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高中英语语法冠词


专题一、冠词
高频考点命题突破
(一) 单一考点 单一考点 1 普通名词前使用冠词的类指用法 ⑴在“a/an+单数名词” “the+单数名词” “零冠词+复数名词、不可数名词”中,所用冠词都 可表类指,但也有细微区别: 1) “the+单数名词”指的是整个类别,这个类别是可以区别于另一个类别的。 The car goes faster than the bike. 例 1 The biggest whale is _______ blue whale, which grows to be about 29 meters long—the height of _______ 9-story building. A. the; the B. a; a C. a; the D. the; a 2) “a/an+单数名词”侧重于指类别中任何一个的特点。 A tiger is a type of very large fierce wild cat that has yellow fur with black bands across. 3) “零冠词+复数名词、不可数名词”侧重指类别中的许多个体 Farmers are busy in autumn. 4) 在使用冠词时要根据所要表达内容的具体情况而定。 The tiger is in danger of becoming extinct. (不能说: A tiger is in danger of becoming extinct.因为濒临灭绝的是整个虎类, 而不是任何 一只虎面临灭绝的危险。) ⑵ “the+形容词或分词”有时也可表类指。 the wounded 伤员 the dying 垂死的人 the unknown 未知的事物 the deaf 聋子 the young 年轻人 the old 老人 the living 生者 the dead 死者 ⑶ 民族词汇前的冠词类指用法是在复数民族词汇前加 the The Chinese are hard-working. 有些民族词汇有两种复数形式,如:English, Englishmen; French, Frenchmen 等。在这种 情况下,the English 表类指,the Englishmen 既可表类指,又可表专指。 The French/Frenchmen are romantic. The Frenchmen are playing tennis now. 单一考点 2 不定冠词的基本用法 ⑴ 不定冠词有 a, an 两种形式,当紧跟着冠词的第一个音素为辅音音素(注意:不是辅音字 母)时用 a; 当紧跟着冠词的第一个音素为元音音素(注意:不是元音字母)时用 an。如: a box, an X-ray, an honor 等。 ⑵ 不定冠词表示 one, the same, a certain 或 every 的意思。 They are of an age.(=the same) I will return in a day or two.(=one or two days) 例 2 Cui Jianping, who gave his life to save a girl in America ten years ago, was _______ honor to our school. A memorial is held here every year in ______ honor of him. A. an; the B. an; / C. the; the D. /,/ ⑶ 有些不可数名词如 knowledge, collection, understanding 等是由其动词转化而来的, 它们后 面加 of…时,前面需用不定冠词 a/an. 单一考点 3 定冠词的基本用法 ⑴用在姓氏复数前,表夫妇两人或一家人。 The Greens are at table.
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The Chens are going to move to Nanjing. 例 3 –Could you tell me the way to _______ Johnsons, please? --Sorry, we don’t have ________ Johnson here in the village. A. the; the B. the; a C. /; the D. the; / ⑵用在年代、朝代名词及逢十的数词(表某个年代)前。 the Tang Dynasty; the Spring and Autumn Period; in the 1990’s ⑶用在表量度单位的名词前,表示“每一” 。 I have hired the car by the hour. Eggs are sold by the dozen. ⑷句型“动词+sb.+介词+the+身体某一部位”中的 the 不可用物主代词代替。如:take sb. by the arm 抓某人的胳膊,hit sb. in the face 打某人的脸。此外,在 be red in the face(脸红) , be lame in the right leg(右腿跛) ,be blind in the eye(眼盲)等结构中,名词前也要用 the. 单一考点 4 零冠词的基本用法 ⑴不可数名词、复数名词表泛指,用零冠词。 Students went to the doctor for advice about their health. 例 4 It’s well-known that _______ year 2006 saw many developments in _______ science and technology with those in the field of space science being particularly notable. A. /; / B. the; / C. the; the D. /; the ⑵牢记以下一般用零冠词的情况: 歌诀巧记:月、季、星期、节假、洲、称呼、头衔、职务前;三餐、球类、惯用语,学科、 棋类名词前。 但这些用法是相对而言的,在不同的句子中,可能会用到不定冠词或定冠词。因此,用哪种 冠词要视情况而定。 _________ is the harvest season. 秋季是收获的季节。 The organization was founded in _________ of the year 2010. 这个组织是在 2010 年春天成立 的。 ⑶系动词 turn(变成)后的单数名词作表语,用零冠词。 Has he turned scientist? ⑷“零冠词+单数名词+as/though+主语+谓语,主句” ,意为“虽然、尽管??,但是??” 。 Hero as he is, he has some shortcomings. ⑸man 意为“人类” ,word 意为“消息”时,用零冠词。 Man is the master of nature. ⑹在独立主格结构的某一形式中用零冠词。 The teacher came in, book in hand.(=with a book in his hand/holding a book in his hand/a book held in his hand) 举一反三 1. As is known to us all, ________ panda is in ________ danger of becoming extinct. A. the; a B. the; / C. a; / D. /; the 2. He spent too much time talking on _______ phone while we were all busy at _______ work. A. the; / B. a; / C. /;/ D. the; the 3. As _________ unemployment is very high at the moment, it’s very difficult for people to find ______ work. A. the; / B. /; / C. the; a D. an; the 4. Apartments in cities can be very high. Renters are paying up to $1,000 per month for
