for the students to read the passage and then two minutes for them to discuss the questions with their partners. T: Time is up. Have you found the answers to the questions? Who?d like to have a try? S5: In my personal opinion, the meaning of carnival today is a celebration of life itself. T: Do you agree with him? Ss: Yes. But carnival had different meanings in different periods. T: That?s true. Who would like to answer the other question? S6: Let me try. I think when the slaves took over the carnival, they developed it in their own way so that it was quietly different from their former slave owners. As a result carnival changed a lot and became a celebration of freedom. T: What you said is quite right! Now please read the passage once more to underline the important sentences and phrases. At the same time, pay attention to the development of carnival. Four minutes for the students to read the passage and then discuss some important sentences and phrases, dealing with some long and complex sentences. 1. an international multicultural experience; 2. take… by force; 3. hold their own carnival celebrations; 4. take over; 5. a celebration of freedom; 6. join the fun 7. With the passing of time, the white inhabitants of the island began to take part in
the carnival, too ... and they were welcomed by their former slaves. 8. Carnival became a way to unite different communities, as people forgot their everyday problems and enjoyed themselves eating, drinking, and dancing. T: That?s all for the important phrases and sentences. Who?d like to talk about the development of carnival in this passage? You can refer to your notes, with your books closed. S7: Carnival has something to do with the history of America and the meeting of European and African cultures. It was the white slave owners who first celebrated Carnival, who came from Europe where carnival began. When the slave trade was abolished, the former slaves took over the festival and made it more colorful and more exciting than ever. With the passing of time, the former slave owners began to take part in the carnival and were welcomed by their former slaves. Today, visitors from all over the world come to join the fun of carnival, which has become a celebration of life itself. S8: Yes. I can’t agree with you more. The festival developed with the development of society. What you said is the very three steps of carnival’s development. T: Both of you did quite well. Now let’s read one more passage about Christmas traditions. Step III Reading (2) T: Please turn to page 87. First, look through the headlines of the passage, and then match the headlines with the paragraphs. Five minutes for you to read and match them. Take up your pens and underline the phrases and sentences that are important or hard to understand. Five minutes is given to the students for them to read and think. And then the teacher can check the answers with the whole class. This task is quite easy, so just checking the answers is enough. T: I think you have got the general idea of the passage. Now please read the passage once more to choose the correct answers and answer the questions on page 88. The exercises are based on the passage and quite easy, so the teacher can just check the answers with the whole class. While dealing with the extensive reading material, teachers should pay attention to
those long and complex sentences that are hard to understand. Guide the students to analyze them to get rid of the difficulty in reading and understanding. Step IV Extra Reading T: Boys and girls, what?s the topic of this module? Ss: Carnival. It’s a festival celebrated in different places in different ways. T: That?s right. Would you like to know other festivals all over the world? Ss: We are curious about them. T: Ok. Are there any similarities among them? Sa: I don’t think there are similarities. As we all know, the social customs are different from country to country. Sb: I’m sorry, but I can’t agree with you. I think some of the festivals must be similar in some way. After all, we are all human beings and live on one planate. T: Both of you sound reasonable. So let?s read one more passage about festivals and celebrations. After reading it you will find the answer to my question. Now, please read through the passage and discuss the following questions: 1. How many types festivals are mentioned in the passage? What are they? 2. Can you give an example of Chinese festivals belonging to each type of them? 3. When did ancient people celebrate? 4. What are festivals of the dead for? 5. Why does India have a national festival on October 2? 6. Why are autumn festivals happy events? 7. What is one important reason to have festivals and celebrations? Show the passage on the screen. Festivals and Celebrations Ancient Festivals Festivals and celebrations of all kinds are held everywhere. The most ancient festivals would celebrate the end of the cold weather, planting in spring and harvest in autumn. Other celebrations were held when hunters could catch animals. They would starve if food was difficult to find, so they celebrated when they had food. They lit fires and made music because they thought these festivals would bring a year of plenty.
