①分清动词的词性，熟悉并掌握常见的不及物动词happen, take place, occur, exist 等，它们不能用被动语态；
2．答题时，研读题干，搜索出尽可能多的"时间参照信息"，尤其是动词冗余信息中的时间信息。如第10题目中的haven't said, Do, I'm, sooner, think, it's 等，这些表达中都含有时间信息，发现和有效利用这些信息是解决问题的关键。
The teacher writes his own notes. （现在习续性动作）
The teacher is writing his notes now. （暂时的还在进行的动作）
The teacher has already written his notes. （现在已经完成的动作）
Xiao Wang comes late often. （现在经常性的动作）
Xiao Wang is always coming late. （带有不满的色彩）
I read a book yesterday evening. （在过去时间的动作）
I was reading a book yesterday evening. （过去时间未完成的持续动作）
I have read the book. （现在已经读完那本书了）
She is always finding fault with others. 她总是挑剔别人的毛病。
He is constantly leaving things about. 他总是丢三拉四。
I am hoping you can come and have supper with us. 我正希望您能来和我们一起吃晚饭。（比如I hope...语气更委婉）
She has been saying that twenty times. 这话她已经说了20遍。
2．一般过去时常用的状语有yesterday, last night, two days (months, weeks) ago, at that time 等；现在完成时常用的状语有already, just (刚刚), yet, never, before 等；表示从过去延续到现在并包括现在在内的一段时间状语有：today, now, lately, recently, in the last / past few days / years (在过去的这几天/年里)。since then, up to now, so far (至今)等。
He served in the army from 1952 to 1954. （这是过去的一件事）
He has served in the army for 5 years. （现在他仍在军中服役，他是个军人）
He wrote many plays when he was at college.
He has written many plays.
I saw Hero last year.
I have seen Hero before.
2．过去完成时的时间状语常用by 和before 引导的短语表示，如by that time, by the end of..., before 2000, by the time +句子等。
She had been ill for a week before she came back.
She has been ill for a week.
1．在if, unless, even if 引导的条件状语从句中，在when, before, until (till), as soon as, the moment, once 引导的时间状语从句中，在no matter what /who / which / when / where / how 或whatever, whoever, whichever, whenever, wherever, however 引导的让步状语从句中，如果主句是将来时（往往出现will / shall / can / must ）或主句是祈使句，从句用一般现在时表示一般将来时。如：
① I'll go with you as soon as I finish my work.
② The new secretary is supposed to report to the manager as soon as she arrives.
③ - Can I join your club, Dad ?
- You can when you get a bit older.
④ If city noises are not kept from increasing, people will have to shout to be heard even at the dinner table 20 years from now.
⑤ Hundreds of jobs will be lost if the factory closes.
2．would 与used to
① would 与used to 都可用来表示过去经常性或习惯性的动作，常常可以换用。如：
When we were boys we used to / would go swimming every summer.
He used to . would spend every penny he earned on books.
② would 之后要接表示动作的动词，不接表示认识或状态的动词，而used to 则无此限制。如：
I used to like football when I was at middle school.
He used to be nervous in the exam.
③ would 表示反复发生的动作。如果某一动作没有反复性，就不能用would, 只能用used to。如：
And from that day on, as soon as the table was cleared and the dishes were gone, Mother would disappear into he sewing room to practice.
I used to live in Beijing. 我过去住在北京。（没有反复性）
④ used to 表示过去经常性或习惯性的动作或状态，现在已经结束（含有较强的"今非昔比"的意思），would 则只表示说话者对过去一种回想心情，有可能再发生。如：
People used to believe that the earth was flat.
He would go to the park as soon as he was free.
When are you to leave for two days to New York ?
She is to get married next month. 她下个月结婚。
这种结构也可用于过去。was / were to do sth. 表示曾经计划要做某事，但不表明计划是否被执行，或表示"命运（即使中注定要发生的事）"，而非计划；was / were to have done sth. 表示未曾实现的计划。例如：
I felt excited because I was soon to leave home for the first time.
We were to have told you, but you were not in.
② 表示"指令"，相当于should, ought to, must, have to。例如：
You are to report to the police. 你应该报警。
What is to be done ? 应该怎么办呢？
This medicine is to be taken three times a day. 这种药一天要服三次。
The books in this room are not to be taken outside. (The books in this room mustn't be taken outside.) 这个室内的书籍不得带出室外。
③ 表示"想，打算"，相当于intend, want。例如：
If we are to be there before ten, we'll have to go now.
Am I to go on with the work ? 要我继续这项工作吗？
What are we to do next ? 我们下一步该怎么办？
⑤ 在与be 连用的结构中，see, find, congratulate 的不定式被动式有特殊的用法。例如：
The news is to be found in the evening paper. 这条消息可以在晚报上见到。
He is nowhere to be seen. 在哪里也见不到他。
You are to be congratulated. 应当向您表示祝贺。
× He has come to Beijing since last year.
√ He has lived in Beijing since last year.
× He has joined the army for 3 years.
√ He has served in the army for 3 years.
√ He joined the army 3 years ago.
√ He has been a soldier for 3 years.
√ It is 3 years since he joined the army.
