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宏观经济 macro economy 计划经济 planned economy 指令性计划 mandatory plan 指导性计划 guidance plan 社会主义市场经济(中国) socialist market economy 社会市场经济(德国) social market economy 新经济(美国) new economy 知识经济 knowledge-based economy 网络经济 Internet-based networked economy 信息时代 information age 全球化 globalization (全球境 globality) 信息经济 IT economy 外向型经济 export-oriented economy 实体经济 the real economy 经济规律 laws of economics 市场调节 market regulation 优化资源配置 optimize allocation of resources 规模经营优势 advantage of economies of scale 劳动密集型 labor intensive 技术密集型 technology intensive 大规模生产 mass production 新凯恩思主义 new Keynesian 货币主义者 monetarist 供给学派 supply-side economist

不景气 slump (衰退 recession) 二板市场 the second board market 中国创业板 China Growth Enterprise Market 首次上市 IPOs (initial public offering) 市场资本总额 market capitalization 法人股 institutional shares 内部股(非上市招股) private company shares 牛市 bull market 法律风险 legal risk 风险管理 risk management 坚持严格的贷款标准 maintain strong underwriting standards 六大风险 risks in 6 key areas (U.S. Federal Reserve criterion) 信用风险 credit risk 供给学派 supply-side economist
第一产业(农业) agriculture (primary industry) 第二产业(工业) manufacturing industry (secondary industry) 第三产业(服务业) service industry (tertiary industry) 主要经济指标 major economic indicators 国内生产总值 GDP gross domestic product (商品和劳务币值总和,不包括海外收入支出) 国民生产总值 GNP gross national product(商品和劳务币值总和,包括海外收入支出) 人均国内生产总值 GDP per capita 实际增长率 growth rate in real terms 年均增长率 average growth rate per annum 投资回报率 rate of return on investment 外贸进出口总额 total foreign trade value 实际利用外资 incoming overseas capital (investment) in place 消费价格指数 consumer price index (CPI) 零售价格指数 retail price index (RPI)

生活费用价格总指数 total price index of living cost 生活费用 income available for living expenses 扣除物价因素 in real terms / on inflation-adjusted basis 居民储蓄存款 residents’ bank savings deposit 恩格尔系数(食品开支占总支出的比例) Engel coefficient 基尼系数(衡量地区差别) Gini coefficient 购买力平价法 purchasing power parity (PPP) (衡量使用不同货币的两个国家或地区的经济水平、收入水平的 一种计算法,用相等的汇率比较两种货币各自的国内购买力) 片面追求发展速度 excessive pursuit of growth 泡沫经济 bubble economy 经济过热 overheating of economy 通货膨胀 inflation 不景气 slump (衰退 recession) 通货紧缩 deflation 中国现代化建设分三步走的战略 the three-step development strategy of China’s modernization drive 第一步,到 1990 年国民生产总值比 1980 年翻一番 Step One: GDP of 1990 doubles that of 1980. 第二步,到 2000 年人均国民生产总值比 1980 年翻两番,人民生活达到小康水平 Step Two: GDP of 2000 quadruples that of 1980; people live a fairly comfortable life. 第三步,到 21 世纪中期建国 100 周年时,达到中等发达国家水平 Step Three: By the year 2049, the 100th anniversary of the P.R.C., China’s level of development is expected to be on par with the mid-ranking developed countries 即将加入世贸组织 expected entry (accession) in the WTO 与世界经济的联系将更加紧密 be more closely linked to the world economy 中国巨大的市场潜力将逐步转化为现实的购买力 The huge market potential that China enjoys will be turned into tangible purchasing power. 适应市场经济需要的法律法规体系还不够健全 The regulatory and legal system is not well established as to adapt to the demand of market economy. 经济管理体制可能会出现一些不适应 The economic management system may not be readily adapted to the changes. 一些行业和企业可能会受到冲击 Some sectors of economy and some businesses may be adversely affected. 立足中国国情,发挥自身优势 proceed from national conditions in China and bring our advantages into play 扬长避短, 趋利避害, 迎接经济全球化的挑战 foster strengths and circumvent weaknesses and rise to the challenge of economic globalization 瓶颈制约 bottleneck constraints 放权让利 decentralization and interest concessions (in late 1980s and early 1990s) 深化改革 intensify reform; deepen one’s commitment to reform 配套改革 supporting (concomitant) reforms 配套资金 counterpart funds; local funding of 提高经济效益 improve economic performance; increase economic returns 讲求社会效益 value contribution to society; pay attention to social effect 加速国民经济信息化 develop information-based economy accelerate IT application in economy 拉动经济增长 fuel economic growth 利改税 substitution of tax payment for profit delivery 费改税 transform administrative fees into taxes 债转股 debt-to-equity swap 头寸宽裕(头寸紧缺) in an easy position (tight position) 朝阳产业 sunrise industry

