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Module 1 Europe Introduction
Step 1 As you know, Europe plays an important role in economy. How many countries are in Europe? 45. Can you tell us some developed countries? (Such as United Kingdom, France, Greece, Portugal Italy, Spain, Russia. Holland.) Step 2 . Go through words in activity. Read the words after the teacher. 1. Athens /'?θ?nz/ n. 雅典(希腊首都) 2. Greece /gri:s/ 希腊 3. Lisbon / 'lizb?n/ 里斯本（葡萄牙首都） 4. Portugal /'p?:tjug?l/ n. 葡萄牙
5. Spanish / 'sp?ni?/ a. 西班牙的 n. 西班牙语 6. English /'i?gli?/ a. 英国的,英国人的 n. 英语 7. Greek / gri:k / a. 希腊(人)的 n. 希腊人,希腊语
8. London / 'l?nd?n/ 伦敦 9. Portuguese /p?:tju'gi:z/n.葡萄牙人,葡萄牙语 a. 葡萄牙的,葡萄牙人的,葡萄 牙语的 10. United Kingdom n. 英国,联合王国 11. France /frɑ :ns/ n. 法国 12. Italian / i't?lj?n / a. 意大利的 13. Madrid / m?'drid / n. 马德里 14. Rome / r?um / n. 罗马 15. French / frent? / a. 法国(人)的,法语的 n. 法语 16. Italy / 'it?li / n. 意大利 17. Paris / 'p?ris / n. 巴黎 n. 意大利人
18. Spain / spein / n. 西班牙 Step 3 Then fill in the form. Country United Kingdom France Greece Portugal Italy Spain Capital London Paris Athens Lisbon Rome Madrid Language English French Greek Portuguese Italian Spanish
Step 4 Check the meaning of the words and phrases of activity 2 . 1.across : [?'kr?s] prep. 横过 穿过,横过 在……对面 1）.The two lines cut across each other. 两条线相交。 2). Can you swim across the river? 你能游到河的对岸吗？ 3). a bookstore across the river 河对岸的书店 adv. 横过, 从一边到另一边 The river is ten meters across. 这条河宽十米. 拓展: across 用作介词或副词,而 cross 用作动词, 必须接地点名词作宾语. They crossed the Changjiang River. across from 在……正对面: The store is just across from the post office. 这家铺子就在邮局的对面. 辨析 across, past, 与 through across 指从一边到另一边, 强调动作是在某一物体表面进行, ―横过, 跨过‖. 含义 与 on 有关. through 表示从一头到另一头, 指在某一物体的空间里进行的,‖穿过,透过‖. 含义
与 in 有关, 例:One day two young men were going through the forest. past 强调―从……旁边经过‖， 可与介词 by 互换。例： He hurried past me without stopping to speak. 用 across, through, 和 over 填空。 The Great Wall winds its way from west to east _______ the deserts ______ the mountain and _____ the valley until it reaches seas. The key: across, over, through. 2.boot : / bu:t / n. 靴子,[英]汽车行李箱 vt. 踢 a pair of boots 一双长筒靴 3.continental / k?nti'nentl / a. 大陆的 There is a continental climate in that place. 在那个地方是大陆性气候。 I ask for a continental holiday. 我申请到欧洲大陆休假。 4. face /feis/ n. 脸,面容 v. 面对,朝, He faced the difficulty with courage. 他勇敢地面对困难。 The sun was shining in our faces. 太阳光直射在我们脸上。 The building faces north.= The building faces (to) the north. 这栋建筑物朝北。 His ambition was to meet his favourite pop star face to face. 他心向往之的是要面对面地见见他心目中的流行曲歌星。 与 face 有关的短语。 hit sb in the face. ―打某人的脸‖ look sb in the face ―直视某人‖ stare sb in the face ―直盯着某人的脸‖ pull a long face ―耷拉着脸, 愁眉苦脸‖ in ( the) face of ―面对‖
搭配: be faced with ―面对‖ We are faced with a difficult decision. 我们面临着一个困难的决定. __________ (face) with such a situation, she didn‘t know what to do. ( The key: Faced ) 5.look like 看上去像 The man looks like a cartoon character with a plaster on his temple. 那人太阳穴上贴了一块膏药，看上去像个卡通人物。 He looked like a postman but he was really a fake. 他看上去像个邮递员, 但实际上是假冒的. 拓展 be like 像……，常与 what 连用， 引起问句。 What‘s she like? 她长得怎么样？/ 她是个什么样的人？（问外表或品质） What does she look like? 她长得怎么样？（问外表） How does she look? 她看起来怎么样？（问神态或情绪） 。 How does she like the idea? 她认为这个主意怎样？（问看法或意见） 6.mountain range n. 山脉 Read the information and find the countries on the map above. 1.The United Kingdom is off the northwest coast of continental Europe. It has four countries with one government. These countries are England, Northern Ireland , Scotland, and Wales. 2.France is Europe‘s third largest country and faces the United Kingdom across the England Channel. 3.Italy is in the south of Europe on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. It looks like a boot. Between Italy and France, there is a mountain range called Alps. 4. Spain is to the south of France. Between France and Spain is another mountain range ----- the Pyrenees.
5. Portugal is to the west of Spain. 6. Greece is in the southeast of Europe. Twenty percent of the country is covered by islands. The answer is 1) f 2) a 3) c 4) e 5) d 6) b Language Points. 1.off: in the sea but in the land 在(陆地附近)的海面. An island off the coast of France. 法国海岸附近的一个岛屿. 2.the English Channel 英吉利海峡 3. Between France and Spain is another mountain range ----- Pyrenees.( 比利牛斯山 脉) 当表示方位的状语或表语位于句首时， 句子采用全部倒装的结构， 即把谓语 动词的所有组成部分都移到主语之前，这类状语或表语的词常见的有： away, down, in, off, out, over, up, above, below, here, there 及介词短语与分词。 To the list may be added the following names. 在这个名单上还可以添上下列人员。 There goes the bell. 铃响了。 The door opened and in came Mr Smith. 开门了， 史密斯先生走了进来。 4. Twenty percent of the country is covered by islands. n. 封面,盖子,表面 v. 覆盖,涉及,包含 We tried to find cover from the storm. 我们设法寻找遮蔽暴风雨的地方。 Do not try to cover a mistake. 不要试图掩盖错误。 This event will be covered live by TV. 此事将由电视作现场报道。 By sunset we had covered thirty miles. 到日落的时候，我们已走了三十英里。
Step 1 Presentation The teacher say, ―As we know, the modern world is developing very quickly, some countries united as a nation in order to develop their economy fast. They get benefits from this kind of system. Just like Europe. Questions 1) Do you know European Union? 2) Where is it ? 3) Is it one country? 4) Is the United kingdom its member? 5) How many countries were its first members? 6) Are its member countries independent? 7) How did it start? The purpose of the activity is to arouse the students‘ interest. Step 2 Fast reading. Read the text fast and then answer the question. Find the name of three first members and three new members of the European Union. First members: France, Germany, Belgium Luxembourg( choose 3)。 New members: Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovak, Republic, Slovenia, Cyprus and Malta ( choose 3 ). Step 3 Read the text again. What is the main idea of each paragraph? Para 1 The definition of the European Union. Para 2 How did it start Para 3 The members of the European Union. Step 4 Analyze each paragraph. 1)Is the European Union an organization? The European Union is an organization of European countries. 2)Do the countries have one government or their own governments?
The countries are independent and are governed in different ways. 3)What does each government do to the EU? Each of them sends representatives to the European Parliament, which has some control over what happens in each of the member countries. on the other hand 另一方面 govern 管理, 统治(国家) 营运 The mayor governed the city very wisely. 那位市长治理此市非常的贤明. govern a school. 管理一个学校.
govern a bank 经营一个银行 head n. 领袖;领导人 representative n. 代表 parliament n. 国会. Para 2 & 3 in the 1950s Belgium 比利时 Luxembourg 卢森堡 little by little 逐渐的 Denmark 丹麦 Finland 芬兰 The Czech Republic 捷克 Estonia 爱沙尼亚 Hungary 匈牙利 Latvia 拉脱维亚 Lithuania 立陶宛 the Netherlands 荷兰
The Slovak Republic 斯洛伐克共和国 Slovenia 斯洛文尼亚 Cyprus 塞浦路斯 Malta 马耳他 Fill in the blank according to paragraph 2 & 3 The European Union ( EU) Beginning time Names of first members. in the 1950 France, Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and Italy. Names of new countries by 2000 Australia, Denmark, Finland, Greece,
Ireland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Names of new countries in 2004 The Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, the Slovak Republic, and Slovenia, plus the
Mediterranean islands of Cyprus and Malta Total country numbers. Population Step 5 Listen to the tape. 25 More than a billion people.
Reading and vocabulary Great European Cities.
Step 1 Presentation. We talk about the location of some famous countries‘ location, such as Greece, Italy, France, Portugal, Spain. Today we will know some famous landmarks of these countries. Then learn some new words: Read these words after the teacher. At the same time, the teacher show some picture about these words. 1)gallery n. 美术馆； 画廊 2)situated adj 坐落 （某处的） ,位于 （某处） 的。 3)symbol
n. 象征；符号 4)located adj. 位于 5) architect n. 建筑师 6) project n. 计划,项目, 工程 7) sculpture n. 雕刻; 泥塑 8) birthplace n. 发源地 9) civilization n. 文明 10) ancient adj. 古代的 Step 2 Fast reading
Read the text quickly and silently. And then finish Activity 1. ( ( ( ( ) 1. a landmark in Paris ) 2. an art gallery in Florence ) 3. a church in Barcelona ) 4.. a building in Athens.
A. the Eiffel Tower
B. the Parthenon Familia.
C, the Uffizi Palace .D. the Sagrada
At the same time the teacher show the four pictures. The key: 1A2C3D4B Step 3 After activity 1 and then go on to do activity 2 . Match the words in the box with their definitions. ancient architect landmark locate sculpture writer ____________. _____________. _____________ ______________ _______________ _______________ _____________
1. someone who designs building 2. to be in a certain place 3. something that is easy to recognize, such as a building 4. someone who produces novel or poems. 5. a large building where people can see famous pieces of art. 6. the art of making things out of stone and wood, etc. 7. of a time long ago.
The key:1. architect 2. locate 3. landmark 4. writer 5. gallery 6. sculpture 7. ancient Step 4 read the passage and answer these questions. 1. Which of the cities are capital cities? 2. Which one is situated on the coast? 3. Which is famous for its places to eat? 4. Which ones are or were important cities for writers and artists? 5. Which was the world‘s greatest city a long time ago? The key: 1. Athens and Paris 2. Barcelona 3. Paris 4. Paris and Athens 5.Athens Step 5 Decide if these sentences are true or false 1. The Eiffel Tower is a tall building in France. 2. There are a lot of restaurants and café s in Paris. 3. Barcelona is the capital of Spain. 4. The Church of the Sagrada Familia was built in 1926. 5. The artistic movement called the Renaissance began in Florence.
6. The Uffizi Palace is a famous hotel in Florence 7. There were a lot of good writers in ancient Athens. 8. A long time ago, Athens was the world‘s most powerful city. The key: 1. T2. T 3. F 4.F 5.T 6. F 7. T 8. T
Step 6 Match the description of each cities. Pairs the Uffizi Palace Famous because of the Renaissance The Parthenon Greece‘s best writers and philosophers. Barcelona Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo The second largest city of Spain The Eiffel Tower Florence the River Seine the capital and largest city of France the church of Sagrada Familia Athens about five hundred kilometers east of Madrid. Athens -------------the Acropolis Step 7 Discussion Introduce your city and tell your city landmark and famous building. Step 8 Listen to the tape. (加听力) Grammar—Passive voice and subject and verb agreement ■Goals ● To learn about passive voice: present and past forms ● To learn about subject and verb agreement ■Procedures Step 1: Learning about passive voice: present and past forms
For every tense in the Active Voice, there is a corresponding tense in the Passive Voice. In the Passive Voice, the verb to be acts as an auxiliary. The Passive Voice tenses of an English verb are formed from the corresponding conjugations of to be, followed by the past participle of the verb. The Formation of passive voice: present and past forms Tense Simple Present Present Continuous Present Perfect Present Perfect Continuous Simple Past Past Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Simple Future Future Continuous Future Perfect Future Perfect Continuous Auxiliary am/is/are am/is/are being have/has been have/has been being was/were was/were being had been had been being will (shall) be will (shall) be being will (shall) have been will (shall) have been being Verb Form past participle past participle past participle past participle past participle past participle past participle past participle past participle past participle past participle past participle
Step 2: Making passive voice sentences in present and past forms Now you are going to turn as many sentences from Great European Cities as possible into passive voice sentences in present and past forms. Paris is made the capital of France. Paris is built on the River Seine. Paris is regarded as one of the most beautiful cities in the world. Paris is visited by more than eight million tourists every year. The Eiffel Tower is looked as the most popular place for tourists. The Eiffel Tower is made the famous symbol of Pairs. The Louvre is also found in Paris. The Church of the Sagrada Familia was designed by an architect.