Festivals of the Dead Some festivals are held to honor the dead, or satisfy and please the ancestors, who could return either to help or to do harm. In Japan the festival is called Obon, when people should go to clean the graves and light incense in memory of their ancestors. They light lamps and play music because they think that this will lead the ancestors back to earth. The festival of Halloween had its origin as an event in memory of the dead. It?s now the children?s festival, when they can go to their neighbors? homes and ask for sweets. They dress up and try to frighten people. If they are not given anything, the children might play a trick. Festivals to Honor People Festivals can be held as an honor to famous people or to the gods. One of these is the Dragon Boat Festival in China, which honors the famous ancient poet, Qu Yuan. Another is Columbus Day in the USA, in memory of the arrival of Christopher Columbus in America. In India there is a national festival on October 2 to honour Mahatma Gandhi, the leader who helped gain India?s independence from Britain. Harvest Festivals Harvest and Thanksgiving festivals can be very happy events. People are grateful because their food is gathered for the winter, and because a season of agricultural work is over. In European countries it is the custom to decorate churches and town halls with flowers and fruit, and people get together to have meals. Some people might win awards for their animals, flowers, fruit and vegetables, like the biggest watermelon or the most handsome rooster. In China and Japan there are mid-autumn festivals, when people admire the moon and give gifts of moon cakes. Spring Festivals The most energetic and important festivals are the ones that look forward to the end of winter and to the coming of spring. At the Spring Festival in China, people eat dumplings, fish and meat, and may give children lucky money in red paper. There are dragon dances and carnivals, and families celebrate the lunar New Year together. In some western countries there are very exciting carnivals, which take place forty days before Easter, usually in February. They might include parades, dancing in the streets
day and night, loud music and colorful clothing of all kinds. Easter is an important religious and social festival in Christian countries. It celebrates the return of Jesus for Christians and it also celebrates the coming of spring. In Japan, the Cherry Blossom Festival happens a little later. The country is covered with cherry tree flowers so that it looks as though it might be covered with pink snow. People love to get together to eat, drink and have fun with each other. Festivals let us enjoy life, be proud of our customs and forget our daily life for a little while. Let the Ss discuss the questions and then show the suggested answers: 1. Five types festivals are mentioned in the passage. They are ancient festivals, festivals of the dead, festivals to honor people, harvest festivals and spring festivals. 2. Pure Brightness Day belongs to festivals of the dead; Dragon Boat Festival belongs to festivals to honor people; Mid-Autumn Festival belongs to harvest festivals and the Lunar New Year belongs to spring festivals. 3. They celebrated at the end of winter / when good weather returned / when they had a good harvest / when the hunters caught animals for food / when they had enough food / when they wanted a year of plenty. 4. They are to honour our ancestor / to make our ancestors happy so they won?t harm us / to satisfy our ancestors / to celebrate life in the presence of death. 5. To honour the memory of Mahatma Gandhi / to honour / remember the man who helped gain India?s independence from Britain. 6. People are grateful for the harvest / for the end of the agricultural work / the end of the hard work on the farms. People are happy that they will have food for the year. 7. To have a break from daily life, to celebrate our customs / our history / our heroes, to enjoy meeting family and friends, to eat special food, to have fun with each other, to make our community closer, to show that we are thankful. T: Read the text loudly for a second time and then try to tell if these sentences are True or False. 1. The ancient people needn?t worry about their food. 2. Halloween used to be a festival intended to honor the dead. 3. Pure Brightness Day in China is a festive of harvest. ( ( ( ) ) )
4. Mid-autumn Festival is held to celebrate the end of autumn. 5. Easter celebrates the birth of Jesus. The suggested answers: 1.F 2.T 3.F 4.T 5.F Step V Summing up and homework
T: In this class we have read three passages about festivals, two of which are about carnival and Christams and the last one is about festivals all over the world. All right, boys and girls, that?s all for today. Here is your homework: Go over the texts after class and try to preview Reading and writing task on page 38. The Sixth Period Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言 a. 重点词汇和短语 whistle, dance (v.), atmosphere, chicken b. 重点句子 It?s noisy and colorful. Calypso is great — it?s exciting and relaxing at the same time. They are really tasty. I?ll let you know how it all ends! 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Enable the students to use the information they have read to describe a Chinese festival including the same details. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Learn to identify common elements in most festivals to develop a description of these elements. Teaching important points 教学重点 Learn to describe a Chinese festival. Teaching methods 教学方法 Discussion. Help the students write by themselves and then exchange in pairs to correct each other ?s. Writing
Teaching aids 教具准备 A multiple-media computer && a blackboard. Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式 Step I Revision Check the homework. T: Hello, everybody! First I?d like to ask some of you to say at least three sentences about a festival you have learned. Any one is OK. Ss: ... Step II Speaking T: Yesterday I asked you to preview Reading Task on page 38. Who would like to number the things in the order you read in the email. S1: Let me try. 1. the atmosphere at the festival 2. the music 3. the food 4. what the writer ’s doing 5. what the writer ’s going to do T: Ok. You did very well. Please read the passage again and find out the adjectives used to describe the atmosphere, the music and the food. S2: The atmosphere is noisy and colorful; the music is great, exciting and relaxing and the food is good and really tasty. T: Thank you. Now it?s time for you to write an email from a Chinese festival. Make sure to include details of the three we talked just now. But I think you should work in pairs to discuss the three details and then write the email. Five minutes for you to talk. Sa: Let’s talk about Lantern Festival, shall we? Sb: Ok. Lantern Festival is held on the fifteenth day of the lunar month. On the night, many cities hold lantern fairs to display many differently shaped lanterns. In rural areas, the local people get together to set off fireworks, enjoying dragon lanterns and dancing the yangge and other folk dances. Sa: Yes. There is different folk music in the crowded streets, which is exciting and noisy. People walking on the streets get excited. Sb: I love the special food called yuanxiao. That’s because it’s very sweet and has the meaning of family reunion and happiness. ...
