1、形容词、副词的作用与位置 形容词是用来修饰名词的，常被放在名词前作定语，或放在系动词后面作表语。而副词则用来修饰 形容词、动词，其他副词或者句子，一般位于形容词之前， 动词之后或句子之首。以下属几种特殊情况， 须牢记； （1）形容词短语作定语，定语后置。 a language difficult to master, a leaning tower about 180 feet high （2） 表语形容词 （afraid、 alike、 alone、 asleep、 awake、 alive 等） 作定语， 定语后置。 如 a man alive。 有些表身体健康状况的形容词如 well、faint、ill 只作表语。sick 既可作表语又可作定语，ill 如作定语意 为“bad” 。 （3）用作定语，修饰由不定代词 one、no、any、some 和 every 构成的复合词如 anything、something 等时，通常后置。如： I have something important to tell you. （4）else 常用作疑问代词和不定代词的后置定语。 （5）enough、nearby 修饰名词前置或后置，程度副词一般位于形容词、副词前面，enough 修饰形 容词、副词时，必须后置。 （6）几个副词并列作状语时，其顺序较灵活，但一般是：方式→地点→时间。如： We had a good time together outdoors last Sunday. （7）频度副词如 often、always、usually 等在 be 动词后，行为动词前。 （8）副词作定语，定语后置。如： The person there is waiting for you. （9）几个并列的形容词作定语，其语序通常为：限定语（The、A）+ 描绘性形容词 + size（大小） + shape（形状）+ age（年龄、时间）+ color（颜色）+ origin（国籍、来源）+ material（材料）+ purpose （目的）+ 名词。如： a heavy black Chinese steel umbrella, the man’s first tow interesting little red French oil paitings （10）以-ly 结尾的词性辨析。 ①下列单词以-ly 结尾，但却是形容词而非副词：lively、lonely、lovely、deadly、friendly、 ugly、silly、likely、brotherly、timely 等。 ②表愿意（无-ly）和引申意(有-ly)的副词： deep 深 wide 宽广 high 高 low 位置低 deeply 深入地 widely 广泛地 highly 高度地 lowly 地位卑微 ③有无-ly 意义大不相同的副词： dead 完全，绝对 be dead asleep deadly 非常 be deadly tired pretty 相当 be pretty certain that… prettily 漂亮地 be prettily dressed close 近 Don’t sit close. closely 密切地 Watch closely!
late 晚、迟 arrive late, come late lately 最近 I haven’t seen him lately(recently). 2、复合形容词的构成 （1）形容词 + 名词 + ed kind-hearted 好心的，white-haired 白发的 (2)形容词 + 形容词 red-hot 炽热的，dark-blue 深蓝的 （3）形容词 + 现在分词 good-looking 好看的，easy-going 随和的 （4）副词 + 现在分词 hard-working 勤劳的，fast-moving 快速转动的 （5）副词 + 过去分词 hard-won 得来不易的，newly-made 新建的 （6）名词 + 形容词 life-long 终生的，world-famous 世界闻名的 （7）名词 + 现在分词 peace-loving 爱好和平的，fun-loving 爱开玩笑的 （8）名词 + 过去分词 snow-covered 白雪覆盖的，hand-made 手工的 （9）数词 + 名词 + ed four-storeyed 4 层楼的，three-legged 3 条腿的 （10）数词 + 名词（名词用单数） ten-year 10 年的,two-man 两人的 3、形容词和副词的比较等级 （1）原级的构成和用法。 构成：形容词、副词的原级即本身。 用法：表示双方在程度、性质、特征等某方面相等时，用“as + 原级形容词/副词 + as”的结构； 表示双方不相等时，用“not so(as) + 原级形容词/副词 + as”的结构；表示一方是另一方的若干倍 时，用“倍数 + as + 原级形容词/副词 + as”的结构。如： Xiao Wang is as tall as Xiao Yu. This building looks not so (as)high as that one. Miss Xu speaks English as fluently as you . This room is three times as large as that one. （2）比较级和最高级的构成。 掌握比较级和最高级的变化规则，熟记少数不符合规则的特殊形容词和副词。 （3）比较级的用法。 ①对方比较，表示一方超过另一方时，用“比较级 + than”的结构表示。如： This picture is more beautiful than that one. ②表示一方不及另一方时，用“less + 原级 + than”的结构表示。如： This room is less beautiful than that one. ③表示一方超过另一方的程度或数量时，可在比较级前加表示程度的状语，如 even、a lot、a bit、 a little、still、much、far、yet、by fay 等修饰。如： He works even harder than before. 注意：英语的比较级前如无 even、still 或 yet 等时，译成汉语时可用“较”或“…一些”或不译 出，一般不可有“更” 。如：