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______-bedroom apartment. A. one a B. the one C. one D. a one 5. The education of ________ young is always ________ hot and serious topic. A. /; / B. the; a C. /; the D. the; ./ (二)综合考点 综合考点 5 冠词的特殊位置 ⑴不定冠词的特殊位置 1) 不定冠词通常置于修饰名词的形容词前,但要放在 so, as, too, how, however 等副词修饰 的形容词的后面。so/as/too/how/however+adj.+a/an+单数名词。 It is so good a film that we all want to see it again. However clever a student he is, he should follow the teacher ’s instructions now. 2) such 和 what 作定语修饰名词时,不定冠词也应放在其后。 He is such a kind man. 3)当名词前的比较级被 no, all, far, much 等修饰时,不定冠词也要后置。 He is no more a lord than I. 4)quite 和 rather 修饰可数名词单数时,a/an 可放在 quite/rather 之后,也可放在 quite/rather 之前。 He came after a rather/rather a long time. (注意) ① quite 只修饰名词时,冠词只能置于 quite 后。 ② quite/rather a few, quite/rather a little 等短语中,由于 a few, a little 是固定短语,故不可拆 开变成 a quite/rather few, a quite/rather little. 5) 定冠词的特殊位置: 在名词词组中, 定冠词一般放在最前面, 但名词词组中如果有 exactly, just, half, double, twice, all, both, of 等修饰时, 定冠词要放在这些词后面。 如: exactly the same color 完全相同的颜色, just the right place 就是这个地方, half the story 故事的一半, double the amount 双倍的数量 例 5 The whale is ______ biggest animal in the world, which grows to be about 29 meters long—the height of _____ 9-story building. A. the; the B. a; a C. a; the D. the; a 综合考点 6 习惯用语 ⑴与不定冠词连用的习语: have a cold; have a good/happy time; have a gift for; have a word with; in a hurry; once in a while; at a loss; for a while; once upon a time; all of a sudden; with a score of; at a distance; have a population of; a waste of; a matter of; have/take a rest; have a holiday; get a lift/ride; go on a diet 等。 This picture looks beautiful at a distance. 例 6 I don’t understand what the engineer means, but I’ve got _______ rough idea of _______ project plan. A. the; a B. /; the C. the; / D. a; the ⑵与定冠词连用的习语:make the most/best of; in the daytime; in the end; in the habit of; not in the least(=not at all); in the distance; in the way; on the whole; on the right/left; on the one hand…, on the other hand; at the same time; all the moment; go to the cinema/theatre; go to the doctor ’s; the other day; for the time being; on the radio/phone; on the spot; to tell the truth; by the way; to the public 等
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例 7 Let’s go to _______ cinema—that’ll take your mind off the problem for ______ while. A. the; the B. the; a C. a; the D. a; a ⑶不用冠词的固定习语:at noon/dawn/daybreak/dusk/night/midnight; on second thoughts; no such boy; come to light; come to power=(take office); give birth to; come/rank first; out of work/order/control/date/patience/question; in debt 等。 例 8 There are over 58,000 rocky objects in _______ space, about 900 of which could fall down onto _______ earth. A. the; the B. /; the C. the; / D. a; the 综合考点 7 冠词的活用 ⑴抽象名词具体化时, 被具体化的名词可能会与 a/an 连用。 