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人教版高中英语必修1Unit 4 Earthquakes (B 1)


Unit 4

Earthquakes

Section 1 Warming Up, Reading & Comprehending
重点知识精讲 一、重点单词 1. burst (1) vi. (使)爆裂;胀开;突然出现;涨满;爆满 That balloon will burst if you blow it up any more. 你再给气球充气,它就要爆了。 He burst into the room without knocking. 他没敲门就闯进了房间。 The roads are bursting with cars. 车辆把道路挤满了。 (2) n. 突然爆裂;爆发;迸发 His breath was coming in short bursts. 他呼吸急促。 I tend to work in bursts. 我的工作劲头往往是一阵一阵的。 【知识拓展】be bursting to do sth 急于(或迫切想)做某事 burst (sth) open (使)猛然打开 burst in 突然打断(插嘴) burst into a room = break into a room 破门而入 burst in on sb./ sth. (突然闯进而)打乱;扰乱 burst into tears = burst out crying 突然大哭起来 burst into laughter = burst out laughing 突然大笑起来 burst out (突然)激动地喊叫 burst into flames 突然燃烧起来 burst on/ onto sb. 突然显现;突然在??出现 【注意】burst 的过去式和过去分词都是 burst。 2. ruin (1) vt. 毁坏;破坏;毁灭;使破产 The bad weather ruined our trip. 恶劣的天气破坏了我们的旅行。 If she loses the case it’ll ruin her. 如果败诉,她就完蛋了。 (2) n. 破产;祸根;废墟;断壁残垣 A large number of churches fell into ruin after the revolution. 革命过后许多教堂都被毁了。 The old mill is now little more than a ruin. 老磨坊现在只剩下断壁残垣了。 【注意】ruin 作“废墟”讲时用复数形式 ruins。 【知识拓展】ruined adj. 毁坏的;严重受损的 in ruins 毁坏;严重受损;破败不堪 fall into ruin 衰落;败落 lie in ruins 破败不堪;成为废墟 【辨析】ruin,damage 与 destroy 三个词都有“毁坏”之意,但语意各有侧重。 destroy 指彻底毁坏,有毁灭和不能修复之意。 ruin 意为“破坏;毁坏” ,与 destroy 接近,但程度较轻,常指对美好的或希望中的事物的破坏。 damage 意为“损害;毁坏” ,程度较轻,可重新修好使用。 The fire destroyed most of the building. 大火把这座建筑物几乎烧毁了。 The rain ruined my holiday. 这场雨把我的假期给毁了。
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Smoking can damage your health. 吸烟有害于你的健康。 3. injure vt. (尤指在事故中)伤害;使受伤;损害;伤害(名誉、自尊等) He injured his knee while playing hockey. 他打曲棍球时膝盖受伤了。 This could seriously injure the company’s reputation. 这会严重地损害公司的声誉。 【知识拓展】injured adj. 受伤的;有伤的;受到伤害的 injury n. (对躯体的)伤害;损伤; (对感情的)伤害 injurious adj. 造成伤害的;有害的 the injured 受伤的人;伤员;伤兵 【辨析】injure,wound 与 hurt injure 一般指意外或事故受伤,为一时难愈之伤。 would 指外伤,如刀伤、枪伤、剑伤,尤指在战斗、战争中受伤。 hurt 是“受伤”的一般用语,既可之肉体上的伤害,亦可指精神上的伤害。另外,hurt 还可用 作不及物动词,意为“疼痛;引起痛苦” 。 He can’t play today because he’s injured his knee. 他弄伤了膝盖,因此今天不能上场。 The bullet wounded his arm. 子弹打伤了他的胳膊。 His words hurt me. 他的话伤害了我。 4. useless adj. 无用的;无效的;无益的;差劲的;不行的;不擅长的 She tried to work, but it was useless. 她很想做事,但力不从心。 Don’t ask her for help, She’s useless. 别求她帮忙,她没有那个能耐。 (1) It’s useless to do / doing sth. 干??是无用的;干??是无价值的 I knew it was useless to protest. 我知道抗议也是徒劳。 It’s useless worrying about it. 为这事担心无济于事。 (2) be useless at sth./ doing sth. 在某方面差劲;在某方面不行 I’m useless at French. 我的法语不行。 He’s useless at playing chess. 他下棋很差劲。 【知识拓展】uselessly adv. 无用地;无效地 uselessness n. 无用;无价值 useful adj. 有用的;有益的;实用的 usefulness n. 有用;实用 usage n. 用法;用途 It’s no use doing sth = It’s useless doing sth. 干??是没用的 【注意】It’s useless 之后常接动名词做真正的主语,但有时也用不定式。 5. shock (1) n. [C, U] 震惊;令人震惊的事;剧烈震动 The news of his death came as a shock to us all. 他的死讯让大家都感到震惊。 (2) n. [U] 休克;震动 She was taken to hospital suffering from shock. 她因休克被送到医院。 The shock of the explosion could be felt up to six miles away. 爆炸引起的剧烈震动在六英里以外 都能感觉到。 (3) v. (使)震惊;震动 She was deeply shocked by her child’s death. 孩子的死使她悲痛欲绝。 It still shock me when I hear young children swear. 听到小孩子骂人,我还是很不舒服的。 【知识拓展】shocking adj. 骇人听闻的;令人气愤的;令人憎恶的;非常糟糕的 shocked adv. 惊讶的;震惊的
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shockingly adv. 令人震惊地 shock wave(爆炸、地震等引起的)冲击波 【辨析】shocking 与 shocked shocking 和 shocked 都可用作定语和表语,但 shocking 意为“令人震惊的” ,它往往表示被修饰 的人或事给别人的感觉。 shocked 意为“惊讶的;震惊的” ,它表示人自身的感觉。 The result of the game is shocking. 比赛结果令人震惊。 I am shocked at his change. 他的变化让我震惊。 6. rescue (1) n. [U] 救援;营救;抢救 We had given up hope of rescue at that time. 我们那时已放弃了获救的希望。 (2). n. [C] 营救行动 The fisherman was saved in a daring sea rescue. 在一次惊心动魄的海上营救行动中,那名渔民 获救了。 (3) vt. 营救;援救;抢救 He rescued a child from drowning. 他救起了一名落水儿童。 You rescued me from an embarrassing situation. 我正感到尴尬,你为我解了围。 【知识拓展】rescue sb. from sb./ sth. 从??里/中救起??;援救;营救 come/ go to one’s rescue 来/去营救某人 【辨析】save 与 rescue save 意为“挽救;拯救” ,它可以表示医生对病人生命的挽救,也可以救别人于危难之中,还可 以表示对婚姻、事业等其他形式的挽救。 rescue 意为“营救;援救” 。 The police saved him in the sea. 警察从大海中把他救起。 People trapped in the flood were waiting for rescue. 困在洪水中的人们正在等待营救。 7. bury vt. ⑴ 埋葬;安葬 He was buried in Highgate Cemetery. 他被安葬在海格特公墓。 ⑵ 埋藏;掩盖;使??陷入 The dog had buried its bone in the garden. 狗把骨头埋在花园里。 The house was buried under ten feet of snow. 房子被埋在十英尺厚的积雪中。 He buried his face in his hands and wept. 他双手掩面而泣。 ⑶ 掩藏(感情、错误等) She has learned to bury her feelings. 她已学会了感情不外露。 【知识拓展】burial n. 埋葬;葬礼 bury sth. in sth. 使陷入;把??插入?? bury oneself in sth 专心致志于?? be buried in sth. 埋头干??;专心致志于?? 8. title n. [C] ⑴ 名称;标题;题目 His poems were published under the title of Love and Reason 他的诗是以《爱情与理智》为题发 表的。 The title of this painting is The Last Supper. 这幅画的标题是《最后的晚餐》 。 ⑵ 称号;头衔;职称;称谓