She is better than she was yesterday Please come earlier tomorrow. 另注意：by far 通常用于强调最高级。用于比较级时，一般放在比较级的后面，如在前面，应在 二者中间加“the” 。如： He is taller by far than his brother. He is by far the taller of the two brothers. ④表示一方随另一方的程度而变化时，用“the + 比较级（主语 + 谓语） ，the + 比较级（主语 + 谓语） ”的结构（意为“越……越……” ） 。如： The harder he works, the happier he feels. ⑤不与其他事物相比，表示本身程度的改变时，用“比较级 + and + 比较级”的结构。如： The weather is getting colder and colder. The girl becomes more and more beautiful. ⑥某些以-ior 结尾的形容词进行比较时，用 to 代替 than。这些词有 inferior（劣等的，次的） 、 superior（较好的，优于……） 、junior（资历较浅的） 、senior（资格较老的） 、prior（在……之前） 等。 He is superior to Mr.Zhang in chemistry. ⑦在比较从句中为了避免重复，我们通常用 that(those)、one(ones)代替前面出现的名词。that 指物,one 既可指人又可指物。that 可代替可数名词单数和不可数名词，而 one 只能代替可数名词。 The book on the table is more interesting than that(或 the one)on the desk. A box made of steel is stronger than one made of wood. ⑧倍数表达法。 （A）A is three(four, etc.)times the size(height, length etc.)of B.这座新 楼是那座旧楼的四倍大（高） 。The new bui9lding is four times the size(the height)of the old one. 这座新楼比那座旧楼大三倍（高三倍） 。 （B）A is three(four, etc.)times as big(high, long, etc.)as B. Asia is four times as large as Europe.亚洲比欧洲大三倍。 （C）A is three (four, etc.)times bigger(higher, longer, etc.)than B. Your school is three times bigger than ours.你们的学校 比我们的学校大三倍。用 times 表倍数通常用于三倍以上，两倍可以用 twice 或 double. (4)最高级的用法。 ①三者或三者以上相比，表示最高程度时，用“the + 最高级”的结构表示。这种句式一般常有表 示比较范围的介词短语。如： Zhang Hua is the tallest of the three. He works(the)hardest in his class. ②最高级可被序数词以及 much、by far、nearly、almost 、by no means、not quite、not really、 nothing like 等词语所修饰。如： This hat is by far / much / nearly / almost / not nearly / by no means / not quite / nothing like the biggest. How much did the secon most expensive hat cost? ③表示“最高程度”的形容词，如 excellent、extreme、perfect 等，没有最高级，也不能用比较 级。 ④形容词最高级修饰作表语或介词宾语的名词、代词时，被修饰的词往往省略。如： He is the tallest(boy)in his class. ⑤作状语的副词最高级前可以不加定冠词。如： Of all the boys he came(the)earliest. (5)形容词和副词前面使用冠词的情况。 ①形容词最高级前一般要加定冠词，副词最高级前可不加冠词。 ②形容词最高级前有时加不定冠词，或不加冠词，不表比较，表示“非常” 。如：
He is a most clever young policeman.(a most=very) The film is most interesting.(most=very) ③表示两者间“较……的一个”比较级前加 the。如： who is the older of the tow boys? ④在“the + 比较级…，the + 比较级…”结构中。 ⑤在 same 前一般要加 the。 ⑥有些形容词前加 the 成为名词。如 the poor、the rich 等。 （6）由 as / so 组成的形容词或副词短语。 ① as much as + 不可数名词数量。 