One possible version: Dear Lee， We are celebrating Chinese traditional Lantern Festival. And there are so many people in the street that the street is crowded. Fireworks are set off here and there and many lanterns of different shapes are displayed; thus, I saw a beautiful world full of colors and laughter. The exciting music and popular songs are being played by a local band. It ?s very noisy. I am watching the beautiful lanterns with my friends, which are so wonderful. “Guessing lantern riddles” is an essential part of the Festival. Lantern owners write riddles on a piece of paper and post them on the lanterns. If visitors have solutions to the riddles, they can pull the paper out and go to the lantern owners to check their answer. If they are right, they will get a little gift. We are going to have yuanxiao together. I love the special and customary food very much. I?ll write to you later. Li Hua Step III Writing T: Let?s come to next part — Writing task. Have you previewed this part? Ss: Yes. T: Have you found the Chinese festival you would like to describe? Ss: Of course. T: Please plan your composition according to the headlines. You can make a note first and then write it out. Sample writing: Spring festival Spring Festival is the most energetic and important festival and the one that look forward to the end of winter and to the coming of spring. It is celebrated on the first day of the lunar calendar, so it is also called Lunar New Year. People also call it Guo Nian. That?s because it?s said that in ancient times, a monster called Nian came out to
devour people on New Year ?s Eve. So people lit firecrackers to scare it away. The traditional festival is a good time for the family and friends to reunite, so on that day people try their best to go back to their families and spend the evening of the last day of the last lunar month with their family, having a New Year ?s Eve dinner together and talking happily. In the following morning, people make New Year calls on friends and relatives to give best wishes and congratulations. More food is consumed during the New Year celebrations than any other time of the year. Children can get not only new clothes, but also delicious food and lucky money. Most people are on holiday for about a week, attending all kinds of entertainment. Step IV Speaking and writing WORKBOOK 中的 speaking and writing,可视学生水平安排在本堂课或留做作业。 Step V Consolidation T: In this module we have learned carnival in different places and festivals around the world and the usage of the passive voice, so after class you should collect information about festivals and events from CCTV International and newspapers. You can also search the Internet for more information and check it. Step VI Homework Make a self-assessment after class by referring to module file of page 40.
