?????á Unit 1 That must be record! READING THE GUINNESS BOOK OF WORLD RECORDS In 1951, the then director of the Guinness Brewery, Sir Hugh Beaver, wanted to settle an argument about the fastest bird in Europe. After talking to his friends, he concluded that a book which answered such questions might be popular. The Guinness company hired two Englishmen to write what later became the Guinness Book of World Records. The first editions was published in 1955 and has been a best seller ever since. More than 60,000 new records are sent in to the book each year, but they cannot all be printed. Instead, the editors of the book set down the records and keep track of them in other ways. The records are put into different categories. The Guinness Book of World Records has chapters on the human body, amazing feats, the natural world, science and technology, arts and the media, modern society, travel and transport, and sports and games. You can learn that the oldest person is a woman who lived to be 122 years and 164 days, that the longest moustache reached a length of 1.6 metres and that the longest poisonous snake is 5.71 metres long. There are also strange records, like the Englishman who balanced a small car wighing 159.6 kilogrammes on his head for thirty-three seconds! There are many Chinese records. For example, Tian??anmen Square is the largest square in the world with an area of about 40 hectares. China has the greatest number of hospitals in the world and Urumqi is the most remote city from the sea??it is 2,500 kilometres from the nearest coast. A special and delicious record was set in 1997 to celebrate Hong Kong??s return to China. The world??s largest jiaozi was made, weighing an incredible 480 kilogrammes! Many of the records in the Guinness Book of World Records come from the world of sports. Among the brilliant athletic achievements, a few records stand out because of the moving life stories behind them. The Guinness world record for the fastest average speed at the Tour de France was set in 1999 by the American cyclist Lance Armstong. Impressive as the record is, it fades next to the story of Armstrong??s struggle against disease. In 1996 Armstrong, the then NO. 1 cyclist in the world, was diagnosed with cancer and many thought that it meant the end of his career, maybe even his life. In 1998, however, Armstrong returned to the world of racing. He went on to set the speed record and achieve his goal of winning the Tour de France six years in a row from 1999 to 2004. Why are people so interested in world records? Part of the reason for our interest is probably the same curiosity that led Sir Hugh to write the Guinness Book of World Records in the first place. We want to know what is possible and find out just how far we can push ourselves. Clearly, we are also entertained by accounts of strange and unusual deeds and facts. Whether we are out to set a new record ourselves or simply enjoy reading about champions, the Guinness Book of World Records makes for interesting reading. Anybody can try to get a record. There are, however, some records that the book does not accept. No records that are dangerous to the person who is attempting it or to others are allowed. If you want to try to set a record, you should first contact the
Guinness Book of World Records. The editors will decide if your idea is suitable and then send you rules and the form you need to apply for the record. Afterwards, if all goes well, a Guinness official will come to inspect your attempt. If you are successful, the official will confirm the record and you will get a certificate from the Guinness Book of World Records stating that you are a world record holder! INTEGRATING SKILLS Reading ARE YOU EXPERIENCED? ?°Hey man, try that 360 again!?± It is Saturday afternoon and a group of teenagers are trying new tricks on the park??s skating ramp. Every weekend, after finishing their homework, Lin Yong and about a dozen of his friends garb their wheels and head down to the park to hang ten. Lin Yong is seventeen and a skillful skateboarder. He and his friends decided to build the ramp three years ago after watching a skateboarding competition on TV. Together with two of his classmates, Lin Yong went to the local park and told the park administration about their plans. Two weeks after the manager had given them his permission, the ramp was ready and the friends held a grand opening. ?°All of our schoolmates were here, as well as many of our parents and other kids from the neighbourhood. There were even some grandparents who came to see what it was all about.?± The ramp soon became popular and the teenagers have started a skateboarding club called Fun On Wheels. Skateboards have been around since the 1970s, but they have recently become popular again. Many teenagers have discovered the skateboard as a result of TV shows, films, and competitions such as the X Games. The X Games are like the Olympic Games for sports that are less familiar to us than sports like football and basketball. A new generation of sports is capturing the hearts and minds of people who are willing to try something new. These new sports are called ?°extreme sports?± and all centre on the ?°X-factor?±??the pure joy of doing something that you did not think you could do and overcoming your fears. Extreme sports are different from regular sports. Instead of simply trying to defeat the other team or set a new record, many extreme sports are about beauty, harmony and thrills. In fact, some extreme sports are not really ?°sports?± at all, because they do not have clear rules about winning or losing. The goal of a ?°competition?± may simply be to have fun and enjoy the excitement of trying something new. Lin Yong loves the feeling he gets when he is getting ready for a ride. ?°It??s hard to describe the feeling. I get excited and my heart beats faster. Then my mind becomes clear and I concentrate on the way body moves in the air.?± Watching Ling Yong and his friends fly through the air makes you wonder whether the sports is too dangerous. ?°No,?± Wang Wei, a sixteen-year-old skater says, ?°all the riders wear helmets and other equipment to protect themselves. We don??t let anyone try a dangerous trick unless we know that they are skilled enough to perform it safely.?± One thing is clear: these enthusiastic teenage skateboarders are enjoying every minute. Everyone smiles after a good ride and there is a strong feeling of friendship among the riders. As Lin Yong says, ?°Once you are experienced, your life
will truly change!?±
?????á ?? Unit 2 Crossing limits READING REACHING OUT ACROSS THE OCEAN Trade and curiosity have often formed the foundation for mankind??s greatest endeavour. To people of early civilizations, the world map was a great puzzle. Marco Polo??s stories inspired Christopher Columbus and other European explorers to search for sea routes to the distant, wealthy Asian lands. However, long before that brave merchants were the real explorers of the Western Ocean. It is well known that Africa had contacts with India and the Red Sea civilisations from the earliest times. Silk from China found its way over land along the Silk Road to India, the Middle East and Rome, in exchange for spices and glass. Silk was also traded along the coasts of the Indian Ocean. Ceylon, with its central position, was the place where Chinese merchants met with Arab merchants and heard about the westernmost lands. Thus, people of the Han Dynasty knew about Africa and had books with descriptions of the kingdoms on the African coast and the Red Sea. In 97 AD Gan Ying, a Chinese ambassador, went to the East Roman Empire over land and returned to Luoyang with a present from an African king??rhinoceros horns. Over the next few hundred years, the Swahili kingdoms and the islands off the African coast developed into the world??s trading centre for ivory, spices, rhinoceros horns, shells, animal skins and sugar. They were traded to merchants from the Arabic countries, Egypt, Greece, Rome, India, Ceylon and China. The Arabic contacts to the African coast led to the next meeting between black people and a Chinese. In the year 751, the Chinese traveler Du huan was taken prisoner by the Arabic army. He escaped, and after a long journey wandering through Arabic countries, he returned to the motherland by boat in 762. There he wrote his Record of My Travels, which gives information on Central Asian, Arabic and African countries. In he eleventh century, the Africans made several voyages to the court of the Song Dynasty. It was a major development that the Africans were reaching out to China. The earliest Asian cultural relic found in Africa also dates from this period. A small bronze statue of a lion was found in the Swahili town of Shanga. Nothing similar has ever been found in East Africa. The contacts between China and Africa over the centuries led to the awareness of each other??s existence, but still no accurate maps of the countries around the Indian Ocean existed. By the beginning of the fifteenth century the time was ripe for a grand meeting. In East Africa the coastal towns were reaching the height of their power. In the east, China prospered under a new dynasty. The Ming government had a large navy and the will to use it. In the years between 1405 and 1433, seven large treasure fleets sailed westwards on voyages of trade and exploration. Under the command of Zheng He, the fleets set sail from the South China Sea across the Inidan Ocean to the mouth of the Red Sea, and then travelled further south, discovering the eastern coast of Afirca.
Zheng He renewed relations with the Kingdoms of the East African coast. One African king sent the Ming emperor a royal present: two giraffes. The wonderful gift and the contact with the black court so excited China??s curiosity about Africa that Zheng He sent a message to the king and to other African states, inviting them to send ambassadors and open embassies in the new Ming capital, Beijing. The response of the African rulers was very generous. They sent the emperor zebras, giraffes, shells, elephant ivory and rhinoceros-horn medicine. In return, the Ming court sent gold, spices, silk, and various other presents. The exchange of goods had a symbolic meaning far more important than the value of the goods themselves. By trading with the fleet the African kings were showing their friendship to the emperor of China. The fleet made several expeditions before the exploration was stopped, probably for economic reasons. For a short time, China had ruled the seas. After 1433, the Ming court believed that its greatest challenges and opportunities were at home. INTEGRATING SKILLS Reading GOING HIGH: THE PIONEERS OF THE THIRD POLE By the middle of the 1920s the farthest corners of the earth had already been expored: the continents and the oceans had been mapped, the North and South Poles had been reached, and the origins of the world??s major rivers had been discovered. All that was left to be conquered was the ?°third pole?±, the highest mountain on earth, Mount Qomolangma. Some suggested it could not be accomplished. At that time, going to Mount Qomalangma was like going to the moon. Climbing at such high altitudes requires great skill and is not without risk. Apart from the cold, thin air and low oxygen levels can cause mountain sickness, which can kill. Some people can never go above 4,000 metres because their body is unable to adjust to these extreme conditions. Above about 5,200 metres, in the ?°death zone?±, humans can only survive for a couple of days, even with extra oxygen. The Tibetans have lived in the Himalayas for centuries and have adjusted to the conditions at such a great height. To them, the mountains were sacred, and they would not climb them for that reason. When Westerners came to climb Mount Qomolangma, the Sherpas, who live in Tibet, northern India and Nepal, acted as guides. From the first British Qomolangma expedition. Every Qomolangma expedition since then has relied on Sherpa support. One of the first foreign expeditions to climb Mount Qomolangma arrived in Tibet in 1921. They had no idea what they were up against. Two British expeditions made the attempt in 1922 and 1924, but failed to reach the top. The local Tibetans and Sherpas laughed at the strange bottles containing what they referred to as ?°English air?±. In 1924 two British men were lost. When their oxygen ran out. They had no chance of surviving. After World War II, technological advances in clothing and equipment had been made, and more was known about the mountain itself, which by now had been flown over several times by aircraft. The New Zealander Edmund Hillary and the Sherpa Tenzing Norgay, as members of a British team, were the first to make it to the summit of Mount Qomolangma. They reached the top on May 29, 1953.
In later years the question arose who was the first to reach the top. Whenever he was asked, Sherpa Tenzing Norgay??s answer was, ?°We climbed as a team, period.?± Like winning in the Olympic Games, climbing a mountain such as Mount Qomolangma is a great personal achievement. Climbing the mountain is still one of man??s greatest challenges. After 1953 several hundred people have succeeded in climbing the mountain, some to be the first of their nation and many in attempts to climb the mountain over different slopes. The Chinese made their first successful attempt in 1960. On may 25 of that year, Gongbu, Wang Fuzhou and Qu Yinhua reached the summit of Mount Qomolangma. As it was dark and they were unable to take photos to prove that they had reached the top, they left an iron container with the national flag and a portrait of Chairman Mao Zedong. At the age of 25, Qu Yinghua was the youngest ever to have reached the summit. On their return, they were praised as national heroes. On May 27, 1975, another Chinese team climbed Mount Qomolangma from its northern side. Over the past 40 years, 29 other Chinese people have climbed Mount Qomolangma successfully.
