The Third Period
●从容说课 This is the third period of this unit.In this period，students are planned to go over the attributive clause，including the differences between the Restrictive Attributive Clause and the Non-restrictive Attributive Clause，the use of the relative pronouns and relative adverbs and the differences between “that” and “which”.In the period of high school，the attributive clause is not only difficult but also important，so it is necessary to grasp the usage of the attributive clause. In order to make sense of the usage of the attributive clause，it is important for the students to make a summary of them by themselves.In this period，there should be some exercises designed for students to consolidate the usage of the attributive clause. ●三维目标 1.Knowledge： （1）Revise the Attributive Clause，including the Restrictive Attributive Clause and the Non-restrictive Attributive Clause. （2）Revise the use of relative pronouns and relative adverbs. 2.Ability： Expand the knowledge of the Attributive Clause. 3.Emotion： Develop the students’ quality of overcoming difficulties in study. ●教学重点 The usage of the relative pronouns and relative adverbs. ●教学难点 Help the students to master the way of choosing a relative pronoun or a relative adverb correctly. ●教具准备 The multimedia and the blackboard. ●教学过程 Step 1 Greetings Greet the whole class as usual. Step 2 Revision and Lead-in （Teacher checks the homework exercises first and then shows the following on the screen.） 1.He is a famous scientist. 2.Who’s that girl in red？ 3.I’ve read all the books that you lent me. 4.I have lost my pen，which I like very much. T：Now pay special attention to the underlined parts.Is there anything in common between them？ Ss：Yes.They all identify the nouns，which are used with them.Each part tells us which thing or person the speaker is talking about. T：That is to say，the function of each underlined part is the same.Each of them is used as an attribute to describe each noun.Well，are there any differences between them？ S 1 ：Yes.In the first sentence，the attribute is an adjective and put before the noun；the second is a prepositional phrase put after the noun；the third and fourth sentences are full
用心? 爱心? 专心? 1
sentences put after the nouns. T：You are right，what do we call the sentences put after the noun？ Ss：The Attributive Clause. T：Quite right.In a complex sentence，the clause modifying a noun or a pronoun in the main clause is called an Attributive Clause.The noun or pronoun is called Antecedent.The word that/which introduces the clause （between the noun/pronoun and the clause） is called Relative Pronoun or Relative Adverb.The relative pronouns or adverbs do two jobs at once.They can be used as subjects，objects，attributes or adverbials；in the clause，at the same time，they join clauses together.About the use of them，we’ll have particular revision after a while.Now look at the sentences on the screen. （Teacher shows the following on the screen.） Complete the sentences with suitable relatives. 1.I know the reason _______________he came late. 2.Do you know the woman，____________ son went to college last year？ 3.The house _______________colour is red is John’s. 4.This is the best film _______________I’ve ever seen. 5.That is the town _______________he worked in 1987. T：Who’d like to tell me what should be filled in the first sentence？ S 2 ：I think “why” should be filled.Because the antecedent is “the reason” and the relative is used as the adverbial of reason in the Attributive Clause. T：Yes.How about the second sentence？ （Teacher goes to another student and asks her/him to answer.） S 3 ：I fill “whose” here.Because the antecedent is “the woman” and the relative is used as the attribute in the Attributive Clause. T：Right.Sit down，please.Now let’s look at the third sentence. Suggested answers： 1.why 2.whose 3.whose 4.that 5.where Step 3 Summarize the use of the Non-restrictive Attributive Clause T：The Non-restrictive Attributive Clause is a clause，which gives extra information to the antecedent.So we use a comma to interrupt the sentence.When the Non-restrictive Attributive Clause is cut off，the sentence still has a full meaning.Now look at the sentences on the screen. （Show the following on the screen.） 1.I have two brothers，who are both soldiers. 2.Next week，which you’ll spend in your hometown，is coming. 3.I’ve tried two pairs of shoes，neither of which fits me well. T：Pay attention to the underlined parts.There are commas to interrupt the sentences and “that” cannot be used in the Non-restrictive Attributive Clause.You should pay more attention to the structure “Indefinite Pronoun/Numbers/Noun/Superlative + of which/whom” is often used in the Non-restrictive Attributive Clause. Step 4 The usage of the Relative Pronouns and the Relative Adverbs T：As we know，relative pronouns or adverbs play important parts in the Attributive Clause.Now let’s make a list of them on the blackboard first and then revise their usage with the help of the forms on the screen. （Bb：the relative pronouns：who，whom，that，whose，which；the relative adverbs：when， where，why）