Each stone weighs as much as fifteen tons. She could earn as much as ten dollars a week. ②as many as + 可数名词数量 多达 I have as a many as sixteen referrence books. ③as early as 早在 As early as the twelfth century the English began to invade the island. ④as far as 远到；就……而知（论） We might go as far as (走到)the church and back. As far as I know（就我所知） ，he has been there before. ⑤may (might, could)as well 不妨、不如 Then you might as well stay with us here. ⑥as … as can be 到了最……的程度，极其 They are as unreliable as they can be.他们极其不可信。 ⑦as … as one can He began to run, as fast as he could. ⑧as … as possible Just get them to finish up as quickly as possible. (7)几组重要的词语辨析。 ①very 和 much 的区别。 （A）可分等级的形容词和副词前使用 very 不用 much。(B)表示状态的过 去分词前用 very。a very frightened boy, a very tired child, a very complicated problem, 一 般的情况下，以-ing、-ed 结尾的分词多用 much、very much / greatly 等修饰。如：We were greatly shocked by the news about Tom. I was much amused by Jack’s attitude。(C)已转化为形容词的 现在分词前用 very。如：very interesting / worrying / exicting。 （D）too 前用 much 或 far,不用 very。You are much / far / a lot too nice.另外，在 too many / much, too few / little 前用 far。 There’s far too little opportunity for adventue these days.We’ve got far too many eggs and far too few egg cups.（E）关于原级形容词要记住下列固定的修饰结构： （a）修饰绝对意义的形 容词，一般不用 very,而用 quite completely、well、entirely。如：quite wrong(mistaken, sure)、 completely dead、quite impossible、quite perfect 等。 （b）修饰以 a-开头的形容词，多有特殊的 修饰词：quite alone, very much alone, wide awake, fast asleep, very much afraid。(c)修饰一 些特殊形容词的修饰语有：be well worth, much the same, freezing cold, quite different, terribly cold / frightening。 ②so … that … 与 such … that … 的区别。 so + 形容词 / 副词 + that … so + 形容词 + a（n）+ 单数可数名词 + that … so + many / much / little / few + 名词 + that … such + a(n)+ 形容词+单数可数名词 + that …
such + 形容词 + 不可数名词 + that … such + 形容词 + 复数名词 + that … 注意：下列结构中只能用 so 不可用 such,当名词前有 many、much、little、few 等表示“多、少” 的词修饰时，如 so much progress、so many people、so little food、so few apples 等。但当 little 表示“小”时用 such。如：These are such little boys that they can’t dress themselves.下列 so 的用法是错误的：so a diffcult problem,so difficult problems, so hot weather。 ③其他几组词的辨析。 （A）ago、before:ago 表示以现在为起点的“以前” ；before 指以过去或将 来的某时刻为起点的“以前” 。泛指“以前”用 before 而不用 ago。 （B）already、yet、still:already 表示某事已经发生；yet 表示期待某事发生；still 表示某事还在进行，主要用于肯定句。 (C)too、also、either:too 和 also 用于肯定句，too 多用于口语，also 多用于书面语，either 用于否 定句。 (D)good、 well:与 good 不同的是， well 作形容词， 只能在系动词后作表语， 表示 “身体状况好” ， 也作副词修饰动词。 (E)quick、 fast:作形容词皆表 “快” 。 fast 多指运动的物体， 含持续的意思。 quick 多指一次动作的敏捷、突然，而且持续的时间较短。(F)real、true:形容词表“真的” 。real 强调真实 存在的而不是幻想的，在句中常作定语；true 指与事实标准和实际情况相符合，在句中作表语或定语。 (G)hard、difficult:均表“困难” ，但 hard 通常指体力上困难；difficult 则指智力或技能上的困难， 困难程度大于 hard。它们都可作定语和表语。
