英 语 句 子
Think about and discuss the following questions 1. In which way does the passage test you? 2. How do you work out the questions? 3. What do you think of the passage and what do you learn from it?
I was on my way to the Taiyetos Mountains. The sun was setting when my car 31 broke (break) down near a remote and poor village. Cursing my misfortune, I was wondering where I was going to spend the night when I realized that the villagers who had gathered around me were arguing as towhoshould 32 have the honor of receiving me 33 a guest as in their house. Finally, I accepted the offer of an old woman who lived alone in a little house. While she was getting me 34 settled (settle) into a tiny but clean room, the head of the village was tying up his horse to my car to pull it to 35 asmall town some 20 kilometres away 36 there was a garage.
I had noticed three hens running free in my hostess's courtyard and that night one of them ended up in a dish on my table. Other 37 villagers brought me goat's cheese and hone. We drank together and talked 38 (merry) merrily till far into the night. When the time came for me to say goodbye to my friends in the village, I wanted to reward the old woman 39 the for trouble I had caused 40 .
1.The sun was setting when my car 31 (break) down near a remote and poor <predicate> village. 2. I was wondering where I was going to spend the night when I realized that the villagers who had gathered around me were arguing as to 32 should have the honor of receiving me 33 a guest in their house. (subject) 3. While she was getting me 34 (settle) into a tiny but clean room, (Non-predicate/Participle)
3. the head of the village was tying up his horse to my car to pull it to 35 a small town some 20 kilometers away 36 there was a garage. (article) (attribute) 4. We drank together and talked 38 (merry) till far into the night. (adverbial)
名 动 形 代 词 词 容 词 词 其 它 小 品 词 句 子 结 构
简 单 句 并 列 句 复 合 句
一、句子词序 二、句式 三、简单句 四、并列句 五、复合句 六、句子的整合 七、小结
Task 1 句子的词序问题 A
They bought a lot of book yesterday. We will be admitted to universities in a year.
主语部分 主语 They
动词部分 谓语 ate 宾语 meal 状语 in silence
主语 名词等 They
in a damp room
1.The soup tastes good 2.He was found smoking in the kitchen.
3. She was working in a factory when I first met her. 4.She saw him reading books in the library this time yesterday afternoon
句型1:主语+谓语 I know. 句型2:主语+系动词be+表语 You are a great man. 句型3:主语+谓语+宾语 She will call you. 句型4:主语+谓语+间宾+直宾. Jane taught me a song. 句型5:主语+谓语+宾语+宾补.
I order you to stay back.
Task 2 句子的扩张及意义
She saw him reading books in the library this time yesterday afternoon
The building is to be our classroom. The building which is being built is to be our classroom.
The little girl brought me some food with meat in it.
The young lady who wears black clothes has won a gold medal in the Olympics
Practice 1 判断下列表达是否句子
1. Birds can fly 2. The birds in the cage which I bought yesterday 3. Wait for me at the station 4. If you know how to play with words to make people laugh 5. A way of saying “I’m sorry” 6. Patting the stomach before a meal 7. The bread my mother makes is much better than what you can buy at the store.
a, will, further, we, draw, discussion, a, have, we, conclusion, before, final We will have a further discussion before we draw a final conclusion。
1. The film I enjoyed yesterday.
2.The news listened to I carefully.
3. Well the man the piano played.
4. Games played yesterday in their
room the children quietly.
5. Quietly the door he opened.
6. it, given more, is, could, plan, better, the, they, than, now, information, make Given more information, they could make the plan better than it is now 7. was traffic accident where the happened that last it night? Where was it that the traffic accident happened last night? 9. what, Mike, great, looked, outside forward, on, through, hearing, the, noise window, to, see, a, happened, the, room. On hearing a great noise, Mike looked forward through the window to see what happened outside the room.
Practice 3 改正以下句子 1. The old man likes take a walk in the village after supper. 2. I enjoy talk with him over a cup of coffee. 3. The boy ran to his mother cry. 4. After write the notice, he put it up on the wall.
5. Those who eat too much will easily ill.
6. When he walking in the park, he felt a little tired 7. When I at school, I studied very hard.
二、句式 句子的表达方式，可简称句式。它表达 了说话者的某种感情色彩。
1A. The government said that they would take every possible chance to benefit their people.