?????á Unit 3 The land down under READING THE PORTRAIT OF A NATION Modern Australia is made up of six states and two territories: Western Australia, South Australia, Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, Australian Capital Territory and Northern Territory. Australia is surrounded by two oceans: the Indian Ocean in the west and the south, and the Pacific Ocean in the northeast. Sydney is perhaps Australia??s most famous city, but the capital of Australia is Canberra, a city located between Sydney and Melbourne. The Australian flag shows the UK flag and a large star with seven points. Six of the points represent the states and the seventh stands for all the territories. The other stars on the flag represent the Southern Cross??a group of stars in the southern sky that can be used to find the South Pole. THE FIRST AUSTRALIANS Australia is a young nation on an ancient continent. The first Australians were the aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders. These people came to the continent at least fifty thousand years ago and created complex societies. Their culture was highly developed. Some Australian Aborigines still live in a similar way to their ancestors, while others live in cities, towns and the country in the same way as their fellow Australians. A NATION OF PRISONERS? In the seventeenth century, European explorers began arriving on the continent. Spanish, Portuguese and Dutch, and later British ships reached the north and west coasts and Tasmania. In 1770, Captain James Cook claimed the east coast of the continent for the British Crown. Later, when the American War of Independence made it impossible for England to send prisoners to North America, Australia was chosen as a new place where prisoners and criminals were sent. In 1788, the first fleet of 11 ships arrived in Australia. The British Governor landed on January 26, today known as Australia
Day. Over the next 80 years, about 160,000 prisoners were sent to Australia. The newcomers changed the way land was managed and introduced new plants and animals that were harmful to the Australian ecosystems. As a consequence, the original Australians suffered. Many aborigines and Islanders were moved and had their land taken away from them. ANOTHER NEW WORLD: THE BIRTH OF A NATION In the early twentieth century, Australia resembled the USA of the eighteenth century: it was a ?°new world?± society. In 1901, the Commonwealth of Australia was formed. The Constitution governing six states stated that men were free and equal, explained their basic civil rights and described the new government. Aborigines and other non-Europeans did not enjoy the same rights. It would be many years until Australia learnt to respect Aborigines and recognize the importance of a diverse society. The First World War had a strong influence on Australia. After the war, the country experienced social and economic unrest and suffered from the Great Depression of the 1930s. after the Second World War, Australia began to transform itself into the modern country it is today. The economy grew and Australia benefited from immigration. People from about 200 countries moved to Australia in the fifty years after the Second World War. The country also began to change its attitude towards Aborigines: in the late 1960s, the government passed laws to strengthen the rights of Aborigines and Islanders and to improve their living conditions. SPEAK AUSTRALIAN? NO WORRIES! English is the official language of Australia. Australian English differs in pronunciation from British and American English, and some of the vocabulary used ?°down under?± is quite different from what you may have learnt in your English class. Australians are fond of their language and love to have fun with it. ?°No worries?± in your English class. Australians are fond of their language and love to have fun with it. ?°No worries?± is Australian for ?°everything will be OK?±. ?°Mate?± usually means ?°friend?± or ?°companion?±, but can be said to anyone. A ?°sheila?± is a female, the ?°outback?± is to take a long journey to get away from one??s daily life. While some of the Aboriginal languages have been lost, people are trying hard to protect and record what is left. Perhaps the best known example of Australian English is the friendly ?°G??day mate?± that a visitor to the land down under is sure to hear. INTEGRATING SKILLS Reading AUSTRALIA Australia is as old as time. It was probably once connected to South America, but the continents separated as the earth??s plates moved. Having been separated from other continents for millions of years, Australia has many plants and animals that cannot be found awaywhere else in the world. One strange animal lays eggs, yet feeds its young on its milk. Kangaroos and koala bears give birth to very small and weak young. They are then carried in a pocket of skin for several months while the feed on the mother??s milk and grow stronger. There are many kinds of birds in Australia, and over 140 species of snakes, many of which are extremely dangerous.
Australia is the only country in the world that covers an entire continents. From north to south the distance is 3,220 km, and from east to west about 4,000 km. in area it is approximately the same size as the USA (without Alaska), which, however, has more than fourteen times as many people. Today about 85% of the Australian population of 20 million live in the six major cities around the coast. Two-thirds of the country is dry or desert. Australia is a wealthy country. It produces metals, precious stones, coal, grain, meat and wines, and has the biggest iron mines in the world. Australia has about one-sixth of the world??s sheep and produces almost one-third of its wool. Cattle are also kept, and about 15 million tons of wheat are grown every year. Fruit and vegetables are grown in areas where there is enough water. Along fence runs hundreds of kilometres across Australia. The purpose of the fence is to keep out a type of wild dog called a ?°dingo?±. Dingoes hunt at night and like to attack sheep. Farms in the middle of Australia are usually so large that farmers use motorbikes or helicopters for the task of rounding up the sheep or cattle. The climate is different depending on the area. The south has cool, wet winters and warm, dry summers. The north has warm, dry winters and hot, wet summers. The vast centre of Australia is hot and dry all the year round. Because of such a climate, much of daily life happens outdoors. Australians love sports and the country is the birthplace of many tennis, sailing and swimming champions. Outings are popular and most Australians are delighted to share a cold glass of beer or lemonade with a friend. If you are invited to an Australian home, you will probably have a barbecue and roast a steak or fish on an open fire. At weekends many Australians go hiking and camping in the countryside, called the ?°bush?±. For holidays, many people visit the Great Barrrier Reef off the northeast coast of Australia, which has more than 600 islands.
?????á Unit 4 Green world READING THE BIRTH OF A SCIENCE Before the eighteenth century, botany was merely a branch of medicine. Until then, mostly doctors and surgeons studied herbs. Attempts had been made by others to classify plant species into groups, but the breakthrough came with the work of Carl Linnaeus. Showing how plants were related was a complex and strange thing before Linnaeus developed his system. The idea to give each species two names was not new, but names were not truly fixed and accepted. Some scientists classified plants into herbs and trees, or according to the shape of the fruit, or whether they had flowers or not. But Linnaeus??s idea of grouping plants in families was unique. In his system the identification of different species was based on the arrangement of the male and female organs in the flowers. As a result, fruits such as peaches and pears are in fact related, although they are different at first sight. Linnaeus?? system soon conquered the world. In 1759, Linnaeus student, Daniel Solander, travelled to England to promote the new system. In London, Solander developed a lifelong friendship with Joseph Banks, who would later ask him to join his team of
botanical explorers on the Endeavour in 1768. Born into a life of privilege, Joseph Banks was the son of a wealthy family. When his father died in 1761, Banks was only eighteen years old. Many young men in his position would lead a cosy life, but young Banks had an appetite for knowledge. Despite his wealth, he worked to make a career in science. He made a first journey to study wild plants in 1766. His next expedition was the great voyage with James Cook to Oceania. In 1768, the Royal Navy appointed James Cook as the commander of the Endeavour to take members of the Royal Society on an expedition to Tahiti. According to the instructions given to Captain Cook, the expedition had three goals. The primary goal was to study the passing of the planet Venus across the sun. this would give astronomers a chance to calculate the distance between the earth and the sun. secondly, the purpose of the expedition was to record, classify and describe all plant and animal life observed during the trip. Thirdly, Captain Cook received secret instructions to search for an unknown southern continent. As astronomy was one of the most important branches of science, it was the British government that paid for all the equipment and expenses for that part of the expedition. Since the government would not pay for such a new field of science as botany, Joseph Banks, at the age of 25, had to supply about ?ê10,000 of his own money to equip the expedition. On their three-year voyage, Joseph Banks not only studied and described new plants he found, but also looked out for new economic species: plants that could be grown in England or other parts of the world to produce crops that could be sold. Banks was the first to move crops from one continent to another on a large scale, helping to develop local economies with these new imports. Some plants that were spread over the globe in this way include cocoa, hemp and tea. The Endeavour returned to England in 1771. The voyage had been a great success. Wonderful discoveries and been made of strange new lands, cultures, animals and plants. After that Captain Cook made two more voyages around the world, but Joseph Banks never undertook another. From behind his desk, however, he was involved in enterprises such as the exploration of Africa and the settlement of Australia. In 1778, Banks was elected president of the Royal Society, a position he held for 42 years. During these years Banks helped to develop the royal gardens at Kew into one of the greatest botanical gardens in the world. He accumulated a great deal of knowledge about plants and agriculture. In growing strawberries Banks went back to the abandoned practice of spreading straw under the fruit to reduce the necessary amount of watering. He also built a greenhouse to experiment with growing pineapples. It was Joseph Banks who made Kew a centre of scientific and economic research. INTEGRATING SKILLS Reading WILDLIFE AND GARDEN ROSES In his youth Charles Darwin enjoyed all the freedom to experiment and do where he liked. The study of physics, chemistry, and later botany, was his hobby. At the age
of 22, Darwin was invited to join the scientific expedition on the Beagle. During its five-year voyage, the Beagle followed almost the same route as Cook??s Endeavour sixty years earlier. Darwin??s observations on that voyage led him to write his famous book On the Origin of Species. It was Darwin??s visit on the Beagle to the Galapagos Isles that gave him the key to his new theory. Darwin soon realized that the wildlife of the Galapagos Isles was very curious and deserved special the species of the different island; yet all showed a clear relationship with those of America, though separated from that continent by about 600 miles. Darwin counted 225 flowering plants, of which he collected and brought home 193. Of these, 100 were new species which are only found in the Galapagos islands. Altogether the group of islands formed a little world within itself. Darwin first understood the development of different plant species from developments in bird species that he observed in Galapagos. He found 13 kinds of finches, related to each other in the structure of their beaks, tails, shape of body and colour of their feathers. The most curious fact was the differences in the size of the beaks. This could only be explained by the differences in habitat and source of food. The birds with broad beaks would eat hard seeds, while the birds with smaller beaks would eat soft seeds or insects. Back home, in England, Darwin realised that differences in habitat could lead to different species in birds as well as in plants. He had found the key to explaining differences between species. During the 1840s and 1850s Gregor Mendel conducted his experiments with flowers and peas. Mendel??s attraction to research was based on his love of nature. Although his experiments were designed to support the ideas concerning the influence of environment upon plants, he found that many characteristics were passed on from one generation to the next, without influence by the environment. His research gave birth to the science of genetics. As a result of Darwin and Mendel??s research, scientists of the nineteenth century formed the belief that the influence of the environment was behind the development of new species. Still both Darwin and Mendel observed that within species, different varieties could occur. Darwin studied many varieties of garden roses. It would take a next generation of scientists to bring the importance of the environment on species back view. In 1922, Gote Turesson found evidence for the existence of table varieties within species in nature. He showed that differences between plants of one species occurred as a result of the environmental conditions in their habitat. He made his discoveries by studying a wild plant found on the Swedish west coast. When growing on rocks, the plant grows to a bush, having broad leaves and large flowers. However, when growing on sand, the plant grows close to the ground, having narrow leaves and small flowers. If plants from on habitat were moved to the other type of habitat, they changed their appearance and adapted to the new environment. The research by Darwin, Mendel and Turesson shows that both genetics and the environment are important to plants. For the improvement of crops Mendel??s genetics were long considered the most important. However, Turesson??s findings show that habitat, such as soil conditions, is of equal importance to the output of crops.