√ He has joined the army. 他已参军了。
常见的瞬间动词有：come, go, get to / reach / arrive at, leave, buy, sell, open, close, get up, join /take part in, begin /start, return / give, borrow / lend, become / turn, bring /take, give, die, finish /end, receive /hear from, marry, break, lose, jump 等。
① - Come on in, Peter. I want to show you something.
- Oh, how nice of you ! I never thought you were going to bring me a gift.
② Your phone number again ? I didn't quite catch it.
③ - Nancy is not coming tonight.
- But she promised !
6．表示愿望、打算一类的词，如：hope, expect, mean, intend, want, think, suppose, want 等，其过去完成时表示过去未增实现的愿望或意图。如：
I had hoped to see more of ShangHai.
I had meant to help you, but I was too busy at the moment.
I had thought you would come tomorrow.
① This / It is the first / second...time + that 从句。that 从句一般用现在完成时，如果把前边的is 改为was，则that 从句用过去完成时。如：
This is the first time I have come here.
It was the third time (that) he had made the same mistake.
② It is / has been + 一段时间 + since 从句。since 从句中用过去完成时。如：
It was ten years since we had had such a wonderful time.
③ be about to do...when...意为"即将......（这时）突然......"。如：
I was about to go out when the telephone rang.
④ be (was /were) + doing... when... 意为"正在干......（这时）突然......"。如
They were reading when Tom shouted in pain.
⑤ Hardly had...done...when... ; No sooner had...done...than...
when 和than 从句里用一般过去时，表示"刚刚......就......"。如：
Hardly (No sooner) had I got home when (than) the rain poured down.
⑥ It + be + 一段时间 + before 从句
It won't be long before he succeeds. ( = He will succeed soom.)
It was ten years before they met again. ( = They met again ten years later. )
My brother fell while he was riding his bicycle and hurt himself.
The students were writing busily when Miss Brown went to get a book she had left in the office.
Tom slipped into the house when no one was looking.
As she was reading the newspaper, Granny fell asleep.
The reporter said that the UFO was traveling east to west when he saw it.
- Have you moved into the new house ?
- Not yet. The rooms are being painted.
I don't really work here; I am just helping out until the new secretary arrives.
Shirley was writing a book about China last year but I don't know whether she has finished it.
Selecting a mobile phone for a personal use is no easy task because technology is changing so rapidly.
I've won a holiday for two days to Florida. I am taking my mum.
- What were you doing when Tony phoned you ?
- I had just finished my work and was starting to take a shower.
I don't think Jim saw me; he was just starting into space.
I first met Lisa 3 years ago. She was working at a radio shop at the time.
- Is this raincoat yours ? - No, mine is hanging there behind the door.
- Hey, look where you are going ! - Oh, I'm terribly sorry, I wasn't noticing.
That old man was often laughed at.
The doctor has been sent for.
Time must be made good use of.
The plan will be given up.
Bad habits have been done away with.
He must be prevented from going.
The plan ought to be put into practice as soon as possible.
二、get + 过去分词可以表示被动，此结构比较口语化，如：
She got married last week. 她上周结婚了。
The patient got treated once a week. 那位病菌人一周得到一次治疗。
He fell off the car and got killed. 他从车上摔下来，摔死了。
1．系动词look, sound, feel, smell, taste, appear, seem, go, prove, turn, stay, become, fall, get, grow, keep + 形容词/名词构成系表结构。如：
The steel feels cold.
His plan proved (to be) practical.
It has gone bad.
2．表示开始、结束、运动的动词。如begin, finish, start, open, close, stop, end, shut, run, move 等。
Work began at 7 o'clock this morning.
The shop closes at 6 p.m. every day.
3．表示主语的某种属性特征的动词。如read, write, act, iron, cut draw, drive, sell, wash, clean, wear, open, cook, lock, shut, dry, eat, drink。这类动词一般不单独使用，常用一个修饰语。如：
This coat dries easily. 这种外衣容易干。
Nylon cleans easily. 尼龙容易洗干净。
The door won't lock. 这门锁不上。
Food can keep fresh in a fridge. 食物在冰箱里能保鲜。
Your speech reads well. 你的演说讲得好。
This material has worn thin. 这个材料已经磨薄了。
His book does not sell. 他的书没有销路。
Your pen writes smoothly. 你的笔好写。
This lock won't catch. 这锁锁不上。
The match won't catch. 火柴擦不着。
The plan worked out wonderfully. 这计划制定得很好。
The recorder won't play. 这录音机不转。
The engine won't start. 引擎发动不起来。
This knife cuts well. 这把刀子很快。
The cloth washes well. 这布很耐洗。
4．少数动词用于进行时，其主动形式表示被动含义。如print, cook, fry, hang, build, make。 如：
The books are printing. 这本书正在排印中。
The neat is cooking. 肉在煮。
5．介词in, on, under 等+名词构成介词短语表被动意义
常见的有：under control (受控制)，under treatment (在治疗中)，under repair (在修理中)，under discussion (在讨论中)，under construction (在施工中)，beyond belief (令人难以置信)，beyond one's reach (鞭长莫及)，beyond one's control (无法控制)，beyond our hope (我们始料不及)，for sale (出售)，for rent (出租)，in print (在印刷中)，in sight (在视野范围内)，on sale (出售)，on show (展出)，on trial (受审)，out of control (控制不了)，out of sight (超出视线之外)，out of one's reach (够不着)，out of fashion (不流行)。如：
The building is under construction (is being constructed).