1B. The government didn’t say that they would take every possible chance to benefit their people.
2A. Did the government say that they would take every possible chance to benefit their people?
2B. Why did the government say that they would take every possible chance to benefit their people since they couldn’t?
Where, When Why, how
What, which Who, whom whose
2C. The government said that they would take every possible chance to benefit their people, did they? 2D. Help me send the letter while you are at post office, will you?
3A. Turn off the lights and the fans when we are not here.
3B. You, get out! i am sick for you! 3C. Turn down the radio, will you?
请求 命令 建议 等
4A. She is a beautiful lady How beautiful a lady she is!
What a beautiful lady she is!
What +noun.+ sub.+ predicate! How +adj./adv +sub. +predicate!
? 祈使句 ? 感叹句
1.Early in the morning, we set out at the school gate. 2. The Internet is becoming more and more important in our daily life. 3. Much of Canada is covered by forests.
4. We can send e-mails anywhere at any time and get the latest information through Internet
5. The police went into the room and found the lady lying on the floor, dead
6. With the basket on her back ,she went out to find some mushroom.
7. The fish can eat a person In 3 minutes, leaving only the bones.
8. Having finished the experiment, they went out for a trip.
9. The experiment finished, they went out for a trip.
1.A. Yesterday my father went to Tianhe mall and he bought us … gifts. B. Yesterday my father went to Tian he mall where he bought us … gifts. C. yesterday my father went to Tianhe mall, with a lot of gifts bought for us. …
6. A. She rushed out of the room, with the little baby carried in her arms. With复合结构+简单句 B. She rushed out of the room, carrying the little baby in her arms. 简单句+分词结构 C. She rushed out of the room, the little baby carried in her arms. 简单句+独立主格结构 D. She rushed out of the room and the little baby was carried in her arms.
并列句: sentence A and sentence B
8. A. They were blind men, and how could they see the elephants? B. There being blind men, how could they see the elephants? C. being blind men, how could they see the elephants? D. As blind men, how cold they see the elephants?
9. A.There was nothing else to do, so we went home. B.There was nothing else to do, and we went home. C.There being nothing else to do, we went home. D.With nothing else to do, we went home. E.Because there was nothing to do, we went home. F.Since there was nothing to do, we went home.
10. A.More time given, we should have done it much better. B. give us more time and we should have done it much better. C. With more time given, we should have done it much better. …
简单句总结： 1、从句子结构方面考虑： A、可以有多个主语，但只一个谓语 B、可以有多个谓语，但只一个主语 2、从句子意义方面考虑： 简单句要注意主谓一致性，时态的呼应。通过 时态反映动作发生的时间与影响。 3、从写作辞藻及修辞方面考虑： 分词结构+简单句 简单句+形容词
With复合结构+简单句 简单句+分词结构 独立主格结构+简单句
1. We can send e-mails anywhere at any time and we get the latest information through Internet, too. 2. The police went into the room and they found the lady lying on the floor, dead
由and, but, yet, then, for etc连接两个或两 个以上的简单句,称之为并列句.
1.我帮助他，他也帮助我。 I help him and he helps me 2.我们不仅给她写信而且还给她发了电报。
Not only did we write to her but also we telegraphed her. 3.我不想与他商量，他也不会征求我的意见。 Neither I would consult him nor he would ask me for advice. 并列关系 (联合关系) and, not only… but (also), neither …nor , both … and etc.
4.他失败多次但并没有气馁 He failed many times, but he didn’t despair. 5.她学习英语有困难，然后她学习努力，进步很快。 She has difficulty in learning English, however, she works hard and is making rapid progress. 转折关系but, yet, still, while, however
We must hurry, or we’ll miss the train.
7.或者你到我这儿来，或者我到你那去。 Either you come to my place or I go to yours. 选择关系 or, otherwise or else, either…or
8.他学习不努力，因此这次考试不及格 He didn’t work hard, therefore he failed in the examination. 9.我们最好呆在家里，因为天正在下雨。 We had better stay at home, for it was raining 因果关系 for, so, thus, therefore, and so
1.Looking at him in rags, she felt embarrassed. 2.When they got to the city. 3. May you succeed in the final exam. 4.With her mother being ill, she is having a hard time. 5.Love me, pursue me but not kiss me. 6.Henry, who is a greedy and dishonest guy. 7.The plane made a sudden turn and all the passengers fell sideward.