?????á Unit 5 Getting the message READING ADVERTISING Ads are found almost everywhere??they are broadcast on TV and over the radio, posted on the Internet and printed in newspapers and on posters in our cities. Advertising is a highly developed industry. The development of radio, television and other media has gone hand in hand with the development of advertising. People react to advertisements in different of advertising. People find ads useful and entertaining; others think that they are annoying. Defenders of ads say that ads help us make informed choices as consumers by introducing good quality products. On the other land, critics sometimes accuse companies of using ads to mislead us by making us believe that a certain product is better than it really is or that we will be happier if we buy it. The basic principle of advertising is fairly simple. By introducing a brand name to potential customers, and by associating the product with the customers?? needs, companies are able to influence the choices customers make. Customers see so many ads every day that advertisers must work hard to get their best chance to reach customers is to appeal to their emotions. Thus, instead of selling them the product, the ads sometimes seem to be selling them what money cannot buy: love, happiness and success. Ads help companies and customers in a variety of ways. It has been proven again and again that frequent advertising increases product sales. Since an increase in sales means an increase in production, makes it cheaper. Advertisements also help consumers choose among all the available products. There are many things we need to take into consideration before we buy an expensive product, such as a car or a computer, and ads can help us make the right decision. Perhaps the most important function of advertising is to introduce new products. Truthful ads provide good information that helps customers to decide whether they want or need the advertised product. By explaining the features, function of costs of a product or service, ads also allow customers to compare prices and quality before they actually go to the store. Armed with facts and figures, customers are better able to deal with the often powerful arguments given by a salesman or saleswoman. Not all ads are used to promote a product or to increase a company??s profits. Many governments use ad campaigns to make people aware of social problems and government policies. Aid organizations often name a well-known person as their spokesman or spokeswoman in order to get their message across. For example, the United Nations selected the soccer star Ronaldo, pop singer Tetsuya Komuro the techniques developed by the advertising industry, governments and other non-profit organizations can spread knowledge, change attitudes and improve society. There are some ads that are not helpful. These ?°bad ads?± use illegal ways to mislead consumers. It is not always easy to spot a bad ad, but there are a few things we can look out for. First of all, we should always keep an eye out for ?°hidden information?±.
Some ads hide important by using small print or colours. Other ads mislead us by showing picures that are only partly true or have been changed to look better. A similar trick is used in so-called ?°bait-and-switch?± ads, that is the customer is shown one product (the bait) and then given another. There is no clear evidence to show just how well ads work, but they are important to both companies and consumers. Good advertisements make it possible for companies to introduce new products and increase sales. If the ads provide accurate information, they also help the average consumer to find the right product at the best price. Because ads are powerful and some companies try to mislead us, we must be careful when we read ads. If we cannot distinguish between fiction and facts, we will become easy targets for ad makes. If, on the other hand, we learn to analyse ads, we may be able to protect ourselves from false advertisements and make good choices. INTEGRATING SKILLS Reading WORDS THAT SELL Talk is cheap, but in the world of advertising, the right word at the right time can make millions. The language used in ads differs from ordinary language. Ad-makers choose words and brand names very carefully in order to create a positive image of the product they are promoting. A good ad often uses words to which people attach positive meanings. Choosing the name for a product is of course extremely important. Company or product names can have different functions: they can tell the consumer about the advantages of the product or company. A battery might be given a name that includes the words long or last to tell customers that it lasts for a long time. If a company chooses a funny or unusual name, customers will remember the name better. Some companies prefer a well-known word, while others choose names from old stories or legends. There are also companies that invent new words for their brand or product names. A product will also sell better if it is promoted with a slogan. One of the most famous and successful slogans is ?°Just Do It!?± and there are many others. For example, ?°the choice of the new generation?±, or ?°Coke Is It?±. A good slogan should be ?°catchy?±, or easy to remember, and should convey a message or idea that will make consumers form a positive image of the company and product. People read advertisements partly for information and partly because they are interesting. Today??s advertisements often start with a question, or a puzzle, with the purpose of attracting the readers?? attention. Of course, most advertisements contain information, but it is usually presented in an interesting and funny way. Humour is very important. Sometimes advertisements tell a story, or the story may be continued over a series of advertisements. However, there is a danger in this. It is possible that the reader or viewer will remember the advertisement but not the name of the product. There are other dangers. If you are selling your product in a foreign market, you must check that the translation is correct. A company that sold hair cream wanted to say ?°X puts life into dry hair.?± They took some photographs of a beautiful actress,
and the advertisements appeared on large boards by the side of the road. Nobody bought the product, however, because when translated it meant ?°X puts living things into dry hair.?± In the 1960s, a British car company which made very expensive cars was about to sell its latest car in Germany. However, the company had to change the name of the car at the last moment. A German speaker at the factory pointed out to the sales manager that the British name of the car meant ?°animal waste?± in German. Some of the most powerful words that sell are those that refer to the cost. Stores promise us discounts and tell us that they have the ?°biggest bargains?± and ?°the lowest prices?±. Sometimes, the promises do not make sense. We should think twice when we are offered a ?°free gift?± or an ?°added bonus?±. And, of course, the best-seller is that simple, magical word that seems to pull us into a store even if we really do not need to buy anything: ?°ASLE!?±
?????á Unit 6 Going West READING GOING WEST In the spring of 1845, my father read a book about California. This account of the wonderful land all our things onto a wagon and left our farm. It was not easy to decide what to take and what to leave behind. By the middle of October we set off for our journey across the continent: a journey of about a year, across more than 2,500 miles. We traveled with many other families. Most wagons were drawn by oxen, but ours had a team of horses. We traveled through four states and decided to spend the winter before moving on. In the spring we continued our journey westward. Our first destination was Indian Greek in Kansas, which was then the frontier. This was the meeting place for people moving to the west. April 12, 1846, was chosen as the day when all should be ready to start. We left traveling with a group of 45 wagons. We traveled by day. At night, when we camped, our wagons were driven to form a circle all around the camp fire. The journey through the mountains and desert in the central part of the continent was the most trying part. Sometimes the wagons had to be lifted and pulled up, where there were no roads. Passing through the desert, we came out into the Salt Lake Valley, which looked beautiful to us. We took the road around the lake and after traveling a short time came to the Salt Lake Desert. On November 4, 1846, we entered the desert and soon lost our way. We had to travel about ninety miles without water or grass for the animals to eat. We called this the ?°long drive?±. The landscape was dry and barren. Water that was shown on the map proved to be salty ponds and not drinkable. The patches of grass were never found, and the long walk though the sand was hard on the oxen. We could not ride the wagons and had to walk beside them. I carried my younger son, who was only four, most of the way. The cattle became tired and weak. The animals dragged their legs, too weak to pull their burden, and their tongues hung out in desperate need of water. Yet, our water supply was so low that we dared not share it with the beasts. As the animals could no longer pull
the wagons, we burnt them and packed the oxen with our supplies. Now we were on our feet with another 500 miles to go. For many weeks we had been accustomed to seeing horses and oxen suffering from heat, thirst, and starvation. Now things got worse. For miles both sides of the road were lined with dead animals and abandoned wagons. Lying around them were chains, guns, tools, bedding, clothing, and many other articles. The owners had left everything??and hurried on to save themselves. In anxiety of reaching a place of safety, no one stopped to look or help. In fact, the situation was so desperate that, in most cases, no one could help another. Each could only try to save himself and his animals. We called it Death Valley. I was so weak and tired that I got onto my knees and started moving across the sands on all fours. A young man in our group suggested that I stay behind with the children, and wait for help. I knew what was in his mind. So I got up and said ?°No, I won??t give up.?± I knew that giving up meant a shallow grave in the sand. At three o??clock on the morning of Christmas Day we reached the edge of the desert. The animals almost ran. They must have smelt the water. Not long after this, we reached a running stream. Farmers who saw us stared at us. They could hardly believe what they saw: people who looked like walking skeletons. When we saw the valley with fat cattle and horses, we thought we had reached the promised land! Our days of hardship had come to an end. INTEGRATING SKILLS Reading HEROES OF THE NORTH R: Mr. Rivers P: Mr. Parks W: Ms. Welch R: Our program today is about the eightieth anniversary of the Anchorage-to-Nome dog sled race. Mr. Parks, can you tell us something about the history of the race? P: The first race wasn??t a competition, but it was a race against time. Eighty years ago, it was front-page news all over the world, but outside Alaska most people have now forgotten how twenty brave people and their dogs saved hundreds of people from death. R: What happened? P: Nome was only a small city of about 1,450 souls. One day, in the winter of 1925, Dr. Curtis Welch discovered that some children had a terrible disease for which he had no medicine. The nearest hospital lay 1,000 miles away. R: Thank you. We have here with us Miss Welch, who is a granddaughter of Dr. Welch. Miss Welch, can you tell us something more? W: On January 21, a man came to my grandfather asking for help. His children were very sick. The mother thought they had the flu, because their throats had become red and painful. Their temperatures were very high, and their breathing shallow. The following day they died. R: What sickness was it? W: A few days later he discovered that several children were sick. They all had diphtheria, a disease that spreads very fast. If untreated, it would produce a powerful
poison that would kill the patient. Dr. Welch had enough vaccine for perhaps five people. The only way to prevent a catastrophe was to get more as quickly as possible. R: Where could they get it? P: There was widespread relief when it was discovered that a hospital in Anchorage had a good supply of 300,000 units. But the question was how to deliver it to Nome fast. R: Was that a problem? W: In 1925, nothing got to Nome quickly. The sea was frozen, while the only two planes had been stored. R: So, what was to be done? P: The only way would be relay of dog teams over the 674 miles between Nenana and Nome. Twenty drivers would carry the vaccine in a relay race. The Arctic winter is very cold, but these were all tough men. Each team covered a distance of 18 to 53 miles. Every minute counted. It was thought that the trip could take up to 13 days to complete. R: How was the vaccine brought to Nenana? W: The doctor in Anchorage wrapped the medicine in a quilt and tied it up. A train took the packet from Anchorage to Nenana. R: So the real race against time started from Nenana, right? P: Yes. We could only pray that the medicine would arrive on time. Eighteen drivers rode day and night for five days through snow storms and the temperature was more than 30 degrees below zero. The last driver faced a terrible storm, but he knew that lives were at stake. Reaching the end of his trip, he found the next driver asleep. Time would be lost waking him. Twenty-one miles away people were dying, so he kept going. R: Did he get there on time? P: He did, but when the team arrived before dawn, there was no one to greet them??almost the whole town was sleeping. But relief soon spread through Nome like the golden rays of the dawn itself. The dogs were so tired that they could not even bark. The children of Nome were saved! W: Yes! The drivers had covered almost 700 miles in a little more than 127 hours. But the real heroes should not be forgotten. In December that year a bronze sculpture of a dog was placed in New York City??s Park: a memorial to all who risked their lives to save those of others.
?????á Unit 7 A Christmas Carol READING A CHRISTMAS CAROL (1) E: Ebenezer Scrooge S: Santa Claus B: Bob Cratchit F: Fred, Scrooge??s nephew G: A gentleman (In Scrooge??s office. Bob tries to warm his hands over the candle.) E: What are you doing there, Bob? B: I??m warming my hands, Mr. Scrooge. It??s so cold in here.