The rumor is beyond belief ( = can't be believed ).
His honest character is above all praise. ( = His honest character cannot be praised enough.)
That house is for sale. ( = That house is to be sold.)
The book is not yet in print ( = is not yet printed ).
Today some treasures are on show in the museum ( = are being showed).
The plane was out of control (can't be controlled).
He took two days off within the teacher's permission.
fit, have, wish, cost, agree with, arrive at / in, shake hands with, succeed in, suffer from, happen to, take part in, walk into, belong to 等。如：
This key just fits the lock.
Your story agrees with what had already been heard.
1. Hundreds of jobs ______ if the factory closes.
A. lose B. will be lost C. are lost D. will lose
2. I've won a holiday for two days to Florida. I ______ my mum.
A. am taking B. have taken C. take D. will have taken
3. A new cinema ______ here. They hope to finish it next month.
A. will be built B. is built C. has been built D. is being built
4. Selecting a mobile phone for personal use is no easy task because technology ____ so rapidly.
A. is changing B. has changed C. will have changed D. will change
5. I _____ Ping -pong quite well, but I haven't had time to play since the new year.
A. played B. will play C. have played D. play
6. Visitors ______ not to touch the exhibits.
A. will request B. request C. are requesting D. are requested
7. John and I _____ friends for eight years. We first got to know each other at a Christmas party. But we _____ each other a couple of times before that.
A. had been; have seen B. have been; have seen
C. had been; had seen D. have been; had seen
8. This is Ted's photo. We miss him a lot. He ______ trying to save a child in the earthquake.
A. killed B. is killed C. was killed D. was killing
9. - How are the team playing ?
- They are playing well, but one of them _____ hurt.
A. got B. gets C. are D. were
10. - You haven't said a word about my new coua, Brenda. Do you like it ?
- I'm sorry, I _____ anything about it sooner. I certainly think it's pretty on you.
A. wasn't saying B. don't say C. won't say D. didn't say
11. I wonder why Jenny ____ us recently. We should have heard from her by now.
A. hasn't written B. doesn't write C. won't write D. hadn't written
12. My uncle ______ until he was forty -five.
A. married B. didn't marry C. was not marrying D. would marry
13. - When will you come to see me, Dad ?
- I will go to see you when you _____ the training course.
A. will have finished B. will finish C. are finishing D. finish
14. - How long _____ at this job ?
- Since 1990.
A. were you employed B. have you been employed
C. had you been employed D. will you be employed
15. With the rapid growth of population, the city _____ in all directions in the past five years.
A. spreads B. has spread C. spread D. had spread
16. The silence of the library _____ only by the sound of pages being turned over.
A. has been broken B. breaks C. broke D. was broken
17. All morning as she waited for the medical report from the doctor, her nervousness _____.
A. has grown B. is growing C. grew D. had grown
18. Why don't you put the meat in the fridge ? It will _____ fresh for several days.
A. be stayed B. stay C. be staying D. have stayed
19. - Sorry, Joe, I didn't mean to ...
- Don't call me "Joe". I'm Mr Parker to you, and _____ you forget it !
A. do B. didn't C. did D. don't
20. At this time tomorrow _____ over the Atlantic.
A. we're going to fly B. we'll be flying C. we'll fly D. we're to fly
21. The news came as no surprise to me. I _____ for some time that the factory was going to shut down.
A. had known B. knew C. have known D. know
22. I thought Jim would say something about his school report, but he ______ it.
A. doesn't mention B. hadn't mentioned C. didn't mention D. hasn't mentioned
23. No one in the department but Tom and I _____ that the director is going to resign.
A. knows B. know C. have known D. am to know
24. Although he has lived with us for years, he ______ us much impression.
A. hadn't left B. didn't leave C. doesn't leave D. hasn't left
25. how can you possibly miss the news ? It _____ on TV all day long.
A. has been B. bad been C. was D. will be
26. - Sorry to have interrupted you. Please go on.
- Where was I ?
- You _____ you didn't like your father's job.
A. had said B. said C. were saying D. had been saying
27. I arrived late; I _____ the road to be so iey.
A. wouldn't expect B. haven't expected C. hadn't expected D. wasn't expecting
28. I ______ while reading the English textbook. Luckily, my roommate woke me up in time !
A. had fallen asleep B. have fallen asleep C. fell asleep D. fall asleep
29. Let's keep to the point or we ______ any decisions.
A. will never reach B. have never reached C. never reach D. never reached
30. My mind wasn't on what he was saying, so I'm afraid I _____ half of it.
A. was missing B. had missed C. will miss D. missed
31. - What's that terrible noise ?
- The neighbors _____ for a party.
A. have prepared B. are preparing C. prepare D. will prepare
32. Now that she is out of a job, Lucy _____ going back to school, but she hasn't decided yet.
A. had considered B. has been considering
C. has been completed D. is going to consider
33. The mayor of Beijing says that all construction work for the Beijing Olympics _____ by 2006.
A. has been completed B. has completed
C. will have been completed D. will have completed
34. The teacher, with 6 girls and 8 boys of her class, ______ visiting a museum when the earthquake struck.
A. was B. were C. had been D. would be
35. - What were you doing when Tony phoned you ?
