社会生活类---[2012·天津卷] D You are given many opportunities in life to choose to be a victim or a creator. When you choose to be a victim, the world is a cold and difficult place. “They” did things to you which caused all of your pain and suffering. “They” are wrong and bad, and life is terrible as long as “they” are around. Or you may blame yourself for all your problems, thus internalizing (内化) your victimization. The truth is, your life is likely to stay that way as long as you feel a need to blame yourself or others. Those who choose to be creators look at life quite differently. They know there are individuals who might like to control their lives, but they don't let this
get in the way. They know they have their weaknesses, yet they don't blame themselves when they fail. Whatever happens, they have choice in the matter. They believe their dance with each sacred (神圣的) moment of life is a gift and that storms are a natural
part of life which can bring the rain needed for emotional and spiritual growth. Victims and creators live in the same physical world and deal with many of the same physical realities, yet their experience of life is worlds apart. Victims relish (沉溺) in anger, guilt, and other emotions that cause others—and even themselves—to feel like victims, too. Creators consciously choose love, inspiration, and other qualities which inspire not only themselves, but all around them. Both victims and creators always have choice to determine the direction of their lives. In reality, all of us play the victim or the creator at various points in our lives. One person, on losing a job or a special relationship, may feel as if it is the end of the world and sink into terrible suffering for months, years, or even a lifetime. Another with the same experience may choose to first experience the grief, then accept the loss and soon move on to be a powerful creative force in his life. In every moment and every circumstance, you can choose to have a fuller, richer life by setting a clear intention to transform the victim within, and by inviting into your life the powerful creator that you are. 51. What does the word “They” in Paragraph 1 probably refer to? A. People and things around you.
B. Opportunities and problems. C. Creators and their choices. D. Victims and their sufferings. 52. According to Paragraph 2, creators ________. A. seem willing to experience failures in life B. possess the ability to predict future life C. handle ups and downs of life wisely D. have potential to create something new 53. What can we learn from Paragraph 3? A. Creators and victims face quite different things in life. B. Creators and victims are masters of their lives. C. Victims can influence more people than creators. D. Compared with victims, creators are more emotional. 54. The examples mentioned in Paragraph 4 show that ________. A. strong attachment to sufferings in life pulls people into victims B. people need family support to deal with challenges in life C. it takes creators quite a long time to get rid of their pains D. one's experiences determine his attitude toward life 55. What is the author's purpose in writing this passage? A. To define victims and creators. B. To evaluate victims against creators. C. To explain the relationship between victims and creators. D. To suggest the transformation from victims to creators. 【要点综述】 “a victim”和 “a creator”拥有不同的生活方式。“a victim”生活 在一个寒冷、痛苦的世界中；而“a creator”生活在一个积极向上、能够掌握自己生活命运 的世界中。作者建议应从“a victim”转变成 “a creator”。 51. A 词义猜测题。根据第一段后半部分可知答案。 52. C 推理判断题。由第二段可知答案。 53. B 推理判断题。根据第三段最后一句 “Both victims and creators always have choice to determine the direction of their lives.”可知答案。 54. A 推理判断题。根据此段中的 “?may feel as if it is the end of the world and sink into terrible suffering for months, years, or even a lifetime”可知答案。 55. D 主旨大意题。根据最后一段可知答案。
第一节 阅读理解(共 20 小题；每小题 2 分，满分 40 分) 阅读下列短文，从每题所给的 A、B、C 和 D 项中，选出最佳选项，并在答题卡上将该项 涂黑。 A Linda Evans was my best friend — like the sister I never had. We did everything together: piano lessons, movies, swimming, horseback riding. When I was 13, my family moved away. Linda and I kept in touch through letters, and we saw each other on special times — like my wedding and Linda’s. Soon we were busy with children and moving to new homes, and we wrote less often. One day a card that I sent came back，stamped “Address Unknown”. I had no idea about how to find Linda. Over the years, I missed Linda very much. I wanted to share happiness of my children and then grandchildren. And I needed to share my sadness when my brother and then mother died. There was an empty place in my heart that only a friend like Linda could fill. One day, I was reading a newspaper when I noticed a photo of a young woman who looked very much like Linda and whose last name was Wagman — Linda’s married name. “There must be thousands of Wagmans.” I thought, but I still wrote to her. She called as soon as she got my letter. “Mrs. Tobin!” she said excitedly, “Linda Evans Wagman is my mother.” Minutes later I heard a voice that I recognized at once, even after 40 years. We laughed and cried and caught up on each other’s lives. Now the empty place in my heart is filled. And there’s one thing that Linda and I know for sure: We won’t lose each other again! 