E: Am I paying you 15 shillings a week for warming your hands B: I??m freezing, Mr. Scrooge. Frost stands on the windows. My hands are too cold to write. I can??t even read my own handwriting. E: Too cold to write. Humbug! If you were working harder, you wouldn??t be cold. Just put on your overcoat. If I hear another word from you, you will go where it is really cold. B: Excuse me, Mr. Scrooge, eh?-tomorrow it??s Christmas. E: So what? You??ll want all day off tomorrow, I suppose? B: If quite convenient, sir. E: It??s not convenient, and it??s not fair. I have to pay a whole day??s wages for no work at all. B: It??s only Christmas once a year, Mr. Scrooge. E: That??s a poor excuse for picking a man??s pocket every twenty-fifth of December! Anyway, I suppose I will have to let you have it. But make sure to be early in the office the after! Now, who??s here? It??s my nephew Fred. (A young man comes in.) F: A Merry Christmas, Uncle! God save you! E: Bah! Humbug! F: Christmas a humbug, Uncle? You don??t mean that, I??m sure! E: I do. Merry Christmas! What reason do you have to be merry? You are poor enough. F: Well. What reason have you not to be merry? You are rich enough. E: Bah! Humbug! F: Please, Uncle. That??s not kind. E: Nephew, you celebrate Christmas in your own way, and let me celebrate it in mine! F: Celebrate it, yes! But you don??t celebrate it. E: No. Let me leave it alone, then. Much good way it do you! But you must admit that it hasn??t, so far! Look how poor you are! F: There are many things that do me good without bringing in profits. Christmas time is a good time. It??s the only time of the year when one does not only think about oneself, but when men and women open their hearts freely and think of other people. So, although it has never put a piece of gold or silver in my pocket, I believe that it has dome me good, and will do me good. I say, God bless it! Come! Have dinner with us tomorrow. (Bob applauds.) E: Stop that foolish clapping! Let me hear another sound from you, and you??ll celebrate Christmas by losing your position! E: Stop that foolish clapping! Let me hear another sound from you, and you??ll celebrate Christmas by losing your position! (Fred leaves. A gentleman comes in.) G: Scrooge and Marley??s, I believe. Are you Mr. Scrooge or Mr. Marley? E: Scrooge is the name. My partner died seven years ago, this very night. G: At this festive season of the year, Mr. Scrooge, when many of us enjoy abundant comfort, we would like to ask you to open your heart to the poor, whose sufferings are great. Many thousands are in want of basic needs; hundreds of thousands are in
want of basic comforts, sir. E: Are there no prisons? And Union work houses? G: There are plenty of prisons, but they cannot provide warmth. We are raising money to buy the poor some meat and drink, and means of warmth. Do you wish to make a contribution? E: Are there no prisons? And Union work houses? G: There are plenty of prisons, but they cannot provide warmth. We are raising money to buy the poor some meat and drink, and means of warmth. Do you wish to make a contribution? E: No. I can??t afford to make idle people merry. Prisons and places like that cost honest taxpayer like me enough; and those who are badly off must go there. G: Many can??t go there; and many would rather die. E: If they would rather die, they had better do it. Personally, I don??t care. It??s not my business. My business occupies me constantly. Good afternoon, gentlemen! (They all leave.) Good. They??re all gone. (Scrooge falls asleep.) S: Ho, ho, ho! E: What humbug is this? Bob, is that you? Who??s there? S: Ho, ho, ho. Scrooge, my man. It??s just the two of us. E: Who are you and what is your business? And make it short, because it??s time to close up. S: Your welfare, my dear Scrooge! Don??t worry about the time. We have plenty of it. Ho, ho, ho. E: Humbug. I don??t believe in Santa Claus. Leave me alone. S: Alone is what you are, and what you have been. Do you remember your dream, Scrooge? Think about your future. E: (frightened) What do you know about my dreams? S: Ho, ho, ho. I know all about people??s dreams, Scrooge. Come with me, and I??ll show you. INTEGRATING SKILLS Reading A CHRISTMAS CAROL (2) E: Ebenezer Scrooge S: Santa Claus G: Girl Y: Young Scrooge A: All B: Bob Cratchit L: Little girl M: A boy E: Where are we? S: Ho, ho, ho. Don??t you recognise it, Scrooge? You grew up here. Have a look through this window. (They watch a young us, don??t you see?) G: It??s is over between us, don??t you see? E: It??s Lisa and I. It can??t be true! How can I be looking at myself? S: You aren??t, Scrooge. These are but shadows of the past. Watch and listen. G: You don??t care about me any more. Another idol has taken my palce. Y: What are you talking about? What idol has taken your place?
G: A golden one. Y: What do you mean? G: All you think about is how to become wealthy. Y: Poverty is a terrible fate, so there is nothing wrong in making money. G: That??s not what life is about! You only have an eye for money. All your other hopes and dreams have flown into one single ambition. I??ve seen your nobler aspirations disappear one by one, until only one, Gain, was left. Y: So what? I??ve not changed towards you. G: Our bond dates back to the time when we were both poor and content to be so. You have changed. You were another man, then. Y: Humbug! You??ve got it all wrong. G: I wish I had! It??s better for us to separate. E: Let??s go. I don??t want to see this. I??m not like that. S: Aren??t you, Scrooge? Let??s observe another little scene, as you might have in your life to come. (They watch a family celebration.) L: Father is late. I think it??s because he walks slower than he used to, as of late. C: I??ve known him walk with??I??ve known him walk with Tiny Tim upon his shoulder, very fast indeed. A: True. C: But he was very light to carry, and his father loved him so. That was no trouble, no trouble at all. L: Here he is! B: My dears, what a beautiful goose you??ve got there. I??m sure never such a goose was cooked. And oh, what a wonderful pudding! A Merry Christmas to us all, my dears. God bless us! A: Merry Christmas! B: And we should not forget Mr. Scrooge. To Mr. Scrooge, and thank him for this feast. C: No. Not to Scrooge, that mean, hard, selfish old man. You know he is, Bob. Nobody knows it better than you do, poor fellow. He makes his clerks work so many hours and pays you so little. We never had money to buy medicines for Tiny Tim. God bless him. B: My dears, it??s Christmas; we should not forget Mr. Scrooge. Long life to him! E: Santa, where??s Tiny Christmas; we should not forget Mr. Scrooge. Long life to him! S: Ho, ho, ho. Scrooge, these are shadows of what may happen in the future. E: It may happen, but it doesn??t have to, does it? Heaven, be praised for this! Santa! Hear me! I??m not the man I was. I??ll change my life, believe me. S: Ho, ho, ho. Good old Ebenezer Scrooge. It??s Christmas Eve. Shouldn??t you go somewhere? E: Oh yes, indeed. I shall go to Fred. No, let??s go to Bob first. No time to lose. Haha. I don??t know what to do! A Merry Christmas to all the world! Boy, do you know the butcher shop around the corner> M: Yes. E: Good boy! Haha! Take this money and tell them to deliver their biggest turkey to
Bob Cratchit. Haha. It??s twice the size of Tiny Tim. (Christmas Day: Scrooge goes to Bob Cratchit??s house.) E: Good morning, Bob. B: Good morning Mr. Scrooge. A huge turkey was delivered here just now, I beg your pardon a thousand times, Mr. Scrooge. There must be some terrible mistakes. I, I... E: Not at all, Boy, on the contrary. There is a turkey large enough for all of your family to enjoy, and when you come to the office tomorrow, we??ll toast to the New Year with a glass of bishop wine. I??m here to wish you all a Merry Christmas. B: But Mr. Scrooge, how generous of you! Thank you. And Merry Christmas to you! A: Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year!
?????á Unit 8 Learning a foreign language READING LEARNING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE: TWICE AS HARD? Learning a language is obviously more than just memorizing words, phrases and structures. When we learnt our mother tongue, we did not receive much formal instruction. Few parents give language lessons to their children! Instead we learnt or acquired our mother tongue by communicating with the people around us. But how was it possible for us to learn all the sounds, words, grammar rules and structures through this able to make sense of what we heard and distinguish the mistakes and errors from ?°good?± language? Language experts have different answers. Some believe that we are equipped with a special ability to learn language and that our brain adjusts itself to the language we hear around us. Others think that we learn language in the same way we learn other things, such as walking or solving problems, and that what we are born with is a general ability to learn and adapt, not a language-specific part of the brain. Regardless of their theories, these language experts do agree that if a very successful language school: virtually everyone learns to use a language and has mastered the basics by the age of five. Learning a foreign is different from learning one??s mother tongue. The learning usually takes place in school and there are often few opportunities to communicate with other speakers of the language. As a consequence, some students think that learning a foreign language is slow and difficult. However, we actually learn a foreign language much faster than we do our mother tongue. That may not seem true to you??think of all the hours of hard work you have spent learning English! But once you consider the situation further, you will realize that this is indeed the case. When you were learning your mother tongue, you spent all your waking hours communicating with the people around you; in other words, you were studying the language all day long! You did this for five years, so that is an awful lot of hours. We only spend a few hours a week and in a few years?? time we can speak a foreign language. We also have textbooks, teachers and classmates to instruct and assist us in the process, and we can learn more about study methods and skills. That means we can be much more efficient. Then why are some people better at learning a foreign language than others? Research
has shown that successful language learners do share quite a few characteristics. The data suggests that what understanding their own thinking, curious about the world, willing to take chances and confident in their ability. Successful language learners also use different ways of learning and plan their studies in order to deal with academic challenges. Successful language students gain confidence and are able to relax and enjoy the learning because they plan and evaluate their learning. With greater control and stronger sense of achievement, active learners are able to acquire new skills faster and put what they know to better use. As a result, they do better in areas such as reading comprehension, vocabulary learning, writing and speaking. The less anxious are more successful languages learners. They are more willing to take risks and to place themselves in new learning language learners. They are more willing to take risks and to place themselves in new learning situations. If they were not, they would not be ready to experiment with new forms and to make mistakes, both of which contribute to their increased ability to learn. The purpose of learning is important, too. Not all of us want to be translators or interpreters. Most simply want to learn English for everyday use. Some people probably have more interest and greater ability than others, but that does not mean that we cannot find ways to improve. It takes patience to learn a language. If we want to become successful language learners, we should try to adopt some of the study habits language does not have to be twice as hard as learning our mother tongue, but can in fact be twice as easy and a lot of fun. INTEGRATING SKILLS Reading STUDYING ABROAD Many language learners think that the best way to learn a language is to spend time in a country where the language is spoken. In the past, studying abroad was a distant dream for most people. Nowadays, however, it has become easier to find both opportunities and means. Many scholls offer exchange programmes at various academic levels at a reasonable cost. There are programmes for junior and senior middle schools as well as colleges. Some programmes offer a ?°homestay?± service, ie visiting students will live with a host family. This is perhaps the best option for younger students, since it means that the student does not have to worry about meals and housing. Living with a host family is also a wonderful way to learn about the culture in that country. Most exchange students say that they feel as if they truly part of their host families and that they will always stay in touch. A year in a foreign country is not just about learning a language. It is true that exchange students usually become fluent in the new language, but most of them would probably tell you that they also learn many other things that are even more important. Being an exchange student helps you make friends with people from different backgrounds and understand another culture. one year is not enough to learn all about a country or a culture, of course, but it is enough to broaden you horizons and improve your understanding of the world, what is perhaps the most valuable is what you learn about
yourself and your own culture. when you are at home, you seldom stop to think what kind of person you are and what your culture is really like. As an exchange student, you have to learn to depend on yourself and you will often be asked to explain your country and culture to others. It may seem strange, but many returning exchange students say that their year abroad made them understand their own country and culture for the first time. Studying abroad may have its disadvantages as well. While exchange students can learn many useful things, it is also possible that some of them may fall behind in their studies. Since exchange students always experience language and culture problems in the beginning, they will not be able to take classes at the same level as at home. Many parents worry about the safety of their children and may also be concerned about the cost. If you are thinking of spending some time as a student in a foreign country, you should begin by finding out as much as possible about different programmes. You will need to consider the cost and length of your stay. There are exchange student associations that can give you useful information. If you have never been abroad or travelled alone before, it is probably best to start with a shorter visit, perhaps a summer course. It is very important that you find an appropriate course for you. Since it is a decision that affects the whole family, your parents should take an active part and help you find out what is best for you. You can also contact students who have been abroad to hear about their experiences.