The architect is called Antonio Gaudi. The church hasn?t been finished yet. The paintings were produced by great artists. Florence is visited each year by about a million tourists. Athens is found to be the birthplace of western civilization. The Parthenon was built during this period. Greece‘s best writers were invited to live in ancient Athens. Other writers were influenced by them. Step 3: Learning about subject and verb agreement Basic Principle: Singular subjects need singular verbs; plural subjects need plural verbs. For example: My brother is a teacher. My sisters are mathematicians. The subject of a sentence must agree with the verb of the sentence. How do they agree? They must agree in two ways: in number: singular vs. plural, in person: first, second, or third person. We all know these meanings of "agree," but when we talk about subject-verb agreement; we're talking about something different: matching subjects and verbs according to number. That is, when you have a singular subject, you have to match it with a singular verb form: The boy plays. When you have a plural subject, you must have a plural verb form: The boys play. In short, simple sentences, you should have no problem with agreement. You can hear the problem: The boys plays. When it's wrong, it just sounds funny. Step 4: Summarizing subject and verb agreement “more than one ＋名词”作主语时，谓语动词常用单数: More than one teachers gets the dictionaries. “many a ＋名词”作主语时，从意义上看是复数，但谓语动词常用单数： Many a workers has been sent to build the dam．
“half of, the rest of, most of, all of 及百分数或分数＋of 等后接名词”作主语 时，谓语动词形式根据 of 后的名词而定：Three fourths of the land is covered with trees. all 指人时， 动词用复数； all 指物时， 动词用单数： All are present and all is going well. what 引导的主语从句，谓语动词可视表语而定：表语是单数名词时，动词用 单数，相反，则用复数：What they want to get are a number of good cars. and 连接的两个单数名词前若用 each, every, no 修饰，该名词短语作主语时， 谓语动词用单数形式：No man and no dog is found in the room. 当主语后面有 as well as, with, along with, together with, but, like, rather than, except 等引 的短语时,谓语动词与最前面的主语保持一致:My mother as well as her sisters has been to Taiyuan． each 作主语的同位语时， 谓语动词由主语来决定，与 each 无关：They each have a radio set. 动词不定式、 动词-ing 形式短语作主语时， 谓语动词常用单数： Going shopping on weekends is not good. The following 作主语时，谓语动词的数与后面名词的数保持一致： The following are my articles. 下面是我的文章。 以-ics 结尾的学科名词，如 politics 等作主语时，谓语动词用单数。以-s 结尾 的名词 news, works 等同属此类：Politics is not interesting. 有些用来表示由两个对应部分组成一体的名词复数（trousers, glasses, shoes 等）作主语时，前面若有“一条”、“一副”、“一把”之类的单位词，动词用单 数；若没有单位词或单位词是复数，则谓语动词用复数：The trousers are ok. “One and a half ＋名词”作主语时， 谓语动词要用单数： One and a half hours is not enough. “one or two/ more＋复数名词”作主语时，谓语动词用复数：One or two cities are flooded.
“one of＋复数名词＋ 定语从句”结构中，定语从句的谓语动词要用复数； 而在“the only one of＋复数名词＋定语从句” 结构中，定语从句的谓语动词 要用单数：He is one of the workers who got laid off. 表示时间、距离、金钱等的复数名词作主语表达一个整体概念时，谓语动词 常用单数，但若强调数量，谓语动词可用复数：One million yuan is a lot of money. Step 4: Absorb information concerning National College Entrance Examination 高考链接 1. Nobody but Jane ____ the secret. (2005 全国) A. know B. knows C. have known D. is known
2. All but one _____ here just now. (2004 全国) A. is B. was C. has been D. were
3. Not only I but also Jane and Mary ____ tired of having one examination after another. (2003 全国) A. is B. are C. am D. be
4. A library with five thousand books _______ to the nation as a gift. (1999 全国) A. is offered C. are offered B. have offered D. has offered
5. When and where to build the new factory _____ yet. (2001 全国) A. is not decided B. are not decided C. has not decided D. have not decided
6. The number of people invited ______ fifty, but a number of them ____ absent for different reasons. (1996 全国) A. were, was B. was , was C. was , were D. were , were
7._____ of the land in that district _____ covered with trees and grass. (2000 全国) A. Two fifth, is B. Two fifth, are C. Two fifths, is D. Two fifths , are
8. A poet and artist ___ coming to speak to us about Chinese literature and painting tomorrow afternoon. (2006 天津) A. is B. are C. was D. were
9. Most of what has been said about the Smiths ____ also true of the Johnsons. （2006 安徽） A. are B. is C. being D. to be
10. What we used to think ___ impossible now does seem possible. (2006 天津) A. is B. was C. has been 6-10 CCABB D. will be
Keys: 1-5 BDBAA Step 5:巩固练习
1. This is one of the most interesting questions that ____ asked. A. have B. has C. have been D. has been
2. Between then two rows of trees _____ the teaching building. A. stand B. stands C. standing D. are
3. All that can be done______. A. has been done B. has done C. have done D. were done
4. They each _____ a new dictionary. A. has B. have C. is D. are
5. The singer and the dancer ______ come to the meeting. A. has B. have C. are D. is
6. I have finished a large part of the book ; the rest _____more difficult. A. is B. are C. was D. were
7. The wounded _______ by the hospital. A. have been taken in taken in 8. Business studies _ a skill-based subject which_ students‘ ability to use their knowledge. A. is; test B. is; tests C. are; test D. are; tests B. has been taken in C. have taken in D. has
9. Behind the discussion about free e-mails __ the idea of how to use the Internet correctly. A. is B. are C. have D. has
10. The excellent service of the waiters __ highly praised. That‘s why the restaurant is
always full of people. A. were B. are C. was D. is
Keys: 1-5 CBABB 6-10 AABAD
Step 1 Presentation. The teacher ask some questions. ―1) Do you know the city of Edinburgh? 2) Which country is it in? 3) Do you know anything else about it ? T he teacher ask some students to answer these questions and then speak out their opinions freely. At the same time the teacher show some pictures about these places on the screen. Step 2The teacher says: ― You are going to hear three people speaking , two of them are British and one is Spanish, two are female and one is male. Listen to the tape and then answer the questions in activity 1. 1. Where is Edinburgh? In Scotland or in England? 2. Where is Cardiff? In Scotland or in Wales? 3. Where is Valencia? In Italy or in Spain? Tape script Carlos: Hello, my name is Carlos and I‘m from Spain. Helen: Hi, Carlos. I‘m Helen. Amy: And my name is Amy. Pleased to meet you. Carlos: Are you English? Helen: No! Neither of us is English. Amy: Helen‘s from Scotland and I come from Wales. Carlos: Really? So, Helen, where do you live in Scotland? Helen: In Edinburgh. Carlos: Edinburgh. Nice. That‘s the capital of Scotland , isn‘t it?
Helen: Yes, it is. Carlos: And Amy, you‘re from Wales. Amy: That‘s right. Carlos: That‘s west of England , isn‘t it? Amy: Yes, it is. It‘s a separate country and it‘s to the west of England. Carole: And where in Wales do you live? Amy: Well, my family lives in Cardiff. Cardiff: Cardiff? I‘ve never heard of Cardiff. Is it a big city? Amy: Yes, it is! It‘s the capital! Carlos: Oh, I‘m so sorry! Amy: That‘s all right. Carlos: There are so many capital cities in the United Kingdom! Helen: Yes, Scotland and Wales are separates countries And each of them has a capital city. Carlos: So what are you doing here in London? Helen: We‘re students. Carlos: What are you studying? Helen: Languages. Carlos: Which ones? Helen: Well, there are about 60 students in the class, and all of them are studying at least two languages. I‘m studying French and Chinese. Amy: And I‘m studying German and Russian. Carlos: So neither of you is studying Spanish. Amy: No, sorry. In fact, none of the students in our class is studying Spanish. Carlos: Oh, That‘s sad. Helen: Where in Spain do you live? Carlos: In Valencia. Amy: Valencia? Whereabouts is that ? Carlos: It‘s on the east coast. It‘s about 200 kilometers south of Barcelona. Amy: I see. Is it a big city?
Carlos: Yes. Quite big. Amy: What‘s it like? Carlos: It‘s a wonderful place. And our soccer team is fantastic. Helen: What kind of work do people do there? Carlos: Well, a lot of them work in tourism. Helen: Really? And what are you doing here in London? Carlos: Well, I‘m studying English at university, so I‘m here for a month. Amy: Really? That‘s nice. Carlos: Yes. In fact, my whole class is coming. Helen: How many students are there in the class? Carlos: Forty-seven. But none of them has arrived yet! The key to the above questions. 1. Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland. 2. Cardiff is the capital of Wales. 3. Valencia is about 200 kilometers south of Barcelona in Spain. Step 3 Listen again and complete the chart. At first let the students look at the chart carefully first. Make sure that they know what they have to do. After listening to the tape again, the teacher call back the answers form the whole class as complete sentences.(e.g. Amy lives in Cardiff.) Amy Amy Helen Carlos Carlos Helen Amy Helen Carlos comes from Cardiff comes from Edinburgh. comes from Valencia. is studying English. is studying French and Chinese. is studying German and Russian.
Step 4 Listen again and decide if the sentences are true( T ) or false( F). 1. All of them are living in the same city at the moment . 2. All of them come from the same country.
3. None of them speaks Spanish. 4. none of them is a student. 5. neither of the girls comes from England. The key: 1. T2. F 3. F 4. F 5. T. Step 5 According to what they have heard and fill in the blanks. There are so many _____________ cities in the United Kingdom. Edinburgh and Cardiff are two of them. Edinburgh is in _____________ and Cardiff is in _____________. They are in ___________ countries of the United Kingdom. There is a big city Spain called __________. It is ___________ the east __________ of Spain. Its ________ team is fantastic. The key: capitals; Scotland; Wales; separate; Valencia; on; coast; soccer.
Show the three sentences on the screen. And then let them to read the three sentences. And then let students to write three similar ones about places in China. Italy is in the south of Europe Portugal is to the west of Spain. Barcelona is on the northwest coast of Spain. The students write three sentences according to their location. in/ to/ on the south of … in the south of 在……的南部，常指在某一范围内。 to the south of 在……的南边，常指超出了某一范围。 on the south of 在……的南面， 强调两者毗邻，接壤。 Jilin Province lies in the northeast of China. Jilin Province lies to the northeast of Hebei Province. Korea lies on the northeast of China. Northeast of Hebei Province lies Jilin Province. Step 2
Finish activity 2. Answer these questions . 1. What‘s the difference between on the coast and off the coast.? T he key: On the coast means that the place is actually on the land, where it meets the sea；off the coast means that the place is an island (or on an island) not far from the mainland. 2. What‘s the difference between across and between? The key: across means that something is on the other side , that there is something between two places, two objects or also two people (e.g. You can sit across the table from someone; live across the street from them); between refers to the ―thing‖ which separates two objects, places or people, e.g. There is a river between the two parts of the city; there is a busy street between your house and time. Now complete these sentences using correct prepositions. 1. Paris is situated __________ the River Seine. 2. France and England face each other _________ the English Channel. 3. There is a mountain range __________ France and Italy. 4. Barcelona is a city _________ the coast of Spain. 5. Britain is an island ________ the coast of continental Europe. The key: Answers: 1) on 2) across 3) between 4) on 5) off Step 3 Finish activity 4. Complete these sentences using correct prepositions or prepositional phrases. 1. Mongolia is ________ China and Russia. 2. China is ___________ of India. 3. Guangzhou is __________ of China. 4. Shenyang is ____________ Beijing and Harbin. 5. The Qinghai ---Tibet Plateau is ___________ of China. Answers:1) between2) to the northeast of 3) in the south 4) between 5) in the southwest. plateau 高原 Step 4
look at these prepositions or prepositional phrases. Find which ones can be used to describe locations and which ones can be used to describe movement. On the left on the right between in front of to behind near next to
opposite above below
beside with from
Locations: on the left, on the right , between, in front of, behind , near , next to . opposite, above , below, beside. Movement: to, from (―with‖ is extra.) Step 5 Write sentences to describe geographical area of China. Give some places : Such as Jinan, Qingdao, Shandong Province, Shanghai, Beijing. Example: Chongqing is situated on the Yangtze River. Make sure that they can as many phrases which can be used to describe locations.