选择填空 1. It is generally believed that teaching is ___________it is a science.（NMET 2001） A.an art much as B.much an art as C.as an art much as D.as much an art as 解析：答案为 D。本题可从考查形容词的同级比较点入手。在同级比较 as…as 句式中，如果 as 后 面的形容词作定语且其所修饰的名词前有不定冠词时，该冠词须置于形容词之后，即形成“as + 形容 词 + a / an + 单数可数名词 + as”结构。这道题在名词专题中也有解析，不同的是观察视角不同，应注 意培养发散思维。 2. It is always difficult being in a foreign country, __________if you don’t speak the language.(NMET 2000) A.extremely B.naturally C.basically D.especially 解析：答案为 D。本题考查副词的词义辨析。注意掌握词语的准确含义，结合语境进行分析。A 项 意为“极端地” ；B 项意为“自然地” ；C 项“基本上” ；D 项“尤其，特别地” 。根据句意“如果你不会 讲（它的）语言，在国外你就总会困难重重”可知答案。 3. Professor White has written some short stories, but he is ______known for his plays.(NMET 1998) A.the best B.more C.better D.the most 解析： 答案为 C。 本题考查副词的比较级和最高级。 要把握句式之间的联系， 抓住句子的隐藏信息， 结合语境进行分析。根据句意，句中 but 后应有一词组 be well known for…。同时，应注意到前后两个 分句把 professor White 的短篇小说和戏剧进行了对比，故应用 well 的比较级。 4.I must be getting fat—I can do my trousers up. A. fairly B. hardly C. nearly D. seldom 解析：答案为 D。本题考副词，且继续使用了破折号，对前句解释说明。句中的“do up”指“系 上、扣上、包扎上”等意，故全句合理的意思是：我几乎系不上裤子了， （因此）我一定在发胖。B 项 hardly 是“几乎不”的意思，正合题意。 5.The house smells as if it hasn’t been lived in for years. A. little white wooden B. little wooden white
C. white wooden little D. wooden white little 解析：答案为 A。本题考名词前置定事的排序。多个词同时作前置定语时，排列规律一般是：代 词性定语+冠/指示/物主/所有格+数词（先序后基）+形容词+国籍/材料/用途形容词或名词或动名词+被 修饰的名词，其中数个形容词同时出现时，多用下列顺序：性质+大小+形状+新旧+颜色，有时也要看 与名词的密切关系，越密切，越靠近名词。按上文所述，wooden 表材料，放在最后，white 表颜色， 放在 little 之后，故选 A。 6.That doesn’t sound very frightening, Paul. I’ve seen . What did you like most about the film? A. better B. worse C. best D. worst 解析：答案为 B。考查比较级的用法，由句意可知，我还见过比 frightening 更糟的，故选 B。
1.We’ll produce we did last year. Ｂ.20% more than tractors Ｄ.as many tractors 20% as . Ｂ.much excited Ｃ.more and more exciting I understood． Ｃ.the fewer Ｄ.the less Ｄ.taller a fellow than Ｄ.very exciting Ａ.more than 20% tractors Ｃ.20% more tractors than 2.As they discussed，they got Ａ.more and more excited Ａ.the least 4.He is 5. 6.Asia is Ａ.by far 7.He speaks English 3.The more the engineer explained， Ｂ.fewer his elder brother. explanation is necessary. Ａ.Farther Ｂ.Further Ｂ.a little . Ｂ.well as his brother if not better Ｃ.Farthest Ｃ.far away Ｄ.Furthest Ｄ.a great deal the largest continent in the world．
Ａ.as a tall fellow as Ｂ.as tall a fellow as Ｃ.so tall a fellow as
Ａ.as well,if not good than，his brother 8.He came home Ａ.late 9.The story sounds Ａ.well 10.This is a Ａ.very Ａ.to be opened yesterday. Ｂ.latter . Ｂ.good Ｂ.much too Ｂ.to be well
Ｃ.as well as,if not better than，his brother Ｄ.as well，if not better than his brother Ｃ.lately Ｃ.interested Ｃ.much Ｃ.open ,but . Ｄ.later Ｄ.much nice Ｄ.too much Ｄ.opening
complicated(复杂的)problem．I don’t know how to solve it.