?????á Unit 9 Health care READING A HELPING HAND A Wang Lin is a carpenter who lives in eastern China with his wife and son. Two years ago, he was diagnosed with tuberculosis. He was getting weaker and suffered from constant pain in his chest. The doctors told him that the treatment he needed would cost thousands of yuan. Mr. Wang is a laid-off worker and his wife has an income of only 300 yuan per month. To make matters worse, he also had a son in college who had taken a bank loan to pay for his studies. The situation seemed hopeless. B Three months later, however, Wang Lin was told about a health care project that provides treatment at half the cost or less, depending on the needs of the patient. Thanks to the project and the kindness of his family and neighbours, he was able to receive treatment in time to prevent the disease from ruining his health. He has returned to his family and is looking for a job. He has also decided to get insurance for his family. ?°If I had had insurance, the sickness wouldn??t have caused such a big problem. I don??t want this to happen to anyone else in my family.?± C The project that saved Wang Lin??s life is one of the many government programmes aimed at improving the situation for the poorest people in China. The project is designed to encourage health care reform and reduce poverty. It is the largest health and medical aid programme in the country and it is being tested in four cities. So far, the project has helped more than 2,000 people receive medical aid. The Chinese
government is also working together with other countries and international organizations to provide easy access to hospitals and clinics for low-income families. The goal is to explore and develop a new health care model for China. D Wang Lin??s situation is not unique. By the end of 2003, 22 million urban Chinese were living on money given to them by the government. A total of 15.1 billion yuan was spent on supporting those whose who were unable to make a living. This allowance, however, is only enough to cover the most fundamental needs such as food and clothing. It does not cover health care, housing or education. E For laid-off workers in poor areas, disease puts extra pressure on the family. They cannot afford to consult a doctor or purchase medicines from a chemist when they get sick, nor can they make sure that their children keep a healthy diet. If someone become seriously ill, the family is forced into poverty. Statistics indicate that diseases have caused over 30 percent of low-income residents to live in poverty. Some families even have to spend all the money they receive from the government on medical treatment and hospital fee. F Among the many aspects of the government??s efforts to fight poverty, health care occupies and important position. If low-income families cannot afford to purchase medical insurance, as was the case with Wang Lin, other measures to reduce poverty will not succeed. G Another great challenge for the government is to stop the spread of AIDS. The United Nations AIDS agency warns that the number of infected people in China could reach 10 million by 2020 unless more is done to prevent the spread of the disease. In order to meet this challenge, the Chinese government has vowed to provide free AIDS tests for the general public as well as free treatment for those who cannot afford it. H It is sometimes said that a society can be judged by the way it cares for its weakest members. As our country develops, we must also remember the responsibilities that come with wealth and prosperity. When we move forward, we must make sure that no one is left behind. We cannot allow ourselves to become too selfish. When problems arise, we must work together to try to solve them. I The government??s efforts to fight poverty and improve health care cover several aspects, reducing poverty, helping sick people get treated properly and providing medical insurance for the poor. The funds are limited and it is not possible for the government to meet all the needs, but a series of programmes and the development of local and nationwide health care networks are signs that the government is serious about health care. INTEGRATING SKILLS Reading THE LITTLE MOULD THAT COULD Modern hospitals are clean and safe and doctors can cure many diseases. But it was not always so. For a long time, health care was often dangerous and risky. Treatments were neither scientific nor effective, and many patients suffered deadly infections as a result of operations. In fact, even a small cut could cause an infection that
would kill the patient. In the early twentieth century, a doctor in London found a chemical that would change hospitals ad health care forever. The discovery is a story of hard work and a happy accident. In the early 1900s, a German chemist developed a chemical treatment for a serious disease that had been considered incurable. The news of the treatment reached London, where a young doctor named Alexander Fleming began using it in his clinic. In 1914, World War I started and Fleming had to go to France to treat soldiers. During the war, Fleming noticed that many soldiers died from simple infections. Because he had been able to treat infections in his patients in London, Fleming thought that there must be a chemical that could fight infections in the soldiers?? wounds. He invented many new ways to treat the wounded, but it was not until after the war that he made his most important discovery. When Fleming returned from the war, he began searching for the chemical which he believed could treat infections. His first discovery was a chemical found in many body liquids, such as tears. This chemical was able to fight mild infections, but it was not strong enough to cure serious infections. Fleming continued his search until a fortunate incident led him to a new discovery of even greater significance. One day in 1928, Fleming was cleaning up the lab after coming home from a holiday. On a bench by the sink, he found home old glass containers in which he had been growing bacteria. As he was washing the jars and lids, he saw something strange. In one of the jars, a mould was growing. The existence of the mould did not surprise Fleming, but he also noticed that the bacteria around the mould had died and stopped growing. Could this be the chemical he was looking for? Fleming examined the mould carefully. He found out which family of moulds it belonged to and decided to call the chemical penicillin. He was excited about his discovery and wrote about it in 1929, but other scientists did not seem to care. Despite their lack of interest, Fleming kept trying to develop the chemical so that it would be safe and effective. It was not until World War II that the importance of Fleming??s discovery was fully recognized. By then, Fleming and two other scientists had developed a kind of penicillin that was very effective in curing infections. The chemical, the ?°good mould?±, saved many lives during the war and has continued to fight diseases ever since. In 1945, Sir Alexander Fleming received the Nobel Prize together with the two other scientists. When asked about his discovery, Sir Alexander Fleming said: ?°One sometimes finds what one is not looking for.?±
?????á Unit 10 American literature READING A SACRIFICE FOR LOVE (1) One dollar and eighty-seven cents. That was all. And sixty cents of it was in pennies. Pennies saved one or two at a time by bargaining at the grocery, at the bakery and the butcher??s until one??s cheeks burnt. Three times Della counted it. One dollar and eighty-seven cents. And the next day would be Christmas. Della wept.
They lived in a furnished flat at $8 per week. The place was shabby. In the hall below was a mailbox into which no letter would go. There was an electric bell that did not work, with a card next to it bearing the name ?°Mr. James Dillingham Young?±. Della finished crying and attended to her cheeks with the powder rag. She stood by the window and looked out at a grey cat walking along a grey fence in a grey backyard. Tomorrow would be Christmas Day, and she had only $1.87 with which to buy Jim a present. She had been sving every penny she could for months with this result. Twenty dollars a week does not go far. Expenses had been greater than she had calculated. They always are. Only $1.87 to buy a present for Jim. Her Jim. Many happy hours fine and rare??something worthy of the honor of being owned by Jim. There were two possessions of the James Dillingham Youngs in which they both took great pride. One was Jim??s gold watch that had been his father??s and his grandfather??s. The other was Della??s hair. Suddenly Della walked to the mirror. Her eyes were shining, but her face had lost its color within twenty seconds. She pulled down her hair and let it fall to its full length. So now Della??s long, beautiful hair fell about her shoulders like a cascade of brown waters. It reached below her knee and made itself almost a garment for her. And then she quickly did it up again. She hesitated for a minute and stood still while a tear or two fell on the worn red carpet. She put on her old brown jacket and her old brown hat, and ran out of the door and down the stairs to the street. She looked at several barbershops, and finally stopped at a sign that read: ?°Madame Sofronie. Hair Goods of All Kinds. ?± Della ran up one flight stairs. ?°Will you buy my hair??± asked Della. ?°I buy hair,?± said Madame. ?°Take off your hat and let??s have a look at it.?± Down flowed the brown cascade. ?°Twenty dollars,?± said Madame, lifting the mass with a practiced hand. ?°Give it to me quick,?± said Della. The next two hours she was searching the stores for Jim??s present. She found it at last. It was really something that had been made for Jim and no one else. There was no other like it in any of the stores, and she had turned all of them inside out. It was a gold watch chain. It was worthy of the Watch. As soon as he saw it, she knew that it must be Jim??s. it was just right for him. Twenty-one dollars they took from her for it, and she hurried hoe with the 87 cents. With that chain on his watch Jim might be properly anxious about the time in any company. When Della reached home she quickly sat down to do her hair. Within forty minutes her head was covered with tiny curls that made her look like a little schoolgirl. She looked at herself in the mirror for a long time. ?°If Jim doesn??t kill me,?± she said to herself, ?°before he takes a second look at me, he??ll say I look like a Coney Island choir girl. But what could I do??Oh! What could I do with a dollar and eighty seven cents??± INTEGRATING SKILLS Reading A SACRIFICE FOR LOVE (2) At seven o??clock the coffee was made and the pan was on the back of the stove, hot
and ready to cook dinner. Jim was never late. Della doubled the watch chain in her hand and sat on the corner of the table near the door. When she heard his steps on the stairs away down on the first flight, she turned pale for just a moment. She had a habit for saying little silent prayers about the simplest everyday things, and now she whispered: ?°Please God, make him think I am still pretty.?± The door opened. Jim stepped in and closed it. He looked thin and very serious. Poor fellow, he was only twenty-two??and to be burdened with a family! He needed a new overcoat and he was without gloves. Jim stopped inside the door. His eyes were fixed upon Della, and there was an expressions in them that she could not read. It terrified her. It was not anger, nor surprise, nor a look showing that he did not approve, nor horror, nor any of the feelings that she had been prepared for. He simply stared at her with that strange expression on his face. Della got up and walked towards him. ?°Jim, honey,?± she cried, ?°don??t look at me that way. I had my hair cut off and sold it because I couldn??t have lived through Christmas without giving you a present. It??ll grow again??you won??t mind, will you? I just had to do it. My hair grows very fast. Say ??Merry Christmas!?? Jim, and let??s be happy. You don??t know what a nice??what a beautiful, nice gift I??ve got for you.?± ?°You??ve cut off your hair??± asked him. ?°Cut it off and sold it,?± said Della. ?°Don??t you like me just as well, anyhow? I??m me without my hair, aren??t i??± Jim looked about the room. ?°You say your hair is gone??± he asked. ?°You needn??t look for it,?± said Della. ?°It??s sold, I tell you??sold and gone. It??s Christmas Eve, boy. Be good to me, for it went out of love for you. Shall I put dinner on, Jim??± Jim seemed to awake. He hugged his Della. He drew a small package from his overcoat pocket and threw it upon the table. ?°Don??t make any mistake about me, Della,?± he said. ?°I don??t think there??s anything in the way of a haircut or a shampoo that could make me love girl any less. Would you stop loving me if I??d had a shave? No. But if you open that package, you may see why I was upset at first.?± Della tore at the string and paper. She gave a scream of joy, and then broke out in tear and cries. For there lay the Combs??the set of combs that Della had been looking at so many times in a Broadway window. Beautiful combs, pure tortoiseshell, with jewels on the edges??just the right shade to wear in her beautiful hair. They were expensive combs, she knew, and she had dreamed that she could have them. And now, they were hers, but her hair had gone. However, she hugged them to her breast, and at length she was able to look up and smile and say: ?°My hair grows so fast, Jim!?± Just then Della jumped up and cried, ?°Oh, oh!?± Jim had not yet seen his beautiful present. She held it out to him upon her open palm. The dull precious metal seemed to flash, as if reflecting her bright spirit. ?°Isn??t it grand, Jim? I hunted all over town to find it. Give me your watch. I want to see how it looks on it.?± Instead of obeying, Jim threw himself down on the couch and put his hands under the back of his head and smiled. ?°Della,?± said he, ?°Let??s put our Christmas presents away and keep??em a while . they??re too nice to use just at present. I sold the watch to get the money to buy your combs. So let??s forget about it now and have our dinner, shall we??±
?????á Unit 11 Key to success READING MAKING THE TEAM WORK We are often asked to work in small groups, but why? Is it necessary to work with others? What if you feel comfortable doing a task by yourself? Especially at school, it sometimes feels as if we are being asked to work in teams for the sake of just that. In reality, however, after leaving school, you will find out that almost all work in many fields is done in teams. School life is preparation for our working days to come. A team is a group of individual people brought together in order to accomplish a task that cannot be efficiently or effectively completed by any member of the group alone. The group may be temporary or stay together for a long period of time. A type of team that we are all familiar with are sports teams. Sports teams are made up of a certain number of players, whose common goal is to work together to win a match. Different team members may have different skills. Although the coach is usually not counted as a team member, his role is to discuss strategy and make decisions about the composition of the team. A sports team can only function well when all team members cooperate. The atmosphere in the group affects the performance of the team, so social in the group affects the performance of the team, so social relations within the team are important. It is not necessary for all team members to be friends. On the other hand, all team members should respect each other. It is important that all members of the team feel that each of them makes an equal contribution and that they help and support each other. In a sports team each player has a clear role, and there are few occasions when members are confused or uncertain of their roles. Roles of team member are accepted and there are no conflicts about expectations and responsibilities attached to each role. However, when forming teams to complete tasks at school, we are often hardly aware of this. Working in groups at school is an opportunity to learn more about teamwork. Group work makes us aware of the role that is most suitable for each of us. Practice also brings the benefit of getting experience working with other people. Group wok shows us how other people??s roles fit the purpose of the group and it teaches us to be patient and how to respond to different personalities. As with sports teams, group work can only be successful when group members respect, help and support each other, while the work division is clear and each member performs at the right level in the role that is most suitable to him or her. But a project team requires very different roles from those of a rugby team. Teams require leaders, and people who create ideas, who develop ideas, and people whose role it is to comment and help improve plans. Teams also need people to identify problems, and others to suggest solutions. In small teams, members may combine roles according to their personalities. People full of action and ideas are often the ones to bring new energy to the group, while people who are mainly listening and commenting