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Give your name and title. 报出你的名字和称谓。 The official title of this job is Administrative Assistant.这个职位的正式名称为“行政助理” 。 ⑶ 冠军 She has three world titles. 她已获得三项世界冠军。 Those boxers are fighting for the world title. 那些拳击手在争夺世界冠军。 【辨析】title,headline,theme 与 subject title 指书画、戏剧、乐曲、诗歌的“名称,标题” 。 headline 指新闻报道的“标题” 。 theme 指谈话、演讲、音乐的“主题,主旋律” ,意狭。 subject 是“题目,标题,主题”的常用、普通词,意广。 二、重点短语 1. right away 立即;马上;毫不耽搁 You must have a doctor sent for right away. 你必须马上派人去请医生。 I told him right away what thought of him. 我直截了当地告诉了他我对他的看法。 【知识拓展】right now 立即;马上 right and left 到处;处处 see sb. right 确保(或负责)满足某人的一切要求 put sb. right 纠正某人的错误 put sth. to rights. 整理;整顿;改正;纠正 2. think little of 不把??当回事;对??评价不高 The leaders of the USA were thought little of at that time. 当时的美国领导们声誉不好。 To my disappointment, he thought little of my advice. 令我失望的是,他不把我的建议当回事。 【知识拓展】think better of sth./ doing sth. 深思熟虑后决定不做;一想又改便主意 think (the) better of sb. 对某人有较高的评价 think nothing of it 别在意;没什么;别客气 think nothing of sth./ doing sth 不把??当回事;觉得??无所谓 think not much/poorly/badly of sb./ sth. 对??评价不高 think of?as 把??看作??;把??视为?? What do you think of?? 你认为??怎么样? 3. at an end 结束;终结 The war was finally at an end. 战争终于结束。 My holiday will be at an end. 我的假期很快就要结束了。 【知识拓展】at the end of the day 最终;到头来 end to end 最后;终于 in the end 最后;终于 by the end of 到??末为止 come to an end 结束;完成 bring/ put sth. to an end 结束;使??完成 make (both) ends meet 使收支相抵;勉强维持生计 【辨析】at the end (of),by the end (of)与 in the end at the end (of) 意为“在??的结尾,在??的尽头” ,既可指时间,也可指空间。 by the end (of) 意为“到??为止” ,用来表示时间,经常与完成时态连用。 in the end 意为“最后;终于” ,不与 of 连用,用来表示时间,和 finally,at last 相近。 He’ll have left London by the end of next month. 到下个月月末,他将已经离开伦敦。
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Keep on working hard and you’ll make it in the end. 继续努力,最终你会成功的。 You’ll find the bus stop at the end of this street. 在这条大街的尽头,你会找到公共汽车站的。 How many English novels had you read by the end of last year? 到去年年底为止,你已读了多少 本英文小说? He made a speech at the end of the meeting. 在会议结束时他发表了讲话。 【注意】at an end,(sth) come to an end,bring/ put sth to an end 中的 end 前均用不定冠词 an 不 能换成定冠词 the, 4. in ruins 毁坏;严重受损;破败不堪;成为废墟 Years of fighting have left the area in ruins. 多年的战事以使这个地区满目疮痍。 The scandal let his reputation in ruins. 这件丑闻使他身败名裂。 5. blow away ⑴ blow sb. away 枪杀某人;给人留下深刻印象;使人高兴 He was blown away when wandering in the street. 他在大街上闲逛时遭到枪杀。 His wonderful performance really blew us away. 他的精彩表演给我们留下了深刻的印象。 ⑵ blow sth away 把??吹走 The fallen leaves on the street have been blown away by the strong wind. 大街上的落叶已被大风 吹走。 【知识拓展】blow in/ into 突然来到;突然进入 blow out 被(风等)吹灭;熄灭;轻易击败(某人) blow up 爆炸;被炸毁; (对某人)发火 【注意】blow away,blow off,blow out,blow up 中的 away,off,out 和 up 均为副词,若代词 作这些短语的宾语,应放在这些副词的前面。 6 as?as 和??一样 ⑴ as?as 意为“和??一样” ,表示两个同级之间的比较。使用要注意第一个 as 为副词,第二 个 as 为连词。其基本结构为:as + adj./ adv. + as。其否定式为:not as /so + adj./ adv. + as。 This film is as interesting as that one. 这部电影和那部电影一样有趣。 Your pen writes as smoothly as mine. 你的钢笔书写起来和我的一样流畅。 This dictionary is not as/ so useful as you think. 这本字典不如你想象的那样有用。 ⑵ 在 as?as 结构中, 第一个 as 的前面可以加上表示倍数的词或是某些副词修饰语: twice, (three) times,nearly,almost,just,exactly,not nearly(根本不) ,by no means(绝不) ,quite 等等。 Asia is four times as Europe. 亚洲有欧洲的四倍大(亚洲比欧洲大三倍) 。 Jim is not nearly as tall as Ben. 吉姆根本没有本高。 Cast iron is almost as useful as steel. 铸铁差不多与钢一样有用。 She hasn’t been quite so unlucky as she pretends. 她还没有向她常装出的那样不幸。 7. dig out ⑴ 挖掘出 More than a dozen people were dug out of the avalanche alive. 十多个埋在雪崩下的人被救了出 来。 ⑵ 找到;发掘;发现(藏着的或被遗忘的东西) I went to the attic and duh out Grandpa’s medals. 我在阁楼里找到了祖父的勋章。 【注意】dig 的过去式和过去分词分别是 dug,dug,现在分词是 digging。 8. a (great) number of 许多;大量的 后接可数名词复数。 I have read a great number of books on this subject. 我已经阅读了大量有关这个主题的书。
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A great number of foreign visitors come to China every year. 每年都有大量外国游客来中国。 【辨析】a number of 与 the number of the number of 是“??的数目” ,后跟可数名词复数,作主语时谓语动词用单数。 a number of 是“许多,大量”的意思,后可接可数名词复数,作主语时谓语动词用复数。 The number of private colleges has increased. = Private colleges have increased in number. 私立大 学的数目已增大。 I’ve seen the movie a number of times. 这部电影我已经看过多次了。 三、 重点句型 1. Now, imagine there has been a big earthquake. 现在设想一下有过一次大地震。 ⑴ 该句使用了 there be 句型。there be 句型是一种存在句,表示某个事物在什么地方,其结构 为“There + be + 主语 + 其他成分” ,其中 there 为引导词,本身无意义。谓语动词根据 be 后 面的主语,按就近原则确定。 There is a book and two pens on the desk. 书桌上有一本书和两支钢笔。 There are two pens and a book on the desk. 书桌上有两支笔和一本书。 ⑵ 在 there be 句型中,be 还可被 live,come,stand,lie,exist,remain 等动词所替代。 There lies a large wheat field to the south of our school. 我们学校的南面有一片广阔的麦地。 Long long ago there lived a wise king. 很久以前有一位十分明智的国王。 There came shouts for help from the river. 从河那边传来了“救命”的喊声。 ⑶ there be 句型中可在 there 和 be 之间加情态动词或系动词、助动词等表示更丰富的含义。 There seems to be no need to stay here. 好像没有必要呆在这里。 There have been great changes in our school since 1990. 自 1990 年以来, 我们学校发生了巨大的 变化。 There can’t be such a person in our group. 我们小组中不可能有这样的一个人。 ⑷there being 结构为 there be 句型的独立主格形式,在句中用作状语,相当于一个状语从句,它 和主句之间不能出现连接词。 There being no buses, we had to walk home. 因为没有公共汽车,我们只好步行回家。 【注意】there be 中的 be 不能用 have/ has/ had 代替。 2. Mice ran out of the fields looking for places to hide. 老鼠从田野里跑出来找地方藏身。 ⑴ looking for places to hide 为现在分词短语作状语表示伴随情况。 He likes toile in bed reading books. 他喜欢躺在床上看书。 He worked late into the night preparing a report for his boss. 他工作到深夜为老板准备一份报 告。 【注意】现在分词作状语时,分词的逻辑主语就是句子的主语,它表示分词所表示的动作与主 句主语之间的主谓关系,若为动宾关系则用过去分词。 ⑵ 现在分词作状语还可用来表示时间、条件、原因、结果等。 When crossing the street, you must be careful. 过马路时,你必须小心。 (时间状语) Being badly ill, he couldn’t attend the lecture. 由于病得厉害,他不能去听讲座了。 (原因状语) It kept raining for three hours, thus making the delay of the plane. 大雨连续下了三个小时,因此 导致了飞机的晚点。 (结果状语) Giving him a second chance, he’ll surely succeed. 再给他一次机会,他肯定会成功的。 (条件状 语) 3. It seemed as if the world was at an end! 仿佛到了世界末日! ⑴ as if (= as through), “好像;好似;仿佛” She spoke to me as if she knew me. 她和我说话的神情,好像她早就认识我似的。
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⑵ as if 的作用 ①as if 从句的用法 A: 在 look,seem 等系动词后引导表语从句。 She looks as if she were ten years younger. 她看起来好像年轻了十岁。 It seems as if our team is going to win. 看来我们队要赢了。 B:引导方式状语从句 She loves the boy as if she were his mother. 她爱这男孩,就好像她是他的母亲一样。 The child talked to us as if he were a grown up. 那孩子跟我们谈起话来,像个成年人似的。 ② as if 还可用于省略句中 如果 as if 引导的从句是“主语+系动词”结构,可省略主语和系动词,这样 as if 后就只剩下名 词、不定式、形容词(短语) 、介词短语或分词。 He acts as if (he was) a fool. 他做事像个傻子。 Tom raised his hands as if (he was going) to say something. 汤姆举起手好像要说什么。 She left the room hurriedly as if (she was) angry. 她匆忙离开房间好像生气的样子。 ③ as if 从句的语气及时态 A:as if 从句用陈述语气的情况 当说话者认为句子所述的是真实的或极有可能发生或存在的事实时。 It sounds as if it is raining. 听起来好像是在下雨。 He talks as if he is drunk. 从他谈话的样子看他是醉了。 B:as if 从句用虚拟语气的情况。 当说话人认为句子所述的是不真实的或极少有可能发生或存在的情况时。从句虚拟语气动词时 态的形式如下: a:如果从句表示与现在事实相反,谓语动词用一般过去时。 You look as if you didn’t care. 你看上去好像并不在乎。 He talks as if he knew where she was. 他说话的样子,好像知道她在哪里似的。 b:如果从句表示与过去事实相反,谓语动词用“had + 过去分词” 。 He talks about Rome as if he had been there before. 他说起罗马来好像他以前去过那里似的。 The girl listened as if she had been turned to stone. 那女孩倾听着,一动也不动,像已经变成了 石头似的。 c:如果从句表示与将来事实相反,谓语动词用“would/ could/ might +动词原形” 。 He opened his mouth as if he would say something. 他张开嘴好像要说什么。 It looks as if it might snow. 看来好像要下雪了。 4。 Two-thirds of them died or were injured during the earthquake. 三分之二的人在地震中死去活 受伤。 “some of, plenty of, a lot of, most of, the rest of, all of, half of, part of 或 ‘分数、 百分数 +of’ + 名词”等短语作主语时,谓语的单复数由 of 后面的名词决定。 A lot of students are waiting outside. 许多学生在外面等着。 A lot of money has been wasted. 许多钱被浪费了。 More than 70% of the surface of the earth is covered by water. 地球表面百分之七十以上被水覆 盖着。 5. Thousands of families were killed and many children were left without parents. 成千上万个家 庭失去了生命,许多孩子没有了父母。 many children were left without parents 是 leave many children without parents 的被动形式。 “leave + 宾语 + 宾补”是一个很常用的结构,它表示“使某人/某物处于某种状态;留下某人/某物??;
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留给某人??”等等,该结构常用作状语。其中的宾补可用名词、形容词、副词、介词短语、 现在分词、过去分词等充当。 His parents died, leaving him a lot of money. 他的父母去世了,留给他一大笔钱。 (名词作宾补) You shouldn’t have left all the windows open when you were sleeping. 你睡觉时不该开着所有的 窗子。 (形容词作宾补) He ran away angrily, leaving his girlfriend in the rain. 他生气地跑开了,留下了他的女友在雨中。 (介词短语作宾补) The woman writer passed away, leaving several books unfinished 那位女作家去世了。留下了好 几本书没写完。 (过去分词作宾补) It was impolite of you to leave the guest standing outside for half an hour. 你让客人在外边站了 半个小时真不礼貌。 (现在分词作宾补) 【辨析】make 与 leave “make + 宾语 + 宾补”与“leave + 宾语 + 宾补”的区别是 make 和 leave 之后都可接形容词 做宾补,表示“使得某人/某物??” ,但在意义上是有差异的;make 强调动作;leave 强调结果, 即某事发生后留下的影响。 Your words made me unhappy. 你的话让我生气。 The flood hit this area once again, leaving many people homeless. 洪水再次侵袭这个地区,使得 许多人无家可归。 6. All hope was not lost. 不是所有的希望都破灭了。 英语中的部分否定(即不完全否定)有如下一些表示方法: ⑴ all 的否定式:not all?(或:all?not)表示“并非都??,不是所有的都??” 。 Not all men can be masters = All men cannot be masters. 并非人人都能当头头。 Not all bamboo grows tall. 并非所有的竹子都会长得很高。 ⑵ both 的否定句:not?both(或:both?not)表示“并非两个??都??” 。 I don’t want both the books. 我不是两本书都要。 Both (the) windows are not open. 两扇窗子并不都开着。 ⑶ every 的否定式:not every?(或:every?not)表示“不是每??都??” 。 Not every book is educative.= Every book is not educative. 不是每本书都有教育意义的。 Not everyone likes this book. 并非人人都喜欢这本书的。 This flower is not seen everywhere. 这花并不是随处可见的。 ⑷ always 的否定式:not always 表示“并非总是(并非一直??) ” 。 He is not always so sad. 他不是一直都这样悲伤。 如要对上述的 all,both,every,always 等词做完全否定,那就分别要用与之相对应的完全否定 词,如:none,neither,no one,never 等。 All of them can do it-→None of them can do it. Both are good-→Neither is good. Everybody likes it-→Nobody likes it. He is always late. -→He is never late. We don’t trust them entirely-→We never trust them at all. He was here all the time-→He was never here. 7. Workers built shelters for survivors whose homes had been destroyed. 工人们给幸存者搭起帐 篷,这些人的家已经被摧毁了。 该句是一个含有 whose 引导的定语从句的主从复合句。 “whose + n.” 引导的定语从句可变为 “the + n. + of which/ whom”引导的定语从句。
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We are studying in a classroom whose windows face the south.= We are studying in a classroom the windows of which face the south. 我们在一个窗户朝南的教室里学习。 We all like the boy whose native language is French. = We all like the boy the native language of whom is French. 我们都喜欢那个母语是法语的男孩。 【辨析】whose 与 which whose 和 which 都可引导定语从句并在从句中作定语。 但 whose 意为 “……的” , 表示所属关系, 而 which 意为“这……,那……” ,在语义上相当于 this 或 that。 Please pass me the book whose cover is yellow. 请把那本黄色封面的书递给我。 He may come late, in which case Mr Sun will be angry. 他可能会迟到,那样的话孙先生会生气 的。 例题点津 例题 1. __________ no secrets between them, since they are close friends and they almost share everything with each other. A. It seems to be B. They seem to be C. There seem to be D. They seem having 答案] C 点拨] There seem to be 是 There be 句型的结构的扩展形式,意为“好像是有??” 。若 D 项改 为 They seem to have 则正确。 例题 2. It ____________ that he was there when the quarrel ____________ . A. was happened; happened B. happen; was happened C. was happened; was happened D. happened; happened 答案] D 点拨] 第一空填 happened 构成 it (so) happened that? 意为 “如此碰巧??” , 第二空的 happened 意为“发生” 。happen 作“碰巧”和“发生”讲时都是不及物动词,没有被动语态。 例题 3. On hearing the shouts of ―help‖, he rushed to the river _____________ . A. right now B. right off C. right away D. all the above 答案] D 点拨] right now,right off,right away 都有“立即;马上”的意思。 例题 4. (根据汉语提示完成句子)Close the windows in case the papers on the desks ________ ________ ________ _________ (被风刮走) 。 答案] should be blown away 点拨] blow away 为固定短语,意为 “吹走;刮走” ,in case 之后的目的状语从句可用虚拟语气, 即谓语动词用“should + 动词原形” 。 例题 5. Look out! Don’t get too close to the house ___________ roof is under repair. A. whose B. which C. of which D. that 答案] A 点拨] whose roof= the roof of which,whose 引导定语从句时用作从句的定语,表示所属关系, 意为“的??” 。 例题 6. Hearing the news, she burst into____________ and burst _____________ the room. A. crying; out B. tears; in C. crying; into D. tears; out of 答案] D 点拨] burst into tears= burst out crying,意为“突然哭起来” ,burst into the room 意为“冲进房 间” ,burst out of the room 意为“冲出房间” 。 例题 7. In the dark forest ___________ , some large enough to hold several English towns. A. stand many lakes B. lie many lakes C. many lakes lie D. many lakes stand
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答案] B 点拨] 介词短语作地点状语位于句首时,句子用完全倒装语序,且 lake 的存在状态是 lie 不是 stand,故选 B 项。 例题 8 The number of people invited ____________ fifty, but a number of them ___________ absent for different reasons. A. were; was B. was; were C. was; was D. were, were 答案] B 点拨] “the number of + n.”作主语时,句子用单数谓语动词, “a number of + n.”作主语时, 句子用谓语复数动词。 例题 9 We often provide our children with toys, footballs or basketball, ___________ that all children like these things. A. thinking B. think C. to think D. thought 答案] A 点拨] thinking 在该句中为现在分词作状语,表示原因,它和句子的主语 we 之间为主谓关系。 例题 10 Eugene’s never willing to alter any of his opinions. It’s no use ___________ with him. A. to argue B. arguing C. argued D. having arguing 答案] B 点拨] It’s no use/ useless doing?为固定句式,意为“干??是没有用的” 。 例题 11. A good story does necessarily have to have a happy ending, but the reader must not be left _____________ . A. unsatisfied B. unsatisfying C. to be unsatisfying D. being unsatisfied 答案] A 点拨] 该句考查“leave + 宾语 + 宾补”的被动形式 unsatisfied 在句中用作主语补足语,表示 人的感受。不能用现在分词 unsatisfying。 例题 12. (改为同义句)All bamboo doesn’t grow well. ________ ________ _________ __________ _________ . 答案] Not all bamboo grows well 点拨] 当 not 与“all,both,every,everyone,everything + 名词”出现在同一个句子中,不管 not 在它们之前或之后都表示部分否定。 例题 13. (根据汉语完成句子)她待他如同陌生人。 She treats him _________ _________ _________ __________ _________ _________ . 答案] as if he were a stranger 点拨] as if 引导的从句表示的情况若与事实相反,从句用虚拟语气。 例题 14. ---Did you ___________ a boy running into the yard just now? ---No, I was absorbed in the book. A. observe B. notice C. pay attention to D. look 答案] B 点拨] notice 作“注意到”讲时,指无意中的注意,pay attention to 则指“有意识地就注意” 。 例题 15. Three-fourths of the homework ___________ . A. has finished B. has been finished C. have finished D. have been finished 答案] B 点拨] “分数 + of + n.”作主语时,谓语的单复数 2of 后面的名词决定。该句中 homework 是 不可数名词,谓语动词用单数;语态是被动,故选 B。 针对性练习