用心? 爱心? 专心? 2
（Teacher collects them first and then shows the following.） Form 1： The relative pronouns who whom that which whose Form 2： The relative adverb when （=at/in/on which） where （= in/at which） why （= for which） Referring to time place reason Function in the clause adverbial of time adverbial of place adverbial of reason Referring to people people people/thing thing people/thing （of whom/which） Function in the clause subject/object object subject/object subject/object attribute
（Teacher explains the two forms separately and adds the following with examples on the screen.） T：1.When a relative pronoun is used as a subject in the clause，the verb must agree with the antecedent in person and number. 1.Those who want to go to the cinema must be at the school gate by 3：30 p.m. 2.He who doesn’t reach the Great Wall is not a true man. 2.When the antecedent is the structure of “one of + n.（pl.），the verb in the clause must ” be plural to agree with the plural form.However，if there is “the” or “only” before “one” ， the verb in the clause must be singular，agrees with the word “one”. 1.She is the only one of the girls who has been to Beijing. 2.He is one of the boys who have seen the film. 3.When the antecedent is a noun for time or place “when” or “where” is not always used to introduce the clause.It depends on the function of the relative word in the clause. 1.The time when/that I went to Tokyo is in 1982. 2.I’ll never forget the time which/that I spend at college. 3.The shop that I bought is big. 4.The shop where/in which I bought the book is big. Step 5 The difference between “that” and “which” T：As we know，both “that” and “which” can be used for things，but the use of them is not always the same.Let’s look at the sentences on the screen. （Show the following on the screen.） 1.This is the second article that I have written in English. 2.It is the best film that he has ever seen. 3.This is the very book that I want to read. 4.All that they told me surprised me. 5.They talked about the teachers and schools that they had visited. 6.Who is the comrade that was there？ 7.There is a bed in the room that is still vacant. 8.Our village is no longer the place that it used to be. T： From the sentences on the screen， can make a summary of the use of“that”and “which” we .Look at the screen again. （Show the following on the screen.）
用心? 爱心? 专心? 3
1.In following cases， “that” is often used. （1）After ordinal number and superlatives. （2）After the following words：all，only，little，few，much，very，none，last，just，any （thing） ，every（thing） ，some（thing） ，no（thing）. （3）After two or more antecedents，referring to both people and things. （4）After interrogative pronouns “which” or “who”. （5）When the relative pronoun is used as a predictive in the clause. （6）When the main clause begins with “There be”. 2.In following cases， “which” is always used. （1）After prepositions. （2）To introduce a Non-restrictive Attributive Clause. （3）The whole main sentence is the “antecedent” of the relative clause，and there is always a comma. Step 6 Practice T： let’s do some exercises.Look at the screen.Fill in the blanks， Now choosing proper relative pronouns or relative adverbs. （Show the following on the screen.） 1.____________ have plenty of money will help their friends. A.Those who B.He who C.That who D.You who 2.This is the longest train ____________ I have ever seen. A.which B.that C.what D.whom 3.____________ we all know，swimming is a very good sport. A.Which B.That C.As D.Who 4.I shall never forget those years ____________ I lived in the farm____________ you visited last week. A.when；where B.which；which C.when；which D.which；where 5.The radio set ____________ last week has gone wrong. A.I bought it B.which I bought it C.I bought D.what I bought 6.He paid the boy $10 for washing ten windows，most of ____________ hadn’t been cleaned for at least a year. A.these B.them C.that D.which 7.The day will come ____________ the people all over the world will win liberation. A.that B.where C.which D.when 8.Mr Herpin is one of the foreign experts who ____________ in China. A.works B.is working C.are working D.has been working 9.They talked for about an hour of things and persons ____________ they remembered in the school. A.which B.that C.who D.whom 10.My glasses，____________ I was like a blind man，fell to the ground and broke. A.which B.with which C.without which D.that Suggested answers： 1~5 ABCCC 6~10 DACBC Step 7 Test T：Now let’s have a test.Look at the screen.Do this exercise by yourself.A few minutes later I’ll give you the answers.