8. A greater number of the members of the working class take relatively little satisfaction in their jobs
9. I came to Japan two years ago, and didn' t think I would stay, but Japan has that effect on you
用适当的并列连词填空： 1、He couldn’t know the truth about me, or ______he wouldn’t treat me like this. and 2、The bell is ringing _____the lesson is over. still/yet 3、Although he was ill, ______he kept on working. when 4、I can’t make up my mind ______we will go to Shanghai ______we will stay in our or city. but 5、He doesn’t talk much,_______ he thinks a lot.
6、It must have rained last night____ the for ground is still wet. 7、The president will visit the town in when May_______ he will open the new hospital. 8、Jane was dressed in green_______ while Mary was dressed in blue. or Either did not speak distinctly ______I 9.______he did not hear it clearly. 10、He is clever,_______, he often makes however mistakes. Not only 11._______did we write to her________ we but also called up her.
12、He hasn’t any money______ I’m going so to lend him some. 13、The child was sick; he,________, didn’t therefore go to school. 14、Mary was neither happy,_________ was nor she sad. 15、Put on more clothes,__________ you’ll or catch cold.
三、proof sentences： 1、Although he has great learning, but he always works far into the night. 2、Because the boy is very naughty, so I’m angry with him. 3、Not only he himself works hard but he often helps others. 4、It must have rained much of late, because the river is so high. 5、They didn’t tell me whether I should write to him nor whether I should see him personally.
6、If there were no plants, we would have no animals or no meat. 7、Now of course I don’t want to say anything bad about anyone however have you noticed his strange manners? 8、 “I’m more thankful to you, sir, than I can say” I said, “ and but I must make things clear.” 9、He neither knows nor cares for what happened. 10、He did not like your suggestion, and but he raised no objection(反对).
1. The man wearing a black jacket is my uncle.
2. The man is my uncle, and he is wearing a black jacket. 3. The man who wears a black jacket is my uncle.
4. The coat being where it was, go and get it back. 5. Yesterday you put your coat there. Go and get it back! 6. The coat is where it was. Go and get it back.
简单句→一个主谓结构 并列句→两个或多个主谓结构,由并列词and, but, however, therefore, otherwise…连接 复合句→多个主谓结构，有主句,有从句;由（从属） 连词what, which, who, whom, where, when, why, how, whether, if, that before 等连接
1. Life is not so easy and it needs patience of yours to go hard with.
2. Most British couples, whether religious or not, have a church wedding, which combines the religious rite with the legal contract the attributive clause 3. That they were in truth sisters was clear from the facial resemblance between them the noun clause 4. Disappointed at him, she buried her head in the arm and left him lying there, adding: “God, please help me!”
5. It’s no surprise that our team should have won the game the noun clause 6. They were all very much worried over the the fact that you were sick. noun clause 7. Everybody could see what happened the and that Tom was frightened noun clause 8. We thought it strange that Xiao Wang did not come yesterday the noun clause 9. Children who are denied their right to be wanted and loved may become bitter, taking out their frustration on those who have neglected them or possibly on society as a whole the attributive clause
10. It won’t be long before he feels regret. the adverbial clause
11. She was doing up her hair when she heard a voice crying for help from outside the house the adverbial clause
A. the noun clause 1. comparison The apple tastes good! subject I play basketball well. predicative Mr. Li is a kind-hearted man, the one who is always ready to help others. appositive
that 1. The trouble is _________ I have lost his address. whether 2. The question is ___________ they will be able to help us. 3. All this was over twenty years ago, as if but it's ____________ it was only yesterday wh 4. The problem is ________ we can get to o replace her. what 5. That was ______________she did this morning on reaching the attic. predicative
