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lesson 2 Hiroshima.ppt


Lesson 2

Hiroshima---the “Liveliest” City in Japan

Prereading Questions:
? ?

Where is the city of Hiroshima? For what is Hiroshima a city of world renown? Talk as much as you know about Hiroshima.

?

Objectives of Teaching
1. 2.

3.
4.

5.

To comprehend the whole text To lean and master the vocabulary and expressions To learn to paraphrase the difficult sentences To understand the structure of the text To appreciate the style and rhetoric of the passage.

PRESENTATION

Background Material
Detailed Study Assignment

Organization
Exercises

World War Ⅱ (1945)
Atomic bombs

Do you know what happened? When and why?

Hiroshima is a seaport, capital of Hiroshima prefecture in southwest Japan.On Aug. 6, 1945, Hiroshima was the first city to be struck by an atomic bomb, dropped by the U.S. air force.

Historic background
*Why was the bomb dropped on Hiroshima?

In the US, with the atomic bomb development still underway, it was decided in September 1944 to use the bomb against Japan.

The United States wanted to force Japan's surrender as quickly as possible to minimize American casualties.

In addition, the United States needed to use the atomic bomb against Japan before the Soviet Union entered the war to establish US dominance after the war.

Historic background
It is thought that Hiroshima was selected for the following reasons:

1.The size and topography of the city made it suitable for testing the destructive capabilities of the atomic bomb, and for confirming the destructive effects later.

2. There

was a concentration of military troops, installations, and factories in Hiroshima that had been spared previous bombing.

Consequence

At 8:15 a.m. on August 6,1945, the first atomic bomb (Little Boy, the A-bomb) was exploded over a point near the center of Hiroshima, destroying almost everything within a radius of 6,000 to 8,000 feet (1830-2450 meters).

Over 71, 000 people were killed instantly

Many more later died of injuries and the effects of radiation. Survivors are still dying of leukemia (白血病), pernicious anemia (恶性贫 血病 ),and other diseases induced by radiation. Almost 98% of the buildings were destroyed or severely damaged.

Hiroshima before the bomb

Hiroshima after the bomb

Surviver

Survivers

Hiroshima

The Japanese dedicated postwar Hiroshima to peace. A

destroyed area named
"Peace City" has been set aside as a memorial.

? The ruins of the Institute of

Industrial Development (核爆 遗址,euphemism), with its warped dome, were preserved as a symbol of the terror of destruction.

Institute of Industrial Development

Hiroshima
Peace Park(和平纪念公园) ,which was

laid out nearby, includes a cenotaph
memorializing the victims and a museum housing relics of the holocaust. A special hospital was set up.

The city now is an important

producer of iron and steel, motor
vehicles, tractors, ships, machinery, sewing needles,

paper, textiles, and food
products.

Peace Memorial Ceremony
Every year the City of Hiroshima holds the Peace Memorial Ceremony to console the souls of those who were lost due to the atomic bombing as well as pray for the realization of everlasting world peace.

This ceremony, which is attended by many citizens, including those who lost family members in the bombing, is held in front of the Cenotaph for the A-bomb Victims (Monument for Hiroshima, City of Peace).

Peace Memorial Ceremony

Loan Words in English from Japanese ? tempura 日式火锅
? kakemono 条幅,字画
? tsunami 海啸 ? tycoon大亨;大企业家

? sumo相扑
? gobang五子棋

sakura 樱花 (oriental cherry)

sushi 寿司

tatami 榻榻米

ikebana

Judo

Karate 徒手自卫术; 空手道

Writing Style
Narration the telling of a story

A good narration has a beginning, a
middle and an end.

In a narrative writing, the actions or the

incidents,
presented

events
in

are

generally
of their

order

occurrence, following the natural
time sequence of the happenings, It is called to be in chronological order.

Writing Style
But it can also start in the middle or at some other point in the action and move backward to the earlier happenings. This is called flashback.

Three basic components of a narration.

1. Plot:

the frame of the writing, which consists of a series of events.

? There are usually one or

several climaxes, the highest point of the story, with suspensions, conflicts, to arouse the interest of the audience. After the climax is reached, the story quickly moves to a conclusion.

2. Characters:

the leading character is called the hero or protagonist
3. Background: the time and place of the story

The plot usually dominates narration, however, some narratives focus on character or theme or atmosphere.