are often the ones to keep an eye on procedures that must be followed. Some are good at evaluating, while others are good at compromising in conflicts, and keeping peace and harmony in excited discussions. Rules and regulations help teams function well, but we should always guard against making teams too bureaucratic. Working in a team, we have to take into account how each individual member works best. Some work best on tasks alone, while others work best in groups. How the tasks of the group are divided depends on the personalities and abilities of the individuals in the group. In a dynamic team, people with quite different personalities work well together. In fact, their differences are the strength of the team. To make the best of working with our classmates, it is important to recognise their strength and weakness. Knowing other people??s shortcoming can help us avoid embarrassing them. To know someone??s personality type and ability is to know a great deal about that person. The lack of recognition of differences in human functioning has led to much misunderstanding, conflict and waste of energy??in the classroom, in the workplace and at home. To understand means we can build strong and good relationships between members of a team, and make the best use of each other??s talents. INTEGRATING SKILLS Reading TICKET TO SUCCESS In the final year at high school, Li Yonghong knew that a career at university was not for her. Her parents had not wanted to pay any other type of education, but had offered her some money to set up a small business to sell cigarettes. However, that was not what she had in mind. Instead, she asked a couple of friends to lend her some money so that she could take a one-year training course to become a hairdresser. Looking back, she congratulates herself on his decision. Soon after completing her course, she found a job in a barbershop. Things went smoothly. As the years went by, she worked in many places, always improving her position and gradually getting more and more experience. She had made herself independent, and was able to manage her finances well. Two years ago, she decided to put that money to good use. She decided on a practical course to learn how to do make-up. Once again this proved to be an excellent choice. The combination of being an experienced hairdresser and knowing how to do commercial make-up for brides and bridegrooms made her much in demand. The story of Li Yonghong is not exceptional. Life at high school is the time to find out not only what we are really good at, but also what we really want. It is not always easy to discover the discover our strengths while we are still at school. Many people tend to listen to their parents or to their teachers who often have expectations that are hard to live up to. The ideal for many people at that age is to go to university, but is going to university really the ideal career for most people? At the age of 17 to 18, many young people dream of going to university, because they think a university degree is the ticket to success and happiness in life. Too many people forget that in order to become successful, you must first explore your talents and get to know yourself so as to find out where your real interests lie. Not going
to university is not a shame. No matter how hard you try, working towards a career for which you are not suitable is not going to get you there. Think of the following little experiment. Write your name on a piece of paper. Now do the same with your opposite hand, the one you do not usually use for writing. How about the results this time? This example shows that we can be really good at something when we follow what feels right. It is no use for everybody to try to pursue the same career. What would the world look like full of managers and financial specialists? We must make the most of our special talents and interests. By following your own interests you will ensure that you arrive at the best possible station in life. It has become quite common now to distinguish various people??s different talents or ?°intelligences?±, and accept their influence on human functioning. People have different personality types, each made up of different inner processes and ways of functioning in the world. It is important to recognise that each personality type is of equal value. No ?°way of being?± is better than another. Each offers gifts and processes that complement the others, contributing in a unique way to the qualitative functioning of the whole, whether the ?°whole?± is team, a class, a family or a society.
?????á Unit 12 Education READING EDUCATION FOR ALL A In 1986, the Chinese government introduced a law stating that by the year 2000 every Chinese child would have nine years of compulsory education. Although there were several problems in reaching this target, the outcome was highly successful. It is reported that 99% of school-age children in China attended primary school by 2004. B In China, as in other countries, the government realises that the future welfare of its citizens is closely linked to education. When the World Education Forum met in 2000, it calculated that there were 113 million children not in school. At the Forum, the member countries of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) made a commitment to provide ?°complete, free and compulsory primary education of good quality for all children by 2015?±. They called this goal ?°Education for All?±. these countries are now trying to get every child into school, and they are experiencing similar difficulties to those that China faces. C To begin with, it is important to create a positive attitude. In areas where agriculture plays an important role, people do not attach importance to education, and parents are skeptical of anything that takes children away from their work on the farm. It has to be explained how the child, the family and community can benefit, but it is not easy to change traditional ideas. China and other countries found that even when children from the countryside to start school, they have a tendency to be absent and often drop out later. In some cultures parents are particularly unwilling to send their daughters to school because the custom is to educate boys rather than girls.
D China??s large population meant that the school had to expand to take in many more students. There has been a shortage of teachers. Countries with a small population have problems too. In the Turks and Caicos Islands, where there are less than 20,000 people, the number of students in some schools is so low that students of several different grades are taught in the same classroom. In China most citizens live in the eastern areas and this results in large class sizes. Parts of the remote central and western provinces, however, have few people. Schools in these regions cannot support teachers for the small numbers of students at each level, so teachers have mixed-grade classes. In north and central Australia the population is so spread out that children in some rural settlements can be as far as 1,000 km away from the nearest school. To solve this, Australia uses ?°distance learning?± methods, where the students have lessons by two-way radio and mail. E The success of a country in bringing education to all also depends on the economy. In many developing countries there is not enough money available to provide classrooms, desks, chairs, books and teachers for all the children. To equip schools some of these governments rely almost completely on aid from other countries, international organisations such as the World Bank and non-governmental organizations such as Save the Children. Other countries receive help with particular programmes: both the World Bank and Save the Children have helped China with schools in less developed provinces. Corporation and private citizens also donate money through the Hope Project. F Even the richest nation in the world faces problems. The USA has found that it is not easy to make sure that every student receives the same quality of teaching. One in three students in the Unites States lives in the countryside, and providing them with a full curriculum is schools study subjects using computer software, e-mail and video conferencing. China has also adopted distance learning methods such as television lessons, and in 1999, the Ministry of Education introduced computerized teaching networks in central and western China. G The Chinese government overcame problems of population and economy to accomplish its ?°nine years of compulsory education?± goal. Now, when a Chinese couple has a baby, they can be confident that their child will be able to attend school. But it is very different for parents of children in the least developed nations of Africa and Asia. In these countries, where some people do not even have fresh water or basic health care, reaching the target of ?°Education for All?± will be a huge task, despite help from the international community. INTEGRATING SKILLS Reading HOW WE LEARN Students in your class are different from one another in many ways. You all have different personalities, abilities and physical appearance. In other aspects you have a lot in common. Certainly you are the same age and same age and nationality, and you probably have some similar hobbies and interests. You are also all at school and attend the same classes. But do you know that although you are studying the same subjects, you might be learning them in different ways?
Learning style theory suggests that different people have different ways of obtaining information and use various methods to demonstrate their intelligence and ability. Although experts have many ideas and categories of learning, it is evident that people learn in three basic styles: learning through seeing, learning through listening and learning through doing. When learning something new. If you prefer to read the information, you are probably a student who learns through seeing. These learners like to see the teacher??s facial expressions and body language clearly and tend to sit at the front of the classroom. They take detailed notes, photographs and drawings. Students who find it easiest to learn a new concept by hearing anecdotes and talking things through listening. Reading aloud, using a tape recorder, hearing anecdotes and talking things through are the best methods for these learners to acquire new information. They give close attention to both the content of the discussion and the way that things are said, such as how the sound of the voice and speed show the mood of the speaker. Learning through doing means being active in exploring the environment and finding out about things by moving and touching. Students who have this learning style take a hands-on approach to education and enjoy doing experiments or surveys. They do not like to sit still for long periods of time and sometimes find it hard to concentrate when reading or listening. Teachers study people??s various ways of learning as part of their training. They select a variety of activities to suit their students?? different learning styles. However, restrictions of time, space and resources often make it impossible for teachers to provide the best exercise for all learners. If you are aware of your own learning style, there is a lot you can do personally to improve your study skills and find the most appropriate ways to approach your study tasks. As a result, you will be bale to manage your own learning and study more effectively.
?????á Unit 13 The mystery of the Moonstone READING THE MOONSTONE The novel The Moonstone is set in English in 1848, but the story really began 50 years earlier. The Moonstone is a huge yellow diamond that was once part of a statue of the moon god in India. An Englishman murdered three holy men, stole the diamond from the temple and brought it back with was cursed and the man lived a sad, lonely life without friends or family. On his bad fortune to her. Rachel would receive the Moonstone as a present on the reception for her eighteenth birthday. Rachel Verinder is a beautiful and wealthy young woman. She lives with her mother and several servants in a fine house in the north of England. She spends the days before her birthday party with her childhood friend Franklin Blake, painting a door in her sitting room with flowers and birds. They work together on it and finish it on Rachel??s birthday. Franklin, who is a smoker, is very considerate towards Rachel. His move to quit smoking cigars to please her is seen by the servants as evidence
that he is in love with Rachel. The Moonstone is the most splendid gift to Rachel at her birthday party. All the guests are astonished by its size and rare beauty. But from the moment Rachel fastens it to her dress, things start going wrong. Is it coincidence or is it the Moonstone??s bad luck that causes the tension and strange things that happen during the rest of the evening? First Moonstone is the most splendid gift to Rachel at her birthday party. All the guests are astonished by its size and rare beauty. But from the moment Rachel fastens it to her dress, things start going wrong. Is it coincidence or is it the Moonstone??s back luck that causes the tension and strange things that happen during the rest of the evening? First of all, one of the guests, Godfrey, asks Rachel to marry him, but she declines. Godfrey is an elegant and successful bachelor with many lady admirers. Then over dinner, Franklin mentions that he has not been sleeping well since he gave up smoking and Dr. Candy, the local doctor, offers to write him a prescription for some medicine. Franklin??s reply, some Indians in unusual foreign clothes come to the house offering to entertain the guests, but they are not very skilled and behave strangely. At the end of the party everyone leaves except for Franklin and Godfrey is an elegant and successful bachelor with many lady admirers. Then over dinner, Franklin mentions that he has not been sleeping well since he gave up smoking and Dr. Candy, the local doctor, offers to write him a prescription for some medicine. Franklin??s reply that doctors just guess which drug they should recommend, makes Dr. Candy extremely angry. Finally, some Indians in unusual foreign clothes come to the house offering to entertain the guests, but they are not very skilled and behave strangely. At the end of the party everyone leaves except for Franklin and Godfrey, who are staying the night. Before going to bed, Rachel puts the diamond in a drawer of a cupboard in her sitting room, but the following morning it is gone. Troubled by the loss of such a valuable jewel, Rachel??s mother hires the famous detective Sergeant Cuff to investigate the theft. As the story develops, we discover some secretes about the people at the house that night, and the reasons why they might have stolen the diamond. At first Sergeant Cuff suspects the Indians. He finds out that they are not real entertainers, but religious followers of the moon god. They follow the Moonstone around the world waiting for an opportunity to take the diamond back to India. The detective wonders whether they hid somewhere in the house until everyone was asleep and then stole it. He goes on asking questions about the party and learns about Franklin??s quarrel with Dr. Candy. He also hears that Godfrey was disappointed when Rachel refused to marry him. Did Dr. Candy or Godfrey take the Moonstone as revenge for loss of face? The servants also had opportunities to the Moonstone. Sergeant Cuff discovers that Rosanna, the maid, was a thief before Rachel??s mother gave her the job. The other servants report that she has recently been busy doing something in her room late at night and often goes for walks alone. Rosanna also seems very fond of Franklin. The detective believes she may have taken the diamond either from force of habit or to cause a disagreement between Rachel and Franklin.