背景知识 Holi - the festival of colors
The festival of Holi is celebrated on the day after the full moon in early March every year. Originally a festival to celebrate good harvests and fertility of the land, Holi is now a symbolic commemoration of a legend from Hindu Mythology. The story centers around an arrogant king who resents his son Prahlada worshipping Lord Vishnu. He attempts to kill his son but fails each time. Finally, the king?s sister Holika who is said to be immune to burning, sits with the boy in a huge fire. However, the prince
Prahlada emerges unscathed, while his aunt burns to death. Holi commemorates this event from mythology, and huge bonfires are burnt on the eve of Holi as its symbolic representation. This festival is also associated with the immortal love of Krishna and Radha, and hence, Holi is spread over 16 days in Vrindavan as well as Mathura - the two cities with which Lord Krishna shared a deep affiliation. Apart from the usual fun with colored powder and water, Holi is marked by vibrant processions which are accompanied by folk songs, dances and a general sense of abandoned vitality. Today Holi is an excuse for Indians to shed inhibitions and caste differences for a day of spring fever and Big Fun. Teenagers spend the day flirting and misbehaving in the streets, adults extend the hand of peace, and everyone chases everyone else around, throwing brightly colored powder (gulal) and water over each other. Thanksgiving Day Celebrating a Harvest of Tradition The fourth Thursday in November, Thanksgiving Day, ushers in the “official” start of the Christmas season in our modern day world. Marked with parades, huge family meals featuring turkey, gravy, and all the trimmings, day-long displays of athletic prowess-or not, as sometimes happens-with wall-to-wall football, which does make one question whether the turkey or the pigskin is the featured course of the day, and the appearance of Santa throughout malls and stores, the festival has become a commercial event in which the origins and meaning of the day are almost totally obscured. The modern day Thanksgiving is a far different occasion than the original. Thanksgiving Today Thanksgiving, as we know it today, has come a long way from the Pilgrim?s harvest festival in 1621. It is an event that seems, as each year goes by, to reinvent itself and to expand its meaning to larger vistas. Maybe this is the real significance of the occasion; for as we continue to change and grow as a people, there are an increasing number of things for which we can be thankful. As many of you may have probably heard, the Brazilian carnival in Rio de Janeiro is very famous for the samba school parades.
The samba schools are groups of about 6,000 people of all walks of life, rich and poor, young and old, black and white and all in between, mostly Brazilians but also a lot of foreigners from all over the world who purchase tourist packages that include participating in the parade of a samba school. They get the costume and learn how to dance and sing the songs. The BIG thing in the samba school is the bateria, the percussion group which is composed of about 600 guys playing about 9 different types of percussion instruments. The beat is very strong and electrifying. People get crazy because of the beat. Mardi Gras Mardi Gras is a traditional holiday celebrated in many of the southern states of the USA. The most famous celebration takes place in New Orleans, Louisiana. The people there enjoy this celebration by going to parades where they catch “beads, doubloons, cups, and trinkets” that are all thrown from floats. They have masquerade balls and dress up in costumes for these events. King Cakes are eaten during this holiday. Mardi Gras is known as the “biggest free show on earth.” Mardi Gras came to New Orleans through its French heritage in 1699. Early explorers celebrated this French Holiday on the banks of the Mississippi River. Throughout the years, Orleanians have added to the celebration by establishing krewes (organizations) which host parades and balls. Carnival quickly became an exciting holiday for both children and adults. Mardi Gras means “Fat Tuesday” and of course is celebrated on that day of the week. The date can fall between February 3 and March 9 depending on the Lunar calendar, used by the Catholic Church to determine the date of Easter. Mardi Gras is always 47 days before Easter Sunday. The official colors for Mardi Gras are purple, green, and gold. These colors where chosen in 1872 by the King of Carnival, Rex. He chose these colors to stand for the following: Purple represents justice green stands for faith
gold stands for power Chinese Festivals Most Chinese holidays have ties to Chinese folk religion and ancestor worship. While not all Chinese who participate in the ceremonies associated with the worship of ancestors believe in folk religion, they are a time of family unity and respect. Chinese New Year/Spring Festival Chinese New Years is by far the most well-known Chinese holiday, and also the most significant to Chinese culture. Also known as The Spring Festival, observation of the holiday actually begins the day before the beginning of the Lunar Year. The mode of celebration varies from province to province, different areas having their own specific traditions. Listed below are some of the customs associated with New Years. The day before the Spring Festival, there is a lot of cleaning and preparation done. Offerings to the Kitchen God are commonly made in hopes that he will give a good report to the Emperor of Heaven. That night is a special gathering when the whole family get together and eat a particularly large dinner. The following three or four days are public holidays. Most businesses close and time is spent paying formal visits to friends. Visitors bring a gift (generally a box of chocolate, nuts, or a tin of cookies) and are given a gift of greater value by the hosts. Married couples give little red packet envelopes to children and unmarried friends when greeted with a phrase wishing them prosperity in the New Year. While the majority of the holiday is observed in the first 3 or 4 days of the New Year, the first 10 days of the year are all part of the festival, however, in practice this is just additional time to get in visits to friends. During this time, many Chinese people take trips to the city or province where they were born. Certain foods take on special names to celebrate the New Year (for example: chicken is called phoenix), visitors are often treated to fruits and seeds, and people buy new clothes. During prosperous times, entirely new furnishings may be bought. In the holiday, negative words, such as death, should be avoided. In fact, gifts of four and the word four are also often not used because it sounds like the word for death.