Organization
? Part I: (Para 1.) The Arrival

The author’s feeling when he visited the city: a sense of excitement, guilt, sympathy…
? Part II: (Para.2 –Para.7)

Way to City Hall The Japanese crowd: normal taxi driver: polite, hospitable, patient, afraid of losing face usher: bow deeply kimono — miniskirt little old Japanese houses — concrete skyscrapers

Organization
Part III: (Para.8 –Para.27) Meeting the Mayor

Interview
anti-climax (高潮突降法):surprise, comic, humorous, satire effect everyone’s expectation ---mayor’s speech two schools: preserve --- demolish; impact -- hide
? Part IV: (Para.28 –Para.39) At the Hospital

great suffering of the victims

Detailed Study of the Text
Why is the word “liveliest” in the title, Hiroshima—the "Liveliest" City in Japan, put in the quotation marks?

The word "liveliest" is put in quotation marks to show that this is what the city is said to be and that the writer perhaps considers it ironic to use the word "liveliest" to describe a city that had been atomized.

Detailed Study of the Text
What is irony? the expression of actual intent in words that carry the opposite meaning e.g. He was such a marvelous teacher that whatever he recognized a spark of genius you could be sure he’d water it.

Part I: (Para 1.) The Arrival

Information provided in the first paragraph:

1 ) The author was here on a

reportorial mission.
2) Hiroshima was not the author's first

assignment.

3) He was preoccupied with

some sad thoughts — the crime
of the A-bomb. He was tortured by a guilty conscience.

4 ) He didn't understand
Japanese.

Part I: (Para 1.) The Arrival

1. That must be ...... slipped to a stop in Hiroshima Station: " must" :

strong probability as the author did not understand Japanese and could not have been sure.

? He must have had some accident, or

he would have been here by now.
? You must have known what I meant.

? That man must be your father for

you two look almost alike.

Part I: (Para 1.) The Arrival

must: n. sth. that shouldn't be overlooked or missed

? 对于数以万计的电视观众来说,

她的歌唱乃周日晚所必须有的一 个节目。 ? Her singing was a Sunday night must for thousands of TV viewers.

? 国际剧院本周的美国新片不可不看。
? The new American film at the

International Theater this week is an absolute must.

Comparison: slide, slip, glide
Slide implies accelerated motion without loosing contact with the slippery surface. e.g. The children were taking turns on the slides in the playground. 孩子们在操场上轮流滑滑梯。 The book slid off my knee. 书从我膝上滑落。

The thief slid into the room. 小偷溜进房间。 House values may begin to slide. 房价可能开始逐渐下降了。

landslide, mudslide, snowslide,
rockslide

slide, slip, glide
Slip often suggests involuntary rather than voluntary, sometimes even definitely implying a loss of footing and a fall. e.g. The bus slipped but we were engrossed in conversations. He caught the ball, then it slipped through his fingers. 那球他已接住却又从手中滑脱了。

The fish slipped out of my hand. 那条鱼从我手中滑掉了。 slip one's mind: pass out of one's memory It slipped my mind. 我不留神忘了。 Its name has slipped my mind. 我不记得它的名字。

slide, slip, glide
Glide, rather close to slide, means to

move smoothly, quietly and continuously as is characteristic of dances. e.g. Plane glided down to the airfield.

The figure skater glided gracefully over the ice. 花样滑冰者在冰上优雅地滑行。 Youth glided past without our awareness. 青春在我们不知不觉中逝去。

2. And secondly, because I had a lump in my throat and a lot of sad thoughts on my mind ...... might say:
1)a lump in one's throat:

a feeling of pressure in one‘s throat, caused by repressed emotion

Those pictures of starving African children brought a lump to my throat. 我对那些照片上挨饿的非洲孩子深表同情。 I couldn't account for the lump in my throat when I told him the news.

当我告诉他那个消息时我自己不知不觉地 哽咽起来。

Sam’s mother had a lump in her throat at his college graduation. 在萨姆的大学毕业典礼上,他母亲激动得 硬咽欲泣。 All during the wedding, the bride's mother had a lump in her throat.

在婚礼进行的全过程中,新娘的母亲一直 感到喉咙哽塞。

2)I had a lump in my throat: I was choked with emotion; I was so overcome with emotion that I could not speak or think clearly.

3) on one's mind: occupying one's thoughts, esp. as a source of worry to put one’s mind on one’s work 专心于工作 keep one's mind on one's work 安心工作 a load (or weight) on one's mind 思想包袱

with people's expectations always on one's mind 背负着人民的希望
have a load on one's mind 心里堵得难受

reveal everything on one's mind 把自己的想法和盘托出 be engraved on one's mind 深深印在脑子里

她睡不着觉,女儿的病使她心事重重。 She couldn’t fall asleep as her daughter’s illness was very much on her mind.

4) a lot of sad thoughts on my mind: I was troubled about some sad events! I was occupied with some sad thoughts.