Finally he considers Rachel and Franklin. Rachel is stubborn in resisting his enquiries about the Moonstone to the degree that she makes it seem as if she does not want the mystery to be solved. Did she steal the diamond herself? Perhaps she has debts that need to be paid. Franlin, on the other hand, gives the detective as much assistance as he can. Why is he so enthusiastic when the whole investigation clearly annoys Rachel? Sergeant Cuff has one vital clue. He has found a smear in the wet paint on the door of Rachel??s sitting room that was not there during the party. Whoever is guilty must have a stain on his or her clothes. If he can find the stained garment, he will have found the thief. So who stole the Moonstone? INTEGRATING SKILLS Reading SOLVING THE MYSTERY OF THE MOONSTONE The case of the Moonstone was most unusual. I knew that the answer was in the smear of paint on Rachel Verinder??s sitting room door, but I couldn??t find the garment which made the mark. At the time Rachel was behaving very strangely, especially when she refused to answer my questions. I was convinced that she had taken her own diamond, and that Rosanna had assisted her. I assumed her maid had taken Rachel??s garment with the paint stain, hidden it, and then secretly made a new one in her room during the night. However, what happened later proved me wrong. After the party Rachel went to London, where Godfrey again asked her to marry him, and this time she accepted. However, when she found out that Godfrey had heavy debts and only wanted to marry her for her money, she cancelled the wedding. This made me curious, and when I heard that some Indians had attacked Godfrey, I became even more interested. I began to wonder whether I had been mistaken about Rachel and Rosanna. Franklin Blake, meanwhile, received a letter from Rosanna saying that she knew what he had done on the night the Moonstone disappeared. She had found paint stains on his clothes when she cleaned his room. She admitted that she had hidden the evidence because she loved him and wanted to keep him out trouble. The letter confused Franklin and he decided that he had to talk to Rachel, even though she was still angry with him. When they met, Franklin was shocked to hear Rachel telling him that she had seen him take the diamond, but had protected him from me by not answering my questions. Poor Franklin found the news deeply disturbing. Was it possible that he had stolen Rachel??s diamond and then forgotten that he did it? In all my years as a detective I have never heard of a thief having such a loss of memory. And where had he put the jewel if he had taken it? Fortunately, Dr Candy had the solution. You may remember that Franklin was suffering fro lack of sleep at the time of Rachel??s birthday, and had upset Dr Candy with his remarks about doctors. Later that evening Dr Candy had put some opium into Franklin??s drink to prove to him that it would help. Franklin slept very well that night dreaming about the diamond, and without waking up, he had moved it to his bedroom where he thought it would be safer. Franklin and Rachel were both delighted to discover that Franklin was innocent after
all. it warmed my heart to see them so happy together, but the diamond was still missing. We could not find it in Franklin??s bedroom. Where was it? They asked me to find it, so I continued my investigation. This time I was more successful and eventually discovered the real thief: Godfrey! It turned out that Godfrey had also seen Franklin move the diamond that night and ,knowing that Franklin would be accused, he had taken it. The diamond seemed to be the perfect solution to his financial problems, but was, in fact, the start of many difficulties. Godfrey found it impossible to sell the Moonstone in England because everyone knew it was stolen. Desperate for money, he tried to persuade Rachel to England because everyone knew it was stolen. Desperate for money, he tried to persuade Rachel to marry him, but when she changed her mind, he had no choice but go to abroad to sell the diamond. My detective work finally led me to the ship where I found Godfrey. Unfortunately I arrived too late. Godfrey was dead and the Moonstone was gone. I am embarrassed to admit that I made many mistakes in this investigation. If you guessed who had committed the crime, then you are a better detective than the famous Sergeant Cuff! I have never found the Moonstone, and I cannot prove who killed Godfrey. I wonder, however, whether perhaps justice was done after all. Godfrey paid a high price for his crime. He lost the jewel and his life, while Franklin and Rachel are very much in love and engaged to be married. As for the Moonstone, I have heard that it has somehow returned to its true home in India, where it once again decorates the forehead of the statue of the moon god.
?????á Unit 14 Zoology READING THE LANGUAGE OF HONEY-BEES There are many different varieties of bee. Some live in large groups like the honey-bee, and make their nests in tree or holes in the rocks. Other species make their nests in holes in the ground. There are also varieties that do not live in groups at all. among the different kinds of bee, it is the honey-bee that has interested scientists most because of the ?°language?± they use to communicate with each other. The development of the modern beehive in 1851 made it possible to design experiments to research the language of honey-bees. Professor Karl von Frisch, a scientist from Austria, spent many years of his life researching the amazing ways honey-bee communicate in their dark hives. After working with bees for many years, Professor von Frisch was puzzled by something he had noticed again and again. When he placed little dishes of honey on a table, bees soon came. As soon as one bee discovered the honey, many more came to it one after another in a short time. It seemed that one bee was able to communicate the news of food to other bees in its hives. How was only one honeycomb. He built a transparent wall through which he could observe what went on inside. In order to tell the bees apart, he painted some bees with little dots of colour. When a marked bee returned to the hive from the feeding table, von Frisch watched
through the glass. To his surprise, the bee began to perform a dance on the surface of the honeycomb. First it made a circle to the right then to the left. It repeated these circles over and over again. But what was not all. the dance seemed to excite the surrounding bees. They trooped behind the first dancer, copying its movements. Then the bees left the hive and went to the feeding place. The circle dance seemed to communicate news of food. But what else? Von Frisch assumed that the dance conveyed more information. To find out tether his assumption was correct, he set up two feeding places. One was close to the hive, the other was much farther away, beyond some trees. He marked all the bees that came to the nearby feeding place blue, and all the bees that went to the far-away place red. When the bees came back to the hive, von Frisch saw a curious sight. All the bees that had been at the nearby feeding place were doing the circling dance. The bees that had been at the distant feeding place were doing a completely different dance, a wagging dance. The dancer ran in a straight line, wagging from side to side. The nit turned in a semicircle, ran straight again, and turned in another semicircle to the opposite side. It kept repeating the ?°steps?± over and over. Things were clear now. it was evident that the circle dance told the bees about the location of the feeding place. It was also apparent that the wagging dance, where the bee moved sideways, sent another message about the feeding place. Next, von Frisch and his colleagues set up a feeding place close to the hive. Then they slowly moved it farther and farther away. Back at the hive they watched the wagging dance closely. With a stop-watch, they counted how many times the bees repeated the dance during one minute. They discovered that the farther away the feeding station was, the slower the dance was. So another astonishing fact came to light. The number of wagging dances per minute told the exact distance to the feeding place. They also found out that bees fly a maximum distance of 3.2 kilometres between their hive and a feeding place. The remaining question for Professor von Frisch and his parent partners was to find out whether bees could tell each other the exact position of a feeding place. For example, was it possible for bees to communicate precise details such as north, south, southwest and southeast? To answer the question, Professor von Frisch and his colleagues would have to obtain enough data to provide an adequate account of the bees?? behavior. After designing more experiments, they were able to clarify the procedure by which bees communicate information that they use to find and fetch food. When honey-bees have discovered a feeding place, they fly directly to it from the hive. After a short time a line of bees fly to and from the hive like a thin stream. Centuries ago, the word ?°bee-line?± was created and today the expression ?°to make a beeline for someone or something?± means to go quickly along a straight course for somebody or something. For his lifetime??s work in studying the communication of animals, including honey-bees, Professor Karl von Frisch was awarded a Nobel Prize in 1973, which he shared with two other scientists. He died in 1982. INTEGRATING SKILLS
Reading PRIMATES Like all other living creatures, human beings belong to a group of other animals that share certain characteristics. Zoologists place us in a group called primates, which include other mammals such as apes and monkeys. Among the key features found in primates are hands and feet that can grasp and often have opposable thumbs and toes. That means that primates are better than other animals at holding, moving and using objects. Indeed, many primates, most notably human beings, have learnt to make and use tools. Primates also have a better sense of touch and the primate brain is larger??compared to body size??than that of other animals. Depending on the size of the brain, primates are divided into two groups: higher primates (human beings and apes) and lower primates. There are some 183 species of primates and they are also sometimes divided into two other groups: new world primates, which are small monkeys that live in trees, such as the spider monkey and the night monkey; old world primates include monkeys, apes and humans. They are bigger and spend more time on the ground. There are several important differences between apes and monkeys: apes have no tail, nearly all monkeys do; apes tend to be larger and walk more upright; apes use sight more than smell. Apes also have more developed brains and give birth to fewer young, which need great apes (including gorillas and chimpanzees) and lesser apes. Most primates are social animals that live in groups and communicate with each other. A few live alone. Gorillas live in groups of one male and several females, and chimpanzees live in groups of many males and many females. While their societies are different, they all communicate and behave in advanced ways. Primates use facial expressions, body language and sounds to express themselves and they can even use colour and smell to communicate. Sometimes they warn each other of danger, and they also communicate simply to keep in touch. Our closest relative among the primates is the chimpanzee, an intelligent great ape that lives in western and central Africa. Chimpanzees are about 50 centimetres to a tall and wigh around 25 to 50 kilogrammes. Males are larger than females and can be up to 1.2 metres tall and weigh 70 kilogrammes. Chimpanzees have very long arms and are covered with black hair. They use the same senses as we do and their feet and hands are similar to ours, except that chimpanzees still have opposable toes and can grasp things with their feet. Their diet is also similar to ours??they eat meat and plants??even if they sometimes feast on things we may find disgusting, such as insects and ants. Modern science has allowed us to discover that human beings and chimpanzees are closer than we thought??our genes are more than 95% similar! Because chimpanzees and other great apes are so close to us, scientists have conducted many experiments in order to find out whether other primates can do what we do. Scientists who study animal psychology have trained chimpanzees to do all kinds of things humans do, such as solving problems that they may not always tell us much about how chimpanzees think and what they are able to do. The reason is simple: what the chimpanzee are trained to do is not natural to them, nor does it make much sense to the animals. What may be of greater importance is to observe how primates live in
the wild. How do they adapt to a changeable environment? Some animals have physical adaptations, such as the stripes of a zebra, which may help it hide from enemies, or the body of camel, which helps it survive in the desert. Other animals have learnt to behave in certain ways or even use primitive tools. Chimpanzees use more tools than most other animals. They use long pieces of grass to catch insects, they use stones as missile and to crack open nuts, such as the African walnut, and they use leaves to collect and drink water.