That 1. ___________ they were in truth sisters was clear from the facial resemblance between them. Whether 2. __________ he’ll come here isn’t clear. What 3. __________ she did is not yet known. that 4. It is certain _________ she will do well in her exam. whether 5. It is not certain _________ she will do well in her exam. that 6. It is reported ___________China has sent another man-made earth satellite into orbit. subject
what 1. Everybody could see ________happened and that Tom was frightened. that 2. I know nothing about him except ______ he is from the south
That 3. _________ he ever said such a thing I simply don’t believe that 4. I don’t know _______ you can help me what 5. I wonder ________ he’s writing to me about
it that 6. You may rely on ______ _______ I shall help you. it that 7. I will see to ___ _______ they fought each other. If serious, they should get punished! it 8. I hate ____ when people talk with their mouth full. I think it impossible that we finish it in time object
1. They were all very much worried that over the fact ________ you were sick that 2. Where did you get the idea _____ I could not come? who 3. The question _______should do the work requires consideration. 4. We haven't yet settled the question where ____________ we are going to spend our summer vacation. that 5. This is our only request _________ this be settled as soon as possible. appositive
主语 表语 宾语 同位语
that 不充当成分 whether/if 名词性从句 主语/宾语
who/whom/whose 充当成分 what/which
that 1. It worried her a bit _______her hair was turning gray. what 2. I have no idea _______ we can do with these waste materials. whether What 3. _______ the doctor really doubts is ________ my mother will recover from the serious disease soon. that 4. It is hoped __________ nature will never be destroyed. who 5. do you guess __________ will give a talk on English tomorrow?
6. ---- I drove to Zhuhai for the air show last week. why ---- Is that_______ you had a few days off? 7. Word came that I was wanted at the _______ office. which 8. Do you know ___________of them will be our new headmaster? where 9. The teacher didn't tell me ___________we were wrong. 10. It's generally considered unwise to give a child ___________he or she wants. whatever
1.A few years ago, the belief became general _________ orange juice and milk should never be drunk at the same meal. A. that B. so that C. whether D. which
2. I rang you at about ten, but there was no reply. ---Oh, it was probably _____ I was watching a play in the theater. A. what B. why C. when D. that
3. He’s bought a cottage in the country for ______ he retires, with the money he’s saved over half of his life. A. when B. where C. what D. which 4. ---Do you think that man will come to your help? --- I really don’t know_____ a person like him can help me with A. How B. what C. why D. if
5. _____ we couldn’t understand was _____ more and more students went abroad after graduation. A.what, because B. That, what C. that, that D. what, what 6. He noticed that the straight part of the dance was different in the afternoon from _____ it had been in the morning. A. That B. what C. where D. which
7. Go and get your coat. It’s ______ you left it. A.There B. where C. here D. place where 8. After _____ seemed a very long time, the badly wounded soldier came back to life A. that B. it C. which D. what
9. You should stick to ______ you have begun until you succeed. A. which B. that C. whatever D. no matter what
10. Please tell me ______ you want your coffee, black or white? A. what B. which C. whether D. how 11. _____ is no doubt _____ man can’t live without air or water. A. There, that B. It, that a C. That, the D. As, / 12.---______helps others will be helped. ---So, I’m thankful to and try to help ____ has helped us. A.Whoever, whomever B. Who, whoever C. Whoever, whoever D. Who, whomever
P.S. 1. 用 whether,不用 if的情况 2. 用 that的情况 ３. That省略的问题 ４. 用it作形式主语和形式宾语的情况 A.It is impossible/necessary/important that B.It is said/reported ..that C. It is a pity that…
A. preposition +it +that B.Hate/love/enjoy/appreciate it when/where … C.Think/believe/consider…it that
The attributive clauses
1. The man is my uncle. He is wearing a black jacket. 2. The man wearing a black jacket is my uncle. 3. The man who wears a black jacket is my uncle. 4. The boys who are playing football are from Class One. 5. He likes to read books which are written by foreign writers.