a surprise a pleasure a success/failure a concern 例 9 – How about ________ Christmas evening party? --I should say it was __________ success. A. a; a B. the; a C. a; / D. the; / ⑵形容词比较级前用定冠词表示“两者当中较??的” ,而形容词比较级前用不定冠词,表 示“再、更??” 。most 前用定冠词表示“三者或三者以上中最??的” ,most 前用不定冠 词,并无比较含义,而是相当于 very. It’s a very useful book. 例 10 Of all ______ reasons for my decision to become a university professor, my father ’s advice was _______ most important one. A. the; a B. /;a C. /; the D. the; the ⑶‖the+序数词‖表排序, “a/an+序数词”不表示 排序,而表“又一、再一” Can you give me a second chance? 例 11 First impressions are the most lasting. After all, you never get ________ second chance to make ________ first impression. A. a; the B. the; the C. a; a D. the; a ⑷表示世界上独一无二的事物的名词,前面一般加定冠词,但如果此类名词有修饰成分,也 可加 a/an. 如:the moon 月球; a full moon 一轮满月 ⑸ 牢记高考中常见的纯不可数名词, 它们是: weather, fun, space(太空),advice, word(=news), progress, information, news, 以上不可数名词永远不能与不定冠词连用。 Beyond the stars, the astronaut saw nothing but space. ⑹乐器名称前往往用定冠词,但是当此类名词用作普通名词时,可以与不定冠词连用 play the piano play a borrowed piano ⑺专有名词前冠词的用法也比较复杂, 但一般情况下, 不含普通名词的纯专有名词前不用冠 词,如:Beijing, New York 等。但是: 1) 在江河、湖泊、海洋、山脉、群岛、海峡、海湾、运河前用 the. the Changjiang River the Hudson River the West Lake 2) 在普通名词前构成的专有名词前用 the. the Great Wall the Summer Palace 例 12 According to ________ World Health Organization, health care plans are needed in all big
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cities to prevent ________ spread of AIDS. A. the; the B. the; / C. a; a D. /; the 3)有一些地名,如果是以纯专有名词开头的,一般不用冠词,大前年如果是以普通名词开 头的,一般用定冠词。如:Beijing University,也可以说 the University of Beijing. ⑻有无冠词的区别 go to school be in the front of in future go to the school sit at table in the future go to church sit at the table in office go to the church by day in the office go to bed by the day in class go to the bed take place in the class be in hospital take the place of in store be in the hospital in possession of in the store be in prison in the possession of out of question be in the prison in charge of out of the question be in front of in the charge of 举一反三 1. Since tasting the excitement of _______ city life, she never wants to live in ________ country again. A. the; the B. /; / C. the; / D. /; the 2. The operation is _________ success and the patient is now out of _________ . A. a; the B. a; / C. /; the D. /; / 3. As ______ writer, he was ________ complete failure. A. a; a B. a; the C. /; / D. a; / 4. How strange! These years my birthday always falls _________ . A. on the Sunday B. on a Sunday C. on Sunday D. at a Sunday 5. This is ________ best kind of ________ pen you can get here. A. the; the B. the; a C. the; / D. a; the ⑼表示语言的名词前通常不用冠词,特殊情况下可用冠词。 例 13 –Do you know ________ English for ―帅哥‖? --I’m afraid I don’t. I’m not interested in _______ English language. A. the; the B. the; / C. /; the D. /; / 1) 当语言名词表特指意义,其前可用定冠词。 The English spoken in America and Canada is a little different from that spoken in England. 2)当语言名词表示某一语言中的对应词时, 其前要用定冠词。 What’s the English for this? 3)当在语言名词后加上 language 一词时,也要用冠词。 There have been many changes in the history of the English language. 例 14 I couldn’t remember the exact date of the storm, but I knew it was _______ Sunday because everybody was at ________ church. A. a; the B. a; / C. /; a D. /; / 举一反三 1. Many people agree that ________ knowledge of English is a must in _______ international trade today.