- I had just finished my work and _____ to take a shower.
A. had started B. started C. have started D. was starting
36. The first use of atomic weapons was in 1945, and their power _____ increased enormously ever since.
A. is B. was C. has been D. had been
37. The crazy fans ______ patiently for two hours, and they would wait till the movie star arrived.
A. were waiting B. had been waiting C. had waited D. would wait
38. She _____ her hairstyle in her hometown before she came to Chongqing for a better job.
A. would change B. has changed C. changed D. was changing
39. All the employees except the manager _______ to work online at home.
A. encourages B. encourage C. is encouraged D. are encouraged
40. - You were out when I dropped in at your house.
- Oh, I ________ for a friend from England at the airport.
A. was waiting B. had waited C. am waiting D. have waited
41. She has set a new record, that is, the sales of her latest book ______ 50 million.
A. have reached B. has reached C. are reaching D. had reached
42. The discussion _______ alive when an inter esting topic was brought in.
A. was coming B. had come C. has come D. came
43. Because the shop ________ , all the T -shirts are sold at half price.
A. has closed down B. closed down C. is closing down D. had closed down
44. More patients _______ in hospital this year than last year.
A. treated B. have treated C. had been treated D. have been treated
45. Sales of CDs have greatly increased since the early 1990s, when people ______ to enjoy the advantages of this new technology.
A. begin B. began C. have begun D. had begun
46. Turn on the television or open a magazine and you _____ advertisements showing happy families.
A. will often see B. often see C. are often seeing D. have often seen
47. - I hear Jane has gone to the Holy Island for her holiday.
- Oh, how nice ! Do you know when she _______.
A. was leaving B. had left C. has left D. left
48. He kept looking at her, wondering whether he ________ her somewhere.
A. saw B. has seen C. sees D. had seen
49. - George and Lucy got married last week. Did you go to their wedding ?
- No, I ______. Did they have a big wedding ?
A. was not invited B. have not been invited
C. hadn't been invited D. didn't invite
50. It is said in the book that Thomas Edison (1874-1931) _______ the world leading inventor for sixty years.
A. would be B. has been C. had been D. was
51. The number of deaths from heart disease will be reduced greatly if people _____ to eat more fruit and vegetables.
A. persuade B. will persuade C. be persuaded D. are persuaded
52. - The window is dirty.
- I know. It ______ for weeks.
A. hasn't cleaned B. didn't clean C. wasn't cleaned D. hasn't been cleaned
53. - Has Sam finished his homework today ?
- I have no idea. He ______ it this morning.
A. did B. has done C. was doing D. had done
54. I _____ you not to move my dictionary -now I can't find it.
A. asked B. ask C. was asking D. had asked
55. According to the art dealer, the painting ______ to go for at least a million dollars.
A. is expected B. expects C. expected D. is expecting
4、A 题干中主句为Selecting a mobile phone ...is no easy task,谓语动词表示了一种"含此刻在内的广泛意义上的现在时间"，使用的是一般现在时态（...is no easy task）;后面的状态从句（because...）中则说明原因为"技术更新变化迅速"，应采用现在进行时：（technology）is changing(so rapidly).现在进行时态在此表示了一种"持续变化"的状态，体现了"变化、趋势、发展和进展"（Collins COBULLD ENGLISH GRAMMAR） ，类似用法又如：His handwriting is improving.
World energy demand is increasing at a rate of about3% per year.
5、D 题干后的分句（but...）为转折语气，并在句中使用了现在完成时态（I haven't had time to play）,表示自从new year以来一直没有打过乒乓球，由此可以排除选项B（will play）、C（have played）.由此推断前一人句中所说状态为"含此刻在内的广泛意义上的现在时间"，则空中应该使用一般现在时态表达这一时间概念。
7、D第一空为现在完成时，与一段时间状语连用（for eight years）;第二空：在一次晚会上认识之前就见过，上是"过去的过去"的一个动作，帮选D。
8、C 从上下文可知，Ted已经死了，属于过去发生的事情， 对于动词kill来讲，应是被动关系，故选C。
10、D从对话题干所设语境看，此处谈论的是过去所没有发生的事（you haven't said a word...）此对话中，Brenda 为自己没能对朋友所穿新衣早加赞赏向对方表示歉意；sooner(=at an earlier time)作为附加状语传达了十分重要的时间信息。
此处仍应使用表示过去行为的简单过去时，与后面句子中的现在时态（I certainly think...）形成对照。其余选项所给时态...hasn't written us recently。
11、A 前句中recently与事句中动词民用的语气为重要提示：We should have heard from her by now.=We haven,t heard from her by now此处讨论最近该发生而没发生的事，用现在完成时态：...hasn't written us recently.