3. The very act of stepping on this soil ...... any reportorial assignment I'd previously taken:
1) very: itself and nothing else actual, precise (used to emphasize the exact identity of a particular person or thing) Those were his very words. He might be phoning her at this very moment.

He stood in the very same place for an hour. The child is my very own. That is the very last thing I expected. Michael was the very first to arrive.

2) far greater: an adverbial modifier of adj. or adv. in the comparative degree e.g.

far more; even more; still more; a lot more; much more; greatly more

3)adventure: an unusual
journey or an exciting or remarkable experience

4) reportorial assignment: reporting work for a newspaper

Paraphrase: The fact that I was now in Hiroshima was in itself a much more exciting experience for me than any trip I had taken or any reporting work I had done in the past.

4. Was I not at the scene of the crime?
1)scene: place of an actual event Paraphrase: I was now at the place where the first Abomb was dropped.

2) Rhetorical questions are usually asked only for effect, as to emphasize a point, no answer being expected. Isn’t it a fact well known to everybody? (It is a fact well known to everybody.)

Part II: (Para.2 –Para.7)

Way to City Hall

Para.2 1. The Japanese crowd ...... that I had:

1) did not appear to have: did not seem to have; Judging by appearances, the author could not have been absolutely sure that the Japanese crowd did not have the same preoccupations

preoccupation

Preoccupation:

Such an excessive preoccupation with one's health can't be normal. 如此过分的关注自己的健康是不正常的。

He always takes his preoccupation with the educational cause. 他总是一心想着教育事业。

A pension is not usually one of the preoccupations of an eighteen year-old! 一个十八岁的人通常是不会老惦著养 老金的!

An abnormally obsessive preoccupation 迷恋,不正常地萦绕于心头的事物

Part II: (Para.2 –Para.7)

Way to City Hall

Para.2 2) seem, look, appear Seem suggests a personal opinion based on evidence that satisfies the judgment. It may seem difficult at first, but you'll get the hang of it after a few weeks. 这事初看起来不容易,可是过了几个星期你 就能摸着门儿了

Her ideas seem to come out of nowhere. 她的想法好像是空穴来风。

Look implies that the opinion is based on a visual impression. He looks nervous. 他看上去很紧张。

Part II: (Para.2 –Para.7)

Way to City Hall

Appear may convey the same implication as look, but it sometimes suggests a distorted impression produced by an optical illusion, a restricted point of view etc. e.g. People who don't know me say that I appear very snobbish, but it's just because I'm shy. 不了解我的人都说我看起来很势利,其实 那是因为我害羞.

2. From the sidewalk ...... things seemed much the same as in other Japanese cities:
1) much the same: about the same The patient is much the same this morning. 今晨病人情况几无变化。

我有好几年没有回故乡了,但那里的 一切和我记忆中的几乎一样。 I hadn't been to my hometown for years but it was much the same as I remember it.

四川话和湖北话很相似,有时难以区 别。 Sichuan dialect sounds much the same as Hubei dialect. It is sometimes difficult to tell one from the other.

3. Little girls ...... in western
dress: 1) elderly: approaching old age,

past middle age
Winter poses particular difficulties for the elderly.

冬天给上年纪的人带来特殊的困难.

2) rub shoulders with:(informal) meet and

mix with (people)
e.g.

This is not the sort of club where the great rub
shoulders with the humble.

During those two terms at the boarding school,
she rubbed shoulders with the rich.

他喜欢这些聚会,喜欢与年轻人交往并就

各种问题交换意见。
He loves such gatherings at which he rubs shoulders with young people and exchange opinions with them on various

subjects.

3) This sentence gives the impression that in Japan traditional style and western style exist side by side。

4. Serious looking men ..."Tomo aligato gozayimas"

1) to be oblivious of (or to) :to be unaware of I was oblivious of my surroundings.
我没有注意到周围的事物。 The speaker ground on, oblivious of his listeners' boredom. 演说者唠唠叨叨, 没注意到听众的厌烦情绪.

他陷入沉思之中,没有理会同伴们在谈些什么。

He was so deep in thought that he was oblivious of what his friends were talking about.
Paraphrase: They were so absorbed in their conversation that they seemed not to pay any attention to the crowds about them.