用心? 爱心? 专心? 4
（Show the following on the screen.） 1.Please put the letter ____________ he can easily find it. A.in which B.where C.the place where D.in the place 2.The house ____________ there is a big tree was built more than 1000 years ago. A.which B.that C.in the front of which D.in front of which 3.Antarctic，____________ we know very little is covered with thick ice all the year round. A.which B.where C.that D.about which 4.The reason ____________ I was away from school is ____________ I was ill yesterday. A.that；that B.why；why C.why；that D.that；why 5.It was a meeting ____________ importance I didn’t realize at that time. A.which B.of which C.that D.whose Suggested answers： 1~5 BDDCD Step 8 Homework 1.Review the Attributive Clause. 2.Do WB P71.Ex 1.2. ●板书设计 Unit 5 Nelson Mandela—a modern hero The Third Period The Attributive Clause 1.The differences between the Restrictive Attributive Clause and the Non-restrictive Attributive Clause. 2.The use of the relative words： （1）Relative pronouns：who，whom，whose，that，which （2）Relative adverbs：where，when，why 3.The differences between “that” and “which”. ●活动与探究 This activity is designed to make a deep research into the attributive clause.The students are asked to design some exercises about the attributive clause.And then they can exchange exercises each other and check themselves.The purpose of this activity is to help the students make sense of the usage of the attributive clause. ●备课资料 Ⅰ.Some exercises about the Attributive Clause 1.A football fan（球迷） is ____________ has a strong interest in football. A.a thing that B.something that C.a person who D.what 2.The house，____________ was destroyed in the terrible fire，has been repaired. A.the roof of which B.which roof C.its roof D.the roof 3.Can you lend me the novel ____________ the other day？ A.that you talked B.you talked about it
用心? 爱心? 专心? 5
C.which you talked with D.you talked about 4.The matter ____________ you were arguing about last night has been settled. A.that B.what C.why D.for which 5.Who ____________ has common sense（常识） will do such a thing？ A.which B.who C.whom D.that 6.All the apples ____________ fell down were eaten by the pigs. A.that B.those C.which D.what 7.They asked him to tell them everything ____________ he saw at the front. A.what B.that C.which D.where 8.I’ll tell you ____________ he told me last night. A.all which B.all what C.that all D.all 9.A child ____________ parents are dead is called an orphan. A.who B.who’s C.whose D.which 10.Is this the museum ____________ you visited the other day？ A.that B.where C.in which D.the one 11.Is this museum ____________ some German friends visited last Wednesday？ A.that B.where C.in which D.the one 12.—How do you like the book？ —It’s quite different from ____________ I read last month. A.that B.which C.the one D.the one what 13.The train ____________ she was traveling was late. A.which B.where C.on which D.in that 14.He has lost the key to the drawer ____________ the papers are kept. A.where B.on which C.under which D.which 15.It’s the third time ____________ late this month. A.that you arrived B.when you arrived C.that you’ve arrived D.when you’ve arrived 16.He often helps the students ____________ he thinks are not quick at their studies. A.whom B.who C.when D.because 17.The Second World War ____________ millions of people were killed ended in 1945. A.when B.during that C.in which D.which 18.Mr Crossett will never forget the day ____________ he spent with his various students. A.when B.which C.during which D.on which 19.This is just the place ____________ I am longing to visit these years. A.that B.where C.in which D.to where 20.We are going to spend the Spring Festival in Guangzhou，____________ live my grandparents and some relatives. A.which B.that C.who D.where
用心? 爱心? 专心? 6
Suggested answers： 1~5 CADAD 6~10 ABDCA 11~15 DCCAC 16~20 BCBAD Ⅱ.The attributive clause 定语从句 1.“介词＋关系代词“是一个普遍使用的结构 （1） “介词＋关系代词”可以引导限制性定语从句，也可以引导非限制性定语从句。 “介词＋关系代 词”结构中的介词可以是 in，on，about，from，for，with，to，at，of，without 等，关系代词只可 用 whom 或 which，不可用 that。 （2）from where 为“介词＋关系副词”结构，但也可以引导定语从句。 We stood at the top of the hill，from where we can see the town. （3）像 listen to，look at，depend on，pay attention to，take care of 等固定短语动词，在 定语从句中一般不宜将介词与动词分开。 This is the boy whom she has taken care of. 2.关系副词引导的定语从句 （1）关系副词也可以引导定语从句关系副词在从句中分别表示时间、地点或原因。关系副词 when 在 从句中充当时间状语，where 充当地点状语，why 充当原因状语。 （2）that 可引导定语从句表示时间、地点或原因，that 有时可以代替关系副词 when，where 或者 why 引导定语从句表示时间、地点或原因，在 that 引导的这种定语从句中，that 也可以省去。 3.限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句 （1）二者差异比较 限制定语从句紧跟先行词，同先行词之间一般不加逗号，仅修饰先行词，可以由关系代词、关系副词 或 that 来引导。非限制性定语从句仅作补充或说明，用逗号与主句隔开，既可修饰先行词，又可修饰整 个主句，不可用 that 引导。 （2）关系代词和关系副词的选择依据 弄清代替先行词的关系词在从句中作什么成分，作状语的应选用关系副词，作主语、宾语或表语的可 选用关系代词。 （3）先行词与定语从句隔离。定语从句一般紧跟在先行词之后，但定语从句与先行词之间有时也会 插入别的成分，构成先行词与定语从句的隔离。 He was the only person in this country who was invited. 4.as 在定语从句中的用法 （1）引导限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句（1）as 多与 such 或 the same 连用，可以代替先行 词是人或物的名词。 （2）as 也可单独使用，引导非限制性定语从句，作用相当于 which。 The elephant’s nose is like a snake，as anybody can see. （3）the same... that 与 the same...as 在意思上是不同的。 2.as 引导的非限制性定语从句的位置。as 引导的非限制性定语从句位置较灵活，可以位于主句前面、 中间或后面，一般用逗号与主句隔开，但 which 所引导的非限制性定语从句只能放在主句之后。 As is expected，the England team won the football match. The earth runs around the sun，as is known by everyone.
用心? 爱心? 专心?