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A. the; an B. a; / C. the; the D. /; the 2. The cakes are delicious. I’d like to have _______ third one as ________ second one I ate was too small. A. the; the B. a; the C. the; a D. a; a 3. _______ England of those years was _________ England in peace. A. /;/ B. The; an C. The; / D. /; an 4. – Did you happen to see _______ black an _________ white cat? --Are they missing? I told you to take care of them. A. a;/ B. the; / C. the; the D. a; the 5. My friend Mary is ________ beautiful and ________ girl everyone likes to works with. A. a; a B. a; the C. the; a D. the; the 6. _________ is his favorite subject, but he doesn’t know ________ for ―工作‖. A. English; English B. The English; the English C. English; the English D. The English;English ⑽ hair(头发)和 beard(胡须)性质和用法不同 例 15 Which person do you refer to, the one with ________ long hair or the one with _________ long beard? A. a; a B. /;/ C. a; / D. /;a

解析精彩好题
1. (2011. 浙江) Experts think that ________ recently discovered painting may be _______ a Picasso. A. the; / B. a; the C. a; / D. the; a 2. (2011.盐城二检) I couldn’t remember the exact date of the storm, but I knew it was ______ Sunday because everybody was at _______ church. A. a; the B. a; / C. /; a D. /; / 3. (2010.四川)In ________ most countries, a university degree can give you ______ flying start in life. A. the; a B. the;/ C. /; / D. /; a 4. (2010.辽宁) There are over 58,000 rocky objects in _______ space, about 900 of which could fall down onto _______ earth. A. the; the B. /; the C. the;/ D. a; the 5. (2010.天津联考) _______ strong and powerful China will certainly benefit _________ whole world. A. A; a B. The; a C. The; the D. A; the 6. (2010.海南五校联考) We have every reason to believe that ________ 2010 World Expo in Shanghai will be _______ success. A. /; a B. the; / C. the; a D. a; a 7. (2010. 安徽教学质量检测 ) To tell _______ truth, his coming is really ________ big surprise to most people present at the party. A. /; a B. the; / C. the; a D. /; / 8. (2010.山东聊城二模) Confucius Temple, ________ world cultural heritage, is about 65 kilometres ______ south of Mount Tai. A. the; the B. a; the C. the; / D. a; / 9. (2010.吉林质量检测) I knew ______ John Lennon, but not _______ famous one.
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A. /; a B. a; the C. /; the D. the; a 10. (2009. 全国 I) Let’s go to _______ cinema—that’ll take your mind off the problem for _____ while. A. the; the B. the; a C. a; the D. a; a 2012 高考冠词题 1. (全国大纲卷) He missed _______ gold in the high jump, but will get _______ second chance in the long jump. A. the; the B. /; a C. the; a D. a; / 2.(江西)The Smiths don’t usually like staying at _______ hotels, but last summer they spent a few days at a very nice hotel by _______ sea. A. /; a B. the; the C. /; the D. the; a 3.(安徽) Carl is studying ______ food science at college and hopes to open up ________ meat processing factory of his own one day. A. /;a B. /; the C. the; a D. the; the 4.(四川) We are said to be living in ________ Information Age, ______ time of new discoveries and great changes. A. an; the B. /; the C. /; a D. the; a 5.(山东)Being able to afford _______drink would be _______ comfort in those tough times. A. the; the B. a; a C. a; / D. /; a 6.(辽宁) I woke up with ______ bad headache, yet by _______ evening the pain had gone/ A. the; the B. the; an C. a; the D. a; an 7.( 重庆 ) Sam has been appointed _______ manager of the engineering department to take ________ place of George. A. /; / B. the; / C. the; the D. /; the 8.(浙江) The department of industry has been _______ gradual process throughout ______ human existence from stone tools to modern technology. A. /; the B. the; a C. a; / D. a; a 2011 高考冠词题 1.(全国 I) It is generally accepted that ________ boy must learn to stand up and fight like _______ man. A. a; a B. a; the C. the; the D. a; / 2.(全国 II) As he reached ________ front door, Jack saw ________ strange sight. A. the; / B. a; the C. /; a D. the; a 3. (山东)Take your time—it’s just _______ short distance form here to ________ restaurant. A. /; the B. a; the C. the; a D. /; a 4.(江西) –It’s said John will be in a job paying over $60,000 _______ year. --Right, he will also get paid by ________ week. A. the; the B. a; the C. the; a D. a; a 5. ( 陕西 )As is known to all, ________ People’s Republic of China is ________ biggest developing country in the world. A. the; / B. /; the C. the; the D. /; / 6.(浙江) Experts think that _______ recently discovered painting may be _______ Picasso. A. the;/ B. a; the C. a; / D. the; a 7.(重庆) In communication, a smile is usually ______ strong sign of a friendly and ______open