2) bob up and down:move up and down automatically (humourous description of the bows) 3) ritual:all the rites or forms connected with a ceremony; particular form of any procedure regularly followed; here used as an adj. meaning "done as a rite‖

a ritual dance 作为仪式一部分的舞蹈 ritual murder 杀人祭神(以人为牺牲) She went through her usual ritual(n.) of making sure all the doors were locked before she went to bed. 她上床之前按惯例检查一下所有的门是不 是都锁上了。

4) formula of gratitude and respect:
form of words used regularly such as "How do you do?" "Excuse me. “ fixed expressions

5. Others were using little red telephones that hung on the facades of grocery stores and tobacco shops: facade: front or face of building towards a street or open place 一家门面气派的商店 a store that has an imposing facade That is the facade of the Palace. 那是宫殿的正面。

Her honesty was all a facade.
她的诚实只是一种表面现象。 His fine clothes are a mere facade. 他漂亮的衣着只是虚有其表而已。 He revealed the grim facts behind the

facade of gaiety .
他揭示了欢乐外表后面的冷酷事实.

grocery store:

a store where various kinds of things are sold, such as: tea, butter, canned food, sugar, soap , soap powder, bottled food and small household goods
? 日杂店,南杂店,便利店 in

Chinese

Para.3

1. cab driver:(chiefly American)

taxi driver.
We might infer from the use of such words as "sidewalk"

"store" and "cab driver" that
the author is most likely an

American.

2.whose door popped open at the very sight of a traveler: 1) at the sight of:on seeing e.g. I smiled at the sight of my mother

at the airport.
在机场看到了妈妈时,我笑了。

他看见烤肉就垂涎三尺。 His mouth watered at the

sight of roast.

Para.3

我偶然在商店的镜子里瞥见自己的形象, 才发觉自己长胖了. I caught sight of myself in the mirror at the store, and I realized I'm getting fat. Paraphrase: As soon as the taxi driver saw a traveler, he immediately opened the door

3. City Hall:

a building which houses the
offices of a municipal government

Para.3

4. He grinned at me in the rear-view mirror: grin:smile broadly as to show teeth, originally expressing amusement, foolish satisfaction or contempt etc., but in current English, tending to imply naive cheerfulness

c.f grin, laugh, smile

To grin means to smile broadly, sometimes foolishly, without making any noise.

To laugh is to express amusement by explosive sounds.

To smile is the most general term; to make a facial expression but not accompanied by vocal sound which may show amusement, satisfaction, affection etc.

Para.3

5.The tall building of the martyred city ...... in response to the driver's sharp twists of the wheel: 1) martyred city: the city that has been made to suffer 殉职者martyrs to duty 殉情者 martyrs to love 暴政的牺牲者 a martyr to tyranny

殉教者 a missionary martyr 基督教殉教者 a Christian martyr 她是一个不断受到头痛折磨的人。 She is a martyr to continuous headaches. 他为国捐躯。 He is a martyr of his country.

Para.3

他被罗马人处死而成为殉道者。 He was martyred by the Romans.

2) flash by:pass swiftly

The train flashed by at high speed.
火车疾驶而过.

The days seem to flash by.
光阴似箭

Para.3

3) lurch : roll or sway suddenly forward or to one side The truck lurched sideways. 卡车突然歪向一边。 A wounded man lurched along the path. 一个受伤的人沿着小路踉踉跄跄地走着。

He walked with a lurch.

他步履蹒跚。

The lurches of the small boat made her sick at her stomach. 小船摇摇晃晃,颠得她想呕吐。

Para.3

4) in response to:in answer to e.g. In response to your inquiry... 兹答覆您的询问... In response to their hospitality, we wrote a thank-you note. 为回报他们的热情, 我们写了一封感 谢信。 His idea received an enthusiastic response. 他的想法获得热烈的响应。

His accusations brought an immediate response. 他提出指控後迅即得到答覆. Millions of people gave freely in response to the famine appeal. 千百万人响应救灾呼吁而慷慨解囊. His cool response suggested that he didn't like the idea. 他反应冷淡表明他并不喜欢这个主意.

Para.3
Paraphrase

The tall building of the martyred city ...... in response to the driver's sharp twists of the wheel:

The high buildings passed swiftly and when

the driver made abrupt changes of
direction, we sometimes swung to one

side, sometimes to the other side in
response to the swaying motion of the car.

Para.4

1. Just as I was beginning to find the ride long ...... went over to a policeman to ask the way: 1) screech:make a harsh, piercing sound (cf. slip to a stop, come to a stop, grind to a stop)

The brakes screeched as the car stopped. 汽车停时,发出尖锐刺耳的刹车声。

The gate screeched as it opened. 大门打开时发出刺耳的声音。 the taxi screeched to a halt: the taxi stopped with a harsh piercing sound when the brakes were suddenly applied

2. but to avoid loss of face ...... how long it may take them to find it: 1) loss of face:loss of reputation; humiliation 2) …will accept any destination without concern for ......: …will agree to go where they are asked to without caring

Para.5

1. At last this intermezzo came to an end and I found myself in front of the gigantic City Hall: 1) intermezzo:a short, light dramatic,

musical or ballet entertainment between the
acts of a play or opera;here the word is used figuratively to refer to anything that fills time between two events —the cab ride that took place between his arrival at

Hiroshima and his planned meeting with the
mayor

2) I found myself:

This pattern gives the idea of
"suddenness― or

"unexpectedness";
I suddenly discovered that I was in front of the gigantic City Hall.