Module2 Developing and Developed Countries 教学设计 CULTURE CORNER—Town Twinning
■Procedures Step 1: Before you read Please go over the word list for this module, paying attention to the pronunciation of the word, the relationship between its pronunciation and its spelling. Step 2: While you read Cut0 the sentences into thought groups, blacken the predicates, underline the useful expressions and darken the connectives. Step 3: After you read Copy all the useful expressions into your Expression Book. You may make sentences with these expressions.
Useful expressions from Town Twinning medium-size towns of between 100,000 and 200,000 inhabitants, be important to…, be close to some of the most beautiful countryside, in the region, share something else, have a town twinning agreement, a new idea, have become more popular, in recent years, find out about…, visit other countries and towns, an agreement between towns or cities of similar size and age, have similar features, such as tourism, industry, culture and entertainment, encourage people from the two towns to visit each other, visits and exchanges between schools, visitors from the foreign town, stay in the private homes of the town, a big party for the visitors, be most useful for students and people, practice speaking another language, living with a foreign family, as a result, improve fast
Periods 1&2 Introduction and Reading—The Human Development Report
■Goals ● To learn to read passages with link words about the Human Development Report ● To learn to read with strategies ■Procedures Step 1: Warming up by defining The Human Development Report HDR is an annual report launched by UNDP(United Nations Development Program 联 合 国 开 发 计 划 署 ) in 1990 to stimulate and inform global development debate. The world's 173 countries are ranked according to their level of human development. Usually every HDR focuses on some key issue such as democracy. Country by country assessment of trends towards achieving the UN MDGs (United Nations Millennium Development Goals 联合国千年发 展目标) is also given. Warming up by getting to know what human development is The concept of human development focuses on the ends rather than the means of 'development' and progress. The real objective of development should be to create an enabling environment for
people to enjoy long, healthy and creative lives. Though this may appear to be a simple truth, it is often forgotten in the immediate concern with the accumulation of commodities and wealth. Human development denotes both the process of widening people's choices and the level of their achieved well-being. The most critical ones are to lead a long and healthy life, to be educated, and to enjoy a decent standard of living. Additional choices include political freedom, guaranteed human rights and self respect. The concept distinguishes between two sides of human development. One is the formation of human capabilities, such as improved health or knowledge. The other is the use that people make of their acquired capabilities, for work or leisure. Step 2: Before you read Please go over the word list for this module, paying attention to the pronunciation of the word, the relationship between its pronunciation and its spelling. Step 3: While you read 1. Type of writing and summaries of The Human Development Report Type of writing Summaries of 1 part Summaries of 2nd part Summaries of 3 part Summaries of 4th part
An exposition writing From an agreement agreed in 2000 came the Human Development Report. The report describes eight Development Goals. The 2003 Human Development Report gives example of successful development. The report shows that we are making some progress but that we need to make greater efforts.
2. A diagram of The Human Development Report The Human Development Report Paragraph 1: In 2000, The Human Development Report Paragraph 2: The Human Development Report Index Paragraph 3: Examples of successful developments Paragraph 4: We need to make greater efforts. 3. Complete the article with one word in each blank In 2000, 147 world leaders agreed to cooperate to _1_ poverty by 2015 or earlier. From this agreement the Human Development Report is _2_. One of the most important parts of this report is the Human Development Index. _3_ Development Goals are listed in this report. The most important goals are to: Reduce _4_ and hunger; Make sure that all children have education up to the age of 11; Fight AIDS and other _5_; Improve the environment of poor people, e.g. make sure they have safe drinking water; _6_ developed countries to give more help to other countries. The 2003 Human Development Report _7_ example of successful development. For example, in nine years (1953-1962), __8___ increased life expectancy 13 years. Keys: 1 reduce 2 produced 3 Eight 4 poverty 5 diseases 6 Encourage 7 gives 8 China 4. Answer the reading comprehension questions according to the text 1. In the year_____, 147 world leaders agreed to work together to reduce poverty by _____ or
earlier. A. 2001, 2010 B. 2000, 2015 C. 2002, 2005 D. 1995, 2000 2. Which of the followings are not included in the most important goals listed in the report? A. Reduce poverty and hunger B. Make sure that all children have education up to the age of 11 C. Fight AIDS and other diseases D. Get rid of all kinds of pollution 3. Over half of those going hungry daily are in _____. A. North Asia and Africa B. South Asia or Africa C. South America and Africa D. West Europe and South Asia 4. The Netherlands, Norway and Sweden among the _____ richest countries in the world A. five B. six C. seven D. eight Keys: 1-4 BDBA Step 4: After you read 1. Copy all the useful expressions into your Expression Book. If possible, make your own sentences with these expressions. You may as well write an article with these expressions. Useful expressions from The Human Development Report in the year 2000, agree to work together, reduce poverty, by 2015 or earlier, from this agreement, the Human Development Report/Index, examine the achievement of, at the top/bottom of list, at number 7, the other top five countries, in the thirteenth position, in the middle of the list, the bottom ten countries, all African countries, describe eight Development Goals, make sure that…, fight AIDS , have education, up to the age of 11, improve the environment of, safe drinking water, encourage developed countries to give more help to other countries, give example of successful development, increase life expectancy, in the last ten years, move out poverty, drink safe water, Eastern Europe, make some progress, make greater efforts, give some financial help, among the five richest countries, medium-size towns, be important to…, be close to some of the most beautiful countryside, share something else, have a town twinning agreement, find out about…, visits and exchanges between schools, theatre groups and sports teams, be most useful for…, practice speaking a/another language, as a result, improve fast Sentences made with the expressions from Module 2 1. In the year 2000, many countries agreed to work together to reduce poverty by 2015 or earlier. 2. From this agreement resulted the Human Development Report. 3. The Human Development Index examines the achievement of 175 countries. 4. He comes at the top of the list, while I was at number 7. 5. The other top five countries were listed in the thirteenth position in the middle of the list. 6. The bottom ten countries are all African countries with Sierra Leone at the bottom of list. 7. He described eight Development Goals in details. 8. You have to make sure that everyone of them has education up to the age of 11. 9. Ways must be found to fight AIDS and other diseases. 10. It is difficult to improve the environment of the poor people there. 11. We must make sure that all the farmers have safe drinking water next year. 12. We encourage developed countries to give more help to other countries. 13. The 2003 Human Development Report gives examples of successful development. 14. For example, in nine years, life expectancy for the poor people has to be increased greatly. 15. In the last ten years 150 million people have been moved out poverty.
16. More than 1 billion people in developing countries do not drink safe water. 17. In other regions of the world, especially in Eastern Europe it is not safe to drink river water. 18. You have to make some progress to better your English. 19. He is making greater efforts to improve his living standards. 20. Developed countries are asked to give some financial help to the developing countries. 21. This small country is among the five richest countries in the world. 22. It is a medium-size town of between 100,000 and 200,000 inhabitants. 23. It is important to live close to some of the most beautiful countryside. 24. In the region people have to share water and food or something else. 25. They wanted to have a town twinning agreement. 26. We are finding more out about wastes from city life. 27. Visits and exchanges between schools, theatre groups and sports teams are important to the people there. 28. A big party for the visitors will be most useful for practicing speaking another language. 29. As a result his English is improving fast. 2. Read to transfer information In the Human Development Report you will find: Paragraph 1 telling about In 2000, The Human Development Report; Paragraph 2 telling about The Human Development Report Index; Paragraph 3 telling about Examples of successful developments; and Paragraph 4 telling about We need to make greater efforts. Step 5: Closing down by retelling the text To end this period we shall try to retell the text in our own words with the help of the diagram above.
● To learn about link words and sentence cohesion
Step 1: Learning about cohesion To achieve cohesion, the link of one sentence to the next, consider the following techniques: Repetition. In sentence B (the second of any two sentences), repeat a word from sentence A. Synonymy. If direct repetition is too obvious, use a synonym of the word you wish to repeat. This strategy is call 'elegant variation.' Antonymy. Using the 'opposite' word, an antonym, can also create sentence cohesion, since in language antonyms actually share more elements of meaning than you might imagine. Pro-forms. Use a pronoun, pro-verb, or another pro-form to make explicit reference back to a form mentioned earlier. Collocation. Use a commonly paired or expected or highly probable word to connect one sentence to another. Enumeration. Use overt markers of sequence to highlight the connection between ideas. This system has many advantages: (a) it can link ideas that are otherwise completely unconnected, (b) it
looks formal and distinctive, and (c) it promotes a second method of sentence cohesion, discussed in (7) below. Parallelism. Repeat a sentence structure. This technique is the oldest, most overlooked, but probably the most elegant method of creating cohesion. Transitions. Use a conjunction or conjunctive adverb to link sentences with particular logical relationships. a. Identity. Indicates sameness. that is, that is to say, in other words, ... b. Opposition. Indicates a contrast. but, yet, however, nevertheless, still, though, although, whereas, in contrast, rather, ... c. Addition. Indicates continuation. and, too, also, furthermore, moreover, in addition, besides, in the same way, again, another, similarly, a similar, the same, ... d. Cause and effect. therefore, so, consequently, as a consequence, thus, as a result, hence, it follows that, because, since, for, ... e. f. Indefinites. Indicates a logical connection of an unspecified type. Concession. Indicates a willingness to consider the other side. in fact, indeed, now, ... admittedly, I admit, true, I grant, of course, naturally, some believe, some people believe, it has been claimed that, once it was believed, there are those who would say, ... g. Exemplification. Indicates a shift from a more general or abstract idea to a more specific or concrete idea. for example, for instance, after all, an illustration of, even, indeed, in fact, it is true, of course, specifically, to be specific, that is, to illustrate, truly, ... Step 2: Summing up transitional devices (Linking words) Here is a list of some common transitional devices that can be used to cue your reader in a given way. To Add: and, again, and then, besides, equally important, finally, further, furthermore, nor, too, next, lastly, what's more, moreover, in addition, first (second, etc.),
To Compare: whereas, but, yet, on the other hand, however, nevertheless, on the other hand, on the contrary, by comparison, where, compared to, up against, balanced against, vis a vis, but, although, conversely, meanwhile, after all, in contrast, although this may be true
To Prove: because, for, since, for the same reason, obviously, evidently, furthermore, moreover, besides, indeed, in fact, in addition, in any case, that is
To Show Exception: yet, still, however, nevertheless, in spite of, despite, of course, once in a while, sometimes
To Show Time: immediately, thereafter, soon, after a few hours, finally, then, later, previously, formerly, first (second, etc.), next, and then
To Repeat: in brief, as I have said, as I have noted, as has been noted
To Emphasize: definitely, extremely, obviously, in fact, indeed, in any case, absolutely, positively, naturally, surprisingly, always, forever, perennially, eternally, never, emphatically, unquestionably, without a doubt, certainly, undeniably, without reservation
To Show Sequence: first, second, third, and so forth. A, B, C, and so forth. next, then, following this, at this time, now, at this point, after, afterward, subsequently, finally, consequently, previously, before this, simultaneously, concurrently, thus, therefore, hence, next, and then, soon
To Give an Example: for example, for instance, in this case, in another case, on this occasion, in this situation, take the case of, to demonstrate, to illustrate, as an illustration, to illustrate
To Summarize or Conclude: in brief, on the whole, summing up, to conclude, in conclusion, as I have shown, as I have said, hence, therefore, accordingly, thus, as a result, consequently, on the whole Step 3: Learning to use “however” correctly There are two acceptable ways of using ―however‖. 1. As a modifier of a sub-clause: It will probably fall off, however you tie the bow. In this case, ―however‖ is the equivalent of ?in whatever way‘. 2. At the beginning or near the start of a new sentence that contradicts the previous one. Note it always begins a complete new sentence and in this sense it is the equivalent of ?But‘: They were famed for their achievements. It was, however, achieved through hard work. 3. It is ungrammatical to use the construction of no. above without the full stop, as in these two examples: Slaves were a stable part of Roman society; however we should be cautious in our evaluation of the sources.