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attitude. A. the; / B. a; an C. a; / D. the; an 8. (四川)_Dr. Peter Spence, ________ headmaster of the school, told us, ―_________ fifth of pupils here go on to study at Oxford and Cambridge.‖ A. /; A B. /; The C. the; The D. a; A 2010 高考冠词题 1.(山东) If we sit near______ front of the bus, we’ll have ______ better view. A. /; the B. /; a C. the; a D. the; the 2. (北京) First impressions are the most lasting. After all, you never get ______ second chance to make ________ first impression. A. a; the B. the; the C. a; a D. the; a 3.(江苏) The visitors here are greatly impressed by the fact that _____ people from all walks of life are working hard for _______ new Jiangsu. A. /; a B. /; the C. the; a D. the; the 4.(福建) It’s _______ good feeling for people to admire the Shanghai World Expo that gives them ________ pleasure. A. /; a B. a; / C. the; a D. a; the 5. (四川) In _______ most countries, a university degree can give you _______ flying start in life. A. the; a B the; / C. /; / D. /; a 2009 高考冠词题 1. (安徽) We can never expect _______ bluer sky unless we create _______ less polluted world. A. a; a B. a; the C. the; a D. the; the 2. (辽宁) This area experienced ______ heaviest rainfall in _______ month of May. A. /; a B. a; the C. the; the D. a; the 3. (四川) In order to find _______ better job, he decided to study ______ second foreign language. A. the; a B. a; a C. the; the D. a; the 4. (江西) Some people fear that ______ air pollution may bring about changes in _______ weather around the world. A. /; the B. the; / C. an; the D. the; a 5.(陕西) What _______ pity that you couldn’t be there to receive _____ prize. A. a; a B. the; a C.a; the D. the; the 6. (重庆) Washing machines made by China have won _______ worldwide attention and Haier has become _______popular name. A. a; the B. /;a C. /; the D. the; a 2008 高考冠词题 1. (山东)Students should be encouraged to use ______ Internet as _______ resource. A. /; a B. /; the C. the; the D. the; a 2.(江苏) We went right round to the west coast by _______ sea instead of driving across ________ continent. A. the; the B. /; the C. the; / D. /; / 3.(江西) –I’m sorry to have come late for the meeting. --It’s not your fault. With ______ rush-hour traffic and _______ heavy rain, it is no wonder you were late.
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A. a; a B. the; the C. /; / D. /; a 4. Have you heard _________news? The price of _______ petrol is going up again. A. the; the B. /; the C. the; / D. /; / 5.I ate _______ sandwich while I was waiting for _______20;08 train. A. the; a B. the; the C. a; the D. a; a 5. I looked under _______ bed and found ______ book I lost last week. A. the; a B. the;the C. /; the D. the;/ 6. I like _______ color of your skirt. It is _____ good match for your blouse. A. a; the B. a; a C. the; a D.. the; the 阅读理解之事实细节题 2012 江西 A Mark and his brother Jason both were looking at the shining new computer enviously. Jason was determined not to go against their father ’s wishes but Mark was more adventurous than his brother. He loved experimenting and his aim was to become a scientist like his father. ―Dad will be really mad if he finds out you’ve been playing with his new computer.‖ Jason said, ―He told us not to touch it.‖ ―He won’t find out,‖Mark said, ―I’ll just have a quick look and shut it down.‖ Mark had been scolded before for touching his father ’s equipment. But his curiosity was difficult to control and this new computer really puzzled him. It was a strange-looking machine-one his dad had brought home from the laboratory where he worked. ―It’s an experimental model,‖ his father had explained, ―so don’t touch it under any circumstances.‖ But his father ’s warning only served to make Mark more curious. Without any further thought, Mark turned on the power switch. The computer burst into life and seconds later, the screen turned into colors, shifting and changing and then two big white words appeared in the centre of the screen:‖ SPACE TRANSPORTER.‖ ―Yes!‖ Mark cried excitedly, ―It’s a computer game. I knew it! Dad’s only been pretending to work. He’s really been playing games instead.