26. The writer went to piano lessons with Linda Evans ________. A. at the age of 13 C. after they moved to new homes 【答案】D 【解析】细节理解题。根据开始的时候作者与 Linda 总是一起去上钢琴课、看电影、游泳、 骑马等，但后来在作者 13 岁的时候，作者一家搬走了，两人只能通过书信联系。故选 D。 27. They didn’t often write to each other because they ________. A. got married B. had little time to do so
B. before she got married D. before the writer’s family moved away
C. didn’t like writing letters 【答案】B
D. could see each other on special time
【解析】细节理解题。根据文章第 2 段中的 Soon we were busy with children and moving to new homes, and we wrote less often 根据文可知，她们之所以没经常写信，是因为她们要 忙于照顾孩子，又要搬新家，也就是说，她们没有时间写信。 28. There was an empty place in the writer’s heart because she ________. A. was in trouble B. didn’t know Linda’s address C. received the card that she sent D. didn’t have a friend like Linda to share her happiness and sadness 【答案】D 【解析】细节理解题。根据 I wanted to share happiness of my children and then grandchildren. And I needed to share my sadness when my brother and then mother died. 作者没有像琳达这样的朋友来分享她的快乐和悲伤，故选 D。 29. The writer was happy when she ________. A. read the newspaper B. heard Linda’s voice on the phone C. met a young woman who looked a lot like Linda D. wrote to the woman whose last name was Wagman 【答案】B 【解析】细节理解题。真正让作者感到高兴的是当她在电话上听到老朋友 Linda 的声音的时 候。而读到报纸的时候和写信的时候都还只是在猜测，那时还谈不上高兴。故选 B。 30. They haven’t kept in touch ________. A. for about 40 years C. since they got married 【答案】A 【解析】细节理解题。根据文章最后一段中的 Minutes later I heard a voice that I knew very much, even after 40 years?可知她们 40 年没有联系了，故选 A。 B. for about 27 years D. since the writer’s family moved away
阅读理解、专题训练(**)、说明文的阅读(2) 阅读下列短文，然后按要求完成读写任务 Microwaves may be great at warming up food，but what about warming people? Using microwaves to directly heat owners of a room would save much of the energy wasted by heating walls and furniture.And despite popular ideas about microwaves， this technique would be safe，according to Charles R．Burlier of the Microwave Research Center in Marlborough，New Hampshire.Low?power microwaves only penetrate (贯穿)the skin (low?power microwave penetration in a ham is about 0.2 inches，for example)and with no negative effects. To test this idea，Buffler subjected himself to microwaves in a special room using a standard 500?watt,2,459 MHz magnetron (磁控管)．He found that a person will start to feel warmth at about 20 milliwatts per square centimeter (mw./ sq.cm.)；a satisfactory feeling of warmth occurs between 35 and 50mw./ sq.cm.By comparison， a person standing in noonday summer sun feels the amount of 85 mw./ sq.cm.And a frozen meat pie in your microwave oven receives about 1,000 mw./ sq.cm. In houses of the future，each room could be provided with its own magnetron， says Buffler.When you stepped into the living room，for example，a motion detector (运动感应器)would turn on the magnetron， filling the room with low?power microwaves.In the same way that a microwave oven heats up a hamburger，but not the plate it's on， you would feel warmth from the microwaves without changing the temperature of your coffee table.You could，however，make your favorite easy chair even more comfortable by treating it with a radiation－absorbing chemical. While it might be some time before homeowners are comfortable enough with the idea to set up whole?body microwave heaters in houses，Buffler says microwaves may attract livestock(家畜)farmers.Lambs that are born outdoors in winter，for example， are frequently lost to cold.Microwaves could warm the lambs safely and quickly. Ⅰ.以约 30 词概括文章大意 _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Ⅱ.根据短文内容选择最佳答案 1．Which of the following can tell the main idea of the passage?
A．A new heating system. C．A popular technique.
B．A new microwave oven. D．The magnetron.
2 ． According to Paragraph 2 ， which of the following does not describe the characteristics of a microwave heater? A．It directly heats people in a room. B．It heats walls and furniture in a room. C．It is safe. D．It saves energy. 3．The test conducted by Buffler shows that when a person feels comfortable warmth， he receives about ________. A．20 mw./ sq.cm. C．60 mw./ sq.cm. B．40 mw./ sq.cm. D．85 mw./ sq.cm.