15、B 时间状语in the past five years与现在时间有关。
17、C grow与as从句里的wait发生。 题干前半句为时间状语，提供了极为重要的时间线索：All morning as she waited...，表示了过去的一段延续时间，本空之中动词所表示的行为（her nervousness "grow"）与此同时进行。此处仍应使用一般过去时。
本题中与现在时间相关的两个选项(A. has grown B is growing)很容易排除；D项（had grown）过去完成时态，应用于表示过去特定时间之前的行为，与语境不符，也可排除。
根据本题设空之后所执着续的形容词fresh判断，选项所给动词stay为系动词（=to continue or remain in a place ,position or condition--COLLINS NEW ENGLISH DICTIONARY）, 因此，很容易排除A项（系动词不可能使用权用被动语态）；从句意看，说话人向对方提出建议（Why don't you...？），然后阐明依据（the meat will...），应该是stay 的一般形式，而不会是进行式（C 项be staying）或完成式（D项have stayed）。
19、D注意Mr Parker 这里针对的是"Sorry , joe"这件事，而不是" I didn't mean to..."那件事。而前者正是"此时此刻"发生的，故应用一般现在时。句意：你应称呼我帕克先生，你不是忘了吧！题干选材为大小对话形式，语境完整，前者向 Joe道歉，后者（joe本人）拒不接受道歉，认为称呼自己为Joe是："套近乎"。提醒并警千对方，语气非常严厉。
D on't you forget it！=Don't forget it！
表示指令和要求的祈使句有时可以保留主语（Directives with a subject）,这类主语一般都是第二人称，表示说话人的强烈不满。
20、B at this time tomorrow 指明的是将来的某一具体时间，故用来将进行时。
21、A 在Ｔhe news came 之前我就已经知道，故用将来进行时。
24、D although从句中的has lived是非常重要的时间住处说话的人的意思是：虽然他与我们一起生活多年（从过去到现在），但他没有给我们留下多少印象。所以，这里使用C项是不恰当的。
27、C arrive是关键信息：（我在出发之前）没有预料到路会这么滑。这里谈论的显然是过去（started）的过去（had expected）.
28、C根据woke(wake 的过去式)可以判断，这里谈论的与"现在"无关，因此可以排除B和D两项。I是在读书期间睡着的（while reading）,而不是在之前睡着的，所以A项也是不恰当的。
29、A 句意：请不要偏离话题，不然的话，我们就不会取胜得决定。祈使句与and 或or 连用是常见的说法，又如：Turn left and you will find the bookstore.向左转，你就会找到那个书店里。Listen to me or you will never succeed.听我的话，否则，你不会成功的。同时在谈到will do和be going to do 表示将来的区别时，will表意愿和既时的将来，而后者表示计划的或有迹象的将来。例如：
Give him the big apple or he oil not allow us to go with him.
-Why didn't you come to my birthday party?
-I was going to ,but my wife returned.
30、D 句意：（当时）我并没有注意他说的话，所以（现在）我觉得他讲的话一半我没有听到。题干句中透圳出时间信息的三个地方：wasn't ,was saying和I'm afraid是做出选择的重要依据。
31、B 根据题意先排除D 项，因为回答方要说明书现在的情况；A项have prepare说明已经准备好，C项prepare是目前的习惯性动作，B项瑞在进行时表示动作的示完性。因此B 项为最佳答案。
34、A本题考查时态及主谓一致两个语未能项目。根据主谓一致原则，应排除B项，因为本句的主语是the teacher,为单数第三人称；此外根据时间状语从句when the earthquake struck 很容易看出答案是A 项.
36、C根据 "they would wait..."可知，他们当时还在等，用过去完成时强调"等待"这一动作从过去开始，一直延续到过去，而且还要延续下去。
38、C根据连词before 和该从句中的came, 应该选过去时态，而排除其他选项。
39、D句子的主语是all the employees,所以谓语动词应当复数： encourage sb. to do sth.鼓励某人做某事，结合句意，显然应当用被动语态。句意：所有廖雇员（除经理之外）都被提倡在家在线工作。
40、A本题考查了主谓一致。此题的前半部分使用现在完成时，中间使用that is作为插入语，连接前后两句话，因此选项AO GHDQTWPV。
43、C close down（企业，工厂）关闭，此处是不及物的。句意：因这家商店即将关闭，所有的T恤衫都以半价出售。
47、D 因上文说过，Jane已经走了(has gone),所以离开这一动作、应是过去基本一时间发生的。
48、D此句的意思是：他一直看着她，不知是否在什么地方见过她。句中的kept looking at her这一动作应是过去某一时间发生的。
49、C 过去完成时的被动式，婚礼举行是last week, 我有被邀请是在婚礼举行之前，所以是过去的过去。在动词的时态和语态考题中，老先生应该道德根据语言环境判断是主动还是被动以缩小选择范围，然后再判断动词的时态形式。
51、D 根据选项中persuade这个词是及物动词这一点，就可以排除A和B，因为我们经常说persuade sb, to do sth然而题干中没有它的宣宾语，所以应该用被动语态。主句为将来时，if从句应该用现在时表示将来。
52、D根据题意，窗户就被擦，应该用被动语态，所以排除A、B两C、D两项是全是被动语态，但时态不一致。一般过去进和现在完成时的区别恰恰是中学生的一项难点。一般过去时表示过去某一时间所发生的动作或存在 的状态，对现在无任何影响；而现在完成时跨在两个时间之上，一是过去，一是现在。它的动作发生在过去，但对现在有影响，而这种影响却往往是说话者的关注所在，所以这个意义上的现在完成时一般后面不加时间状语。如：I have finished reading this book ,so I can return it.另外，现在完成时还表示一个动作或行为开始于过去，持续到现在甚至到将来，本用法就是该题所考查的内容。即窗户从过去某一时间以现在一直未擦过，所以很脏。
53、C根据后面时间状语this morning可判断为过去时，排除B；进行体表示"示完成性，暂时性，感情色彩"。结合上句，不知道Sam是否做完，所以C 项是最佳答案。
55、A此句中the painting和谓语expect为被动关系，句意为：据那位艺术品经营商讲，这幅画有望增值至少一百万美元。类似的结构有：It's said'/reported/known/understood...that从句，有消息说，有报道，不言而喻等。同义转换为sth. is said/ reported/known+不定式。例如：It's said that she has been studying abroad for two years.=She is said to have been studying abroad for two years. It's reported that Jay Zhou is reported to hold a solo concert in Beijing next month.