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单项选择 ( )1. Xiao Ming speaks English very well as if he _________ an Englishman. A. is B. be C. should be D. were ( )2. We all __________ his heroic behaviour and try to learn from him. A. think high of B. think highly of C. think poorly of D. think nothing of ( ) 3. The UN is to __________ an end to the dispute (争论) between the two countries. I’m sure the issue (问题) will ____________ an end soon A. come; put B. come to; bring C. put; come D. bring; come to ( )4. The war meant the _________ of all our hopes and we were brought to ________ by drugs. A. ruins; ruins B. ruin; ruins C. ruins; ruin D. ruin; ruin ( )5. At least 203 miners were killed , 22 __________ and 13 ___________ in a coal mine gas explosion Monday afternoon in Fuxin. A. injuring; trapping B. injured; trapped C. injured; trapping D. injuring; trapped ( )6 . Nowadays, a large number of women, especially those from the countryside, __________ in the clothing industry. A. is working B. works C. work D. worked ( )7. It’s no ___________ arguing with Bill because he’ll never change his mind. A. use B. help C. time D. way ( )8. Your uncle seems to be a good driver, __________ , I wouldn’t dare to travel in his car. A. Even so B. Even though C. Therefore D. So ( )9. They ___________ their glasses ___________ the friendship between the two nations. A. took; for B. raised; to C. raised; for D. lift; to ( )10. Last month, part of Southeast Asia was struck by floods, from __________ effect the people are still suffering. A. that B. whose C. those D. what ( )11. I usually stop working at 6:00, by __________ time many people have already got home. A. that B. this C. which D. what ( )12. They all __________ hearing such a funny story. A. burst into laughter B. burst out laughing C. couldn’t help laughing D. all the above ( )13.She is always on the move as a reporter; as a result she has to __________ her child with her parents A. make B. leave C. stay D. have ( )14. ―We can’t go out in this weather, ‖said Bob, ___________ out of the window. A. looking B. to look C. looked D. having looked ( )15.Harbin is _____________ the north of Changchun and ____________ the Songhua River. A. to; in B. in; on C. to; on D. on; on 【参考答案】 1. D。点拨: as if 引导的从句如果与现在事实相反,从句用虚拟语气,be 动词用 were。 2. B。点拨:think highly of 意为“对??评价很高” ,think poorly/ nothing of sb.意为“对某人印 象不好;对某人评价不高” 。B 项合题意。 3. D。点拨:bring sth. to an end 和 sth. come to an end 均为固定短语,意为“结束某事” 。 4. D。点拨:ruin 作为名词意为“毁灭” ,是不可数名词;bring sth./ sb to ruin 为为固定搭配,意 为“使??毁灭;使??成为废墟” 。 5. B。点拨:该句运用了被动语态,were killed,injured and trapped 是并列的谓语动词。
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6. C。点拨:该句主语是 a large number of women,故谓语动词用复数形式。 7. A。点拨:It’s no use doing sth 为固定句式,意为“干??没有用处” 。 8. A。点拨:even so 为固定短语,意为“即使如此,即使这样” 。 9. B。点拨:raise one’s glass to 为固定搭配,意为“为??举杯;为??祝酒” 。句意:他们为 两国的友谊而举起了酒杯。 10. B。点拨:whose 引导定语从句,意为“??的” 。该定语从句同时考查了 suffer from sth.这 一短语。 11. C。点拨:which 用于“介词 + which + 名词”结构中引导定语从句,其中 which 的意思是 “这,那” 。 12. D。点拨:burst into laughter= burst out laughing,意为“突然大笑起来” ,can’t help laughing 意为“禁不住笑起来” 。A、B、C 三项均合题意,故选 D 项。 13. B。点拨:leave sb./ sth. with sb. 为固定结构,意为“把??留给某人” 。 14. A。点拨:looking out of the window 为现在分词短语作状语表示伴随情况。 15. C。点拨:哈尔滨与长春不相邻,股借此用 to。表示在江、河、湖、海的边上用介词 on, 故 C 项正确。

Section 2

Learning about Language

重点知识精讲 一、重点单词 1. frighten vt. 使惊吓;吓唬 The sudden noise frightened us. 那突如其来的噪音吓了我们一跳。 I was frightened at the sight of the snake. 看到那条蛇时我被吓坏了。 【知识拓展】frighten sb/ sth. away/ off = frighten sb./ sth. away from sth. 把??吓走(或吓跑) 。 be frightened of (doing) sth. 害怕(干)某事 be frightened to do sth. 不敢干某事 be frightened to death. 吓死 【辨析】frightening 与 frightened frightening 意为“令人害怕的” ,指人活物本身具有使人害怕的性质。 frightened 意为“受惊吓的;感到害怕的” ,是人自己的感受。 the frightening noise 令人恐怖的声音 a frightened boy 受惊吓的男孩 frightened expression 恐怖的表情 2. bar n. ⑴ 酒吧 He’s been working at a bar called Flamingo. 他一直在一家叫弗拉明戈的酒吧工作。 ⑵ 长方形的条;块 Mum bought me a bar og chocolate today. 今天妈妈给我买了一条巧克力。 ⑶ 故障;障碍(常与介词 to 连用) At that time being a woman was a bar to promotion in most professions. 那是在大多数职业中, 身 为女性就是晋升的障碍。 二、重点短语 1. give out ⑴ 用完;耗尽 After a month their food supplies gave out. 一个月之后他们的食物储备消耗殆尽。
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Her patience finally gave out. 她最终忍无可忍了。 ⑵ 停止运转;停止运行 One of the plane’s engine gave out in mid-Atlantic. 飞机飞到大西洋中部时一个发动机失灵了。 ⑶ 分发;分散 The teacher gave out the exam papers. 老师分发了试卷。 ⑷ 发出;放出(热、光等) The sun gives out light and heat. 太阳发出光和热。 【注意】give out 作“用光;耗尽”及“停止运行”讲时为不及物动词短语;作“分发”讲时, 相当于 hand out,作“放出;释放出”讲时,相当于 give off, 都是及物动词短语。 2. wake up ⑴ wake up 活跃起来;更感兴趣 All the boys woke up and joined in the game. 所有的男孩都很活跃并参加了游戏。 ⑵ wake sb. up 使活跃;使清醒 A cold shower will soon wake you up. 你冲个凉水澡,很快就清醒了。 ⑶ wake up to sth. 意识到;认识到 He hasn’t yet waken up to the seriousness of the situation. 他还没有意识到形式的严重性。 【辨析】wake,waken,awake 与 awaken 四个词都可用作动词,表示“醒来;唤醒”等意,同时它们都可用作抽象含义。wake 和 waken 可表示“唤起记忆;使感觉到” 。awake 和 awaken 可表示“察觉到;意识到;醒悟到” ,分别用 于短语 awake to sth.和 awaken (sb) to sth 中。 It took her some time to awake to the danger of her situation. 过了一段时间她才意识到她处境的 危险。 I gradually awakened to the realization that our marriage was over. 我逐渐意识到我们的婚姻结 束了。 The dream woke/ awakened a forgotten memory. 那个梦唤起了一段已忘却的记忆。 【注意】wake 的过去式、过去分词分别是 waked 或 woke,waked 或 woken。 三、 重点句型 Then take turns to complete the sentences using the attributive clauses with that, which, who or whose. 然后依次用 that,which,who 或者 whose 引导的定语从句完成句子。 take turns to do sth/ in (doing) sth.意为“依次/轮流做某事” 。 We take turns to do the housework. 我们轮流做家务。 All his children take turns in looking after him. 他的孩子们轮流照顾他。 【知识拓展】in turn 依次;轮流;转而 The children called out their names in turn. 孩子们逐一自报姓名。 Increased production will, in turn, lead to increased profits. 增加生产会继而增加利润。 give sb. a turn 使某人大吃一惊;吓某人一跳。 例题点津 例题 1. (改为同义句)Interest rates are expected to rise by one percentage point. Interest rates are expected to rise by _________ ________ ________ . 答案] one per cent 点拨] one percentage point 意为“一个百分点” ,即 one per cent,表示“百分之一” 。 例题 2. (改为同义句)He used the bottle whose top is cut off to plant flowers. He used the bottle ________ _______ ________ _________ is cut off to plant flowers. 答案] the top of which
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点拨] “whose + n.” 引导的定语从句相当于“the + n. + of which”引导的定语从句。 例题 3. The little girl was frightened ___________ the terrible noise. A. with B. of C. at D. by 答案] C 点拨] at 表示“因听到或看到??而??” 。 例题 4. What shall we use for power when all the oil in the world has ____________ ? A. given out B. put out C. held up D. used up 答案] A. 点拨] give out 意为“用完;耗尽” ;putout 意为“扑灭” ;hold up 意为“抬高;举起” ;use up 意为“用完;用尽” 。A、D 两项合句意,但 use up 为及物动词,应该用被动语态,故 A 项正确。 例题 5. They decide to _________ a notice to warn walkers to take care of the grass and flowers along the street. A. set up B. put up C. take up D. pick up 答案] B 点拨] put up 在该句中的意思是“张贴” 。 例题 6. I saw a woman running toward me in the dark. Before I could recognize who she was, she had run back in the direction ___________ she had come. A. of which B. by which C. in which D. from which 答案] D 点拨] from the direction of?表示“来自??方向” ,故用 from which 引导定语从句,修饰先行 词 the direction. 例题 7. We saw several natives advancing towards our party, and one of them came to us, ____________ we gave some bells and glasses. A. to which B. to whom C. with whom D. with which 答案] B 点拨] give sth to sb.为固定短语,故用 to whom 引导定语从句。 例题 8 The river ____________ are covered with trees is very long. A. whose banks B. of which banks C. whose the banks D. the bank of which 答案] A 点拨] whose banks = the banks of which,意为“??的岸边” 。 针对性练习 单项选择 ( )1. Because of my poor memory, all ___________ you told me has been forgotten. A. which B. what C. as D. / ( )2. While reading, you must look up words, ______________ . A. meanings of which you don’t know B. you don’t know their meanings C. whose meanings you don’t know D. whose meanings you are not known ( )3. She was educated at Beijing University, __________ she went on to have her advanced study abroad. A. after which B. from which C. from that D. after that ( )4. I know many cases __________ drivers know traffic rules but don’t follow them. A. where B. in which C. with which D. when ( )5. I’ve _____________ the importance of learning a foreign language. A. waked up B. waked up to C. woke up D. woke up to
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( )6. After two hours’ running, my legs really ____________ . A. gave up B. gave out C. gave off D. gave in ( )7. What was it that ____________ you when you were walking along the street. A. was frightened B. frightened C. was frightening D. to frighten ( )8. With the water in the river ___________, the local people were afraid there might be flood. A. going up B. gone up C. to go up D. went up 【参考答案】 1. D。点拨:all 为不定代词,其后的定语从句用 that 引导,不用 which 引导,但引导词在从句 中作宾语时可以省略。 2. C。点拨: “whose + n.”引导定语从句,表示所属关系,其中 whose 意为“??的” 。 3. A。点拨:该题考查“介词 + which”引导定语从句,其中 which 代表整个主句的内容。 4. B。点拨:in?case 为固定搭配,故用 in which 引导定语从句,修饰先行词 case。 5. B。点拨:wake up to 意为“意识到;认识到” ,且 wake 的过去分词为 waked 或 woken,故选 B 项。 6. B。点拨:give out 在该句中的意思是“累垮;筋疲力尽” ,为不及物动词短语。 7. B。点拨:frighten 为及物动词,意为“吓唬;恐吓” 。 8. A。点拨:该题考查“with + 宾语 + 宾补”结构,其中 go up 与 the water 之间为主谓关系, 故用现在分词作宾补。

Section 3 Using Language
重点知识精讲 一、重点单词 1. congratulation n. 庆贺;祝贺(常用复数形式,与介词 to 搭配) ---We’re getting married 我们要结婚了。 ---Congratulations! 恭喜恭喜! Congratulations on your exam results! 祝贺你考出了好成绩。 I offered my congratulations to him on his success. 我祝贺他取得了成功。 【注意】congratulation 应用于成功、结婚、毕业等个人的祝贺,不用于节日致辞,做致辞时常 以复数形式出现,但用作抽象意义时不用复数。表示“向某人表示祝贺”时用 congratulations to sb.,表示“对某事表示祝贺”时,用 congratulations on sth.。 【知识拓展】congratulate vt 向(某人)道贺;恭喜 congratulatory adj. 祝贺的;恭喜的 congratulate sb. on sth. 因某事而向某人祝贺 congratulate oneself on sth (为成功或成就)而感到高兴、自豪 offer/ send one’s congratulations to sb. 向某人致以祝贺 【辨析】congratulate 与 celebrate congratulate 往往指个人之间的“祝贺;恭喜” ,常用于 congratulate sb. on sth,意为“因某事而 向某人祝贺” 。 celebrate 往往指群体性地或大规模地庆祝,往往以宴会、聚会或其他许多人参加的形式进行, 它的宾语往往是某物。 He congratulated us on our getting married. 他祝贺我们新婚大喜。 We’re celebrating our grandpa’s ninetieth birthday next week. 我们下周要庆祝爷爷的九十大寿。 2. judge ⑴ n. 法官;裁判(员)
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The judge sentenced him to five years imprison. 法官判他五年监禁。 The judge’s decision is final. 裁判的决定为最终决定。 ⑵ vt. 判断;判定;猜测(大小、数量等) ;裁判;评判 As far as I can judge, all of them are to blame. 依我看,他们都应当承担责任。 To judge from what he said, he was very disappointed. 从他的话判断,他非常失望。 I judge him to be about 50. 我估计他年纪在五十岁左右。 She was asked to judge the essay competition. 她被邀请担任散文比赛的评委。 What gives you the right to judge other people? 你有什么权利对别人评头论足? 【知识拓展】judgement n. 判断(力) ;看法;评价;判决;裁判 judgemental adj 判断的;动辄指责人的 judging by/ from? 从??判断 judge sb./ sth. to be/ do 认为某人/某物?? don’t judge a book by its cover 勿以貌取人;勿只凭外表判断 pass judgement on sb. 对某人进行判决 【注意】表示“从??来判断”时,须用 judging by/ from?或 to judge from 而不用 judge 的过 去分词形式。 3. honour ⑴ n.[U] 尊敬;正义感;道义;荣誉 They stood in silence as a mark of honour to her. 他们肃立以示对她的敬意。 Proving his innocence has become a matter of homour. 证实他的清白已经成了一件道义上的事。 We must uphold the honour of our country at any time. 我们在任何时候都必须捍卫祖国的的荣誉。 ⑵ n. [single] 荣幸;光荣;引起尊敬(或崇拜)的人(或事物) It was a great honour to be invited today. 今天承蒙邀请到此,深感荣幸。 She’s an honour to the profession. 她是这一行业的光荣 ⑶ n. [C] (为表扬某人的)奖励;荣誉称号 He was buried with full military honours. 他受到了隆重的军葬礼。 ⑷ vt. 尊敬;尊重;给予表扬(或奖励、头衔、称号) ;信守;执行(承诺) The president honoured with a personal visit. 总统亲临,使我们感到荣幸。 He has been honoured with a knighthood for his scientific work. 他因科研成就而获爵士头衔。 I have every intention of honouring our contract. 我完全愿意执行我们的合约。 【知识拓展】honourable adj. 可敬的;值得钦佩的 honour sb. with sth. 通过某事向某人表示敬意 honour sb/ sth. with sth. for sth. 因某事而给予某人??奖励(头衔等) be/ feel honoured to do sth. (做某事)感到荣幸 do sb. an honour/ the honour of doing sth. 使增光;赏光;给??带来荣誉 have the honour of sth/ of doing sth. 得到某殊荣;有幸做某事 the honours are even. 势均力敌;不分胜负 in honour of sb./ sth. 为向??表示敬意 in one’s honour on one’s honour 用人格担保;以名誉担保 4. express ⑴ vt. 表示;表达;表露 Teachers have expressed concern about the emphasis on testing. 老师们对太注重考试成绩的现象 表示担忧。