The feature of Attributive Clauses 1.Antecedent in the sentences: Nouns or Pronouns 2.The clause is used to modified the Antecedent, with relative pronouns or adverbs.
praises is our monitor. people
who 1. Those _______ want to go to the museum must be at the school gate at 7 tomorrow morning. who 2. Yesterday I helped an old man _______ had lost his way. whom 3. Mr. Liu is the person ___________ you talked about on the bus. whom 4. The girl ____________ the teacher often Subject: who Object: whom
which/ that 1. The factory ________makes computers is far away from here. which/ that 2. The film _________ they went to see last night was not interesting at all which/ that 3. Yesterday I received a letter _____________ came from Australia Subject Object
I visited a scientist whose __________ name is known all over the country. whose I once lived in the house ________ roof has fallen in. whose The classroom ___________ door is broken will soon be repaired.
which The classroom the door of _________ is broken will soon be repaired. whose Do you like the book __________ cover is yellow? of which Do you like the book the cover ____ ________ is yellow?
which/that 1. The school _________ he once studied in is very famous. which 2. The school in ________ he once studied is very famous. 3. Tomorrow I'll bring here the magazine which/that _________ you asked for. 4. Tomorrow I’ll bring here the magazine which for __________ you asked
5. We’ll go to hear the famous singer about whom ______ ____________we have often talked. Preposition+ which/whom
1. He loves his parents deeply, both of whom _________ are very kind to him. 2. In the basket there are quite many apples, some of which have gone bad. _______ 3. There are forty students in our class in whom all, most of _______ are from big cities. 4. Up to now, he has written ten stories, which three of _________ are about country life some, any, none, all, both, neither, many, most, each, few of+ which/whom
when 1. I still remember the day _________I first came to this school. which 2. I still remember the day ________I spent in this school. where 3. I still remember the school __________ I spent the days. which 4. I still remember the school ___________ I visited last year with my friends. where 5. The house _________ I lived ten years ago has been pulled down 6. The house in _________ I lived ten which years ago has been pulled down
why 1. Please tell me the reason ________you missed the plane. why 2. The reason ________ he was punished is unknown to us.
which 3. Please tell me the reason for ________ you missed the plane. which 4. The reason for________ he was punished is unknown to us. adverbial
Time: when Place: where Reason: why
Pre. + which
which 1. There seems to be nothing ________ is impossible to him in the world. that 2. All ______ can be done has been done 3. He stayed in the library and looked up any information _______ they needed. that that 4. The first place _________ they visited in London was the Big Ben that 5. This is the best film _______ I have ever seen. 6. After the fire in his house, the old that car is the only thing ________ he owns
that 7. Who is the man ________ is standing by the gate? that 8. Which is the T-shirt __________ fits me most? 9. They talked about the persons and that things _________ they remembered at school.
The relative pronoun: that, not which
10. Tom was late for school again and which again, ___________made his teacher very angry. as 11. I’ve never heard such stories ______ he tells. as 12. This is the same dictionary _______ I lost last week. that 13. She wore the same dress _______ she wore at Mary’s wedding. as 14. She wore the same dress _______ her younger sister wore.
15. The teacher gave us so difficult a that question _________we can’t work it out. 16. The teacher gave us so difficult a as question _________we can’t work out. so…as such …as the same ….as as…
1. Ten years ago, she went to New York with her parents. 2. When she was ten years old, she went to New York with her parents 3. People always think that they shall get paid since they do so much work.
Adverbial: time, place, manners, reason, results, aims etc.
A. 时间状语从句：the moment, the minute, every time, directly, when, while, as, since, before B. 原因状语从句：because, since, as, now that C. 地点状语从句： wherever, where D. 让步状语从句：however, no matter how, whenever, no matter when, though, although, even though/if, as E. 条件状语从句：if, unless, so(as) long as, on condition that, in case, for fear that F. 目的和结果状语从句： so that, in order that, so…that…, such…that… G. 方式状语从句：as, as if(though) H. 比较状语从句：…than…, as…as…, the more…the more
1. ---Why does David like the new lab? ---Because he is free to do his D research _______ he wants to there. A.whichever B. wherever C. whatever D. whenever
2. ---When did he leave the classroom? B ---he left __________ you turned back to write on the blackboard. A. the distance B. the minute C. the place D. while
3. Doing your homework is a sure way to improve your test scores and this is especially true _____ it comes to A classroom tests. A. When B, since C. before D. after 4. Two years ago I bought a packet of C your blades, _____ I have used no others. A.Since B. ever since C. since when D. when
since 5. A. It is for years _______I left the city B. It was 3 years ________I came back before for a visit. since C. It was 3 years ________ I had gone back for a visit before D. It will be 3 years _________I come back for a visit before 6. He almost knocked me down _____ he saw me. A.As soon as B. before C. After D. till
B 7. I would appreciate it _____ you call back this after noon for the doctor’s appointment. A. until B. if C. when D. that C 8.Take along an umbrella, ______ it rains. A.As long as B. in order that C. In case D. the moment B 9. You can go out _____ you promise to be back before 10 o’clock. A. in case B. so long as C. so that D. as far as
10. ---Can you pick me up? A --- Of course. I’ll drive you _____ you are going. A. where B. to the place C. which D. if C 11. He whispered to his wife ______ he might wake up the sleeping baby. A.So that B. on condition that C. For fear that D. so long as 12. Although he knew little about the work done in the field of physics, he D succeeded _________other experienced experts failed. A. which B. that C. what D. where
where 16. My cousin keeps the photo ________ he can see it every day, as he reminds him of his college days in Florida.