‖ A new message appeared on the screen: ―ENTER NAMES VOYAGER 1:… VOYAGER 2:…‖ Mark’s fingers flew across the keyboard as he typed in both of their names. ―INPUT ACCEPETD. START TRANSPORT PROGRAM. AUTO-RETRIEVE INITIATED(自动回收程序已启动) The screen turned even brighter and a noise suddenly rose in volume. ―I think we’d better shut it off, Mark,"Jason yelled, reaching for the power switch. He was really frightened. But his hand never reached the switch. A single beam of dazzling white light burst out of the computer screen, wrapping the boys in its glow(光芒)。 And the boys were no longer there. On the screen, the letters changed. ―TRANSPORT SUCCESSFUL. DESTINATION( 目 的 地 ):MARS. RETRIEVE DATE:2025.‖ 56. Why did Mark touch the computer against his father ’s warning? A. He wanted to take a voyage. B. He wanted to practice his skill. C. He was so much attracted by it. D. He was eager to do an experiment.
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57. Where did the boys’ father most likely work? A. In an electronic factory. B. In a computer company. C. In a scientific research center. D. In an information processing center. 58. Mark thought ―SPACE TRANSPORTER‖ on the screen was the name of ________ . A. a computer game B. a company website C. a software producer D. an astronomy program 59. Why did Jason want to shut off the computer? A. He was afraid of being scolded. B. He didn’t like the loud noise and light. C. He didn’t want to play games any more. D. He was afraid something dangerous might happen. 60. What happened to the boys at the end of the story? A. They were blown into the air. B. They were sent to another planet. C. They were hidden in the strong light. D. They were carried away to another country. Jamie Oliver has been invited by Gordon Brown to prepare a banquet at No.10 for President Barack Obama and other leaders of the G20, offering a cut-price menu to reflect times when trade and industry are far from prosperous and the rate of employment is decreasing. Downing Street sources say Oliver, the well-known chef, will cook using ―honest high-street products‖ and avoid expensive or ―fancy‖ ingredients. The prime minister is trying to avoid a repeat of the embarrassment last year when he sat down to an 18-course banquet at a Japanese summit to discuss world food shortages. Obama, President Nicolas Sarkozy of France, Chancellor Angela Merkel of Germany and other leaders will be served by apprentices(学徒) from Fifteen, the London restaurant Oliver founded to help train young people in poverty in order to make a living by mastering a skill. Brown wants the dinner to reflect the emphasis of the London summit, which he hopes will lead to an agreement to lift the world out of recession. ―To be invited to cook for such an important group of people, who are trying to solve some of the world’s major problems, is really a privilege,‖ said Oliver. ―I’m hoping the menu I’m working on will show British food and produce is some of the best I the world, but also show we have pioneered a high-quality apprentice scheme at Fifteen London that is giving young people a skill to be proud of.‖ The chef has not yet finalized me menu, but is expected to draw inspiration from his latest book, Jamie’s Ministry of Food, which has budget recipes for beef and ale stew(啤酒炖菜)and ―impressive‖ chocolate fudge cake. 22. What can we learn about Oliver from the text? A. He is a well-known American cook. B. He is invited to attend the G20 summit. C. He has founded the Fifteen London. D. He is one of the apprentices serving leaders of the G20. 23. The menu of the banquet for the leaders of the G20 is supposed to ________. A. include all delicious British food B. use inexpensive produce with special characteristics
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C. be rich, varied and of high quality D. imitate the menu of last Japanese summit 24. Which of the following is TRUE according to the text? A. Oliver is honored to be invited to cook for the G20 leaders. B. Altogether three presidents are mentioned in the text. C. President Barak Obama offers the cut-price menu. D. The menu for the G20 dinner banquet has been decided. 25. What is the Fifteen London? A. An apartment in London. B. A luxurious restaurant in London. C. A restaurant as well as a training center. D. A famous avenue.

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