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Words can’t express how pleased I am. 言语无法表达我愉快的心情。 Teenagers often have difficulty expressing themselves. 十来岁的孩子在表达思想方面常常有困 难。 ⑵ vt. (用符号等)表示;代表 The figures are expressed as percentages. 这些数字用百分数表示。 ⑶ adj. 快速的;快递的;特快的 He came home by taking an express train. 他是乘特快列车来这里的。 【知识拓展】expression n. 表示;表达;表露 expressive adj. 富于表情的;表现的;表示的 expressionless adj. 无表情的;呆板的 expressionism n. 表现主义 二、重点短语 1. be proud 感到自豪 ⑴ be proud of sb./ sth. 为??感到骄傲;因??而自豪 He was proud of himself for not giving up. 他为自己没有放弃而豪情满怀。 Your achievements are something to be proud of. 你的成就是值得骄傲的。 ⑵ be proud that? 因??而自豪 She was proud that her daughter had so much talent. 女儿这么有天赋令她喜不自胜。 ⑶ be proud to do sth. 因干某事而感到自豪 I’m very proud to be a part of the team. 能成为队中的一员我感到十分自豪。 ⑷ be too proud to do sth. 太傲慢而不能??;太自重而不?? She was too proud to admit she could be wrong. 她自视甚高不愿承认自己有错。 Don’t be too proud to ask for help. 不要放不下自尊求人帮忙。 【注意】be proud of sb./ sth.,be proud that 以及 be proud to do sth.中的 be 可换为 feel,become 等其他表示“变得;成为”的系动词。 【知识拓展】proudly adv. 得意地;自豪地;骄傲地 pride n. 骄傲;自豪 vt. 以??为豪 take pride in = be proud of 以??为豪 with pride (proudly) 自豪地 pride oneself upon 以??而自豪 2. be known as 作为??而出名;被称作?? Einstein is known as a great scientist. 爱因斯坦作为一名伟大的科学家而出名。 Shanghai is known as the largest city of China. 上海作为中国最大的城市而为人所知。 Known as one of the greatest scientists, Madame Curie was admired and respected by many people. 作为最伟大的科学家之一,居里夫人受到许多人的敬重。 【知识拓展】 be known for = be famous for 因??而出名 be known to sb. 为某人所知 be known by? 根据??了解 【注意】be known 后接不同的介词表示不同的含义,不同的介词之后需接不同类型的名词或代 词;as 后接表示人的身份、职业等的名词或代词; for 后接成就、事迹一类的名词或代词; to 后面接指人的名词或代词;by 后接用以评价的名词或代词。 三、 重点句型 1. We are pleased to tell you that you have won the high school speaking competition about new
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Tangshan. 我们很高兴地通知你,你已经获得关于新唐山的中学演讲比赛的大奖。 to tell you that you have? about new Tnagshan 是不定式用作原因状语。动词不定式用作原因状 语时常见于以下句型:主语 + be/ feel ? + adj./ p.p + to do?。 I’m glad to meet you here. 我很高兴在这里见到你。 He felt ashamed to have made such a silly mistake. 犯了一个如此愚蠢的错误,他感到很羞愧。 【注意】如果不定式表示的动作发生于过去,而用不定式的完成形式。 2. Our office would like to have you speak to the park visitors on July 28 at 11:00 am. 我们办公 室想让你在 7 月 28 日上午 11 点对来公园的游客进行讲解。 该句运用了 would like to do sth. 句型及 have sb. do sth. 这一短语。 (1)would like to do sth. 意为“想要干某事” ,相当于 feel like doing sth.。 I would like to make as many friend as possible. 我想尽量多交朋友。 【知识拓展】would like sb. to do sth. 想让某人干某事 like to do/ doing sth. 喜欢干某事 would rather do sth. 宁愿干某事 【注意】 表示过去想干却没干成的事, 往往使用 would like to have done sth., 意为 “本想干某事” 。 (2)have sb. do sth.意为“让某人干某事” , 相当于 let/ make sb do sth.,其中的 do 为动词原形 做宾补。 Mother has me clean the table every day. 妈妈让我每天清理饭桌。 Who had you write this notice? 谁让你写这张布告的? 【知识拓展】have sb./ sth. doing sth. 让??一直干??;允许??干?? have sth./ sb. done 使??被干??;使??遭受??;让人干?? have sth. to do/ to be done. 有??事要干 【注意】当 have 作“有”讲时才可用于 have sth. to do/ to be done 这一结构中,其中的不定式作 定语,若强调主语亲自干这件事,用不定式的主动形式,若不是主语亲自干,则用不定式的被 动语态。 例题点津 例题 1. (改为同义句)Do you feel like going swimming this afternoon? _________ you __________ _________ go swimming this afternoon? 答案] Would; like to 点拨] (sb.) would like to do sth = (sb.) feel like doing sth.,意为“想要干??;喜欢干??” 。 例题 2. (改为同义句)According to what he wears, he must have a lot of money. _________ _________ what he wears, he must gave a lot of money. 答案] Judging by/ from 点拨] judging by/ from 为固定结构, 意为“从??来判断” 。 例题 3. (根据汉语提示完成句子)I never thought you would_______ _______ _______ _______ (失去优势)in this job. 答案] throw away the advantage 点拨] throw away 有“失去;抛弃”之意。 例题 4. (根据汉语提示完成句子)_______ _______ _______ _______(很荣幸)to be invited to such an occasion. 答案] It is an honour 点拨] it 用作形式主语,to be invited?为真正的主语。honour 作为“让人觉得荣幸的事”时常 用单数形式。 例题 5. She went to the bookstore and bought ___________ .
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A. dozen books B. dozens books C. dozen of books D. dozens of books 答案] D 点拨] dozens of 为固定搭配,意为“许多的” 。 例题 6. You should understand the traffic rule by now. You have had it __________ often enough. A. explaining B. to explain C. explain D. explained 答案] D 点拨] have sth. done 为使役结构,意为“使??被??” 。 例题 7. We __________ what our soldiers have done for our country. A. proud of B. are pride of C. take pride in D. take pride of 答案] C 点拨] take pride in = be proud of,意为“以??为自豪,为??感到骄傲” 。 例题 8 (根据汉语完成句子)她能清楚地用英语表达自己。 She can ________ ________ _________ in English. 答案] express herself clearly 点拨] express 作“表达”讲为及物动词,express oneself 意为“表达自己” 。 例题 9 A kind of electronic equipment, ___________ an MP3, is popular with young people now. A. knowing as B. known as C. know as D. known for 答案] B 点拨] known as an MP3 在句中作定语, 是 which is known as an MP3 的省略形式。 be known for, “因为??而出名” ,不合题意。 例题 10 ---Would you like another cup of tea? ---___________ . A. Yes, I like some. B. Yes, I’d like to C. Yes, I hope D. Yes, thanks 答案] D 点拨] 考查交际用语。问句意为:你想在喝杯茶吗?D 项为“行,谢谢”符合上下文。而 A、 B、C 三项用法不对。 针对性练习 单项选择 ( )1. I _________ you ________ what you have achieved. A. celebrate; on B. congratulate; on C. congratulate; for D. celebrate; for ( )2. Abraham Lincoln is known ___________ one of the greatest presidents of the USA. A. to B. for C. as D. of ( )3. ---Shall we start now? ---OK. I’m well _____________ for the journey. A. preparing B. preparations C. prepared D. prepares ( )4. __________ by media reports, the result has been unclear. A. To judge B. Having judged C. Judging D. Judged ( )5. __________ had been expected, he succeeded in carrying out his plan. A. It B. What C. Which D. As ( )6. ---Did you take part in their party? --- I ___________ , but I had extra work to do. A. would like B. would like to C. would like to have D. would ( )7. Who would you like to ____________ for the doctor? A. have send B. have to send C. have sent D. have sending
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( )8. I’m going to Shanghai. Do you have anything ___________ to your daughter? A. to take B. to be taken C. taken D. taking ( )9. I feel it ___________ to work with such a great scientist. A. honour B. an honour C. a honour D. honours 【参考答案】 1. B。点拨:congratulate sb. on sth 为固定搭配,意为“因某事而祝贺某人” 。 2. C。点拨:be known as 意为“作为??而出名” 。 3. C。点拨:prepared 可用 well 修饰,构成短语 be well prepared for sth., 意为“为??做好了 准备” 。 4. C。点拨:Judging by(从??判断)是垂悬分词,无论与主句主语是主动关系,还是被动关 系,都只能用 judging by 形式。 5. D。点拨:as 引导非限制性定语从句,意为“正如,这一点” ,它代表整个主句内容。 6. C。点拨:would like to have done sth.表示“过去想干却没有干成某事” 。 7. A。点拨:该句考查的是 have sb. do sth 这一结构。 8. B。 点拨: have sth. to do 意为 “有??事要干” , 若该事不是主语亲自干则用不定式的被动式, 即 have sth. to be done。 9. B。点拨:honour 用作单数形式表示“令人感到荣幸的事” 。