Para.5

2.The usher bowed deeply ... in response to my request for an interview: The doorkeeper uttered a sigh perhaps because many people

had gone there wrongly before
the author and he had to explain

once again

Para.6

sketch a map:

draw roughly and quickly with
outlines but little detail

Para.7
1. Thanks to this map ...... with a roof

like one on a Japanese house was
moored: thanks to Thanks to the bad weather, the match

had been cancelled.
多亏这个倒霉天气,比赛取消了。

Thanks to his effort, it is more

successful than we have expected.
由于他的努力,获得了比我们预期的更大

的成功。
I am feeling better now, no thanks to

you.
我现在觉得好多了,这并非由于你的原因。

Para.7
a sort of:

It is used to suggest that what is
referred to does not fully deserve the name,

a kind of, something like a...
This is a sort of indeterminate color. 这是一种说不清的颜色。

Para.7
barge:a

large flat-bottomed boat for

carrying goods or people on
rivers or canals

Para.7

2. The rather arresting spectacle ...... between the kimono and the miniskirt: 1) arresting:striking, attracting and holding the attention 2) spectacle:sight, view or scene e.g. The children took in the spectacle openmouthed. 孩子们张著嘴注视精彩表演. The celebrations provided a magnificent spectacle. 庆祝活动呈现一派宏伟的景象。

I can't see things through your spectacles. 我和你的看法不同。 The old man put on his spectacles and started reading. 老人戴上眼镜开始看书。 3) …the rather arresting spectacle of little old Japan: …the rather striking picture of traditional Japan ( floating house )

Para.7

4) adrift: afloat without control, at the mercy of wind and sea; floating freely without being steered

5) struggle between the kimono and the miniskirt: "Kimono" and "miniskirt" here are used symbolically to represent the "old" and the "new" or the East and the West.

synecdoche

Paraphrase:

The traditional floating houses among
high modern buildings represent the constant struggle between old tradition (traditional culture) and new development (Western style)

Part III: (Para.8 –Para.27)

Meeting the Mayor

1. ...... a stunning, porcelain-faced
woman ...... my shoes: 1) stunning:very attractive;delightfully beautiful The Academy Awards are very hot on fashion, so most artists lookstunning. 奥斯卡颁奖典礼热衷于紧随时尚风潮,所以 明星们个个都闪亮动人。 This is an extremely stunning dress. 这条裙子简直美轮美奂。

2) porcelain-faced: using the traditional white make-up; a face with a fair delicate complexion

3) remove:take off

How can we remove the husk of the grains? 我们怎样去掉谷物的外皮? He removed the mud from his shoes. 他去掉鞋上的泥。

Para.8

2. treading cautiously on the soft tatami matting... in my socks: 1) tread:to move on foot ;to walk 2) cautious: careful to avoid danger, harm cautious, careful Cautious suggests a careful holding back from action until all possibilities have been considered to avoid failure or danger.

Careful implies painstaking efforts, thoroughness, cautiousness in avoiding error etc. She is cautious of telling secrets. 她很谨慎,不会泄露秘密。 He is cautious in his choice of words. 他措辞很谨慎。

Para.8

You should be more careful with your money. 你花钱要慎重一些。 Be careful crossing the road. 过马路要当心。 After careful consideration, we've decided to accept their offer. 经过慎重的考虑,我们决定接受他们的提 议。

Para.8

3) treading cautiously on the soft tatami matting (mat): I was not accustomed to walking in my socks so I walked carefully, fearing that something unpleasant or dangerous might happen.

exercise mat

pet mat

non-slip mat

Para.8

4) a twinge of embarrassment: a sudden sharp feeling of shame a twinge of conscience 良心的责备 a twinge of guilt 犯罪的愧疚

bamboo floor mat

Para.8

5) at the prospect of: at the expectation of

She was excited at the prospect of living in London.

6) …experiencing a twinge of embarrassment ...... in my socks: …suffering from a strong feeling

of shame when I thought of the prospect of meeting the mayor of Hiroshima in my socks

Para.9

1. …the strange emotion which had

overwhelmed me at the station
returned:

Paraphrase:
I was again overcome by a guilty

conscience as I had been when I first
arrived at the station.