11.John was so sleepy that he could hardly keep his eyes 12.The pianos in the other shop will be Ａ.cheaper；not as better Ｃ.cheaper；not as good
Ｂ.more cheap；not as better Ｄ.more cheap；not as good at school. Ｃ.much happiest time Ｄ.a much happier time Ｄ.most worried
13.If there were no examinations，We should have Ａ.the happiest time Ｂ.a more happier time 14.He had never spent a Ａ.more worry day.
Ｂ.most worrying Ｃ.more worrying
15.We were not Ａ.less surprised
at Jack’s being dismissed． Ｂ.the least surprising Ｃ.the lesser surprised Ｄ.the least surprised than that of others. Ｂ.not much better three years. Ｂ.me for . Ｃ.worthy of the price Ｃ.an alive Ｃ.few Ｄ.worth of the price Ｂ.worthy the price language. Ｂ.alive hope is left. Ｂ.a little Ｄ.little Ｄ.a living Ｃ.I for Ｄ.I was Ｃ.not much as good Ｄ.no more as good
16.John’s work proved Ａ.no more better 17.She is older than Ａ.I am by Ａ.worth the price 19.Latin is not Ａ.live 20.He is so ill that Ａ.a few
18.I don’t think that his watch is
21.— Did you tell Ted and Mary about our change in plans? — Yes,I told them we’d be Ａ.a little later 22.To keep Ａ.small 23.She had Ａ.any Ｂ.little Ｂ.each ? Ｂ.four－eyes fish Ｃ.four－eye fish Ｄ.four－eyed fish . Ｃ.a few late days Ｄ.good Ｄ.all Ｄ.later by few days Ｂ.a little late
hours makes you healthy，wealthy and wise. Ｃ.some Ｃ.every reason to be satisfied.
24.Did you ever see a Ａ.four－eye－fish 25.
lessons were not difficult. Ｂ.Our few first short English Ｄ.Our first few English short Ｃ.last Ｃ.the far Ｃ.a man’s than I expected. Ｂ.even much interesting Ｄ.a lot much interesting of French． Ｄ.and still more Ｄ.friendly way. Ｄ.latest Ｄ.far the Ｄ.that of a man’s
Ａ.Our first few short English Ｃ.Our first short few English 26.The Ａ.later 27.Gold is Ａ.the much Ａ.that of a man
student in the last row is John. Ｂ.latter Ｂ.very Ｂ.a man most valuable of all metals. who lays down his life for his friends.
28.There is no greater love than
29.— How did you find your visit to the museum? — Ｉ thoroughly enjoyed it.It was Ａ.far more interesting Ｃ.so more interesting 30.She knows little of English， Ａ.as well as Ａ.loudly 32.Poor boy!His
Ｂ.and still less Ｃ.no less than Ｂ.gently looks and Ｃ.softly
31.He walked past me saying hello to me in a
hands suggested he was already afraid.
Ａ.frightful；tremblingＢ.frightened；tremblingＣ.frightening；trembledＤ.frightened；trembly 33.——Is this camera cheap? ——It’s not what we paid.
Ａ.valuable 34.It is Ａ.sure；very 35.The apple tastes Ａ.well；well Ａ.missing 37.He is Ａ.likely 38.It was Ａ.very 39.He told us 40.Hold Ａ.up
Ｂ.cost his English is and sells Ｂ.good；good Ｂ.right；rather
Ｃ.worthy perfect. Ｃ.exact；fairly . Ｃ.good；well ship? Ｃ.to miss Ｃ.maybe Ｃ.too
Ｄ.worth Ｄ.certain；quite Ｄ.well；good Ｄ.being missed Ｄ.impossible Ｄ.much
36.Is there any news about the Ｂ.missed to know the answer. Ｂ.probable Ｂ.quite story.
impossible for her to get the 9 o’clock train，I know she got up at 9:15.