Section 4 Grammar
重点知识精讲 定语从句(II) 一、定语从句的概念 在复合句中,修饰名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。被修饰的名词或代词叫先行词。引导定 语从句的词有两种:关系代词和关系副词。关系代词有:that,which,who,whom,whose 等, 关系副词有:when,where,why 等。关系代词和关系副词有三个作用:①连接主从句;②指代 先行词;③在定语从句中做句子成分。定语从句一般位于先行词之后。 二、关系代词的用法 1。who 引导定语从句时,在从句中作主语、宾语或表语,先行词是人。 This is the man who helped me out of trouble. 他就是那个帮我解决困难的人。 I don’t know the woman who you spoke to just now. 我不认识那个刚才你与她交谈的妇女。 【注意】who 不能用于介词之后引导定语从句,此时须用 whom 代替 who。 I need a friend with whom I can share my sorrow and happiness. 我需要一个与我同甘苦共患难 的朋友。 2。whom 的用法 whom 引导定语从句时,在从句中作宾语或表语,先行词是人。 The doctor whom/ who you are looking for is in the room. 你找的那个医生在房间里。 She’s such a girl with whom you can talk freely. 她是一个你可以与之随意交谈的姑娘。 【注意】①whom 引导定语从句时不能用作从句的主语。 ②whom 可构成“介词 + whom” ,引导定语从句。 3。 whose 的用法 whose 引导定语从句时,在从句中作定语,意为“??的” ,表示所属关系,其先行词可以是人, 也可以是物。 He’s living in a room whose window faces the east. 他住在一个窗户朝东的房间里。 The boy whose spoken English is excellent draws our attention. 那个英语口语极好的男孩引起了
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我们的注意。 【知识拓展】 “whose + n. ”引导的定语从句相当于“the + n. + of + which”引导的定语从句。 Please pass me the book whose cover is yellow and black. = Please pass me the book, the cover of which is yellow and black. 请把那本封面是黑黄相间的书递给我。 4。that 与 which 的用法 that 和 which 在它们所引导的定语从句中作主语、宾语或表语,that 的先行词既可是人,也可是 物,which 的先行词是物。 They finally reached a storehouse that/which used to be a church. 他们最后到了一个曾经是个教 堂的仓库那里。 I have been keeping the presents that/ which he sent me. 我一直保存着他送给我的礼物。 【注意】在下列情况下 which 和 that 不能换用。 ⑴ 只用 that 不用 which 的情况: ①先行词是人时。 We all like the new teacher that teaches us English. 我们都喜欢教我们英语的那位新老师。 ②先行词是不定代词 all, few, little, much, many, some, something, nothing, anything, everything 等时。 All that we have to do is to practice every day. 我们所必须做的就是每天练习。 I’ll do everything that I can (do) to help you. 我将尽一切努力来帮助你。 ③当先行词被 all,few,little,only,any,no,very 等词修饰时。 Every means that had been tried proved to be useless. 尝试过的每一种方法都被证明是无用的。 I’ve read all the books that you gave me. 我已读了你给我的所有的书。 ④当先行词被序数词或形容词最高级所修饰时。 The first lesson that I learned will never be forgotten. 我将永远不会忘记我的第一堂课。 It’s the most interesting book that I’ve ever read. 这是我曾经读过的最有趣的书。 ⑤当先行词既有人又有物时。 They talked of things and persons that they remembered in the school. 他们谈起了他们所记得的 学校的人和事。 ⑥当 the way 作先行词且引导词在从句中作状语时。 I hate the way (that) he talks to his wife. 我讨厌他和他妻子说话的方式。 ⑦当 time 作先行词,作“次数”讲,并且引导词在从句中不做成分时。 This is the first time (that) I have been here. 这是我第一次来这儿。 ⑧当主句是 which 开头的特殊疑问句时。 Which of the cows are those that produce the most milk? 哪些奶牛产奶最多? ⑵只用 which 不用 that 的情况: ①which 作介词宾语并且与介词一起提到定语从句的句首时。 It’ll be something of which you’re proud. 这将是你为之自豪的东西。 This is the very room in which I was born. 这正是我出生的那个房间。 ② 引导非限制性定语从句,并在从句中作主语、宾语或表语时。 We all agreed to the plan, which we thought was of great value. 我们都同意这个计划,我们认为 它很有价值。 ③用于“介词 + which + n.”结构中引导定语从句,which 意为“这、那” ,在从句中作定语。 He stayed in England for three years, during which time he learned English. 他在英国呆了三年, 在此期间他学会了英语。 【知识拓展】which 引导非限制性定语从句时可用来代替整个主句的内容。
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He’s always thinking highly of his own role in the work, which, of course, makes others unhappy. 他 总是高度评价自己在这项工作中的作用,这当然会令别人不高兴。 【注意】当 who(m),that,which 用作从句的宾语时,经常可以省略。 例题点津 例题 1. I have many friends, ___________ some are businessmen. A. of them B. from which C. who of D. of whom 答案] D 点拨] 由 some of the friends are?可知应用(some) of whom 引导定语从句。 例题 2. There are two buildings, ___________ stands nearly a hundred feet high. A. the large B. the larger C. the larger one that D. the larger of which 答案] D 点拨] the larger of which 指 the larger of the two buildings。 例题 3. In the office I never seem to have time until after 5:30 pm _________ many people have got home. A. whose time B. that C. on which D. by which time 答案] D 点拨] 该题考查“介词 + which + 名词”引导的定语从句,其中 which 意为“这;那” 。 例题 4. What surprised me was not what he said but _____________ he said it. A. the way B. in the way that C. in the way D. the way which 答案] A 点拨] the way 之后的宾语从句引导词在从句中作状语时,可用 that 或 which 或省略引导词。 例题 5. Who _________ met Premier Zhou was not impressed by his manners? A. that B. who C. which D. whom 答案] A 点拨] who 作先行词,为避免重复用 that 引导定语从句。 例题 6. Her sister has become a lawyer, ___________ she wanted to be. A. who B. that C. what D. which 答案] D 点拨] which 引导非限制性定语从句,代替 lawyer 这一职业。 例题 7. Finally the thief handed everything _____________ he had stolen to the police. A. which B. what C. whatever D. that 答案] D 点拨] 不定代词 everything 作先行词,定语从句用关系代词 that 引导。 例题 8 This is Mr Smith, __________ I think has something interesting to tell you. A. who B. whom C. that D. / 答案] A 点拨] who 引导定语从句,代替先行词 Mr Smith 并在从句中作主语。 例题 9 The foreign guests spoke highly of the children and their shows __________ . they saw in the kindergarten. A. what B. who C. which D. that 答案] D 点拨] 先行词既包括人又包含物时,定语从句用关系代词 that 引导。 例题 10 The clever boy made a hole in the wall, ___________ he could see what was going on inside the house.
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A. on which B. at which C. through which D. in which 答案] C 点拨] which 代替先行词 hole,through which 指 through the hole。 例题 11 ___________ is reported in the newspaper, talks between the two countries are making progress. A. It B. As C. That D. What 答案] B 点拨] as 引导非限制性定语从句,代表整个主句的内容,译为“这一点;正如” 。 例题 12 There is much chance __________ Bill will recover from his injury in time for the race. A. that B. which C. until D. if 答案] A 点拨] 空白处缺一引导同位语从句的关键词,由于与之同位的名词 chance 在这里是“可能性; 机遇”的意思,等于 possibility,应选 that。 针对性练习 单项选择 ( )1.Next week, __________ we’ll spend in our village, is coming. A. what B. when C. that D. which ( )2. The weather turned out to be very good, __________ was more than we could expected. A. what B. which C. that D. it ( )3. ___________ is known to everybody, the moon travels round the earth every month. A. It B. As C. That D. What ( ) 4. The great trouble he __________ show us how to run the machine __________ him completely tired out A. took to; made B. takes to; make C. took; made D. take to; to make ( )5. It’s high time __________ I went back home. A. on which B. which C. when D. / ( )6. The beautiful dress __________ Miss Jones went to the ball was borrowed from a friend of hers. A. in which B. worn by C. wearing which D. that ( )7. Without facts, we can’t form a worthwhile opinion, for we need to have factual knowledge ____________ our thinking. A. which to be based on B. upon which to base C. which to base upon D. to which to be based ( )8. Which of the two cows ___________ you keep produces more milk. A. that B. which C. whom D. what ( ) 9. The most important thing __________ we should pay attention to is the first thing ___________ I have said. A. which; that B. that; which C. which; which D. that; that ( )10. The house, __________ roof is being repaired, is where my parents are living at present. A. what B. whose C. which D. where 【参考答案】 1. D。点拨:which 引导非限制性定语从句,代替先行词 next week,在从句中作 spend 的宾语。 2. B。点拨:which 引导非限制性定语从句,代替整个主句内容。 3. B。点拨:as 引导非限制性定语从句,代表整个主句内容。which 引导非限制性定语从句时不
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能放在句首。 4. A。点拨:he took to show us how to run the machine 为定语从句,修饰先行词 the great trouble, 引导词作从句中的宾语已省略。made 为该句的谓语动词。 5. D。点拨:It’s high time that? 为固定句式,其中 that 引导的是定语从句,修饰先行词 time, 它可以省略。 6. A。点拨:in which 引导定语从句,代替 in the dress,意为“穿着??衣服” 。 7. B。点拨: “介词+ which/ whom + to do”相当于“介词+ which/ whom”引导的定语从句。upon which to base our thinking 相当于 upon which we can base our thinking。 8. A。点拨:主句是以 which 开头的特殊疑问句,要用 that 引导定语从句。 9. D。点拨:当先行词前有形容词最高级或序数词修饰时,定语从句用 that 引导。 10. B。点拨:whose 引导定语从句并在从句中作定语,意为“??的” ,表示所属关系。