2. slay: (literary) kill or murder slew, slain Two women were brutally slain last night. 两名妇女昨夜被残忍杀害。 Your jokes slay me. 你的笑话笑死我了。

Para.9
3. lingered on to die in slow agony:

linger:be slow in dying; to stay
somewhere a little longer, especially

because you do not want to leave ; to
continue to exist, be noticeable etc

for longer than is usual or desirable

Winter lingered. 冬天迟迟不去。 The old man lingered several months after the heart attack. 老人心脏病发作之后拖了几个月才去世。

Para.9

The sound lingered in the air. 那声音在空中持续了好久。

linger over one's work 磨洋工

The beautiful melody is lingering in my mind.

美妙的音乐在我心中回荡。

They lingered away the whole evening at the
tea-house.

他们在茶馆消磨掉整整一个晚上。

Para.10
1. …just why we were gathered here: the exact reason for our coming here He is just out of hospital. 他刚刚出院。 He is just a child. 他只是一个孩子。 That is just what I want to know. 那正是我想知道的。

The skirt comes just below my knees.

裙子勉强过我的膝盖。
a just man一个公正的人

receive a just punishment
受到应得的惩罚

make a just assessment of the situation 对形势作正确的估价

Para.10

2. inhibited: feeling restrained, having

to suppress one's emotion
Shyness inhibited him from speaking.

他因害羞而说不出话来.
Having to converse in French inhibited

me.
需用法语交谈,使我不能畅所欲言。

Para.12

After three days in Japan ......

extraordinarily flexible:
flexible:easily bent; pliant We need a foreign policy that is more flexible. 我们需要一个更为灵活的外交政策。 This tube is flexible but tough. 这管子柔软但很坚固。

Notice the humorous effect achieved through the use of

the formal, learned, scientific
terms.

Paraphrase: After three days in Japan one gets quite used to bowing to people as a ritual to show gratitude

Para.14
.… the faces grew more and more serious each time the name Hiroshima was repeated:

The Mayor mentioned Hiroshima repeatedly and to the author (who was suffering from a guilty conscience) the repeated mention of the name created a suspense which he found hard to bear. That was also, perhaps, why the faces (of other foreigners) grew more and more serious.

Para. 15 familiar to: well known to (cf. familiar with:having a good knowledge of) 这个名字好耳熟,好像在广播里听到过。 The name sounds so familiar, I seem to have heard it mentioned over the radio. 这人很面熟,可就是想不起他的名字。

He looks familiar to me, but I just can't think of his name. 我们事先进行了踩点, 所以工作起来比较熟 悉。 We did some homework in the beginning, which enabled us to get familiar with our work. 这个地方我很熟。 I'm familiar with this place.

Para. 15

他刚参加工作, 对这里的事情还不摸门儿。 He is fresh in his work, and is not familiar with the conditions here. 熟不拘礼 be too familiar with each other to stand on ceremony 熟悉地理民情 be familiar with the place and its people

Para. 16 "Yes, yes, of course, " murmured the company, more and more agitated: agitated:disturbed, upset
Don't get all agitated! 不要那么激动! She was agitated by his sudden appearance at the party. 他在聚会中突然出现, 使她心烦意乱.

He became quite agitated when he was asked about his criminal past. 当问到他过去的犯罪历史时,他变得 十分焦虑不安。 He was agitated about his wife's health. 他为他妻子的健康感到不安。

Para. 17 1. seldom has a city gained such world renown: seldom has a city become so world famous

Common inverted forms
Seldom has a man accomplished so

much in his lifetime.
Rarely have I seen such a good movie.

Never in my life have I heard such a
stupid story.

Little did he suspect that the shy pretty girl
was a spy.

Not only was he a great statesman, but he was

also a great scientist.
Not until recently did I realize why I was lagging

behind others.
Scarcely (hardly, no sooner) had he finished when people bombarded him with questions.

Only in this way can we overcome this difficulty. So loudly did he speak that even people in the next room could hear him without difficulty. Under no circumstances should we give up trying.

2. ... a town known throughout the

world for its—oysters:

The dash is used to make a suspense. This is called anti-climax, a common literary device to achieve humor, surprise, satire etc.

Climax: (渐进)arrangement of phrases or sentences in ascending order of importance e.g. I came, I saw, I conquered. He wanted to educate his children, serve his country, and satisfy his God.

Anti-climax : (突降)

It is the opposite of Climax. It is the sudden appearance of an absurd or trivial idea following one or more significant or elevated ideas.

He lost his empire, his family and his feather pen.

The duties of a solider are to protect his country and peel potatoes.

The mayor said this because he did not want to embarrass the foreigners by talking about the disaster and he wanted people to forget the tragic past and because Hiroshima was famous for its oysters.