?????á Unit 15 Popular youth culture On the annual international Volunteers Day, the world acknowledges the work of millions of people who give their time to help others. Many of those who do voluntary work are young people, and the numbers are growing. Around 24,000 Young Volunteers Community Service Station in China are welcoming increasing numbers of important. As Kofi Annan, Secretary General of the United Nations said ?°?-each contribution??no matter how small??can help make a difference.?± Lu Hao, Lin Ying and Meng Yu are just three of the 13.5 million young Chinese who are making a difference, and they are also discovering that being a volunteer brings many personal benefits. Lu Hao is a middle school student in Guizhou, who joined the ?°1 helps 1?± scheme of the Youth Volunteer Community Development Project last year. Every Tuesday and Friday he visits and elderly gentleman who lives alone. ?°Mr. Zhao is weak and cannot do much for himself without getting breathless and dizzy, so I give him some assistance. I help with shopping, do jobs in the house, or read the newspaper to him as his eyesight is not good. But mostly we just drink tea and chat. He cannot get out to see his friends any more, so he enjoys and he feels more energetic and optimistic.?± Since Lu Hao has also found their relationship beneficial. Previously history was his weakest subject, but it is one which greatly interests Mr. Zhao and they often discuss it. Mr. Zhao??s enthusiasm has inspired Lu Hao to concentrate more on history lessons and his grades have improved a great deal. When Lin Ying graduated from Zhengzhou Normal University, she decided not to apply for a job straight away. Instead she joined the Go West Project organized by the Communist Youth League of China. Now she is spending a year in a remote part of southwest China working as a volunteer teacher in a village school. ?°The people here are poor, but they have big hearts and make me feel very welcome. I am hoping to improve the standard of education in the school by introducing the modern teaching methods used in the east. It is hard work, but I get a lot of satisfaction because the kids are eager to learn. It is amazing to see how quickly they improve. I really feel I am doing something worthwhile and I am having a great time doing it.?± Lin Ying and the other volunteer teachers in rural areas have helped to achieve astonishing results. In one school the pass rate for the national exams rose from 25% to 75% in just one year. Education is essential to poverty relief, so Lin Ying??s work is making a big difference to the children??s future. At the same time she is acquiring valuable skills and experience for her own career. Volunteer work often opens up opportunities for young people because employers and education leaders know that it builds confidence,
self-awareness, good communication skills and leadership ability. Meng Yu is studying for her master??s degree in Canada. She has a busy timetable, but still finds time for voluntary activities during the weekends. ?°Last month I took part in an event to help starving children in some of the least developed countries. Twenty-two of us went without food for 30 hours! It was a challenge, but we could drink as much as liked and we had a doctor there, so it was not dangerous we wanted to promote awareness of hunger because every day children are dying of starvation. It was a great success. The local newspaper and TV reported it and we received many donations.?± Meng Yu and her classmates organized this activity to raise money for a good cause, and in the process she formed strong friendships. ?°Coming to another country to study requires a big adjustment and it takes a while to fit in. I used to feel lonely and homesick at times, but doing this with the other students brought us really close and I made new friends from different backgrounds. I also feel more positive. In the past I often felt I could not handle the pressure of studying, but this experience made me realise how lucky I am to have enough food and a chance to get a good education. It has given me the motivation to succeed.?± Lu Hao, Lin Ying and Meng Yu are all helping to make other people??s lives better, and have found their own lives enriched as a consequence. By serving their local or national community, or an international project, youth volunteers become confident and mature. They also make great friends, gain new skills and increase their chances of getting the job of their dreams. Would you like to make a difference by becoming a volunteer? INTEGRATING SKILLS Reading DENIM JEANS It is the weekend! Time to have fun and relax, and time for young people to take off their school uniform and put on their favourite casual clothes. When teenagers have a free day, many of them like to wear a pair of denim jeans. Although the styles may change from year to year, jeans never go completely out of fashion. They are part of the lifestyle of many of today??s youth. The idea of blue trousers called jeans came from Europe, and the word ?°jeans?± was first used to describe the blue clothes that sailors in Italy wore in the sixteenth century. However, the jeans of today are very much an American invention. They were created in the 1870s by a shopkeeper in San Francisco. His shop sold denim work trousers to men employed in heavy labour. The workers liked them because they were cheap and strong. They were also comfortable, especially after they had been washed a few times. The shop was successful, but it was about sixty years before people started to buy jeans for fashion as well as for work. In the 1930s many movies in the USA showed cowboys in Western America wearing jeans. Cowboys had a reputation for living wild and free, and many young American men dreamed of a similar life, so they dressed to look like their film star heroes. In World War II these men became soldiers and were sent to fight in other countries. They took their favourite pair of jeans with them to wear in their free time, and this is how
American jeans were introduced to the world. After the war ended, American teenagers started to make denim jeans their own unique item of fashion. In the 1950s jeans and rock ??n?? roll music became symbols of the new youth. Adolescents at that time enjoyed new and different things. They listened to the new type of music and they wanted to look different too. Many schools in the USA did not approve of students wearing jeans to school and they forbade them. This made jeans even more popular in the evening and at weekends. Since then jeans have been through many different changes in style. Some years they have wide legs; at other times narrow legs are the fashion. Tight fitting or loose; coloured, dark blue or light blue; decorated with holes, paint or flowers??jeans are constantly changing. In the 1990s a new material was added to the cotton to make it stretch and give an even tighter fit over the bottom and legs. More recently it became popular to wear jeans that looked very old and companies started to produce new jeans that appeared to have been worn for several years and washed many times. In 1964, a writer for the magazine American Fabrics said, ?°Denim has become a symbol of the young, active, informal, American way of life.?± In many respects these words are still true more than forty years later. Nowadays, active and informal young people all over the world wear denim jeans, and they are popular with older people want to feel young too. In the UK for example, a recent survey found that 6 out of 10 men and 46% of women regularly wear jeans, but it is with young people that they continue to be most fashionable. Jeans in the UK wear other types of casual trousers. Denim jeans are a symbol of the global teenager and it seems likely that they will remain part of international youth culture for many years to come.
?????á Unit 16 Finding jobs READING FOOTBALL: A GOOD CARER CHOICE? Little David was football crazy. He spent all his spare time kicking a ball in the school playground or on the streets near his east London home. Like millions of boys and an increasing number of girls, he dreamt of being a professional football player. He was a Manchester United supporter and he wanted to wear the red shirt and score goals at the famous Old Trafford Stadium in front of thousands of cheering fans. While he was still a schoolboy, he attended training sessions with a London club, and then at the age of sixteen, he was invited to join Manchester United as a trainee. David??s career took off almost immediately when he was part of the Manchester United??s Youth Team that won the FA Youth Cup in 1992, and he was chosen to play for the Red Devils?? senior team in the same year. It was the beginning of an extraordinary career. Now David is England??s most famous mid-field player and a world superstar. Every time he plays football he is watched by thousands of adoring Becks fans all over the world. David Beckham accomplished his aim, but what about all the other children with the same dream? How can they achieve their ambition? Football is different from most careers because employers do not advertise that have
a vacant job in the newspapers or on the Internet. There are no application forms or interviews. Instead the employers??the football clubs??find players with the right abilities and offer them employment. The clubs look for young footballers with particular qualities and, most importantly, talent. Professional footballers have to be very, very good, and to play for a leading club they must be outstanding. Top players must have excellent ball control and understand how to use the space on the pitch, but it is not just what they do with their feet that counts. Club managers also want every footballer to have good team spirit, a strong character, mental strength and a positive attitude. Many countries have set up programmes to encourage and develop young footballers, and this is where the clubs go to assess athletes and find stars of the future. China has special football schools where children acquire ball skills as well as a formal education. In the UK the clubs send scouts around the country to discover talented boys and girls. These scouts watch hundreds of matches played them to train with the club. If the players are under sixteen, they will go to school but take part in club training sessions in the evenings and play in the junior team of sixteen and join the club as paid member of staff. During this time they receive football instruction and play for the youth team, but it is not an easy life. There is a lot of competition for places on the team, but it is low and the job includes cleaning the changing rooms, toilets and senior colleagues?? boots. The trainees also go to college one day a week where they study other characteristics of the football industry such as pith maintenance and office administration. After two years, only a few trainees are good enough to go on to the next stage. These lucky ones are offered a contract with a club and their life as a professional footballer begins. From this point on the success of their career and how much they earn depend on their performance and how many matches their team wins. Perhaps, like Becks, one or two become great stars. However, football is such a fiercely competitive occupation, that many players are not successful and have to leave the profession to find other careers. When David Beckham was a child, he dreamt of playing for Manchester United. He achieved his ambition and made the red Number 7 shirt famous throughout the world. Now he is famous for his haircuts and lifestyle as well as for scoring goals. David??s story has a happy ending, but most children with the same wish will never have the opportunity to wear their favourite team??s shirt. Many of them will only play as amateur footballers in their spare time. Unfortunately football dreams do not often come true. INTEGRATING SKILLS Reading WHY DO YOU THINK YOU WOULD BE GOOD AT THIS JOB? Most application forms for jobs or further education in clued a section that ask you to write a paragraph or more about yourself. This could be in a general way, which is often called a personal statement, or as a response to specific question. The types of question you might be asked are: Why do you think you would be good at this job?
What are your career goals? What personal characteristics do you have that show you will be successful in this profession? Explain why you have applied. This is your chance to persuade an employer or educator what a great addition to their company, organization, college or university you would be. From your answer they will decide whether they are interested in you, so it is important to make a good impression. We asked some employers for some tips on how to create a positive effect. Here??s what they said: The most important thing is to do your research. You need to convince the reader that you understand what the company or organization does, and what the job or course will involve. Then show that you have the ability to be successful by giving evidence of how your interests, qualifications or experience prove that you have the necessary skills. Be honest, but don??t hold back and be modest. If you are good at something, it??s OK to say to. Don??t send an application form with mistakes, even if you have corrected them. The form should be clear and easy to read. Avoid being too general; your personal statement should be interesting and original. For example, an applicant for a job as a tour guide who says ?°I like meeting people and travelling?± isn??t giving the employer any fresh ideas or appealing information. 1 From the information and advice in the text, make a list of ?°Dos and Don??ts?± for writing the personal statement section of an application form. 2 Read the following statements from two application forms. Do the writers follow the Dos and Don??ts on your list? Which do you think will create a better impression with an employer? Why? I want to work in a bank because I like helping people and I am my teachers say I am very good at arithmetic, but I think I am just OK. However, I am very careful with money so I won??t make any mistakes, and I like doing paperwork. I am a friendly person who gets on well with everyone and I am polite to other people, even if they are angry. If someone has a problem, I try to assist him or her, even if it takes a lot of time, and I am always try to be kind. I will be attractive person to serve the customers because my boyfriend says I am beautiful and the uniform will look very good on me. I??m not sure exactly what I would have to do in the job, but I listen carefully to instructions and I am able to learn things very quickly, so I think the job of Bank Clerk will be perfect for me. I love Guangdong food. My grandmother is from Guangzhou and she introduced me to many dishes. She also told me the stories and traditions of Guangdong cooking, which will help me to advise customers when I am taking their order. I have good communication skills and was elected Class Representative for my school??s Sport and Social Committee. I also work well in a team and have been a member of the school volleyball team for three years, during which time we won two have been a member of the school volleyball team for three years, during which time we won two have been a member of the school volleyball team for three years, during which time we won two tournaments. One year ago I started a weekly ?°English Conversation Club?± in my school, so I would be able
to converse effectively with customers from other countries. I have always wanted to work in the restaurant business, and to have the chance to work in a restaurant that serves high quality Guangdong food would be a great start to my career. According to the newspaper you plan to open two new restaurants and I hope that, once I have successfully learnt how to be an excellent waiter, I can progress to become a team leader in one of the branches.