UNIT 4

测试题

I. 单项选择 ( )1. The kind of disease is believed ___________ by eating unhealthy food. A. having caused B. to be caused C. to have caused D. being caused ( )2. It _________ that I was away on holiday when he dropped in at my house. A. was so happened B. to happen C. so happened D. was so happened ( )3. There used to be a hospital where the new school is being built , ___________? A. usedn’t it B. didn’t there C. wasn’t there D. wasn’t it ( )4. The chemistry teacher warns us ___________ in the laboratory. A. not to smoke B. against smoking C. of smoking D. A or B ( )5. ---Did you __________ a boy enter the room? ---No, I was lost in reading a book just now. A. observe B. watch C. notice D. look ( )6. The cake smells ___________ and sells __________. A. good; good B. good; well C. well; well D. well; good ( )7. Many leaders of the USA ___________ at that time. A. were not highly thought of B. were not thought highly of C. were not thought of highly D. were highly not thought of ( )8. Don’t worry about him. It’s ___________ fro him to be treated like that. A. ordinary B. average C. usual D. accustomed ( )9. I’m wondering when the quarrel between them will __________. A. come to the end B. come to an end C. bring to the end D. bring to an end ( )10. ___________ of students will train to be learned citizens. A. A great many B. A good deal C. A large number D. An amount ( )11. He treasures the vase very much, ___________ is very high. A. which price B. that price C. its price D. whose price ( )12. I’d like to do all I can to help him. ___________ he won’t believe in me.. A. Even though B. Even so C. As though D. Like so ( )13. I came to many interesting things and people there __________ I’ll never forget. A. which B. who C. that D. whom ( )14. The workforce is made up of more than 2,000 people, ___________ women. A. most of whom B. most of them C. most of them are D. and most of whom are
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( )15. The prices of daily goods are ___________ , which makes the local people worried. A. going up B. gone up C. raising D. rising up II. 完形填空 Last Sunday I saw the worst storm in years. It ______16_____ suddenly in the mid-afternoon and ______17_____ more than three hours. At first, the sky grew ______18_____ all of a sudden. Within minutes, forks of lightning forced a way into the sky. Then it was ______19_____ by the boom-boom-boom of ______20______ . A very strong wind blew into my room. My valuable notes, _______21______ on my desk in the room, _____22______ high into the air. I jumped up to ______23_____ them but unluckily a few sheets ______24______ out of the open window. ______25______ I ran out to get the notes, big drops of rain began to ____26______. As soon as I ran back into the house, the ______27______ began to pour in waves. I _______28______to close the windows. I did it but it was wet all over. I ______29_____ myself with a towel (毛巾). Then I heard a sudden loud ______30_____ from the back of the house. I ran out of the room to_____31_____ what it was. A tree was broken. Part of its big branch _______32______ across the floor. The table was ______33_____into pieces. It would _____34_____ a lot of work to rebuild it. However, we were______35______ that no one was hurt. ( )16. A. fell B. reached C. came D. went ( )17. A. lasted B. kept C. flowed D. blew ( )18. A. bright B. grey C. blue D. dark ( )19. A. followed B. caused C. made D. brought ( )20. A. rain B. thunder C. wind D. storm ( )21. A. placing B. putting C. lying D. picking ( )22. A. threw B. jumped C. flew D. rose ( )23. A. take B. catch C. draw D. stop ( )24. A. moved B. came C. ran D. sailed ( )25. A. Before B. As C. During D. Since ( )26. A. fall B. rain C. drop D. burst ( )27. A. storm B. water C. wind D. rain ( )28. A. walked B. fought C. went D. got ( )29. A. dried B. cleaned C. swept D. helped ( )30. A. explosion B. scream C. voice D. sound ( )31. A. learn about B. look for C. see into D. find out ( )32. A. lay B. knocked C. laid D. stood ( )33. A. turned B. changed C. broken D. found ( )34. A. give B. pay C. spend D. take ( )35. A. merciful B. afraid C. thankful D. careful III. 阅读理解 A A frightening example of the sea’s power saw 125, 000 people die in 12 different countries. The terrible disaster was caused when a massive earthquake sent tsunamis breaking into India Ocean coastlines. Various areas in Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Thailand, Indian, Malaysia and East Africa have been destroyed by the huge waves. Whole towns were simply swept aside by the power of the water. Cars, trains and buildings could not remain firm, not to say the people who stood in the way. The earthquake measured 9.0 on the Righter scale (里氏震级) and occurred off the coast of
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Indonesia. It was recorded as the fifth strongest since 1900. Scientists said the quake was as powerful as a million of the atomic bombs that were dropped on Japan during World War II. ―This may be the worst natural disaster in recent history because it is affecting so many heavily populated coastal areas,‖ said Jan Egeland, a UN official. Because such waves hardly happen in the Indian Ocean, there is no system in place to warn coastal people who are about to be hit. Tsunami is a Japanese word. They are usually caused by a sudden rise or fall of part of the Earth’s crust (地壳) under the ocean. Tsunamis often happen in ocean and they are most common in the Pacific. Tsunamis can be very long, as much as 100 kilometers. They are able to cross entire oceans without losing much energy. One of the most striking facts about tsunamis is that an earthquake on one side of the Pacific Ocean can cause huge waves on the other side. When the ocean is deep, tsunamis can travel unnoticed at the speed of up to 800 kilometers per hour. They can cross the entire ocean in a day or less. The wave may only be a few meters high in the ocean but when it is near the shore and reaches shallow (浅的) water, the wave builds up very quickly in height. ( )36. We know from this passage that______________ . A. the earthquake has been the strongest disaster in the last century B. the wave soon becomes higher when it reaches the shore C. the atomic bombs were more powerful than the earthquake. D. It’s not very easy to send warning messages to the local people. ( )37. Which of the following statements is NOT true? A. Tsunami is a word taken in from Japanese. B. Tsunamis are quite common in Indian Ocean C. People in more than ten countries suffered a lot D. No warning system has been set up to watch tsunamis there ( )38. Which is NOT the reason that caused such a terrible disaster? A. There is a large population in the coastal areas. B. People didn’t get any message about it before it occurred C. Most areas that suffered a lot in the tsunami are less developed D. The earthquake that brought about the tsunami was quite strong. B MEDAN, Indonesia (AP)—Seconds after take-off, an Indonesian airliner shook violently, veered (突然转向) to the left and crashed into a busy neighbourhood on Monday, bursting into flames and killing at least 147 people –many on the ground. Up to 16 passengers survived the crashed, including an 18-month-old shielded by his mother ’s arms. The Mandala Airlines plane went down 500 yards from the Medan airport in north Sumatra, pushing aside cars and motorcycles before plowing into a row of houses. Witnesses said that some people were on fire as they fled the shattered wreckage (残骸). Investigators were trying to determine what caused the crash, Indonesia’s second air disaster in nine months and the sixth worldwide since August 1. Authorities considered foul play unlikely, but were examining the possibility of human error or technical failure, said airline managing director Asril Tanjung. ―I struggled to take off my seat belt and then ran through a hole in the fuselage (机身), jumping over charred (烧焦的) bodies scattered all over the road,‖ said Sitepu, 35, who had minor bruises to
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his legs. ―It’s a wonder that I survived. I can’t believe it.‖ The plane was carrying 116 passengers and crew, airline officials said, Sixteen survived, including the infant and his mother, said Nining, a Mandala spokesman. Monday’s crash follows five major airline accidents in August, 2005, the deadliest month for plane disasters since May 2002. Some 334 people died in accidents in Peru, Venezuela, Greece and Tunisia last month. A plane overshot a runway in Toronto and caught fire; no one died. Dozens of relatives and friends of victims wept at the airport in Jakarta upon hearing the news. ―I am waiting for my mother, but Mandala just said that the plane crashed and she was on board,‖ said Aryati, in tears. ―Her name has appeared on a list of victims on TV.‖ Mandala Airlines is a Jakarta-based domestic ( 国内的 ) carrier founded in 1969 by a military-run foundation. Its 15-plane fleet consists mainly of 1970s-vintage Boeing 737-200 jets. In recent years, the financially troubled airline has been forced to cut services and fares to remain competitive. Indonesia’s last jet (喷气式飞机) crash was in February 2005. Twenty-six people were killed when a plane operated by low-cost Lion Air skidded (滑行) off the runway on Java Island. The country’s worst crash was in September 1997. A Garuda Airbus smashed into mountains near Medan, killing all 232 people on board. ( )39. How many people on the ground died because of the airliner crash on Monday? A. 31 B. 47 C. 50 D. 15 ( )40.What does the underlined word ―shielded‖ means in Paragraph 2? A. Protected B. Destroyed C. Shifted D. Crashed ( )41. When did Indonesia’s worst airliner crash happen according to the passage? A. In September, 1997 B. In May, 2002 C. In February, 2005 D. In August, 2005 ( )42. Which of the following is TRUE about the Mandala Airlines? A. It’s an international carrier founded by a military-run foundation B. Its planes are mainly Boeing 737s that have been produced in the last 15 years. C. It has been troubled by financial problem in recent years D. It has good services and fares to remain competitive ( )43. What’s the best title for the passage? A. The deadliest Month for Plane Disasters B. Mandala Airlines In Trouble C. Sixteen Passengers Survived the Crash D. Indonesia’s Jet Crash Killed 147 C People all over the world today are beginning to hear and learn more and more about the problem of pollution. Pollution is caused either by man’s release of completely new and often artificial substances into the environment, or by releasing greatly increased amounts of a natural substances, such as oil from oil tankers into the sea. The whole industrial process which makes many of the goods and machines we need and use in our daily lives, is bound to create a number of waste products which upset the environmental balance, or the ecological (生态的) balance as it is also known. Many of these waste products can be prevented or disposed (处理) of. But while more and more new and complex goods are produced, there will be new, dangerous wastes to be disposed of, for example, the waste products from nuclear power stations. Many people, therefore, see pollution as only part of a larger and more large and more complex problem, that is, the whole process of industrial production and consumption of goods. Others again see the problem mainly in connection with agriculture, where new methods are helping farmers grow
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more and more on their land to feed our ever-increasing populations. However, the land itself is gradually becoming worn out as it is being used, in some cases, too heavily, and artificial fertilizers cannot restore the balance. Whatever its underlying reasons, there is no doubt that much of the pollution caused could be controlled if only companies, individuals and governments would make more efforts. In the home there is an obvious need to control litter and waste. Food comes wrapped up three or four times in packages that all have to be disposed of; drinks are increasingly sold in bottles or tins which can’t be reused. This not only causes a litter problem, but also is a great waste of resources, in terms of glass, metals and paper. Advertising has helped this process by persuading many of us not only to buy things we neither want nor need, but also to throw away much of what we do buy. Pollution and waste combine to be a problem everyone can help to solve by cutting out unnecessary buying, excess consumption and careless disposal of the products we use in our daily lives. ( )44. The main cause of pollution is _____________. A. our ever-increasing population B. increased amounts of a natural substance C. the release of artificial or natural substances into the environment D. the production of new industrial goods ( )45. In the writer ’s view, the more new goods there will be _____________ . A. the less pollution B. the harder pollution can be prevented C. the more easily pollution can be controlled D. the more pollution will be ( )46. Much of the pollution could be controlled if only ______________ . A. people would pay more attention to the problem B. governments would take effective measures C. all sides concerned would make more efforts D. farmers would use less artificial fertilizers ( )47. People can help solve the problem of pollution by _____________ . A. asking their governments to control litter by _______________ . B. making anti-pollution advertisements C. cutting down the use of oil and other oil products D. reducing unnecessary buying, over-consumption and careless disposal of waste D As strong north winds tear down the autumn leaves and you walk as fast as you can back to your warm home, you may feel this is the coldest weather this winter has seen so far. In Beijing, December 4 was the coldest day seen in December in the past 50 years. In Northeast China, the first snows came to many cities. Strong winds, dropping mercury (水银柱) and snowstorms are all the results of a strong cold front. A cold front marks the boundary (分界线) where cold air is replacing warm air. On a weather map, cold fronts are drawn as a solid blue line with triangles. These triangles point in the direction of air movement. Typically, warmer, more humid air is found in advance of a cold front, while colder, drier air is behind it. So after a cold front hits, the weather will be dry and clear. Usually in China, cold fronts comes from two directions. In the past two weeks the cold front swept from the north to the southeast across China. The front formed in the Arctic blew across Siberia in Russia and arrived in China. It lowered temperatures by an average 8—10 degrees Centigrade in the northern half of China over the past week and will lower the temperatures by an average of 6—8 degrees Centigrade in the
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southern part this week, according to the Beijing-based Central Meteorological Station. For many provinces in southern China, winter is finally arriving. Cold fronts also arrive from Kazakhstan in the northwestern Xinjiang Uirgur Autonomous Region in winter. A weak cold front from that direction brought some snow to Xinjiang and other northwest provinces last weekend. But weather movements are not all cold. A warm front marks the region where warm air replaces cold air. An average warm front arrives more gently than a typical cold front. In China, warm fronts usually come in spring from the east and southeast. They often bring rains and change the wind direction from northwest to southeast. ( )48. The passage is mainly about ____________ . A. the arrival of winter B. the cause of sudden change in weather C. weather movement D. what brings about winter ( )49. A typical cold front _____________ . A. is like triangles moving in certain directions B. only comes from the north C. is stronger than an average warm front D. brings snow and wind ( )50. The direct cause of a sharp drop in temperature is _____________ . A. a cold front B. cold air from the Arctic C. cold air from Kazakhstan D. a strong north wind ( )51. We can infer from the passage that ____________ . A. a front forms where cold air meets warm air, with either of them stronger B. warm fronts always follow cold fronts C. December 4 is the coldest day in Beijing in the past 50 years D. two cold fronts hit Beijing in the past two weeks. E Forces other than damaging winds are also at work inside tornadoes (龙卷风) . Sometimes, as the writhing, twisting funnel (漏斗形物) passes over a house, the walls and ceiling burst apart as if a bomb had gone off inside. This explosion is caused by the low air pressure at the centre of a tornado. The pressure at the centre of a tornado is usually 13 pounds per square inch. However, inside the house the air pressure is normal, about 15 pounds per square inch. The difference of 2 pounds per square inch between the inside and outside pressure may not seem like much. But suppose a tornado funnel passes over a small building, there is 2 pounds of pressure from the inside that is not balanced by air pressure outside the building. On the ceiling, that adds up to an unbalanced pressure of 57, 600 pounds. The pressure on the four walls adds up to 172, 8000 pounds. If windows are open in the building, some of the inside air will rush out through them. This will balance the pressure inside and outside the building. But if the windows are shut tightly, the enormous inside pressure may cause the building to burst. Unfortunately, heavy rain and hail (冰雹) often occur in thunderstorm that later produce tornadoes. So people frequently shut all windows to protect their property. This may cause far worse damage later. For the same reason, cellars (地下室) must have an air vent. Otherwise, the cellar door might be blown out when a tornado passes over it. ( )52. What did the paragraph coming before the passage most probably discuss? A. Measuring rainfall from a storm. B. The damaging powerful winds of tornadoes C. The kinds of damage caused by explosion D. Repairing the damage from tornadoes
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( )53. Which of the following is the main topic of the passage? A. How tornadoes can be prevented B. When tornadoes usually occur C. Where tornadoes are formed D. How damage happens inside the tornadoes ( )54. According to the passage, tornadoes can destroy buildings because the _____________ . A. force of a tornado increases the air pressure in a building B. air pressure at the centre of a tornado is over 172,000 pounds C. weight of a tornado can crush a building’s roof when it passes overhead D. air pressure inside a tornado is less than the air pressure inside a building ( )55. According to the passage, the pressure on a building during a tornado can be got rid of by _________ . A. closing the cellar B. opening the windows C. using a fan to improve air pressure D. strengthening the roof and walls 第二卷 I. 阅读表达 TOKYO—An express train travelling through strong winter winds derailed in northern Japan, killing four people and injuring more than 30 , officials said Monday. Five cars of the six-car express train derailed Sunday evening, three of them topping onto their sides in Yamagata, about 189 miles north of Tokyo. The injuries of the survivors did not appear to be life-threatening, Yamagata police spokesman Yoshikatsu Oe said. It was unclear how many passengers were on the train, but Oe said most of the injured were in the first two cars. The dead included two men and two women. One of the men was pulled from the wreckage (残骸) early Monday and was believed to be the last body on the train. Rescuers planned to lift the wreckage later in the day to see if any other passengers remained beneath. Transport Ministry official Hiromi Mishima (三岛) said it was not known what caused the derailment and officials were assessing the extent of the damage. Railway operator JR East Co. President Mutsutake Otsuka apologized for the accident at a news conference Monday morning and promised a thorough investigation. Yamagata police official Yasuhiro Sugiu said there had been high-speed wind warnings for the area. Public broadcaster NHK (日本广播协会) quoted a train conductor as saying a strong wind hit the train just before the accident. Winds in the area were about 48 mph, Kyodo News agency reported. Japan in recent days has suffered from unusually heavy snowfall, and storms have led to the deaths of eight people. But snow did not appear to be a factor in Sunday’s crash. Authorities said they did not know how fast the train was going. Speed was believed to be a factor in an April 25 train wreck that killed 107 people and injured more than 500 others in Amagasaki, western Japan. That accident was Japan’s worst wreck since 1963. 2. What’s the best title for this piece of news report? (Please answer within 10 words) ________________________________________________________________________. 3. Which sentence in the passage can be replaced by the following one? According to the police there seemed no danger of life among the wounded passengers who survived the accident. __________________________________________________________________________________ _
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__________________________________________________________________________________ _ 4. How many people were believed to be killed in the two accidents mentioned here? (Please answer within 10 words) ______________________________________________________________________ 5. Translate the underlined sentence in the passage into Chinese. __________________________________________________________________________ 6. What do you think is the most probable reason for the Sunday training accident? (Please answer within 20 words) __________________________________________________________________________ II. 书面表达 根据下列提示,以“An Earthquake in China”为题写一篇 100---120 词的短文。 1976 年 7 月 28 日深夜,人们正在睡觉,随着一声巨响,成千上万的房屋倒塌,水电被切 断,全城到处是大火和浓烟,几乎全城被毁,25 万人丧生,许多人受伤,更多的人无家可归。 全国各地人民全力帮助唐山人民重建家园。 今天的唐山比以前更美好。 要求: ①不要照要求翻译; ②可适当增加情节。 _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 【参考答案】 1. B。点拨: “主语 + be believed to do sth”为固定句式,意为“据信某人/物??” 。 2. C。点拨:It (so) happened that?为固定句式,意为“碰巧??” 。 3. B。点拨:There used to be?的反义疑问句为 usedn’t there 或 didn’t there。 4. D. 点拨:warn sb. against doing sth.=warn sb not to do sth. 意为“告诫某人不要干??” 。
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5. C. 点拨:notice 意为“注意到” ,指不经意地或猛然间看到。 6. B. 点拨:smell 作“闻起来”讲时为系动词,后接形容词作表语。 7. A。点拨:该题考查 think highly of sb. 的被动形式及否定形式。highly 需要放在第一个动词 weren’t 之后. 8. C。点拨:It’s usual(for sb)to do? 为固定句式,意为“??是很通常的事” 。 9. B。点拨:come to an end 为不及物动词短语,而 bring sth to an end 在该句中需用被动形式才 对。 10. C。点拨:A 项结构不对;B、D 项只修饰不可数名词,只有 C 项结构正确且修饰复数名词。 11. D。点拨:whose 引导定语从句并在从句中作定语,意为“??的” ,表示所属关系。 12. B。点拨:even so 为固定短语,意为“尽管如此;即使这样” 。 13. C。点拨:先行词为 things and people,既有人又有物,故用 that 引导定语从句。 14. B。点拨:.most of them women 为独立主格结构,它相当于 and most of them are women 或 most of whom are women.。 15 A。点拨:go up=rise,表示“ (价格等)上涨” ,为不及物动词(短语) 。 16. C。点拨:storm 通常指有暴风雨等的坏天气(= a rough weather condition with wind, rain, thunder, etc.) ,既然是夹着风、雷、雨的天气,就不能是 fall,故应选 C。 17 A。点拨:last 可作不及物动词,表示“ (持续)多少时间” ;keep 作“持续”讲时,其后应 接-ing 分词。 18. D。点拨:风暴来临前天空变得黑暗阴沉。 19. A。点拨:闪电之后自然是跟着雷声,故用 followed。 20. B。点拨:it 指的是 lightning。闪电之后跟随着的是隆隆的雷声。boom 意为“隆隆声” 。 21.C。点拨:lying 作定语,修饰 notes,意为“摆在我的书桌上的有价值的笔记” 。另外三项是 及物动词,应用过去分词形式作定语。 22. C。点拨:flew high into the air 表示“在空中飞扬” 。笔记自然不能扔(threw)或跳(jump) 到空中,也不会自己上升(rise)到空中。 23. B。点拨: “我”跳起来想抓住它们。 24. D。点拨:sail out 表示“飘出;飞出” ;move out 意为“搬出去” ;come out 意为“出来” ; run out 意为“跑出来” 。后三项显然不符合语境。 25. B。点拨:as 在此引导时间状语从句,表示“当??时候” 。不可误选 during,因为 during 需与延续性动词连用。 26. A。点拨:表示“下雨、下雪” ,用 fall。如:A little thin rain was falling. 27. D。点拨:从下文 pour in waves(潮水般地倾泻下来)可知当时正下雨。上文 big drops of rain 已经表明。 28. B。 点拨: fight to do sth 表示 “奋力去做某事” , 因下着瓢泼大雨, 关窗子很费劲, 故用 fought to close the windows。 29. A。点拨: 。上文“?was wet all over” (浑身湿透)表明“我”将自己“擦干” 。dry 意为“擦 干、弄干” 。 30. D。点拨:explosion 意为“爆炸” ;scream 意为“尖叫” ;voice 意为“嗓音” ;sound 意为“声 音” ,即 what can be heard。根据下文 A tree was broken, 可知此处是(树枝断裂发生的) “响声” 31. D。点拨: “我”跑出房间“查明”情况。find out: to learn or discover (a fact that was hidden)。 learn about 为“调查” ;look for 意为“寻找” ,均不符合题意。 32. A。点拨:lie(躺)的过去式。laid 则是 lay(放置)的过去式,不符合语境。 33. C。点拨:表示“桌子被树枝砸成碎片” 。 34. D。点拨:四个动词只有 take 用于“It + 动词+ 宾语 + to do sth”的句型,表示“需要、花
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费” 。 35. C。点拨:此处 thankful 表示“感谢、谢天谢地”的意思。 36. B。点拨:本题为细节判断题。由最后一段可知“海浪在海洋中不是太强烈,但当到达海岸 或浅水区时,海浪就会涨得很高” 。 37. B。点拨:本题为正误判断题。由第三段中“Because such waves hardly happen in the Indian Ocean, there is?”可知“在印度洋这些由海啸引起的波浪很少见” ,因此选项 B 中的陈述是不符 合事实的。 38. C。点拨:综合分析判断题。文中并未提及受灾国家是不是发达国家这一内容。 39. B。点拨:根据文章叙述可知:这班飞机共承载 116 人,在失事中有 16 人生还,因此飞机所 承载的人死亡 100 人,而这次飞机失事共造成 147 人死亡,所以地面上的人有 47 人死亡。 40. A。点拨:此句话意为:飞机上的乘客有 16 人生还,包括一个 16 个月大的婴儿,因为受到 妈妈的胳膊的保护而得以生存。所以 shielded 意为“得到保护” 。 41. A。点拨:根据文章最后两句话可知:印度尼西亚最严重的飞机失事发生在 1997 年 9 月, 致使 232 人死亡。 42. C。点拨:根据文章倒数第二段最后一句话可知:Mandala Airlines 最近一直受到经济问题的 困扰,为了保持竞争力,被迫降低服务标准和费用。所以 C 项正确,D 项错误。A、B 项分别 与倒数第二段的第一二句话矛盾。 43.D。点拨:本文是一篇新闻报道,第一段即主题段,介绍了本文的主要内容,因此“印度尼 西亚的飞机失事,死亡 147 人”可作为本文标题。 44. C。点拨:根据文章第一段第二句可知:污染或者是由于一些全新的、人造的物质排放到环 境中造成的,或者是由于像石油这样一些天然物质的大量排放造成。所以 C 项是正确答案。 45. D。点拨:原文第二段句首表明我们在生产各种生活用品时,肯定会产生破坏生态平衡的废 物。由此可见,生产的新产品越多,造成的污染就越严重。 46. C。点拨:由第三段第一句可知,不管原因是什么,只要各个公司、个人以及政府共同做出 更大的努力,大部分污染是完全可以控制的。所以 C 项正确。 47. D。点拨:由原文中心含义可知,控制污染的根本措施在于减少不必要的消费。原文第三段 最后一句清楚地表明:解决污染问题可以通过各种方式,如:减少不必要的购买、过度的消费 以及减少废物的随意排放等。 48. B。点拨:归纳题。本文一、二段点明文章主题:在中国,今年的初冬是有史以来特别寒冷 的天气,后面详细解释了出现这种天气骤变的原因,所以 B 项可概括本文的主要内容。 49. C。点拨:细节题。根据最后一段第三句话可知:普通的暖锋要比典型的冷锋柔和,因此可 推知:冷锋要比暖锋强烈,来势汹汹。 50. A。点拨:细节题。根据第三段第一句话可知:强烈的大风、温度计水银柱的下降和暴风雪, 这些都是强烈的冷锋的到来所引起的。所以气温骤降的原因就是冷锋的到来。 51. A。点拨:推断题。从最后一段可知:气流的流动并不都是寒冷的,在暖空气取代冷空气的 地方就出现暖锋,所以可推断 A 项是正确的,在冷暖气流交汇的地方,什么气流强烈就形成什 么锋。此题易误选 C 项,但原文是说 12 月 4 日式过去 50 年来 12 月份北京最冷的一天。 52. B。 点拨:推断题。文章首句中有“除了具有破坏性的风力外,龙卷风还有其他破坏力” , 由此可推断此文之前的段落讲的正是“具有破坏性的风力” 。 53. D。 点拨:主旨大意题。本文主要介绍了龙卷风中心的破坏性原理。A 项“如何预防龙卷 风” ;B 项“何时出现龙卷风” ;C 项“龙卷风在哪里形成”都不是本文介绍的内容。 54. D。点拨:细节理解题。由第二段可以看出,由于龙卷风中心的低气压与房屋内部的正常气 压每平方英寸相差两磅,从而导致房屋爆裂。 55. B。点拨:细节理解题。由第三段前两句可以看出,开着窗户可使室内的一部分空气涌出,
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以平衡室内外气压,这样就能防止房屋因内外气压差而爆裂。 56. Train Derails in Japan/ Train Accident Kills 4 and Injuries over 30. 57. The injuries of the survivors did not appear to be life-threatening, Yamagata police spokesman Yoshikatsu Oe said. 58. 111 people were believed to be killed. 59. 交通部门的官员三岛称,火车脱轨的原因尚不清楚,目前官方正在对损失的程度进行评估。 60. The train was going too fast and thee wind was too strong. One Possible Version: The Chinese people will never forget the 1976 earthquake in Tangshan. On the late night of July 28, 1976, people were fast asleep. With a terrible noise, houses and tall buildings fell down. Water and electricity were cut off and there were fires and smoke everywhere. The whole city was almost destroyed and 250,000 people were killed in the earthquake. A large number of people were injured and many lost their homes. On hearing the news people allover the country tried their best to help the people in Tangshan rebuild their homes. Tangshan has been made more beautiful than before.