Para. 18

I was just about to make my little bow of assent . . . jolting me out of my sad reverie: 1) sink in: be fully absorbed or understood; penetrate esp. gradually It takes a week for it to sink in that his mother has died. 过了一个星期,他才反应过来他母亲已 经死了。

Rub the cream on your skin and let it sink in. 把这种软膏搽在皮肤上,让它渗进去。 大家在几分钟以后才领悟他话中的含意。 It was only after a few minutes that his words sank in. 我的解释很久才被人理解。 My explanation took a long time to sink in.

2) jolt: shock or surprise
The news of the accident gave her an unpleasant jolt. 她听到出事的消息吃了一惊。 The car jolted badly along the rough road. 小车在凹凸不平的公路上颠簸而行。

3) reverie: dreamy thinking, esp. of agreeable things;daydreaming She fell into a reverie about her childhood. 她沉浸在对童年往事的遐想中。 He is indulging in reveries about the future. 他正沉浸于对未来的幻想之中。

Paraphrase: I was on the point of showing my agreement by nodding when I suddenly realized what he meant. His words shocked me out of my sad dreamy thinking.

Para. 19 humanity's most heinous crime: heinous: (literary) wicked in a high degree; atrocious the most wicked crime mankind has ever committed

Para. 22

1. I must confess that I did not expect a

speech about oysters here:
I must admit that it never occurred to

me that I would hear the mayor of
Hiroshima talk about oysters.

2. I thought that Hiroshima still felt the
impact of the atomic cataclysm.

Paraphrase: I thought that people here had not forgotten the disaster the city had suffered.

Para. 23

live through: experience and

survive
He has lived through two revolutions. 他经历了两次革命. He was among the few who managed to live through the enemy prison camp. 他是活着离开战俘集中营的很少几个 人中的一个。

Para. 25

1. I tell you this because I am almost

an old man:
The implication is that that is why I

do not care if people should know I
was here when the bomb was

dropped. Other people might try to
hide the fact.

? 2. There are two different schools

of thought ...... even the monument that was erected at the point of impact.

Para. 25 3. They would also like to demolish the atomic museum: 1) demolish: pull down or tear down Demolish, destroy Demolish has more of a physical sense, meaning tearing down while destroy

only means putting an end to.

They have demolished the slum district. 贫民区已被拆除。 Before they fled the country, the enemy vainly attempted to destroy all the factories. 敌人在逃往国外前,妄图把所有工厂都毁 掉。

Para. 25 2) the atomic museum: the museum which houses the relics of the holocaust

Effect of the bomb on everyday's objects

Para. 27
―If you write about this city…it is the gayest city in Japan, even if many of the town's people still bear hidden wounds and burns gay, delightful

Gay suggests lightheartedness and unrestrained good spirits. Delightful means giving delight, very pleasing, charming.
He looked happy, even gay. 他看起来很高兴,甚至可以说欢欣雀跃。

The street looks gay with bright flags and coloured lights. 街上旗帜鲜艳、彩灯缤纷,显出一派欢乐 景象。 He played a delightful melody on his flute.

他用笛子吹奏了欢快的曲调。
Life in the country is rather delightful.

乡村生活确实让人愉快。

Part IV: (Para.28 –Para.39) At the Hospital

Para. 28
1. smell of: give out a smell of

土壤散发着青草的味道。

The soil smells of fresh grass.

这房子有股未干的油漆气味。

The house smells of fresh paint 这菜有大蒜味。
This dish smells of garlic

Para. 31 1. I thought somehow I had been spared: spare: 1) refrain from harming 如果我们不死,还会见面的。 We may meet again if we are spared.

2) ~sth. (for sb. / sth.); ~ sb. sth.: Afford to give (time, money, etc) to sb. or for a purpose. 我可以占用你几分钟时间吗? Could you spare me a few minutes? 你能匀一张票子给我吗? Could you spare me a ticket?

Paraphrase:

I thought for some reason or other no harm had been done to me.

Para. 34 1. It is humiliating to survive in this city: humiliate:hurt the pride or dignity of He felt humiliated when the teacher scolded him in front of the whole class. 老师在全班同学面前批评他使他感到羞辱。 She was humiliated because her children behaved so badly. 她为她的孩子表现不好而感到羞辱。

Paraphrase: It is a disgrace for an atomic victim to remain alive in this city (or to continue to live in this city).

2. ... your children will encounter prejudice on the part of those who do not: Your children will be looked down upon by those who are not atomic victims.