―But‖ could have been used here (either at the start of a new sentence or continuing the sentence): Slaves could exercise a degree of freedom however they were expected to follow the religion of their masters. ―Although‖ would have been acceptable here. If the word ―however‖ is used in cases like these, there should be a full stop before it and a comma after it. Step 4: 连词用法一览表 种类 功用 例句 连 具 并列连词 并 关 的 从属连词 接 词 He knows neither English nor French. 有 短语 Are you going by bus or on foot? 列 系 分句 Mary was a good girl, but she had one shortcoming. 状 语 I'll do it as you told me. 从句 You will be late unless you hurry. 主 语 What he said proved true. 从句 When we'll start has not been decided yet.
连接代词 表 语 This is why he didn't come yesterday. 和连接副 引导： 从句 That is where he lives. 词 宾语 从句 I can't understand why she is so late. 关系代词 和关系副 词 定语 从句 He came last night when I was out.
Step 5: Practicing using linking words ［误］ Both my parents are not at home. They went to the meeting just now. ［正］ Neither of my parents is at home. They went to the meeting just now. ［析］ 在英语中 both 一般用于肯定句中， 如用于否定句中， 其意义也不同于汉语， 如： Both of us are not right. 在英语中应被理解为"我们俩不都对。"而 Neither of us is right。 才能被理 解为"我们俩无一正确"。 ［误］ He or his sisters has some tickets for the film. ［正］ He or his sisters have some tickets for the film. ［析］ 由 or 连接两主语时，谓语动词应与相临近的那一个主语保持一致。 ［误］ You should work hard, and you won't pass the exam. ［正］ You should work hard, or you won't pass the exam. ［析］ or 作为连词，这里的意思为"否则"。又如：Hurry up, or you'll be late for school. ［误］ Though he is not healthy, but he is ready to help others. ［正］ Though he is not healthy, he is ready to help others. ［正］ He is not healthy, but he is ready to help others. ［析］ "虽然……但是"是中文中的常用结构，但在英文中用了"虽然"则不要用"但是"，用了 "但是"则不能再用"虽然"，二者只可用其一。 ［误］ Either you or I are on business. ［正］ Either you or I am on business. ［析］ either…or 连接两个主语时，其谓语动词与相临近的一个主语相呼应，这也叫做就 近原则。类似的用法还有 or, neither… nor, not only…but also 等。
［误］ Mary is our English teacher and teaching English in our university now. ［正］ Mary is our English teacher and is teaching English in our university now. ［析］ 并列句中常常在后面的句子中作一些省略，以免重复，但不是所有词都可作任意的 省略的。当你连接的是两个系动词时，后面的那个系动词不可省略，也就是讲连接的部分不 可省略。 ［误］ My father likes shopping and to collect stamps. ［正］ My father likes shopping and collecting stamps. ［析］ 由并列连词连接的两个部分要保持相等的语法结构。如是动名词则都用动名词，如 用不定式则都应用不定式，这是初学者要注意的一点。 ［误］ My father is listening to music, I am doing my homework. ［正］ My father is listening to music while I am doing my homework. ［析］ 两个并列句中间不可用逗号连接，要用并列连词来连接。 ［误］ My father asked me that if I wanted to learn how to drive. ［正］ My father asked me if I wanted to learn how to drive. ［析］ 宾语从句的连接词只能有一个不能重复使用。 ［误］ We will go both to Beijing and Shanghai. ［正］ We will go to both Beijing and Shanghai. ［析］ 用 both…and…作连接词时，其相连接的部分结构也要相同。 ［误］ Not only Mary but also her brothers is going to dance. ［正］ Not only Mary but also her brothers are going to dance. ［析］ 由 not only… but also…连接两个主语时，其重点在其后面的那一个主语，所以谓语 形式应采用就近原则。 ［误］ The teacher as well as his students are coming. ［正］ The teacher as well as his students is coming. ［析］ 由 as well as 连接两个主语时，谓语动词与 as well as 后面的名词无关，而与前面的 名词相一致。 ［误］ Tom does not swim nor play football. ［正］ Tom does not swim or play football. ［析］ nor 主要用于连接句子的对等连词，如在否定句中连接某一部分时要用 or, 但要注意 句子的含意， 如： This animal does not like a cow or a horse. 这个动物既不像牛也不像马。 This animal does not like a cow but a horse. 这个动物不像牛而像马。 ［误］ For there is no light in the classroom. The students must have gone home. ［正］ The students must have gone home, for there is no light in the classroom. ［析］ 由 for 引出的原因状语从句在使用时要注意不能将该从句置于句首，而应置于主句 之后， 并在主句与从句之间加一逗号。 更要注意的是 because, as, since 与 for 4 个表示原因的 连词中 because 是因果关系，是最强的一个，而 for 是最弱的一个。有些语法书中干脆把 for 叫做并列连词 ［误］ My brother will pass the English exam is no question. ［正］ That my brother will pass the English exam is no question. ［析］ 主语从句的引导词 that 是不可省略的。这一点不要和宾语从句的引导词相提并论。 ［误］ This map will show you how will you get to the hotel. ［正］ This map will show you how you will get to the hotel. ［析］ 名词性从句作宾语从句使用时，最重要的一点是要用陈述语句。特别要注意的是那 些使用双宾语的动词，如：tell, ask, show…
［误］ While the clock struck ten, all the lights went out. ［正］ When the clock struck ten, all the lights went out. ［析］ while 是强调两个动作在同时进行中，如：While I am doing my home work, my father is reading a newspaper. 而这里的 when 是"正当某某时刻"，"就在这一时间点上"，其重点强 调在某一特定时刻某动作的发生。 ［误］ While I was walking along the street yesterday, I met an old friend. ［正］ When I was walking along the street yesterday, I met an old friend. ［析］ 这里用 when 表达在一个动作的进行中，另一个动作突然发生了。正在进行的动作 用一进行时态，而突然发生的动作用一般时态。 ［误］ While I heard the bad news I felt sad. ［正］ When I heard the bad news, I felt sad. ［析］ while 不能表达一点儿的时间，即瞬时某一时间点。 ［误］ After school some students play football, or others go to the library. ［正］ After school some students play football, while others go to the library. ［析］ while 在此处意为"而，然而"。 ［误］ She sang when she walked along the dark street. ［正］ She sang as she walked along the dark street. ［析］ as 用于句中时，其要点是强调两个动作的同时进行。这里用 when 虽然不能讲是语 法上的错误，但则看不出来小女孩因独自走黑暗的街道因害怕而唱歌的心情。 ［误］ I finished my homework until twelve o'clock last night. ［正］ I didn't finished my homework until twelve o'clock last night. ［正］ I did my homework until twelve o'clock last night. ［析］ until 用在句中时其含义是某一动作一直持续到某时结束，那么句中的动词则一定要 用持续性动词，如果要用瞬间，或截止性动词时一定要用否定句式。因截止性动作的否定式 应看作是持续性的动作。如离开 leave 是瞬间动作，因一出门即为离开了，而不离开则是长 时间的。 ［误］ I have studied English when I was twelve. ［正］ I have studied English since I was twelve. ［析］ since 引出的时间状语从句是表达了一个时间点， 而这个时间点是主句动作的启始点， 所以主句一般要用完成时态。 ［误］ Because he didn't study hard, so he didn't pass the exam. ［正］ He didn't pass the exam because he didn't study hard. ［析］ because 与 so 在英文中两者不能并用的，只能在句中用其一。 ［误］ He was such excited that he could not speak. ［正］ He was so excited that he could not speak. ［析］ so 与 such 的用法可以分为四种情况，用于单数可数名词之前，其格式是 such+不定 冠词+形容词+单数可数名词，如：It is such a beautiful book that every child likes it. 也可以用 so, 其格式是 so+形容词+不定冠词+单数可数名词，如：It was so beautiful a book that every child likes it. 在不可数名词前或可数名词复数前这时只能用 such, 如： It is such good weather that we want to swim. 又如：They are such good students that they can pass the exam easily. 在 few, little， much, many 这 4 个字前只能用 so 而不能用 such, 如：I have so much money that I can buy everything I want. 当 that 前只有形容词或副词时，这时只能用 so, 如：She is so beautiful that every one likes her. He ran so fast that I couldn't keep up with him. ［误］ He got up earlier this morning so as to that he could catch the first bus.
［正］ He got up earlier this morning so as to catch the first bus. ［正］ He got up so earlier that he could catch the first bus. ［析］ so…that 与 so that 的用法有相同之处，那就是其后接从句，而 so as to 其后要接不定 式，即动词原形。这样的词组还有：in order to。 ［误］ I want to buy same stamp that you have. ［正］ I want to buy the same stamp as you have. ［析］the same…as (that)这是个固定用法， 在 same 前的定冠词是不能少的。 而 the same…that 意为"我要的就是那一个"。而 the same…as 为"要的是和……一样的东西"。 ［误］ Before I do not give you the answer, I'll ask you some questions. ［正］ Before I give you the answer, I'll ask you some questions. ［析］这种错误是由于受中文的影响。 在中文中可以讲"我没给你答案前"。 而英文用了 before 就不要再用否定句了。 Step 6: Absorb information concerning National College Entrance Examination 高考链接 1．考查谓语动词时态和语态的变化 The young girl sitting next to me on the plane was very nervous. She _____ before. （2006 广东） A. hasn't flown B. didn't fly C. hadn't flown D. wasn't flying 解析： 答案 C。本题考查动词的时态。前面用的是过去时，后面的动作又是在前一个动作 之前发生，表示过去的过去，应该用过去完成时。 2. 考查动词或动词词组的辨析 I was still sleeping when the fire ________, and then it spread quickly.（2006 广东） A. broke out B. put out C. came out D. got out 解析：答案 A。本题考查短语辨析。break out 突发，爆发；put out 扑灭；come out 出现， 出版；get out 出去。根据题意，此处表示突然发生了火灾。 3． 在搭配关系中考查动词的运用 If anyone happens to drop in while I am out, ________ him or her leave a message.（2005 福建） A. have B. get C. ask D. tell 解析：答案 A。根据动词搭配的关系，后面 leave 前没有不定式符号 to,因此不能用 get, ask 或 tell。只有 have sb. do 符合语法要求。 4． 在不同句式中考查谓语动词的运用 Just in front of our house ________ with a history of 1,000 years.（2006 上海） A. does a tall tree stand B. stands a tall tree C. a tall tree is standing D. a tall tree stands 解析：答案 B。在倒装句中考查动词的运用。介词短语 in front of 放在句首时，句子应该用 完全倒装结构，句子的主语是单数名词 a tall tree, 因此谓语动词也用单数。
Period 4 Speaking—Talking about charity and human develop report
■Goals ● To learn to talk about charity ● To talk about The human Development Report
■Procedures Step 1: Practicing acting out the sample dialogue 1
How Much to Give?
A: I learned that the average American gives about 3.2% of their income (before taxes) to charity. B: Who gives the Most? Do the rich people give the most? A: The people that give the most actually make the least. Families that earn under $10,000 a year, that‘s far below the poverty line, gave 5.2% of their income to charity. B: That's a larger part of their money than any other people. What's the Bottom line? A: The average family donates $1,620 each year. That's just three dollars a day. A: Did you know that individuals give 75% of all the money that charities receive? B: No, I didn‘t. But I know if we all give our fair share, no one will go hungry and no child will grow up in poverty. A: You are right. What you are saying sound idealistic. B: Everything depends on how we spend our money. Step 2: Practicing acting out the sample dialogue 2 Hope Project to Aid Children of Layoffs A: Have you ever heard of the Hope Project? B: Yes, I have. It is a national charity that helps young dropouts in poor areas return to school. A: I learned from a newspaper report that the Hope Project is now shifting its focus from villages to cities. B: Why? A: Because more children of laid-off workers have had to abandon their studies. B: Oh, I remember it is reported that Anshan City has successfully launched a project targeting children of local laid-off workers. A: I know it is in northeast China's Liaoning Province. The city is home to China's steel giant Anshan Iron and Steel Co.. B: Right. A: The Hope Project in Anshan has built 73 primary schools, 50 libraries and helped over 6,500 children return school with donations of more than 10 million yuan in recent years. B: That is great! A: The Hope Project now will focus on school-age children of laid- off workers. B: I see. They are forced to drop out because of their parents' poor economic condition. A: That‘s right. This new focus will help the children return to school and allow parents to turn their full attention to finding employment. B: By the way, when was the Hope Project first started? A: It was initiated in 1990, by the China Youth Development Fund under the CYLC. B: How much money has it received? A: Over 1.78 billion yuan in donations. A: How many children have been helped by this project?