1. When Mark opened the door, he saw a woman standing there. He ____ her before.
A. never saw B. had never seen C. never sees D. has never seen
2. I can't see any coffee in this cupboard. ______ ?
A. Has it all been finished B. Was it all finished
C. Has it all finished D. Did it all finish
3. the hero's story _____ differently in the newspapers.
A. was reported B. was reporting C. reports D. reported
4. The coffee is wonderful ! It doesn't taste like anything I _____ before.
A. was having B. have C. have ever had D. had ever had
5. - Did you tell Julia about the resulh ?
- Oh, no, I forgot. I ______ her new.
A. will be calling B. will call C. call D. am to call
6. He ______ more than 5,000 English words when he entered the university at the age of 15 .
A. has learned B. would have learned C. learned D. had learned
7. Scientists think that the continents ______ always where they ______ today.
A. aren't; are B. aren't; were C. weren't; were D. weren't; were
8. - Why did you leave that position ?
- I _____ a better position at IBM.
A. offer B. offered C. am offered D. was offered
9. By the time Jane gets home, her aunt ______ for London to attend a meeting.
A. will leave B. leaves C. will have left D. left
10. More than a dozen students in that school ______ abroad to study medicine last year.
A. sent B. were sent C. had sent D. had been sent
11. Professor Smith, along with his assistants, _______ on the project day and night to meet the deadline.
A. work B. working C. is working D. are working
12. - What' wrong with year coat ?
- Just now when I wanted to get off the bus, the man next to me ______ on it.
A. sat B. had sat C. had been sitting D. was sitting
13. - What are you going to do this afternoon ?
- I am going to the cinema with some friends. The film _____ quite early, so we _____ to the bookstore after that.
A. finished; are going B. finished; go C. finishes; are going D. finishes; go
14. Millions of pounds' worth of damage _______ by a storm which swept across the north of England last night.
A. has been caused B. had been caused C. will be caused D. will have been caused
15. Years ago we didn't know this, but recent science _______ that people who don't sleep well soon get ill.
A. showed B. has shown C. will show D. is showing
16. The policeman's attention was suddenly caught by a small box which ______placed under the Minister's car.
A. has been B. was being C. had been D. would be
17. Father _______ for London on usiness upon my arrival, so I didn't see him.
A. has left B. left C. was leaving D. had left
18. - If the traffic hadn't been so heavy, I could have been back by 6 o'clock.
- What a pity ! Tina _____ here to see you.
A. is B. was C. would be D. has been
19. Since I won the big prize, my telephone hasn't stopped ringing. People _____ to ask how I am going to spend the money.
A. phone B. will phone C. were phoning D. are phoning
20. When the old man ______ to walk back to his house, the sun ______ itself behind the mountain.
A. Started; had already hidden B. had started; had already hidden
C. had started; was hiding D. was starting; hid
21. He was hoping to go abroad but his parents ______ that they won't support him unless he can borrow money from the bank.
A. were deciding B. have decided C. decided D. will decide
22. - Hurry up ! Alice and Sue are waiting for you at the school gate.
- Oh ! I thought they _____ without me.
A. went B. are going C. have gone D. had gone
23. My brother is an actor. He ______ in several films so far.
A. appears B. appeared C. has appeared D. is appearing
24. - Are you still busy ?
- Yes, I ______ my work, and it won't take long.
A. just finish B. am just finishing C. have just finished D. am just going to finish
25. The manager had fallen asleep where he ______ , without undressing.
A. was laying B. was lying C. had laid D. had lied
26. They _____ on the program for almost one week before I joined them, and now we _____ it as no good results have come out so far.
A. had been working; are still working B. had worked; were still working
C. have been working; have worked D. have worked; are still working
27. The country life he was used to ______ greatly since 1992.
A. change B. has changed C. changing D. have changed
28. Nowadays, a large number of women, especially those from the countryside. ______ in the clothing industry.
A. is working B. works c. work d. worked
29. Susan decided not to work on the program at home because she didn't want her parents to know what she ______ .
A. has done B. had done C. was doing D. is doing
30. Months ago we sailed ten thousand miles across this open sea, which ______ the Pacific, and we met no storms.
A. was called B. is called C. had been called D. has been called
1由过去时态构成的句子语言环境可以看出，应首先排除C、D两个选项。再由句子中的before可以看出是说在那之前从没见过她，所以用过去完成时表示"地去的过去"，即那之前的一段时间的情况。一般过去时只表示过去某个时间点发生的动作或存在的情况。又如：He wrote a letter to her yesterday, but he had never even talked with her before.