3. People are afraid of genetic damage from the radiation:
1) genetic:

of or relating to genes
Paraphrase:

People fear that the effect of the atomic radiation may be hereditary (may pass on from parents to children). People suffering from genetic damage may not be able to produce offspring or may give birth to deformed or otherwise unhealthy children.

Para. 35 The old fisherman gazed at me politely and with interest. gaze, stare

Gaze is to look long and steadily, often with the indication of wonder, admiration, fascination etc.
Stare is to gaze intently, esp. with wide-open eyes, as in amazement, admiration or fear.

Para. 38
1. lucky birds:

According to Japanese tradition, if one makes one thousand little paper cranes, one's wishes will be realized, hence the lucky birds.

2. each day of suffering that helps to free me from earthly cares earthly:worldly as opposed to spiritual; (earthly is applied to that which belongs to the earth or to the present life and is chiefly contrasted with heavenly) . No earthly sovereign can do what he pleases. 没有一个世间君王可以为所欲为。

earthly pleasures

人间乐趣
All my earthly possessions are right here. 我所有财产就在这儿了。

Para. 38

2. …each day of suffering that helps to free me from earthly cares Paraphrase:
One more day of suffering would mean a day nearer my death (would bring me closer to my death).

3. I have the opportunity to improve my character:

I have the chance to raise my moral standard, to purify my soul.

Para.39 I could read the answer in every eye:

1) read:understand the nature, significance, or
thinking of as if by reading

Paraphrase:
The expression of the people told me what the

answer was.

Questions:
? Why didn’t the writer ask the

patients of the atomic ward the questions he had prepared in

advance?
Because he thought it was unnecessary to do so since the answers were obvious after his talk with the patients.

? What was the answer he read in

every eye? The answer was that Hiroshima was not the liveliest city in Japan.

Text Analysis
? 1.

Accurately

recording

the

dialogues with some Japanese
to reinforce the authenticity of

the report

? 2.

Carefully

observing

and

describing details to reinforce the authenticity of the report
?

? 3.

Vivid and humorous

description to make the report interesting

? Downtown Hiroshima

Exercise
Exercise V
? 1 ) Was indicates a fact while must be means strong probability.
? 2) When you say "Was I at the scene . . . ?" you are not sure

whether you are at the scene or not. When you use "Was I not ...?", you are quite sure you are at the scene.
? 3) Elderly means approaching old age. ? 4) To grin means to smile broadly, sometimes foolishly, without

making any noise. To laugh is to express amusement by inarticulate, explosive sounds. To smile is the most general term; to make a facial expression but not accompanied by vocal sound which may show amusement, satisfaction, affection etc.
? 5) To sketch is to draw an outline quickly.

?

?

? ? ?

6) Careful implies painstaking efforts, thoroughness, cautiousness in avoiding error etc. Cautious suggests a careful holding back from action until all possibilities have been considered to avoid failure or danger. 7) Site is almost always restricted to an area of ground, small or large. It may be one that has been set aside for a particular use or activity: a building site; a factory site. A site may be a circumscribed locale where some event has occurred; site of the first atomic bombardment. A spot is a specific place, either indoors or outdoors, of limited extent: a beautiful spot in which to have a picnic. 8) Demolish has more of a physical sense, meaning tearing down while destroy only means putting an end to. 9) Gay suggests lightheartedness and unrestrained good spirits. Delightful means giving delight, very pleasing, charming. 10)Gaze is to look long and steadily, often with the indication of wonder, admiration, fascination etc. Stare is to gaze intently, esp. with wideopen eyes, as in amazement, admiration or fear.

IX.
? 1) There is not a soul in the hall. The meeting must have been

put off.
? 2) The book looks very much like a box. (The book looks much

the same as a box. )
? 3) Sichuan dialect sounds much the same as Hubei dialect. It is

sometimes difficult to tell one from the other.
? 4) The very sight of the monument reminds me of my good

friend who was killed in the battle.
? 5) He was so deep in thought that he was oblivious of what his

friends were talking about.

? 6) What he did had nothing to do with her. ? 7) She couldn't fall asleep as her daughter's illness was very

much on her mind.
? 8)1 have had the matter on my mind for a long time. ? 9) He loves such gatherings at which he rubs shoulders with

young people and exchange opinions with them on various subjects.
? 10) It was only after a few minutes that his words sank in. ? 11) The soil smells of fresh grass. ? 12) Could you spare me a few minutes? ? 13) Could you spare me a ticket? ? 14) That elderly grey-haired man is a coppersmith by trade.

Assignment
Preview Lesson Three
?

1. List the environmental problems existing on our planet and give examples of human activities that affect the environment 2. Find some different expressions with the same meaning as ―environmental problems‖. 3. Pick out from the text all the terms connected with ecological environment.

?

?


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