B: It has sent 2.29 million children back to school over the past decade. Step 3: Practice acting out the sample dialogue 3 Pupils are trading toys to donate the needy. A: Hi. A primary school in Beijing is permitting pupils to trade their second-hand toys in class. B: Why? They are learning to do business, aren‘t you? A: No, they aren‘t. B: Where does the money go? A: Money from the sales will be donated to poverty stricken regions in China. B: Are you speaking of the old or young pupils? A: The Beijing News reports the school is allowing its pupils in senior grades to sell toys to classmates. B: Then, is the income to be donated to the needy in poor areas? A: Yes, it is. B: Are such activities useful to the students? A: Yes, they are. They can improve their verbal and expressive skills. B: And they provide subject matter for creative writing assignments. A: So far, pupils have responded actively according. B: That‘s great. Step 4: Putting the text The Human Development Report into a dialogue A: The discussion topic today is Fighting against poverty. B: I read in the paper that in the year 2000, 147 world leaders agreed to work together to reduce poverty by 2015 or earlier. A: An agreement came an important report. B: Is it the Human Development Report? A: Yes, it is. One of the most important parts of this report is the Human Development Index. B: What does it do about poverty? A: It examines the achievement of 175 countries. B: How does it do it? A: It measures a country‘s achievement in three ways: life expectant, education and income. B: What comes from its examination? A: The index has some surprises. Norway is at the top of the list, while the US is at number 7. The other top five countries are Iceland, Sweden, Australia, the Netherlands. The UK is in the thirteenth position. B: What about China? A: Well, China is in the middle of the list. The bottom ten countries are all African countries. Sierra Leone is at the bottom of list. B: What are the goals put forward by it? A: The report describes eight Development Goals. The most important ones are: to Reduce poverty and hunger; to make sure that all children have education up to the age of 11; to fight AIDS and other diseases; to improve the environment of poor people, that is, make sure they have safe drinking water; and to encourage developed countries to give more help to other countries. A: Does the report give any examples of successful development? B: Yes, it does. For example, in nine years, from 1953 to 1962, China increased life expectancy 13
years. In the last ten years in China, 150 million people moved out poverty. A: But I see the challenges are still great for China. B: Other developing countries are also challenged. Every day 799 million people in developing countries are hungry. A: Where are the hungry people? B: Over half of three are in South Asia or Africa. A: But I learned that more than 80% of children in developing countries go to primary school. B: Exactly. But about 115 million children are not being educated in these countries. A: What about drinking water? B: That‘s a serious problem, too. More than 1 billion people in developing countries do not drink safe water. A: But in other regions of the world, like Eastern Europe, water is now mostly safe to drink. B: Tell us more about the report. A: The report shows that we are making some progress but that we need to make greater efforts. B: That is to say we have a long way to go before poverty is overcome.
Period 5 Function—Making comparisons
■Goals ● To learn to make comparison ■Procedures Step 1: Learning about few, the fewest, fewer, the least, less, a few Which expression will complete the sentence? 1. The exhibition was not very crowded. There were ___ people than I expected. (fewer) 2. Meeting Bill Clinton was much ___ frightening than I had imagined. (less) 3. I‘ve not met him but I've heard ___ stories about him and he sounds interesting. (a few) 4. He‘s __crazy than you first think. Some of his ideas make sense. (less) 5. That must be __frightening horror film I‘ve ever seen. (the least) 6. He‘s not liked. In fact he‘s __ liked person in the office. (the least 7. I‘d like to go to Japan but I get so ___ opportunities to travel in my present job. (few) 8. I‘d like you to spend ___ time on your own work and more on controlling your staff. (less) 9. David Letterman is very famous in America but __ people in England have heard of him. (few) 10. We mustn‘t postpone this meeting. We get to meet on too ___ occasions as it is. (few) 11. Frankly, John's problems are ___of my worries. (the least) 12. If you spent __ time worrying, you‘d get more done. (less) 13. I don‘t like any of the solutions. I suppose John‘s is ___ bad of them but I still don‘t like it. (the least) 14. It‘s not important. It doesn‘t matter in __. (the least) 15. The winner will be the person who makes __ mistakes. (the fewest) 16. I‘ve had __ problems with this. I really need some help. (a few) 17. I‘ve had ___ problems with this. I don‘t need any help. (the fewest)
18. ―Never was so much owed by so many to so __.‖- Winston Churchill (few) Step 2: Learning about much and many What word do you need to complete the sentence? 1. How ___ people are you expecting? (many) 2. How ___money do you want for this? (much) 3. I don‘t see ___ point in continuing. We‘re all very tired. (much) 4. Thank you so __ for your help. (much) 5. We don‘t stock these. We don‘t get ___ demand for them. (much) 6. I feel __ better today, thank you. (much) 7. I like that dress very ___. (much) 8. There are so __ things I want to ask you. (many) 9. There are too __ paintings to see in one visit. (many) 10. I‘m talking too ___. I‘ll be quiet. (much) 11. I‘ve got so ___ news to tell you. (much) 12. Do you have __ work to do? (much) 13. Thank you very __ for coming. (much) 14. It looks good but so __ things could still go wrong. (many) 15. I don‘t have __ friends. (many) 16. Please be quick. I don‘t have __ time to spare. (much) 17. It‘s been a poor summer. We haven‘t had __ good weather. (much) 18. There haven‘t been ___sunny days. (many) 19. Happy birthday. __ happy returns! (Many) 20. I don‘t know __ about English but I am learning fast. (much)
Period 6 Writing—Write a description
■Goals ● To lean to compare two places in writing ■Procedures Step 1: Reading questions to get started Imagine for a minute that you are a newspaper reporter. An important discovery of a lost land has been made, and you have the chance to be the first person to interview the returning explorers. Make a list of the questions that you might ask. Remember, the five themes and ask the most important questions from each. Here are some questions to get you started: 1. Where is it? 2. Where exactly is that? 3. What does it look like? 4. How many people live there and where? 5. What settlements (cities, villages) does it have? 6. What sort of climate does it have? 7. Does it have any extremes of weather?
8. Is it prone to any type of natural disaster? 9. What are the natural resources and how are they used? 10. What type of agriculture is there? 11. What are the main types of transportation and communication? 12. What makes the people there different to people in other places? 13. What sort of government does it have? 14. Is it associated with any other place? That is just the short list. It will give some basic facts about the place. Each of the topics can be expanded on to give a much more detailed description. Step 2: Writing a description comparing two places Hong Kong is one of the greatest maritime cities there has ever been—noisy, boisterous, cluttered, and vibrant. I left Hong Kong in the royal yacht Britannia in the early hours of the morning on July 1, 1997. It was quite a way to go! But then, the British Empire can only end once. —Christopher Patten, former governor of Hong Kong Paris is not only a place but a state of mind. Whoever goes there takes away the greatest meal he has ever had in his life, a romance that will linger forever, and a dream that will never be repeated. All you have to say is “Paris” and the movie will begin.—Art Buchwald, author London is the jewel of England’s crown. It is a timeless and regal city that combines a wealth of heritage and pageantry mixed with the very best of vibrant, cutting-edge modernity.—Hugh Thompson, chief yeoman, Tower of London The first time I saw Venice I was dumb struck at t0his glorious civilization emerging from the water, kind of crumbling, kind of leaning, and supporting itself still. We stayed at the Gritti Palace and listened to the church bells ring all the time. I had the best nap of my life there.—Mary Elizabeth Mastrantonio, actress
The Analysis of the Difficult Sentences from From this agreement
came the Human Development Report.由此协议得出“人类发展报告”. 本句是倒装句，the inverted sentence。 （以下表同牛津 2U2 中的表）
People who had discovered how to stay young forever lived in this perfect world. In this perfect world lived people who had discovered how to stay young forever. Inversion of this kind can apply to sentences whose verb phrases designates location or direction. The verb, moreover, can be any verb that includes the meaning of be as a final state: In this category are the Arabic numerals. On the top of the hill stands a temple. In front of the village lies a beautiful river. Inside the pyramids are the burial rooms for the kings and queens and long passages to these rooms. On the wall hangs a picture. West of the lake are two factories. 英语的语序：自然语序和倒装语序 自然语序：主语＋谓语 倒装语序：如果将谓语的全部或一部分放在主语之前时，这种语序叫做倒装语序，倒装的原 因，一是语法结构的需要（如疑问句） ；一是为了强调。 倒装句分为： 部分倒装：谓语的一部分放在主语之前 全部倒装：谓语全部放在主语之前 介词短语放在句首时要用全部倒装， 即动词提至主语前：In front of the farmhouse sat a small boy who was cutting a cane. 试题选练： 1. _____ who had caught him three times for stealing bikes. A. Before George stood the policeman B. Before George the policeman stood C. The policeman stood before George D. Before the policeman stood George 2. ____ from the 11th floor when the policeman pointed his gun at him. A. Down jumped the murderer B. Down the murderer jumped C. Down jumped he D. Jumped down he 答案：1-2 A A 1. The bottom ten countries are all African countries, with Sierra Leone (in West African) at the bottom of list. 最底层的十个国家都是非洲国家，西非的塞拉利昂是最后的国家。 英语中，with 引导的独立主格结构很富有表现力， 在句子中作状语， 表示伴随、 方式、原因、 结果等。它不是句子而是短语，其结构总的说来有五种形式，即：With+名（代）词+现在 分词，With+名（代）词+过去分词，With+名（代）词+介词短语，With+名（代）词+副词 或形容词，With+名（代）词+不定式。 1）He sat there thinking, with his chin on his hand．他手托下巴，坐在那儿沉思。
2）The old man stood there, with his back (leaning) against the wall．那位老人背倚着墙站在那 里。 3）Mary was sitting near the fire, with her back towards the door．玛丽靠近火炉坐着，背对着 门 4）He stood there trembling, with his face red with cold．他站在那儿瑟瑟发抖，脸都冻红了。 5） We now live in a society where competition in the job market rages, with graduates and job-hunters from all walks of life scrambling for desirable jobs. 6） As described in the picture, an American girl is wearing a Chinese costume characteristic of some minority group, with a sweet smile on her face. 7） These children can set their hearts at ease, with everything well- arranged by their parents. 8） With education on all sides being enforced, our young college students will grow up to be qualified not only in their fields but, more importantly, in moral cultivation. 高考链接 1．The murderer was brought in, with his hands ____ behind his back. （91NMET） A. being tied B. having tied C. to be tied D. tied 2．_____ production up by 60%, the company has had another excellent year. （2000 全国） A. As B. For C. With D. Through 3．At last, we found ourselves in a pleasant park with trees providing shade and _______ down to eat our picnic lunch. （2005 上海） A. sitting B. having sat C. to sit D. sat 答案：1-3 D C D 2. The 2003 Human Development Report gives example of successful development. 2003 年 人类发展报告列举了成功发展的例子。 句子中 gives example of 属于―动词＋名词＋介词‖构成的短语动词。 此类短语动词还有：take care of 照料；照顾；make room for 给……腾出地；make friends with 与……交朋；play a joke on 戏弄某人；have a look at 看；have a drink of 喝；say goodbye to 告别。 3. However, in other regions of the world, e.g. Eastern Europe, water is now mostly safe to drink. 然而，在世界其他地区，比如东欧，饮水大体是安全的。 however 的用法如下： 1） however 可以做副词，含义为―但是，可是，不过‖。多插在句中，有时放在句首或句尾。 例如：There is, however, another side to this problem. 然而，这个问题还有另外一面。 However，they did not seem to have much effect. 不过，他们似乎没有起太大的作用。 He said that it was so; he was mistaken，however. 他说事情就是这样；然而，他错了。 由上文可以看出，第五单元的文章中的三句话中，however 做副词，同学们可以试着翻译一 下。 2） however 还可以做连词，含义为―不管……如何，多么‖，引导让步状语从句。从句的语 序为：however+ adj./adv.+主语+句子的其他成分。 例如： I won‘t accept their offer, however favourable the conditions. 无论条件多好， 我也不会接 受他们的建议。 We shall never succeed however much we try. 无论我们多么的努力，都不可能成功。 However cold it is, she always goes swimming.无论天多冷，她总是去游泳。 注意：当 however 做连词时，可以转换为 no matter how，因此上面的两个例句可以转换为： We shall never succeed, no matter how much we try.