招标投标制 the system of public bidding for project 充分发挥货币政策的作用 give full play to the role of monetary policy 实施积极的财政政策 follow a pro-active fiscal policy 向银行增发国债,扩大投资 The government issued additional treasury bonds to banks to increase investment. 再注资 recapitalization 放松银根 to ease monetary policy (收紧银根 tighten up monetary policy) 适度从紧的财政政策 moderately tight fiscal policy 信用紧缩 credit crunch 加强国有商业银行内部资金调度 In state commercial banks, internal capital allocation should be improved. 合理划分贷款审批权限 Limits of authority for examining and approving loans should be rationally defined. 保证有市场、有效益、守信用企业的流动资金贷款 ensure floating capital loans for well-performing and trustworthy enterprises which turn out the right products for the right markets 启动民间投资 attract investment from the private sector 适销对路的产品 the right products / readily marketable products 国有企业 state-owned enterprises (SOEs) 集体企业 collectively-owned (partnership) enterprises 私营企业 private businesses 民营企业 privately-run businesses 中小企业 small-and-medium-sized enterprises 三资企业(中外合资、中外合作、外商独资) overseas-invested enterprises; foreign-invested enterprises (Chinese-overseas equity joint ventures, Chinese-overseas contractual joint ventures, wholly foreign- owned enterprises) 存款保证金 guaranty money for deposits 货币回笼 withdrawal of currency from circulation 吸收游资 absorb idle fund 经常性贷款 commercial lending 经常性支出 operating expenses 再贷款 re-lending; subloan 支持国有大型企业和高新技术企业上市融资 support large state-owned enterprises and high and innovative technology companies in their efforts to seek financing by listing on the stock market 改制上市 An enterprise is re-organized according to modern corporate system so that it will get listed on the stock market. 进一步规范和发展证券市场 further standardize and develop the securities market 增加直接融资比重 increase the proportion of direct financing 完善股票发行上市制度 improve the system for IPO and listing on stock markets 中国证监会 China Securities Regulatory Commission (CSRC) 深圳证券交易所市 Shenzhen Stock Exchange 上海证券交易所 Shanghai Stock Exchange 综合指数 composite index (美国)纳斯达克(高技术企业板) NASDAQ (National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation 主板市场 the main board 二板市场 the second board market 中国创业板 China Growth Enterprise Market 首次上市 IPOs (initial public offering)

市场资本总额 market capitalization 法人股 institutional shares 内部股(非上市招股) private company shares “牛”市 bull market 抛售 bear sales 疲软股票 soft stock 配股 allotment of shares 内部审计 internal audit 互助基金 mutual fund 扩大内需 expand domestic demand 改善居民心理预期 inspire the general public's confidence in the future needs 鼓励增加即期消费 encourage more immediate consumption 长期国债 long-term treasury bonds 支付国债利息 to service treasury bonds 财政赤字和债务 deficits and the national debt 按原口径计算 calculate on the base line 按不变价格计算 calculate at constant price 按可比价格计算 calculate at comparable price 列入财政预算支出 listed in the fiscal budget 结售汇制度 the system of exchange, settlement and sales 经常项目顺差 favorable balance of current account, surplus of current account 开办人民币业务 engage in Rrenminbi (RMB) business 出口退税制度 the system of refunding taxes on exported goods 保证金台帐制度 Deposit account system for processing trade 分期付款 installment payment 保值储蓄 inflation-proof bank savings 抵押贷款 collateralised loans 住房抵押贷款 residential mortgage loan 经济林 cash tree 跟踪审计 follow-up auditing 配套政策 supporting policies 广义货币 M2 (狭义货币 M1) 中国人民银行(中央银行)The People’s Bank of China(central bank) 四大国有商业银行 4 major state-owned commercial banks 中国银行 Bank of china 中国工商银行 Industrial and Commercial Bank of China()and 中国建设银行 Construction Bank of China 中国农业银行 Agricultural Bank of China 招商银行 China Merchants Bank 中国光大银行 Everbright Bank of China 中国民生银行 China Minsheng Banking Corporation Ltd. 中信实业银行 CITIC Industrial Bank 政策性银行 state policy-related bank 国家发展银行 State Development Bank 中国进出口银行 China EXIM Bank (香港英资)汇丰银行 Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation (HKSBC) 金融监管 financial supervision 《中国人民银行法》 Law of the People’s Bank of China 《商业银行法》 Law of Commercial Banks 《保险法》 Law of Insurance 《证券法》 Law of Securities 巴塞尔原则 Basel Core Principles 监管对象的行为有问题、管理机制不健全 problems of supervised entities’ behavior and the unsound internal governance mechanism 风险意识 consciousness of risk prevention

事前监管 proactive regulation and supervision 风险管理 risk management 坚持严格的贷款标准 maintain strong underwriting standards 六大风险 risks in 6 key areas (U.S. Federal Reserve criterion) 信用风险 credit risk / 市场风险 market risk / 流动性风险 liquidity risk 操作风险 operational risk / 法律风险 legal risk / 信誉风险 reputational risk 风险评级 risk rating 到期不还贷 default on a loan 资不抵债 insolvency; be insolvent 亚洲金融危机 Asian financial crisis (1997-98) (人行)9 个跨省(区)分行代替 31 个省级分行 9 regional branches (of PBC) replaced 31 provincial ones 投资(贷款)组合 investment (loan) portfolio 外汇储备充足 sufficient foreign exchange reserves 中国金融业问题 problems with financial sector in China 储蓄比例过高 the excessively large proportion of savings in the money supply 国有企业产负债率过高 high leverage ratio of the state-owned enterprises, 国有独资商业银行不良资产比例过高 high ratio of non-performing loans of the state commercial banks 少数中小存款金融机构不能支付到期债务 insolvency of a handful of small and medium-sized financial institutions 不良贷款 non-performing loans 防范和化解金融风险 address financial risks 提高企业借贷和行使民事责任的能力 improve enterprises’ creditworthiness and ability to fulfil their civil liabilities 监事会 supervisory board 实行谨慎会计制度 adopt prudential accounting standards 五级分类法划分贷款质量 the five-category asset classification approach 金融资产管理公司 financial asset management companies 分离和收回不良资产 substantially reduce the ratio of non-performing assets 分业管理、规模经营 business segregation, economy of scale 规范金融机构市场退出制度 improve the market exit mechanism for financial institutions



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