针对性练习(1) 1. Xiao Ming speaks English very well as if he _________ an Englishman. A. is B. be C. should be D. were 2. We all __________ his heroic behaviour and try to learn from him. A. think high of B. think highly of C. think poorly of D. think nothing of 3. The UN is to __________ an end to the dispute (争论) between the two countries. I’m sure the issue (问题) will ____________ an end soon A. come; put B. come to; bring C. put; come D. bring; come to 4. The war meant the _________ of all our hopes and we were brought to ________ by drugs. A. ruins; ruins B. ruin; ruins C. ruins; ruin D. ruin; ruin 5. At least 203 miners were killed , 22 __________ and 13 ___________ in a coal mine gas explosion Monday afternoon in Fuxin. A. injuring; trapping B. injured; trapped C. injured; trapping D. injuring; trapped 6. Nowadays, a large number of women, especially those from the countryside, __________ in the clothing industry. A. is working B. works C. work D. worked 7. It’s no ___________ arguing with Bill because he’ll never change his mind. A. use B. help C. time D. way 8. Your uncle seems to be a good driver, __________ , I wouldn’t dare to travel in his car. A. Even so B. Even though C. Therefore D. So 9. They ___________ their glasses ___________ the friendship between the two nations. A. took; for B. raised; to C. raised; for D. lift; to 10. Last month, part of Southeast Asia was struck by floods, from __________ effect the people are
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still suffering. A. that B. whose C. those D. what 11. I usually stop working at 6:00, by __________ time many people have already got home. A. that B. this C. which D. what 12. They all __________ hearing such a funny story. A. burst into laughter B. burst out laughing C. couldn’t help laughing D. all the above 13. She is always on the move as a reporter; as a result she has to __________ her child with her parents A. make B. leave C. stay D. have 14. ―We can’t go out in this weather, ‖said Bob, ___________ out of the window. A. looking B. to look C. looked D. having looked 15.Harbin is _____________ the north of Changchun and ____________ the Songhua River. A. to; in B. in; on C. to; on D. on; on 16. __________ no secrets between them, since they are close friends and they almost share everything with each other. A. It seems to be B. They seem to be C. There seem to be D. They seem having 17. It ____________ that he was there when the quarrel ____________ . A. was happened; happened B. happen; was happened C. was happened; was happened D. happened; happened 18. On hearing the shouts of ―help‖, he rushed to the river _____________ . A. right now B. right off C. right away D. all the above 19. (根据汉语提示完成句子) Close the windows in case the papers on the desks ________ ________ ________ _________ (被风刮走) 。 20. Look out! Don’t get too close to the house ___________ roof is under repair. A. whose B. which C. of which D. that 21. Hearing the news, she burst into____________ and burst _____________ the room. A. crying; out B. tears; in C. crying; into D. tears; out of 22. In the dark forest ___________ , some large enough to hold several English towns. A. stand many lakes B. lie many lakes C. many lakes lie D. many lakes stand 23. The number of people invited ____________ fifty, but a number of them ___________ absent for different reasons. A. were; was B. was; were C. was; was D. were, were 24. We often provide our children with toys, footballs or basketball, ___________ that all children like these things. A. thinking B. think C. to think D. thought 25. Eugene’s never willing to alter any of his opinions. It’s no use ___________ with him. A. to argue B. arguing C. argued D. having arguing 26. A good story does necessarily have to have a happy ending, but the reader must not be left _____________ . A. unsatisfied B. unsatisfying C. to be unsatisfying D. being unsatisfied 27. 改为同义句)All bamboo doesn’t grow well. ________ ________ _________ __________ _________ . 28. (根据汉语完成句子)她待他如同陌生人。 She treats him _________ _________ _________ __________ _________ _________ .
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29. ---Did you ___________ a boy running into the yard just now? ---No, I was absorbed in the book. A. observe B. notice C. pay attention to D. look 30. Three-fourths of the homework ___________ . A. has finished B. has been finished C. have finished D. have been finished 【参考答案】 1. D。点拨: as if 引导的从句如果与现在事实相反,从句用虚拟语气,be 动词用 were。 2. B。点拨:think highly of 意为“对??评价很高” ,think poorly/ nothing of sb.意为“对某人印 象不好;对某人评价不高” 。B 项合题意。 3. D。点拨:bring sth. to an end 和 sth. come to an end 均为固定短语,意为“结束某事” 。 4. D。点拨:ruin 作为名词意为“毁灭” ,是不可数名词;bring sth./ sb to ruin 为为固定搭配,意 为“使??毁灭;使??成为废墟” 。 5. B。点拨:该句运用了被动语态,were killed,injured and trapped 是并列的谓语动词。 6. C。点拨:该句主语是 a large number of women,故谓语动词用复数形式。 7. A。点拨:It’s no use doing sth 为固定句式,意为“干??没有用处” 。 8. A。点拨:even so 为固定短语,意为“即使如此,即使这样” 。 9. B。点拨:raise one’s glass to 为固定搭配,意为“为??举杯;为??祝酒” 。句意:他们为 两国的友谊而举起了酒杯。 10. B。点拨:whose 引导定语从句,意为“??的” 。该定语从句同时考查了 suffer from sth.这 一短语。 11. C。点拨:which 用于“介词 + which + 名词”结构中引导定语从句,其中 which 的意思是 “这,那” 。 12. D。点拨:burst into laughter= burst out laughing,意为“突然大笑起来” ,can’t help laughing 意为“禁不住笑起来” 。A、B、C 三项均合题意,故选 D 项。 13. B。点拨:leave sb./ sth. with sb. 为固定结构,意为“把??留给某人” 。 14. A。点拨:looking out of the window 为现在分词短语作状语表示伴随情况。 15. C。点拨:哈尔滨与长春不相邻,股借此用 to。表示在江、河、湖、海的边上用介词 on, 故 C 项正确。 16. C 点拨] There seem to be 是 There be 句型的结构的扩展形式,意为“好像是有??” 。 若 D 项改为 They seem to have 则正确。 17. D 点拨] 第一空填 happened 构成 it (so) happened that? 意为 “如此碰巧??” , 第二空 的 happened 意为“发生” 。happen 作“碰巧”和“发生”讲时都是不及物动词,没有被动语态。 18. D 点拨] right now,right off,right away 都有“立即;马上”的意思。 19. should be blown away 点拨] blow away 为固定短语,意为“吹走;刮走” ,in case 之 后的目的状语从句可用虚拟语气,即谓语动词用“should + 动词原形” 。 20. A 点拨] whose roof= the roof of which,whose 引导定语从句时用作从句的定语,表示 所属关系,意为“的??” 。 21. D 点拨] burst into tears= burst out crying,意为“突然哭起来” ,burst into the room 意为 “冲进房间” ,burst out of the room 意为“冲出房间” 。 22. B 点拨] 介词短语作地点状语位于句首时,句子用完全倒装语序,且 lake 的存在状态 是 lie 不是 stand,故选 B 项。 23. B 点拨] “the number of + n.”作主语时,句子用单数谓语动词, “a number of + n.”作主 语时,句子用谓语复数动词。