2、A句子的语言环境为现在时，意思为：我看不到碗柜里有咖啡，它全（被）喝光了吗？it指coffee,不是过去某个时间点的情况，所以不用过去时。比较：I have had my breakfast. I am not hungry now. I had it ten minutes ago in the canteen.
6、D 由时间 状语从句的时态可以得知，主句中的时态应为过去时态，又因为主句动作在从句动词所表示的动作之前完成，因此应选择过去成时。
9、C by短语常与完成时连用，这里面的gets home是用现在表将亚，实际上是指明一个将亚的时间，不失为主句用将亚完成时。意思是：到jane到农的时候，她的姑姑已经离开家去伦敦参加一个会议了。
10、B 由句中last year 可判断，此句应为一般过去时，排除C、D项。由send sb .to dl sth. 变为被动语态，便成了sb.is sent to do sth.故B正确。
11、C现现在进行时可以表示目前这一阶段下在进行的动作。句意：史密斯教授和他的助手们为了如戎完成这一项目，一直在夜以继日地工作着。由此可排除A、B项。"A ,with/along with /together with/but B"作主语时，谓语动词与A保持一致，故C项正确。
12、D注意题干中的时间状语。 Just now"刚才"是一个大概时间，后面的when从句指出具体时间"当我想下车时。"这时正在发生的事性是，" 这旁边的一个人正坐在我的衣服上。"when时间状语从句中的谓语盍词和主句中的谓语盍词，哪一个是延续性动词，就把该动词处理成进行时态。如：When I was reading ,he came in.所以这里应选D。如果只注意到just now就会误认为句子是过去时而选A。B 是过去完成时，C 是过去完成进行时，而sit没有发生在get off 之前，所以谈不不上过去完成。
13、C对话中两个人在谈论下午打算做的事，答语中已经出现了be going to...结构，"我打算和几个朋友去看电影。"第二个空在谈看电影之后打算去书店，仍用 be going to...结构，故排除B、D两项，而电影的放映时间是确定的，所以用一般现在时，故选C。
14、A 题意：昨晚一场横扫英格半北部的风暴已经造成了几百万英镑的损失。四个选项都使用了被动式，因为句子主语damage和谓语动词cause之间是被动关系。Last night指风暴发生在昨晚，而损失不呆能在风暴之前，所以排除B项过去完成时。C、D两项中的will表示将来，应和tomorrow ,next week等将来时间状语连用；损失是截止到目前为止的结果，所以应使用现在完成时，强调对现在造成的影响，故选A。
16、C which had been placed under...是定语从句，其谓语所表示的动作placed发生在caught动作这前，所以用过去完成时态，选C。
17、D 句意：当我到达时，父亲已因公差了，因此我没见到他。本题考查老先生对时态的掌握。其住处点在my arrival及didn't see根据信息点判断父亲出公差是过去的事情，排除A项（现在时），然后从没有见到父亲是在my arrival及didn't see him之前，需用过去完成时，故D项为正确答案。
18、B从上文内容中的hadn't been, could have been可知双方谈论的是过去的事情，所以选B。
20、A此题考查的是时态问题。此题意为：当老人开始往家走时，太阳已经下山了。太阳落山的动作发生在开始往家走之前。故选A。B C D 的时态与句意不符。
23、C so far-- by now（到目前为止），和现在完成时连用，故选C。
24、B。根据 it won't take long 可知，工作还滑做完，故排除C项现在完成时。B项使用现在进行时表将要，故选B。
26、A 此题考查的是时态问题。从before引导的从句中的过去时态可知主句的时态应为过去完成时。故排除C、D。从意思上可以看出他们一直工作了一周，强调动作的连续，同进 now也提示出后面应用现在进行时。故答案为A。
30、B现在"this open sea"仍然被称作"the Pacific",属客观事实，故用一般现在时。
1. By the time you arrive in London, we ______ in Europe for two weeks.
A. shall stay B. have stayed C. will have stayed D. have been staying
2. - I say, Harry, What did you say to the laid -off worker just now ?
- Nothing, I ______ to myself.
A. had only talked B. am only talking C. have just talked D. was just talking
3. - Is the meeting held in Room 302 or 303 ?
- It should be 302. But I hear that it _____ till tomorrow.
A. was put off B. will put off C. has been put off D. is put off
4. - Have you seen Michael recently ?
- Yes, in fact I saw him this morning. I ____ him for two years.
A. haven't seen B. hadn't seen C. didn't see D. don't see
5. Tom's father had not spoken to him since his marriage, because he considered Tom ______ a mistake in marrying so young a girl.
A. had made B. made C. would make D. was making
6. - Well, that was really a good meal. I _____ you were a really good cook.
- Thank you.
A. didn't know B. don't know C. haven't known D. hadn't known
7. Mrs. White became a teacher in 1985. She _____ for twenty years by next summer.
A. will teach B. would have taught C. has been teaching D. will have been teaching
8. - It is around 100 years, known to us all, ______ the first modern Olympic Games was held.
- It really is. But were _____ ?
A. that; was that B. since; was it C. after; is that D. when; is it
9. The two friends _____ on the Internet for three hours, and they would go on till the next morning.
A. had been chatting B. had chatted C. were chatting D. has been chatting
10. let's go out now. It _____ any more.