Mid-Autumn Festival This holiday falls on the 15th day of the 8th month of the Chinese New Year. Dring this celebration, Chinese people eat moon-cakes and spend the evening outdoors enjoying the beauty of the full moon. Additionally, children take paper lanterns out and play with them. The Dragon Boat Festival This colorful holiday is host to dragon boat races. Ornately shaped boats are rowed in international competitions watched by spectators. It occurs on the 5th day of the 5th month of the Lunar calendar. Rice dumplings wrapped in bamboo leaves are eaten and colorful paper ornaments are displayed to commemorate the death of a great Chinese patriot. This statesman and poet lost his position as an advisor due to treachery and in a drunken stupor drowned. The people, unable to save him, showed their care for him by casting bright color decoys and food into the water so the fish would leave his body alone. Lantern Festival The Lantern Festival falls on the 15th day of the 1st lunar month, usually in February or March in the Gregorian calendar. As early as the Western Han Dynasty (206 BC-AD 25), it had become a festival with great significance. This day?s important activity is watching lanterns. Throughout the Han Dynasty (206 BC-AD 220), Buddhism flourished in China. One emperor heard that Buddhist monks would watch sarira, or remains from the cremation of Buddha?s body, and light lanterns to worship Buddha on the 15th day of the 1st lunar month, so he ordered to light lanterns in the imperial palace and temples to show respect to Buddha on this day. Later, the Buddhist rite developed into a grand festival among common people and its influence expanded from the Central Plains to the whole of China. Till today, the lantern festival is still held each year around the country. Lanterns of various shapes and sizes are hung in the streets, attracting countless visitors. Children will hold self-made or bought lanterns to stroll with on the streets, extremely excited. “Guessing lantern riddles”is an essential part of the Festival. Lantern owners write riddles on a piece of paper and post them on the lanterns. If visitors have solutions to
the riddles, they can pull the paper out and go to the lantern owners to check their answer. If they are right, they will get a little gift. The activity emerged during people?s enjoyment of lanterns in the Song Dynasty (960-1279). As riddle guessing is interesting and full of wisdom, it has become popular among all social strata. People will eat yuanxiao, or rice dumplings, on this day, so it is also called the “Yuanxiao Festival.”Yuanxiao also has another name, tangyuan. It is small dumpling balls made of glutinous rice flour with rose petals, sesame, bean paste, jujube paste, walnut meat, dried fruit, sugar and edible oil as filling. Tangyuan can be boiled, fried or steamed. It tastes sweet and delicious. What?s more, tangyuan in Chinese has a similar pronunciation with “tuanyuan”, meaning reunion. So people eat them to denote union, harmony and happiness for the family. In the daytime of the Festival, performances such as a dragon lantern dance, a lion dance, a land boat dance, a yangge dance, walking on stilts and beating drums while dancing will be staged. On the night, except for magnificent lanterns, fireworks form a beautiful scene. Most families spare some fireworks from the Spring Festival and let them off in the Lantern Festival. Some local governments will even organize a fireworks party. On the night when the first full moon enters the New Year, people become really intoxicated by the imposing fireworks and bright moon in the sky. Some Western Festivals Valentine’s Day , February 14 ( 情人节) Candy, flowers and other tokens of affection of affection are exchanged on this day, in honor of two martyrs, both named St. Valentine. April Fool’s Day, April 1 (愚人节 )
Franksters feel that it is permissible to play all sorts of tricks on this day. Mother’s Day (母亲节 ) The second Sunday in May, set aside to honor mothers. Father’s Day （ 父亲节 ） The third Sunday in June, set aside to honor fathers. Halloween , October 31 ( 万圣节 )
A special day for making merry, wearing costumes and playing old-fashioned games.
A favorite with children. Easter Sunday (复活节 ) The first Sunday after the first Monday in November for the election of public officials. This holiday is observed in most states. Thanksgiving Day ( 感恩节 ) Generally the fourth Thursday in November, set aside for national thanksgiving, especially for our democratic form of government. It is a legal holiday in all states. Labor’s Day ( 劳动节 ) The first Monday in September. Set aside to honor labor, it is a legal holiday in all states. Christmas Day, December 25 (圣诞节 ) This is both a legal and religious holiday, it observes the anniversary of the birth of Jesus. All states and all those of the Christian faith celebrate it.