4．According to Paragraph 4，which of the following fills the room with low?power microwaves? A．The magnetron. B．The motion detector. C．The microwave oven. D．The radiation?absorbing chemical. 5．Which of the following statements about microwave heaters would Buffler most probably agree with? A．Microwave heaters will soon be widely used by homeowners. B．Microwave heaters sometimes make people feel uncomfortable. C．Perhaps microwave heaters will be first used by livestock farmers，who wish to protect their lambs in winter. D．Microwave heaters cannot be accepted by the public because they are somewhat unsafe.
参考答案 Ⅰ The passages introduces a new heat system which can heat people directly by using a magnetron controlled by a motion detector.Thus we can save energy wasted by heating walls and furniture.(32 words) Ⅱ 1．解析：全文介绍了一种新的加热系统， 包括它的工作原理、使用方法等。
答案：A 2．解析：从第二段的第一句 save much of the energy wasted by heating walls and furniture 可知答案。 答案：B 3．解析：从 a satisfactory feeling of warmth occurs between 35 and 50mw./ sq.cm. 得知答案。 答案：B 4.解析：从 each room could be provided with its own magnetron 可知答案。 答案：A 5.解析：从最后一段可知答案。 答案：C
Each new school year brings fresh reminders of what educators call the summer learning gap. Some call it the summer learning setback. Simply speaking, it means the longer kids are out of school, the more they forget. The only thing they might gain is weight. Most American schools follow a traditional nine-month calendar. Students get winter and spring breaks and about ten weeks of summer vacation. Some schools follow a year-round calendar. They hold classes for about eight weeks at a time, with a few weeks off in between. The National Association for Year-Round Education says there were fewer than three thousand such schools at last count. They were spread among forty-six of the fifty states. But many experts point out that the number of class days in a year-round school is generally the same as in a traditional school. Lead researcher Paul von Hippel said, “Year-round schools don't really solve the problem of the summer learning setback. They simply spread it out across the year.” Across the country, research shows that students from poor families fall farther behind over the summer than other students. Experts say this can be prevented. They note that many schools and local governments offer programs that can help. But calling them “summer school” could be a problem. The director of the summer
learning center at Johns Hopkins, Ron Fairchild, said research with groups of different parents in Chicago and Baltimore found that almost all strongly disliked the term “summer school”. In American culture, the idea of summer vacation is connected to beliefs about freedom and the joys of childhood. The parents welcomed other terms like “summer camp”, “enrichment”, “extra time” and “hands-on learning”. 31. According to the first paragraph the summer learning gap A. helps children to gain weight C. improves children’s memories 【答案】D 【解析】细节理解题。根据 Simply speaking, it means the longer kids are out of school, the more they forget.暑假影响了学生的正常的学习，故选 D。 32. Compared to traditional schools, students in the year-round ones A. perform better and have more learning gains B. have much less time for relaxation every year C. have generally the same number of class days D. hold more classes with more free weeks off 【答案】C 【解析】细节理解题。根据 But many experts point out that the number of class days in a year-round school is generally the same as in a traditional school.全年的学校与 一般的学校都有相同的天数的授课时间，故选 C。 33. Which of the following statements is true? A. Students from poor families often fall behind after the vacation. B. Year-round schools can solve the problem of the learning gap. C. There are schools in each state following a year-round calendar. D. Nothing can help the students who fall behind after the vocation. 【答案】A 【解析】细节理解题。根据 Across the country, research shows that students from poor families fall farther behind over the summer than other students.来自贫困家庭通常 在假期过后学习要落后其他孩子，故选 A。
B. leads children to work harder D. affects children’s regular studies
34. Why did almost all parents dislike the term “summer school”? A. They cherish the children’s rights of freedom very much. B. They are worried about the quality of the “summer school”. C. They want their children to be forced to make up the gap. D. They can’t afford to the further study during vacation. 【答案】A 【解析】细节理解题。根据 research with groups of different parents in Chicago and Baltimore found that almost all strongly disliked the term “summer school”. In American culture, the idea of summer vacation is connected to beliefs about freedom and the joys of childhood.父母认为这样剥夺孩子的自由的权利，故选 A。 35. What would be the best title of this passage? A. Opening Summer Camps B. Forbidding Summer Schools C. Spreading Year-Round Education D. Minding the Summer Learning Gap 【答案】D 【解析】标题归纳题。根据 Each new school year brings fresh reminders of what educators call the summer learning gap.及短文的内容可知注意暑假假期学习的退步，故选 D。