A. didn't rain B. doesn't rain C. won't rain D. isn't raining
11. The time is not far away when mobile phones _____ widespread in China's vast country -side.
A. will become B. become C. shall become D. have become
12. - I'm sorry, I thought the remark would amuse you.
- It _____.
A. wouldn't B. won't C. doesn't D. hadn't
13. Try not to be absent from class again for the rest of the term. You _____ too many classes. You _____ two classes just last week.
A. have missed; missed B. missed; missed
C. had missed; have missed D. will miss; have missed
14. Since you weren't at the meeting, we _____ the decision without you.
A. made B. had made C. were making D. would made
15. Long ago, the CLA and other US intelligence officials concluded that Bin Laden _____ the day -today leader of the terrorist organization he founded over 10 years ago.
A. was stopped being B. had stopped to be
C. have stopped being D. had stopped being
16. About 170 people _____ and dozens more _____ after a flood hit an Indonesian town last week.
A. were killed; are still missing B. have been killed; were still missing
C. are killed; are still missing D. had been killed; were still missing
17. - Guess what the exam result was. I turned out to be the first !
- How nice ! I'm sure you _____ a sleepless night.
A. have B. had C. would have had D. will have had
18. I ______ with my uncle and aunt because my parents have gone abroad for a holiday.
A. stayed B. am staying C. have stayed D. was staying
19. In such a fierce competition, a person has to make every effort if he ______ .
A. has succeeded B. is to succeed C. would succeed D. will succeed
20. I _____ a novel written by Ernest Heming -ways last night, and another night I'll finish it.
A. read B. have read C. had read D. was reading
1、C by the time引导的时间状语从句中使用了一般现在时表将来，主句应用将来时，因此排除B 、D。句意：当你到达伦敦时，我们将已经在欧洲逗留两周了。由此判断应用将来完成时表示将来某一时间或动作发生之前已经完成的动作。故选C。
3、C meeting与put off之间应为被动关系，故排除B项。语境中的时间提示为现在时，故排除A项。句意：我听说会议已经被推迟到明天了。说明推迟会议这一动作发生在我听说之前，对现在造成影响，并且还要延续下去，故应用现在完成时表达，排除D项。
5、A 此句改编自 David Copperfield.句意：自Tom结婚以来，他的父亲就没再和他说过话，因为父亲认为Tom不该娶太年轻的姑娘。显然，"Tom犯错"发生于"父亲认为"这一过去动作前，故应选择过去完成时。
7、D语境中的时间信息：by next summer 到明年夏天，提示该题应为将来时，故排除B、C。 根据句意：怀特夫人自1985年成为教师，到明年夏天就将教书法家20年了。因此，只有将来完成进行时才能表示这个将来某时前一直进行的动作。故选择D。
8、B 考查句型It +be +some time +since从句，表示"自从......以来已经多长时间了。"本句意思为：众所周知，自从第一届现代奥林匹克运动会举办以来大约一百年了。既然是一百年前举办的，第二句当然要用一般过去时--是在哪儿举办的？比较：It is around 100years ago that the first modern Olympic Games was held.
10、D 前句为后句时态的重要提示：咱们现在出去吧。表示说话人正在谈论此该的情况，故排除A、C。一般现在时和现在进行时的区别为：It doesn't rain any more.(永久性) It isn't raining any more.( 暂时性)，显然，使用一般现在时是不符合事实的，帮排除B。
11、A该题易误选B，将when引导的从句误看作时间状语从句，谓语动词用一般现在时表示将要发生的动作。但本句中的when 引导的是定语句，故用一般将来时表示将要发生的动作，will become符合题意。
12、C thought可以用于比较客气或尊敬的口气，这里的过去时具有现在时的含义，或表示"试探性"的态度：I thought you might like some flowers in your room. 我想你可能喜欢在屋里放些花。 I thought还常表示原来想的事同实际情况不一致，或尚未不知是否一致：I thought that the ball had rung.我原以为钟已经响了（其实未响）。该题应为后一种用法，句意：--对不起。我原以为这一评论会让你开心。--（事实上）我现在并未开心。
13、A 根据第二空的时间状语last week可知谓语动词应为一般过去时，故排除C、D。句意：这个学期剩下的时间你不要旷课了。你已经旷了许多节课了。由此判定应用现在完成时表示这个从过去到说话的现在为止的一段时间内重复发生的动作。
15、D句意：很久以前，美国中央情报局面等的情报官员推断，本.拉登已经终上了对他十多年前他创立的恐怖组织的日常领导工作。因为主句时态为一般过去时，而从句动作发生在它之前，故需用过去完成时，且用主动语态，排除A、C。stop to do 停下来去做（别一件事）；stop doing 停止做某事。因此选择D。
17、B 根据语境，答话者认为前者因为考试结果还没出来，昨晚度过了一个眠之夜。相当于说：I'm sure you had a sleepless night last night.
18、B语境中的时间信息：because my parents have gone broad for a holiday(因为我的父母出国度假去了)。由此判定说话人在谈论目前的情况，故排除A、D。我现在和我的叔叔婶婶住在一起，所以应使用现在进行时来表示现阶段正在发生的动作，强调它的暂时性。
20、D 昨天晚上我在读海明威写的一部小说。Last night 为过去时间状语，排除B、C。逗号后面的句子暗示了小说燕示读完，过去进行时表示示完性，一般过去时表示完成性，故选择D。
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