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24. A 点拨] thinking 在该句中为现在分词作状语,表示原因,它和句子的主语 we 之间为 主谓关系。 25. B 点拨] It’s no use/ useless doing?为固定句式,意为“干??是没有用的” 。 26. A 点拨] 该句考查 “leave + 宾语 + 宾补” 的被动形式 unsatisfied 在句中用作主语补足 语,表示人的感受。不能用现在分词 unsatisfying。 27. Not all bamboo grows well 点拨] 当 not 与“all,both,every,everyone,everything + 名 词”出现在同一个句子中,不管 not 在它们之前或之后都表示部分否定。 28. as if he were a stranger 点拨] as if 引导的从句表示的情况若与事实相反,从句用虚拟语 气。 29. B 点拨] notice 作“注意到”讲时,指无意中的注意,pay attention to 则指“有意识地 就注意” 。 30. B 点拨] “分数 + of + n.”作主语时,谓语的单复数 2of 后面的名词决定。该句中 homework 是不可数名词,谓语动词用单数;语态是被动,故选 B。

针对性练习(2) 1. Because of my poor memory, all ___________ you told me has been forgotten. A. which B. what C. as D. / 2. While reading, you must look up words, ______________ . A. meanings of which you don’t know B. you don’t know their meanings C. whose meanings you don’t know D. whose meanings you are not known 3. She was educated at Beijing University, __________ she went on to have her advanced study abroad. A. after which B. from which C. from that D. after that 4. I know many cases __________ drivers know traffic rules but don’t follow them. A. where B. in which C. with which D. when 5. I’ve _____________ the importance of learning a foreign language. A. waked up B. waked up to C. woke up D. woke up to 6. After two hours’ running, my legs really ____________ . A. gave up B. gave out C. gave off D. gave in 7. What was it that ____________ you when you were walking along the street. A. was frightened B. frightened C. was frightening D. to frighten 8. With the water in the river ___________, the local people were afraid there might be flood. A. going up B. gone up C. to go up D. went up 9. (改为同义句)Interest rates are expected to rise by one percentage point. Interest rates are expected to rise by _________ ________ ________ . 10. (改为同义句)He used the bottle whose top is cut off to plant flowers. He used the bottle ________ _______ ________ _________ is cut off to plant flowers. 11. The little girl was frightened ___________ the terrible noise.
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A. with B. of C. at D. by 12. What shall we use for power when all the oil in the world has ____________ ? A. given out B. put out C. held up D. used up 13. They decide to _________ a notice to warn walkers to take care of the grass and flowers along the street. A. set up B. put up C. take up D. pick up 14. I saw a woman running toward me in the dark. Before I could recognize who she was, she had run back in the direction ___________ she had come. 15. We saw several natives advancing towards our party, and one of them came to us, ____________ we gave some bells and glasses. A. to which B. to whom C. with whom D. with which 16. The river ____________ are covered with trees is very long. A. whose banks B. of which banks C. whose the banks D. the bank of which A. of which B. by which C. in which D. from which 【参考答案】(2) 1. D。点拨:all 为不定代词,其后的定语从句用 that 引导,不用 which 引导,但引导词在从句 中作宾语时可以省略。 2. C。点拨: “whose + n.”引导定语从句,表示所属关系,其中 whose 意为“??的” 。 3. A。点拨:该题考查“介词 + which”引导定语从句,其中 which 代表整个主句的内容。 4. B。点拨:in?case 为固定搭配,故用 in which 引导定语从句,修饰先行词 case。 5. B。点拨:wake up to 意为“意识到;认识到” ,且 wake 的过去分词为 waked 或 woken,故选 B 项。 6. B。点拨:give out 在该句中的意思是“累垮;筋疲力尽” ,为不及物动词短语。 7. B。点拨:frighten 为及物动词,意为“吓唬;恐吓” 。 8. A。点拨:该题考查“with + 宾语 + 宾补”结构,其中 go up 与 the water 之间为主谓关系, 故用现在分词作宾补。 9. one per cent 点拨] one percentage point 意为“一个百分点” ,即 one per cent,表示“百 分之一” 。 10. the top of which 点拨] “whose + n.” 引导的定语从句相当于“the + n. + of which”引 导的定语从句。 11. C 点拨] at 表示“因听到或看到??而??” 。 12. A. 点拨] give out 意为“用完;耗尽” ;putout 意为“扑灭” ;hold up 意为“抬高;举 起” ;use up 意为“用完;用尽” 。A、D 两项合句意,但 use up 为及物动词,应该用被动语态, 故 A 项正确。 13. B 点拨] put up 在该句中的意思是“张贴” 。 14. D 点拨] from the direction of?表示“来自??方向” ,故用 from which 引导定语从句, 修饰先行词 the direction. 15. B 点拨] give sth to sb.为固定短语,故用 to whom 引导定语从句。 16. A 点拨] whose banks = the banks of which,意为“??的岸边” 。

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针对性练习(3) 1. I _________ you ________ what you have achieved. A. celebrate; on B. congratulate; on C. congratulate; for D. celebrate; for 2. Abraham Lincoln is known ___________ one of the greatest presidents of the USA. A. to B. for C. as D. of 3. ---Shall we start now? ---OK. I’m well _____________ for the journey. A. preparing B. preparations C. prepared D. prepares 4. __________ by media reports, the result has been unclear. A. To judge B. Having judged C. Judging D. Judged 5. __________ had been expected, he succeeded in carrying out his plan. A. It B. What C. Which D. As 6. ---Did you take part in their party? --- I ___________ , but I had extra work to do. A. would like B. would like to C. would like to have D. would 7. Who would you like to ____________ for the doctor? A. have send B. have to send C. have sent D. have sending 8. I’m going to Shanghai. Do you have anything ___________ to your daughter? A. to take B. to be taken C. taken D. taking 9. I feel it ___________ to work with such a great scientist. A. honour B. an honour C. a honour D. honours 10.(改为同义句)Do you feel like going swimming this afternoon? _________ you __________ _________ go swimming this afternoon? 11. (改为同义句)According to what he wears, he must have a lot of money. _________ _________ what he wears, he must gave a lot of money. 12. (根据汉语提示完成句子)I never thought you would_______ _______ _______ _______(失 去优势)in this job. 13. (根据汉语提示完成句子)_______ _______ _______ _______(很荣幸)to be invited to such an occasion. 14. She went to the bookstore and bought ___________ . A. dozen books B. dozens books C. dozen of books D. dozens of books 15. You should understand the traffic rule by now. You have had it __________ often enough. A. explaining B. to explain C. explain D. explained 16. We __________ what our soldiers have done for our country. A. proud of B. are pride of C. take pride in D. take pride of 17.(根据汉语完成句子)她能清楚地用英语表达自己。 She can ________ ________ _________ in English. 18. A kind of electronic equipment, ___________ an MP3, is popular with young people now. A. knowing as B. known as C. know as D. known for 19. ---Would you like another cup of tea? ---___________ . A. Yes, I like some. B. Yes, I’d like to C. Yes, I hope D. Yes, thanks 【参考答案】 (3) 1. B。点拨:congratulate sb. on sth 为固定搭配,意为“因某事而祝贺某人” 。 2. C。点拨:be known as 意为“作为??而出名” 。 3. C。点拨:prepared 可用 well 修饰,构成短语 be well prepared for sth., 意为“为??做好了
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准备” 。 4. C。点拨:Judging by(从??判断)是垂悬分词,无论与主句主语是主动关系,还是被动关 系,都只能用 judging by 形式。 5. D。点拨:as 引导非限制性定语从句,意为“正如,这一点” ,它代表整个主句内容。 6. C。点拨:would like to have done sth.表示“过去想干却没有干成某事” 。 7. A。点拨:该句考查的是 have sb. do sth 这一结构。 8. B。 点拨: have sth. to do 意为 “有??事要干” , 若该事不是主语亲自干则用不定式的被动式, 即 have sth. to be done。 9. B。点拨:honour 用作单数形式表示“令人感到荣幸的事” 。 10. Would; like to 点拨] (sb.) would like to do sth = (sb.) feel like doing sth., 意为 “想要干??; 喜欢干??” 。 11. Judging by/ from 点拨] judging by/ from 为固定结构, 意为“从??来判断” 。 12. throw away the advantage 点拨] throw away 有“失去;抛弃”之意。 13. It is an honour 点拨] it 用作形式主语,to be invited?为真正的主语。honour 作为“让 人觉得荣幸的事”时常用单数形式。 14. D 点拨] dozens of 为固定搭配,意为“许多的” 。 15. D 点拨] have sth. done 为使役结构,意为“使??被??” 。 16. C 点拨] take pride in = be proud of,意为“以??为自豪,为??感到骄傲” 。 17. express herself clearly 点拨] express 作“表达”讲为及物动词,express oneself 意为“表 达自己” 。 18. B 点拨] known as an MP3 在句中作定语,是 which is known as an MP3 的省略形式。be known for, “因为??而出名” ,不合题意。 19. D 点拨] 考查交际用语。问句意为:你想在喝杯茶吗?D 项为“行,谢谢”符合上下 文。而 A、B、C 三项用法不对。

针对性练习(4) 1.Next week, __________ we’ll spend in our village, is coming. A. what B. when C. that D. which 2. The weather turned out to be very good, __________ was more than we could expected. A. what B. which C. that D. it 3. ___________ is known to everybody, the moon travels round the earth every month. A. It B. As C. That D. What 4. The great trouble he __________ show us how to run the machine __________ him completely tired out A. took to; made B. takes to; make C. took; made D. take to; to make 5. It’s high time __________ I went back home. A. on which B. which C. when D. / 6. The beautiful dress __________ Miss Jones went to the ball was borrowed from a friend of hers. A. in which B. worn by C. wearing which D. that
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7. Without facts, we can’t form a worthwhile opinion, for we need to have factual knowledge ____________ our thinking. A. which to be based on B. upon which to base C. which to base upon D. to which to be based 8. Which of the two cows ___________ you keep produces more milk. A. that B. which C. whom D. what 9. The most important thing __________ we should pay attention to is the first thing ___________ I have said. A. which; that B. that; which C. which; which D. that; that 10. The house, __________ roof is being repaired, is where my parents are living at present. A. what B. whose C. which D. where 11. I have many friends, ___________ some are businessmen. A. of them B. from which C. who of D. of whom 12. There are two buildings, ___________ stands nearly a hundred feet high. A. the large B. the larger C. the larger one that D. the larger of which 13. In the office I never seem to have time until after 5:30 pm _________ many people have got home. A. whose time B. that C. on which D. by which time 14. What surprised me was not what he said but _____________ he said it. A. the way B. in the way that C. in the way D. the way which 15. Who _________ met Premier Zhou was not impressed by his manners? A. that B. who C. which D. whom 16. Her sister has become a lawyer, ___________ she wanted to be. A. who B. that C. what D. which 17. Finally the thief handed everything _____________ he had stolen to the police. A. which B. what C. whatever D. that 18. This is Mr Smith, __________ I think has something interesting to tell you. A. who B. whom C. that D. / 19.The foreign guests spoke highly of the children and their shows __________ . they saw in the kind ergarten. A. what B. who C. which D. that 20. The clever boy made a hole in the wall, ___________ he could see what was going on inside the house. A. on which B. at which C. through which D. in which 21 ___________ is reported in the newspaper, talks between the two countries are making progress. A. It B. As C. That D. What 22. There is much chance __________ Bill will recover from his injury in time for the race. A. that B. which C. until D. if 【参考答案】(4) 1. D。点拨:which 引导非限制性定语从句,代替先行词 next week,在从句中作 spend 的宾语。 2. B。点拨:which 引导非限制性定语从句,代替整个主句内容。 3. B。点拨:as 引导非限制性定语从句,代表整个主句内容。which 引导非限制性定语从句时不 能放在句首。 4. A。点拨:he took to show us how to run the machine 为定语从句,修饰先行词 the great trouble,
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引导词作从句中的宾语已省略。made 为该句的谓语动词。 5. D。点拨:It’s high time that? 为固定句式,其中 that 引导的是定语从句,修饰先行词 time, 它可以省略。 6. A。点拨:in which 引导定语从句,代替 in the dress,意为“穿着??衣服” 。 7. B。点拨: “介词+ which/ whom + to do”相当于“介词+ which/ whom”引导的定语从句。upon which to base our thinking 相当于 upon which we can base our thinking。 8. A。点拨:主句是以 which 开头的特殊疑问句,要用 that 引导定语从句。 9. D。点拨:当先行词前有形容词最高级或序数词修饰时,定语从句用 that 引导。 10. B。点拨:whose 引导定语从句并在从句中作定语,意为“??的” ,表示所属关系。 11. D 点拨] 由 some of the friends are?可知应用(some) of whom 引导定语从句。 12. D 点拨] the larger of which 指 the larger of the two buildings。 13. D 点拨] 该题考查“介词 + which + 名词”引导的定语从句,其中 which 意为“这; 那” 。 14. A 点拨] the way 之后的宾语从句引导词在从句中作状语时, 可用 that 或 which 或省略 引导词。 15. A 点拨] who 作先行词,为避免重复用 that 引导定语从句。 16. D 点拨] which 引导非限制性定语从句,代替 lawyer 这一职业。 17. D 点拨] 不定代词 everything 作先行词,定语从句用关系代词 that 引导。 18. A 点拨] who 引导定语从句,代替先行词 Mr Smith 并在从句中作主语。 19. D 点拨] 先行词既包括人又包含物时,定语从句用关系代词 that 引导。 20. C 点拨] which 代替先行词 hole,through which 指 through the hole。 21. B 点拨] as 引导非限制性定语从句,代表整个主句的内容,译为“这一点;正如” 。 22. A 点拨] 空白处缺一引导同位语从句的关键词,由于与之同位的名词 chance 在这里是 “可能性;机遇”的意思,等于 possibility,应选 that。

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