13. She liked the dictionary so much that whatever she would like to take it _______ it cost. 14. This worm can’t be seen in any place, where but _____ the soil is loose. 15. ---Shall Mary come and play the games? ---No, ________ she has finished her homework. unless
17. Doctors has said that as many as 50% as of patients don’t take medicine ________ directed. that
18. Mr. Smith was so angry at all _____ Bill that as doing ______ he walked out angrily.
19. They were surprised that a 4-year-old boy should work out such a difficult problem ______ they themselves couldn’t while
20. We have to delay the party till next week whenwe will have not something _____ important to do.
1.We arrived in the city. 2.We had a visit to our teacher immediately.
1、使用介词结构,变为简单句 On arriving in the city, we had a visit to our teacher. 2、使用分词结构，变为简单句 Having arrived in the city, we had a visit to our teacher. 3、使用从属连词，变为复合句 We had a visit to our teacher immediately/directly/the time/the moment …we arrived in the city
We arrived in the city and had a visit to …. our teacher immediately.
A. 1. The young pilot was on his first overseas training. 2. He felt very uneasy.
1.The young pilot on his first overseas training felt very uneasy. 简单句 2.The young pilot felt very uneasy during his first overseas training. 简单句 3.The young pilot’s first overseas training made him feel very uneasy. 简单句 4.Extreme uneasiness seized the young 简单句 pilot on his first overseas training. 5.The young pilot was on his first 简单句 overseas training, feeling very uneasy. 6.It being his first overseas training, the 简单句 young pilot felt very uneasy.
1.Being on his first overseas training, the young pilot felt very uneasy. 简单句 2.The young pilot was on his first overseas training and felt very uneasy. 简单句 3.The young pilot, who was on his first 复合句 overseas training, felt very uneasy. 4.When the young pilot was on his/first 复合句 overseas training, he felt very uneasy. 5.As the young pilot was on his first 复合句 overseas training, he felt very uneasy. 6.The young pilot was on his first overseas 复合句 training, so that he felt very uneasy.
B. 1.He returned home and found the house was in a mess. 2.He was worried.
A. Having returned home and found the house in a mess, he was worried. B. He returned home and found the house in a mess, worried C. He was worried to find that the house was in a mess when returning home.
D. He returned home, only to find his house in a mess, worried.
E. When he returned home and found his house in a mess, he was worried. F. He was worried, for he found his house in a mess when he returned home.
A. It being bark and a taxi not found, they had to walk home. B. It was dark and they couldn’t find a taxi, so they had to walk home. C. They had to walk home not only because it was bark, but also because they couldn’t find a taxi.
C. 1. It was dark. 2. They couldn’t find a taxi. 3. They had to walk home.
D: I returned to my room．There was a note under my door．It was from Bill．He said he was in the town looking for a job．He hadn't found anything yet．He was sorry to have missed me.
1. When I returned to my room，I found a note from Bill under the door．He said he was in the town looking for a job， but hadn't found anything yet．He added that he was sorry to have missed me
2. When I returned home, I found a note from bill under my door. He said he was looking for a job in the town though he hadn’t found anything yet and added that he was sorry to have missed me.
句子的整合，目的就是增强意义，使其更加 连贯，结构更加紧凑，语言更加生动，信息 更加准确,方法就是灵活运用简单句、并列 句、复合句；介词结构、分词结构、 独立结构；被动语态，综合使用复合