No matter how cold it is, she always goes swimming
Content: Module 3 [Senior I ( I ) , New Standard English ]
本模块是通过旅游经历介绍风光， 帮助学生学会关于交通工具和地貌等自然现象 的词语，学会运用表示过去的用语作回忆、写游记、介绍风光。
1） 语言知识： 语音 词汇 句子中的重音 abandoned cassette circus colorful desert diamond expert farm fields
helicopter law tram shoot kindergarten product recently scenery supply 词组 in the central part of, a long-distance train, dark red, until the 1920s, on the
coast of, out of date, a dining car, comic books, for the first time, feel nervous, a speed of 语法 功能 话题 -ed 形式作形容词；表达过去时间的词语或词组 礼貌用语 介绍旅游经历；介绍童年故事
2） 语言技能： 听 听懂对事件的回忆、旅游介绍并获取信息 说 礼貌地进行 Everyday English 中的对话；运用过去时间回忆；运用含有-ed 句 子介绍风光 读 Scanning, skimming, careful reading, generalization; inference 等阅读微技能训 练 写 用所学的词汇、词组、及含-ed 的句子写介绍旅游情况的文章和各种回忆 3） 学习策略：
学生一定程度形成自主学习，有效交际、信息处理、英语思维能力 认知 调控 交际 资源 息 4） 文化意识：了解我国现代化建设的最新成就；了解我国及各地不同的旅游文 化 5） 情感态度：热爱祖国河山；为祖国建设感动自豪；倡导文明礼貌 联系，归纳，推测，速读，略读，查读等技能 从同伴处得到反馈，对自己在叙述及作文中的错误进行修改 积极、有效同时礼貌地进行对话 积极有效阅读从网上及各种媒体所获取的有关旅游及介绍各地风光的信
重点：1. 如何使用地道英语描述风光、事件或回忆 2. 正确理解并应用-ed 形容词 3. 如何礼貌进行日常对话 难点: 能用得体的英语表达自己，描述过去的难忘经历
基于课程改革的理念及“第二语言习得论”和“整体语言教学”理论，运用任务 型教学途径，围绕核心任务，设定小任务，开展促进自主性学习的课堂活动，强 调合作探究与独立思考相结合，初步设计“ P — T — P ”自主学习立体模式： （Pre-task----Task-cycle----Post-task） 。
核心任务：学生能利用照片、明信片、纪念品等向同伴介绍旅游情况。三个环节 如下： Pre-task: 学生回忆往事，激活背景知识，重温情感体验 Task-cycle: 通过整个模块听说读写的训练，强化“描述风光或一件难忘的事”的 表达及语篇能力，为完成任务做好铺垫 Post-task: 达成任务，展示成果，反馈学习情况。
根据学生学习英语的特点和规律，我们把本模块划分为 6 课时： Period 1: Introduction, Reading and vocabulary (1.2) Period 2: Reading Period 3: Grammar 1&2, Function, Culture Corner
Period 4: Vocabulary, reading and speaking Period 5: Listening, pronunciation, Everyday English Period 6: Task, writing
[教学设计] Ss=students; T=teacher; =group work; = pair work; =individual work =screen
Period 1 Introduction, Reading and vocabulary (1.2) Ⅰ、教材内容及教学目标 1、学习有关交通工具的名词和动词，回忆第一次旅游的快乐情景 2、通过查找信息，描述自己印象中的澳大利亚 3、学习部分有关 Reading 中将要出现的生词(需要在文章中猜测的词汇除外) Ⅱ、教学设计 Task 1: Describe a trip ( 15m) – Introducton Pre-task Brainstorming Try to bring out as many words about transportation as possible. Task-cycle Learn different verbs and nouns about traveling. Activity 1 Matching ( 1 ) Activity 2 Put me in the right place! A: Draw a picture with road, rails, water and clouds on the blackboard. Put different vehicles in the right position on the picture.
B: Ask and answer Qs in (2) according the picture. Activity 3 Filling & Guessing game get on (off) get into (out of) Ride Drive take off/ride A:
B: Show pictures taken in Hainan. Q: How did I get there? (different answers should be encouraged) Post-task: Describe the first time you traveled a long distance A: Q: When someone want to describe his first trip, what do you want to know? 5W & 1H ( who, when, where, what, why & how ) B: Describe the first trip Report to all
Task 2: Describe Australia ( 25m )—Reading & vocabulary Pre-task: Search information about Australia before class Task-cycle: Australia Activity 1 Brain-storming (words about Australia) Activity 2 Talking ( 1 ) A: Talk about the pictures on P22 + things about the country brought by Ss B: Get questions in (1) solved C: Dialogue between ―Australians‖ and ―tourists‖ Report to all Activity 3 Vocabulary ( Part ) A: Choose the words which you think can be used to describe a train trip to Australia from the list shown on the screen (a dictionary is recommended)
B: Match the words with pictures (camels, cassette, desert, diamonds, sand, soil) C: Choose a word in the blanket to match the underlined part in a passage (2) Not long ago, I had a wonderful trip to Hainan. It‘s not an area of dry land, because it‘s surrounded by sea. There you can always enjoy the beautiful sunshine, green trees and blue water. On the beaches, you can‘t find any valuable stones, but you can always touch the soft sand instead. On my way back, I made friends with some of the people traveling on the train. Post-task: Display ( A brief make-up story about a trip to Australia using some of the new words) Recalling(4m) Recall what we learn today. & Questions unsolved. Homework(1m) Workbook P80 4. 5. Describe your first time you travel to a place of interest.
Period 2 Reading Ⅰ、教材内容及教学目标 1、学习在澳大利亚乘火车旅游的文章 2、训练速读、略读和查读技能，通过中心句掌握全文中心，学会分析文章结构， 学会运用想象、联想、逻辑分析和英语思维的能力 3、学会如何描述乘火车旅游的情形 Ⅱ、教学设计 Task Learn and retell the passage Pre-task Content Prediction(2m) According to the picture and the title, try to predict what we will be able to learn from the passage. Task-cycle Reading(40m) Pre-reading Map reading Look at the map of the railways in Australia, discuss which city you would like to travel and how to get there. While-reading
Activity 1 First ( Fast ) reading A. Match: Find out what main idea each paragraph is about. ( my first ride on a
long-distance train, the food, the passenger, the Ghan ) B. Main sentence in each paragraph. C. Main idea D. Guide Ss to find out the structure of the passage. Activity 2 Second ( Detailed ) reading Deal with 6 questions in (4) Activity 3 Third reading ( Reading Strategies Applying ) A. Find out appropriate information to fill in the form below: Part One (1) Who When Where What Why How
Part Two (2-3) Food Scenery After that Suddenly
First hundred kms
B. Put me in the right order and form a passage, adding in the time signals. Camels were trained to carry supplies back from the central part. Camels were shot because of the new railway line built by the government. They brought camels from Afghanistan. Australians needed a way to the central country. They tried riding horses, but failed. C. Word-guessing ( abandon, diamond, supplies) Post-task Activity 1 Retelling Retell the passage with the help of the form Activity 2 Discussion P24 (5) Activity 3 Small debate ―They should shot the camels‖ Recalling(2m) Recall what we learn today. & Questions unsolved. Homework(1m) Write a reading note 阅读格式卡 Title__________________________ Module _________ Date___________
General idea： Words & Phrases: BS: BS=beautiful sentence
Period 3 Grammar 1&2, Function, Culture Corner Ⅰ、教材内容及教学目标 1、 学会通过合作探究，归纳总结出-ed 形容词作定语及其定语的位置， 2、 运用过去时间表达法 3、 运用礼貌用语 4、 了解 Maglev，能说出与普通火车的区别 Ⅱ、教学设计 Task 1 Find out rules of ―–ed adjectives‖ Activity 1 Competition The group which write the most right –ed forms of the verbs given by teachers win. Activity 2 Find out the rules of ―-ed adj.‖ A. Look, say, write and combine a. T act out the sentences: I threw the paper away. The paper was used before. b. Ss write out the sentences c. Try to combine the sentences to one: I threw the _______ paper away. d. Talk about the pictures using –ed form and write them down. B. Observe, compare and find out the rules (Grammar 1 ) Activity3 Workbook P79 1. 2.
Task 2: Story-making using past tense time expressions Activity 1 Brainstorming ( past tense time expressions) Activity 2 Complete the sentences (2) Activity 3 Story-telling Make stories according to the pictures given to different groups
Task 3: Polite conversation Activity 1 Act and discuss 2 Ss act out the dialogue. Discuss Qs in (2) Activity 2 Make new dialogues Suggestions given by Ss—Make new dialogues according to (3.4)
Task 4: Interview ( about Maglev ) Activity 1 Read and compare Activity 2 Interview & Report (one interviewer + one mayor + designer + assistant) Activity 3 Your idea of new transportations
Period 4 Vocabulary, reading and speaking Ⅰ、教材内容及教学目标 1、 学习表示地点和在该地点做事的词汇，训练联想的认知策略 2、 学习有关回忆的文章，能叙述自己的回忆 Ⅱ、教学设计 Task Childhood memories Pre-task Words and expressions Activity 1 District map Draw an imaginary district map with names on it with Ss Activity 2 Tell me your first time to... I will never forget the day I ... I remember the day I ... my first visit to... doing Task-cycle Jigsaw reading & Interview 5 groups read, other groups bring out Qs.—Interview Post-task Talk show Three famous persons & one TV host on a TV talk show talking about childhood memories.
Period 5 Listening, pronunciation, Everyday English
Ⅰ、教材内容及教学目标 1、 听懂对话，抓住要点，获取信息 2、 句子重音 3、 训练根据对方话语作出回应、表达态度的技能 Ⅱ、教学设计 Task 1 Knowing things about her Pre-task Getting information about Mary Lennon Task-cycle Listening Activity 1 When & Where & By what Get basic information from the first listening Activity 2 Interview (Ex.1 & 2) Post-task ―I am Mary Lennon...‖ Suppose you are Mary, talk about your experience with the help of the Qs
Task 2: ―My Pronunciation is better!‖ Activity 1 Listen & Imitate Activity 2 Competition
Task 3: Show your response! Activity 1 Ex. 1 & 2 Activity 2 Show your response One of you is a superstar, the other is an interviewer. You‘re having a talk on CCTV. (Try to use expressions to show your response or attitude towards the other person.)
Period 6 Task, writing Ⅰ、教材内容及教学目标 1、 借助一切可借助的力量介绍自己的一次旅游情况 2、 写童年某一事件的过程，训练记忆、整理和归纳等逻辑思维能力 Ⅱ、教学设计 Task 1: Display one of your trips to a tourist spot Pre-task: Things about the trips
A. Collect information about the tourist spot B. Collect English signs in the tourist spot C. Collect pictures, photos, postcards, magazines reports, maps or souvenirs about the tourist spot D. Make notes on 5W & 1H Task-cycle: Share & Choose Activity 1 Share the things your collect with your partners Activity 2 Choose the best S to do the talking, the others offer help when needed Post-task: Display Talk about your first trips to a tourist spot with the help of all kinds of information. ( an album with comments on it is recommended )
Task 2: Writing Pre-task: Choose topics Task-cycle: Writing Brainstorming --Writing ---Evaluation by oneself & partner ---Correction -- Choose the best one & Correct Post-task: Show the best writing & Comment Recalling Recall what we learn today & Questions unsolved. Homework Composition ( Choose any topics on P27 )
Module 4 Sandstorms in Asia Period 1 & 2 Teaching Content: Introduction Teaching Procedures: Step 1 Lead-in
We‘ve learnt some disasters in the last module. Today we‘ll continue to learn about another disastrous weather ------ Sandstorms. Sandstorms have been a major disaster for many Asian countries. Scientists have tried many ways to solve this problem. And the Chinese government is giving more attention to the problem. Step 2 Warm-up 1. Can you use some words to describe the sandstorm? Sand, frightening, strong wind, dust, desert, disaster, dirty. The sandstorm usually happens in the northwestern provinces o f Gansu and Qinghai, as well as Xinjiang and the Inner Mongolia. The visibility is rather low. You may see clouds of yellow dust in the air. It‘s hard to breathe. The dusty weather has reduced visibility. Severe sandstorms happened very often in the 1980s and 1990s. 2. Filling in the blanks Step 3 Discussion 1. What‘s the cause of sandstorms? \ What caused sandstorms? Sandstorms are caused by strong winds blowing over loose soil or sand, and picking up so much of that material that visibility is reduced. In desert regions at certain times of the year, sandstorms become more frequent because the strong heating of the air over the desert causes the lower atmosphere to become unstable. This instability mixes higher winds in the middle troposphere downward, producing stronger winds at the surface. In the United States, these events are often referred to as "dust storms". Ineffective protection of constructive sites; Topographical factor (desert);
Atmospheric factors (air pollution, high temperature & little rain); Excessive cultivation of farmland; Deforestation; Overgrazing. 2. Where in China do sandstorms begin? The sandstorm usually happens in the northwestern provinces o f Gansu and Qinghai, as well as Xinjiang and the Inner Mongolia.