Ａ.the most interesting Ｂ.a most interesting Ｃ.a very more interesting Ｄ.more interested a moment while I fix your tie. Ｂ.on Ｃ.still Ｄ.back
1、(08 全国卷 I’ 28) You’re driving too fast. Can you drive ______? A. more slowly a bit B. slowly a bit more C. a bit more slowly D. slowly more bit 2、(08 北京卷’ 26) After the long journey, the three of them went back home, ______. A. hungry and tiredly B. hungry and tired C. hungrily and tiredly D. hungrily and tired 3、(08 上海春卷’ 28) Those who have ____ money than sense may sometimes act foolishly A. much B. more C. most D. many 4、(08 上海春卷’42) Food safety is ___ important, so the government spares no efforts to prevent food pollution. A. highly B. reasonably C. strongly D. naturally 5、(08 上海春卷’44) Some people maintain that watching violence on TV is one of the major causes of ______behaviour and crime in society A. childish B. artificial C. aggressive D. heroic 6、(08 上海卷’27) In my view, London’s not as expensive in price as Tokyo but Tokyo _____ in traffic. A. the most organized B. more organized C. so organized as D. as organized as 7、(08 天津卷’ 02)My brother is really ____. He often works in his office far into the night. A. open-minded B. hard-working C. self-confident D. warm-hearted 8、(08 辽宁卷’ 30)It looks like the weather is changing for ______. Shall we stick to our plan? A. the worse B. worse C. the worst D. worst 9、(08 山东卷’ 33)Would it be ______ for you to pick me up at four o’clock and take me to the airport? A. free B. vacant C. handy D. convenient 10、(08 江苏卷’ 30) It is ______ to spend money on preventing illnesses by promoting healthy living rather than spending it trying to make people ______ after they are ill. A. good; good B. well; better C. better; better D. better; good 11、(08 江西卷’33)Jack is late again. It is ___ of him to keep others waiting. A. normal B. ordinary C. common D. typical 12、(08 安徽卷’27) ----- Hi, Mark. How was the musical evening? ----- Excellent! Ales and Andy performed ______ and they won the first prize. A. skillfully B. commonly C. willingly D. nervously
13、(08 浙江卷’03) I like this jacket better than that one, but it costs almost three times______. A. as much B. as many C. so much D. so many 14、(08 浙江卷’12)There are plenty of jobs ______ in the western part of the country. A. present B. available C. precious D. convenient 15、 (08 浙江卷’18)Running a company is not ______ a matter of hiring people — they also need to be trained. A. simply B. partly C. seriously D. equally 16、(08 湖南卷’25)Last night Mr. Crook didn’t come back at the usual time. _____, he met some friends and Stayed out until midnight. A. Meanwhile B. However C. Instead D. Yet 17、(08 湖北卷’28)In those days, our ______ concern was to provide people who were stopped by the snow storm with food and health care. A. normal B. constant C. permanent D. primary 18、(08 湖北卷’29)As he works in a remote area, he visits his parents only ______. A. occasionally B. anxiously C. practically D. urgently 19、(08 陕西卷’12) He doesn’t have furniture in his room --just an old desk. A. any B. many C. some D. much 20、(08 陕西卷’16) Ten years ago the population of our village was that of theirs. A. as twice large as B. twice as large as C. twice as much as D. as twice much as 21、(08 四川卷’03)Although badly hurt in the accident, the driver was _____ able to make a phone call. A. still B. even C. also D. ever 22、(08 福建卷’26) In spite of repeated wrongs done to him, he looks _____ to people greeting him. A. friendly B. lively C. worried D. cold
基础训练 1－5 ＣＡＤＢＢ 强化训练 6－10 ＡＣＡＢＢ 11－15 ＣＣＤＣＡ 16－20 ＢＡＡＤＤ
21－25 ＢＤＣＤＡ 26－30 ＣＤＡＡＡ 31－35 ＤＢＤＤＣ 36－40 ＡＡＢＢＣ 高考训练 1—5CBBAC 6--10BBADC 11—15DAABA 16—20CDADB 21—22AA