3. Damage of sandstorms a. Sandstorms can pollute the atmosphere and carry away top soil. When the top soil is carried away, on which plants grow, land becomes barren, yielding much less. b. Also the breaking out of sandstorms brings more solid pollutants into the
atmosphere and damages the environment. c. Even sandstorms can kill people and animals and pull down buildings. In fact, sandstorms cause as much damage as typhoons and hurricanes. 4. What should be done to prevent sandstorms? Plant trees, save water, don‘t deforestation and overgrazing a grassland community that has been altered to desert by overgrazing. 5. What should you do in a sandstorm to protect yourself? Step 4 Homework
Period 3 & 4 Teaching Content: Reading and Vocabulary Teaching Procedures: Step 1 Revision Step 2 Reading A. Match the words with the definitions. B. Fast reading Find or sum up the key words of each paragraph. Para 1 Introduction Para 2 Phenonmena Para 3 Places Para 4 Causes Para 5 Effects Para 6 Advices Para 7 Solutions C. Ex. 3 on P33
D. Read the text again and complete the following activities. Activity 1 Directions: Decide if the following statements are true( T ) or false( F ). ①Scientists have tried many ways to deal with sandstorms ②Land becomes desert only because people cut down trees and dig up grass. ③The Chinese Central West Station can not forecast sandstorm before it comes. Activity 2 Directions: Ask the Ss to choose the correct answer by the context of this text. ①Sand dunes (in Paragraph 2)mean _____ (a) plants growing in sand (b) sand hills ②desertification (in Paragraph 3) means _____ (a) making land become desert (b) throwing sth away ③If you want to wear a mask (in Paragraph 5), you should wear it over your ____ (a) face (b) body Activity 3 Directions: Fill in the blanks according to what you read. The first letter is provided for you. Sandstorms have been a major disaster for many Asian countries for centuries. Northwest China is part of the sandstorm center in Central Asia. Sandstorms begin in desert areas. This is a process that happens when land becomes desert because of climate changes and because people cut down trees and dig up grass. It was frightening to be outside in a sandstorm. I was in a very big sandstorm some years ago. Luckily, everyone survived. Step 3 Language points
1. major adj.
The major aim is to help the poor people. the major subjects 2. be caught in 被困在??.中
他上星期被雨淋了，患了感冒。 He was caught in the storm last week and caught a cold.
catch up with catch hold of catch fire catch sight of 3. situation
赶上 抓住 着火 看见 n. 位置,地位,形势,情况,处境
这个房子的地点很好。 The house has a fine situation. 形势非常复杂。 The situation was complicated. 政治局势 political situation 经济局势 economic situation 4. survive vt.& vi. 活下来，幸存，保存下来 洪水过后，幸存者极少。Few survived after the flood. 在那次可怕的事故中只有一个人生还。 Only one person survived the terrible accident.
n. 幸存者 结果
5. as a result
出了一起交通事故，结果 5 人丧身。 An accident took place, as a result five people were killed. as a result of=because of 由..产生的结果 他因病不能工作 He could not work as a result of his illness. 6. wake up to 认识到，意识到，发觉
直到参加工作他才意思到学习的重要性。 He didn`t wake up to the importance of study until he joined in the work. wake up 醒来，叫醒
Don`t make a noise or you will wake the baby up.别出声，要不然会吵醒孩子的。 7...because the thick dust makes it difficult to see. make it + adj. + to do…. it 是形式宾语，adj. 作补语,to do 是真正宾语 他的解释使得我们对课文的理解别得容易起来。 His explanation made it easy for us to understand the text. 8. surprise vt. 使惊奇，使震惊；感到惊奇 使我惊奇的是他英语说得那么好。 What surprised me was that he spoke English so well. 听到你说的那件事我很惊奇。 I`m surprised to hear you say that. n.惊奇,诧异；使人惊奇的事，出人意料 His face showed surprise at the news. 听到这消息，他脸上露出惊奇的神色。
in surprise 惊奇地 to one`s surprise 使?.惊奇的是 9. To prevent it coming nearer,.. 为阻止沙漠的逼近?.
prevent?from doing?阻止或防止?干? 大雨使他们不能按时到达那里。 The heavy rain prevented them from getting there on time. prevent…(from) doing = stop ……(from) doing/keep…from doing 疾病使他无法上学。His illness kept him from going to school. Sorry to keep you waiting so long. Step 4 Homework
Ⅱ Description Cause Influence Suggestion III measures
The second period I.Grade Senior One Time II.Content 2007.6.16. New lesson
Module 4 Sandstorms in Asia Type 1.Knowledge
III.Teaching aims and demands.
focus 1.learn some language points. 2.Talk something about Sandstorms 2.Ability goals 1. reading) 2. To practice the students‘ ability of reading comprehension. 3.Feeling and attitudes environment 4.Learning strategies 1.The students should read the text quickly and carefully, and then find the answers to the questions. 2.The students should talk something about sandstorms in English. 3,The students should do something in co-operation. 4.The students should learn by themselves. IV.Teaching difficult point V.Teaching important point. points VI.Teaching methods 1. talk. 2. 3. Learner-center approach and based learning. Learn individually, learn in groups. Multimedia Students‘ activities Aims and skills Lead in by a picture of sandstorm and then read and Talk something about ― sandstorms in Asia‖. To train the students‘ reading ability and language Let the students know the importance of protecting our To train the students‘ reading skills.(Fast-reading and intensive
VIII.Teaching procedures Teacher‘s activities
Step1 Lead in questions
Show a picture of sandstorm and give a brief introduction and some
Let students listen to the questions carefully and talk freely, and then
give the answers Let students know something about sandstorm Step2 Fast-reading 1. 2. Give some tasks
Where do sandstorms happen in the world? How are people in sandstorms? Skin the text quickly and find the answers
3. What should you do in sandstorms?
to the questions To train the students‘ reading skills Step3 Intensive-reading Give some tasks: 1. 2. 3. Where do sandstorms happen in Chian? What cause sandstorms? How do we prevent desertification? To train the students‘ reading skills 1. so … that… Scan the text carefully and solve the
Step4 Deal with language points 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. be caught in as a result of cut down dig up advise sb.(not)to do sth. prevent…from…
Learn by heart and do the translation exercise. Check
the reading result and the students‘ ability of learning by themselves. Step5 Exercises in Post-reading 1. 2. 3. students‘ reading comprehension Step 6 Topic discussion following task Conclusion: We should protect our environment.. Discuss in groups and complete Showing the picture of sandstorm again, and give the Give some tasks
Exercise1.Judging ―T‖ or ―F‖ Exercise 2 Check the answers with the whole class. Finish the questions Check the
the chart. Let the students know the importance of protecting our environment
Step 7 Summary Step 8 Homework Writing the summary of the text Summarize the content of the lesson
1、 The sight was so f__________ that he stood there, unable to move. 2、 Every day he c___________ to school instead of taking a bus. 3、 He is a Chinese by birth, but he became a US c________. 4、 He can lift heavy weights because of his s__________. 5、 I was very c_________ about my brother’s illness. 6、 We still need ________(证据) to prove that there is life on the Mars. 7、 If you think you have passed the exam, you are _________ (绝对地) wrong. 8、 Such a thin coat gives little ________ (保护) against the cold. 9、 The whole country are now fighting against ________(污染)。 10、Children need a happy family _______( 环境)。 Six：Speaking and discussion: 1、What’s the cause of sandstorm? cutting down too many trees; desertification (沙漠化); high temperature and little rain; serious air and water pollution; the growing population of the world; improper of land; rapid spread of urbanization; 2、What should you do in a sandstorm to protect yourself? Seven:课后自学，词义解析。 （A1、A2、B1 必学，A3、B2、B3 选学） 1、 protect vt.保护
常用于下列搭配： Sb. / sth./ from sth. 保护??使?? protect sb. / oneself from doing 保护某人/自己使不受?? A against B 保护 A 免遭受 B 的危害 Protect your eyes from the sun. 遮住阳光，保护你的眼睛。 I’ll protect you / myself from being insulted. 我将保护你（我自己）免受欺侮。 These tree belts protect 500,000 acres of farmland against shifting sand. 这些保护林带保护了 50 万英亩的农田不受流沙的侵袭。 2、 frightening adj.吓人的，可怕的 That was a frightening experience. 那是一次可怕的经历。 frightening adj.惧怕的，可怕的 frightened adj. ( 用来修饰人)受惊的，惧怕的 I made a frightening dream last night. 昨晚我做了一个可怕的梦。 The frightened child began to cry after he saw a frightening movie. 看了一场可怕的电影后，那个受到惊吓的孩子哭了起来。 3、 climate ，weather climate “气候”, 指一个地区气候的总体情况，如气温、降雨量等； weather“天气”指特定一天或某个时节的具体天气情况，如冷暖、阴晴等。 The weather is good fine today. 今天天气很好。 These trees cannot be grown in such a cold climate. 这些树在严寒的气候中无法生 长。 Module 4 Sandstorms in Asia Teacher：Miss Huang Period Two：Reading and Vocabulary 教学目标：①、理解所学生词、词语和含有过去完成时的被动语态和间接引语的 句子和段落，读懂意义并获取相关的信息。②、理解模块提供的和来自其他资源 的对不同自然灾难的介绍并获取相关的信息。③、读懂课文并理解语段之间的逻 辑关系，从中获取信息并回答相关的问题。 One: Phrases (translate into Chinese). （必学部分）
1、cut down 2、dig up 3、be caught in 4、prevent?(from) doing? 5、take in6、give out 7、protect? from/against8、one after another 9、have a bad effect on 10、in a nutshell 11、look through 12、one after another 13、encourage sb to do sth 14、such as 15、all over Europe16、the green movement 17、put?into 18、take away 19、be concerned about 20、get sb to do sth. Two:词语活用(A1、A2、B1 自学完成，A3、B2、B3 在老师的指导下完成) One after another; as a result; take in; look through; concern about; be caught in; give out; have a bad effect on ;Had better; cut down 1、 He was late _________ the traffic jam. 2、 We should do our best to ________ the environment. 3、 He __________ the rain with nowhere to run. 4、 The apple tree was dead and he ________ it ________. 5、 They visited his office_________. 6、 Smoking will _________ your health. 7、 You ________ stay at hospital for another few days. 8、 On weekends the Smith usually drive to the countryside and ________ the fresh air there. 9、 The sun __________ light and heat to the earth. 10、Will you ______ my article to find out whether it has come to the point? Three :导入课文 (A1、A2、B1 自学完成，A3、B2、B3 在老师的指导下完成) Look at the picture, and answer the questions on page 32. Four： Fast Reading, Listen to the tape of the text. (A1、A2、B1 自学完成，A3、 B2、B3 在老师的指导下完成) 1、Finish Exercise 2，3 on page 33.
2、try to find the answer to the question . How many parts can this article be divided into? And the main idea？ Part I (paragraph 1) : major disaster in Asia- sandstorm Part II (paragraph 2-5) : description cause influence suggestion Part Ⅲ (paragraph 6):measures Five：Read the text carefully (A1、A2、B1 自学完成，A3、B2、B3 在老师的指导 下完成) Finish Exercise 4,5 on page 33. 1、 Fill in the chart Parts I Content Details
Ⅱ Description Cause Influence Suggestion III measures Six: Read after the class. Measures and Suggestions 1、 certain administrative methods be taken to turn desertification preventions into the record to evaluate the work of local government officials. 2、 the issue of desertification prevention should be included in the national economic and social development program for the 21st century, and it should be on the list of key national projects and items 3、 the prevention plans must be drawn up scientifically, and the management must be strict. 4、importance should be attached to experts' participation in the project, and the building of a new type of structure which combines production, scientific research and promotion under the new circumstances. 5、 we must do a good job of monitoring and forecasting desertification. We must also establish an information network for national desertification and sandstorm （A1、A2、B1 必学，A3、B2、B3 选学）
prevention, with forecasting work focused on controlling desertification at the beginning stage. Module 4 Sandstorms in Asia Teacher：Miss Huang Period Three：Reading and Vocabulary 教学目标：①、理解所学生词、词语和含有过去完成时的被动语态和间接引语的 句子和段落，读懂意义。②、在阅读中识别新学词汇、短语并推断其意思。③、 加深对文章的了解，熟悉有关沙尘暴的词汇。 One: Sentences. （Translate into Chinese.）(A1、A2、B1 必学，A3、B2、B3 选 学) 1、 To have been caught in a sandstorm was a terrible experience," he said. 讲解 句中“To have been caught in a sandstorm”为不定式的完成形式作主语。 be caught in 被困在??中 e.g. He was caught in the storm last week and caught a cold. 他上星期被雨淋了，患 了感冒。 扩展 be caught doing 做某事时被当场抓住。 e.g. The thief was caught stealing money from the shop. 那个小偷在商店偷钱时被 当场抓住。 2、 The storms sometimes continue all day and traffic moves very slowly because the thick dust makes it difficult to see. 讲解 本句中的 traffic 意为“行驶中的车辆” ，makes it difficult to see 中的 to see 为真正的宾语， it 为形式宾语。其结构为“make it adj./n. to do sth. / that 从句。 e.g. The heavy rain made it possible for us to get there on time. 这场大雨使得我们不可能按时赶到那儿。 3、 You just had to hope you'd survive. 讲解 survive vt.幸免于；从??逃生，比??活得更长。后可接人或事。 Vi． 幸存，残存。名词形式为 survival. e.g. The old man survived two world wars. 那位两人经历了两次世界大战。
4、 Sandstorms in China appear to have increased in recent years as a result of "desertification". 讲解 appear v. 似乎；似乎 （1） It appears that ?? （2） Sb. appears to do ?? 两个句型可以互换使用， 动词不定式可以根据和谓语之间的关系使用不同的时态 和语态形式。 The stars appeared to have moved. = It appeared that the stars had moved. 恒星似乎 已经移动了。 He appeared not to have heard what had been said. 他似乎没有听说过那些话。 5、 When a sandstorm arrives in the city, weather experts advise people not to go out. 讲解 advise v. 建议，劝告，忠告 常用于下列句式： advise doing sth. 建议做某事 advise sb to do sth 建议某人做某事 advise sb not to do sth 建议某人不要做某事 advise clause ( 从句用虚拟语气；should 动词原形，should 可以省略) advise sb 介词短语 建议某人?? CCTV asks you to advise programme makers to create a funny show of about thirty minutes for Channel 9. 中心电视台请你建议节目制作人为 9 频道创造一个大约 30 分钟的滑稽表演节目。 I advice you an early start. 我建议你早一点出发。 I advice you that you (should) take your teacher‘s advice. a piece of advice 一条建议 follow / take one’s advice 接受??的建议。 ask for advice 征求建议 give sb. some advice on sth. 关于某事给某人提出建议。 6、 The garbage is then taken away and, if possible, recycled. 讲解 if possible 为 if it is possible 的省略形式。
当 when, while, until, if, unless 等引导的状语从句的主语与主句相同并且从句中含 有 be 动词时，或从句的主谓语分别为 it 和 be 动词时，从句中的主语及部分谓 语（be 动词）可省略。 Once (he was ) a teacher , he now works in a government office. 他曾经当过教师，现在他在政府上班。 Work hard when (you are ) young, or you‘ll regret. 年轻时工作勤奋些，否则你会后悔的。 Two: 词义辨析 (A1、A2、B1 必学，A3、B2、B3 选学) 1、 environment 和 surrounding environment n. 环境，四周的情况，即可表示物质，又可表示精神； surrounding n. 环境，只指物质环境，但必须用复数。 e.g. They have passed new laws to prevent the pollution of the environment. 他们已经通过新法令，禁止污染环境。 His home environment was very good. 他的家庭环境很好。 They live in pleasant surroundings. 他们生活在舒适的环境中。 2、 mass 团，块，堆 A great mass of rock had fallen from the mountain and blocked the road. 一大堆岩石从山上掉下来，堵住了道路。 a mass of = masses of 大量的，很多。 masses / a mass of information /books 大量的信息 / 一大堆书 A mass of things have been left undone. 一大堆的事儿放着没做。 3、 frightening adj. 吓人的，可怕的 That was a frightening experience. 那是一次可怕的经历。 辨析 frightening ，frightened frightening adj. 惧怕的，可怕的 frightened adj. 惧怕的，受惊的 （用于修饰人） I made a frightening dream lat night.
昨晚我做了一个可怕的梦。 The frightened child began to cry after he saw a frightening movie. 看了一场可怕的电影后，那个受到惊吓的孩子哭了。 Module 4 Sandstorms in Asia Teacher：Miss Huang Period Four：Listening, Pronunciation, Everyday English and writing 教学目标：①、识别对话和语段中新学词汇、短语并正确理解其意思；②、听懂 教材配套听力并根据要求完成练习； ③、该部分引入了与环境有关的词汇，并 通过填词、听、问答等活动把握这些词汇。④、Pronunciation 部分介绍了交际功 能“表示强烈感情”和句子重读。 One: Look at page 35.Finish activity 1 on page 35. (必学部分) Two: Listen and answer the questions on page 35. （A1、A2、B1 学生先完成听力再对照答案；B2、B3、A3 对照听力材料完成练 习） Three:听力材料。 Interviewer: David, what do you see as the main problems with the environment? David: Well, in a nutshell, the most urgent problem of all is the climate. The world's climate seems to be getting warmer. Interviewer: We've seen a lot of evidence of that, haven't we? Hotter summers, warmer winters, that kind of thing. David: Yes, we have. Also, scientists have found that the ice at the Poles is beginning to melt. Interviewer: We've heard that too. Is that really happening? David:Yes, I'm afraid it is. And at sometime in the future, the ice may melt completely. Then it's possible that the sea could rise and coastal cities like New York and Shanghai could disappear under water. John:It sounds very frightening. David: I couldn't agree with you more. It's scary! Interviewer: Can you explain why the climate's getting warmer? David: Well, I'll do my best! It's pollution that's the problem. Gases from cars enter
the atmosphere and stop the sun's heat from leaving the atmosphere. And factories give out chemicals that do the same thing. So as a result, the climate is getting warmer. Interviewer: From what I understand, carbon dioxide from cars is a major problem. David: You're absolutely right. Carbon dioxide is the gas that does most damage to the atmosphere. But we have a problem with trees too. You see, trees give out oxygen and take in carbon dioxide. So they're very useful because they use up the carbon dioxide. Interviewer: I know what you're going to say. We're cutting down all the trees. David: Yes, we cut them down because we need the land and because we use the wood for paper and furniture. That leaves more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Interviewer: It's a terrible situation. David: Yes, and another problem is all the garbage that we produce. We burn a lot of garbage, and once again, the gases pollute the atmosphere. The situation couldn't be worse, really. Interviewer: We should recycle garbage, not burn it. David: Of course we should. Interviewer: It's strange, we know all this, and yet we do nothing but talk about it. I can't help but feel very concerned. David: Yes, well, it is worrying. But governments are beginning to do something about it. I don't think it's too late. Four: Pronunciation. Listen to the tape and underline the words the speaker stresses. Five: Everyday English. Finish activity on page 38. Six: Writing (背诵下面这段短文)（A1、A2、B1 必学，B2、B3、A3 选学） Today, our environment has some problems . As a middle school student ,we should do something to improve our environment condition. I think the first thing is that we ourselves shouldn‘t destroy the environment, such as throw the rubbish about. We can also take part in some commonweal activity to plant more trees, for the trees can do a lot help to our environment. And if we see someone do the harm things to the environment, like spit on the ground or step on the grass, we can stop them from doing so. If there‘s a factory which destroy the environment, it‘s
our right and incumbency to tell the relative department or the police about it. All in all, although we are students we can still do a lot of things to protect our environment. So we should act from now on to make our contribution to the environment, for it‘s our conjunct home. Module 4 Sandstorms in Asia Teacher：Miss Huang Period Five：Grammar1 Infinitive （不定式） 请各个层次的学生根据实际水平进行选择性学习。 1、构成：原形动词前加 to, 构成动词不定式，不定式不作谓语，属非谓语动词。 2、不定式的时态和用法： 不定式常见的时态有：一般式，完成式和进行式。其构成见表（以 do 为例） 时态 构成
一般式 to do 完成式 to have done 进行式 to be doing 完成进行式 to have been doing 4、动词不定式的一般式表示的动作或状态，发生在谓语动词表示的动作和状态 的同时或之后。 I believe him to be an expert. 我相信他是位专家。 We want to visit an advanced worker. 我们想去访问一位先进工作者。 5、 动词不定式的完成式表示动作或状态发生在谓语动词表示的动作和状态之前。 I’m sorry to have kept you waiting. 很抱歉让你久等了。 （不定式使你等的动作在前，抱歉在后。 ） 6、 不定式的动作假如和谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生则使用不定式的进行式。 They seemed to be talking about something important. 他们似乎在谈论重要的事情。 7、不定式的完成进行式表示在谓语动词之前已经发生，并且一直进行的动作。 He is said to have been working in that factory for twelve years. 据说他已经在那家工厂工作了 12 年了。
8、当动词不定式的逻辑主语是动词不定式所表示的动作承受者，一般使用不定 式的被动语态，其形式有一般式，完成式。进行式没有被动语态，一般式的被动 语态由“to be 动词的过去分词”构成，完成式的被动语态由“to have been 动词 的过去分词”构成。 Her farther disappeared, never to be heard from again. 她父亲失踪了，再也没有听到他的信息。 The book was said to have been translated into many languages. 据说这本书已被译成许多种语言。 I wish to be sent to work in the country. 我希望被派往乡下工作。 No harm seems to have been done. 似乎并没有造成伤害。 9、动词不定式的句法功能： ①、作主语： To master a foreign language is necessary for a college student. It is good manners to help people in trouble. 划线处 to help?在句中作真正主语，it 作句子的形式主语。 ②、作表语： Your job is to wash dishes. 当作表语的不定式解释主语中 do 的意义时，to 可以省略。请看下列例句： ALL I did was (to)give him some advice. 我所做的不过是给了他一些忠告而已。 句中(to)give him some advice 作表语，说明 ALL I did 的具体内容，to 可以省略。 The most important thing is to study hard.最重要的事情是努力学习。 My job is to help the patient.我的工作是帮助病人。 ③、作宾语： I want to leave here soon. 我想尽快离开这儿。 He pretended to be a doctor. 他装扮成一名医生。 She promised to give him a chance.
They decided to change their mind. 他们决定改变主意。 I can’t afford to live in a detached house. 我住不起独门独院的房子。 ④、作定语：不定式作定语必须放在被修饰的名词或代词的后面。 His desire to win was apparent. 他的求胜愿望现而易见。 She was the only one to get a scholarship. 他是唯一得到奖学金的人。 He was always the last to leave. 他总是最后一个离开。 I have no time to talk with her. ⑤、不定式作状语。不定式作状语时可表示目的、原因、结果或条件。 I came here to learn from you. (目的)我到这来是向你学习的。 I’m very glad to hear the news.(原因)听到这个消息我很兴奋。 He is old enough to go to school.(结果)他已经到上学的年龄了。 To look at him, you can’t help laughing. (条件) 看到他你就会忍不住笑起来。 Finish Exercises on page 34. 1、As the twentieth century came to a close, the raw materials for a great national literature were at hand, waiting ________. A. to use B. to be usedC. to have used D.to be suing 2、It took a long time for the connection between body temperature and illness. A. to makeB. to be made C. making D. being made 3、I don’t know whether you happen _________,but I’m going to study in the USA this September. A. to be heard B. to be hearing C. to hearD. to have heard 4、_______ more about university courses, call (920)746—3789. A．To find out B. Finding outC.Find outD. Having found out 5、The news reports hurried to the airport, only _______ the film stars had left. A. to tell B. to be told C. telling D. told Module 4 Sandstorms in Asia Teacher：Miss Huang Period Six：Grammar2 Infinitive （不定式）
教学目标：①、该部分语法处理“动词不定式”的一种非凡形式，即 but 后面不 带 to 的动词不定式，理解 but 在各个场合的意义。②、通过练习加深对语法“动 词不定式”的理解。 One: Grammar （A1、A2、B1 必学，B2、B3、A3 选学） 1、不定式动词在介词 but, except, besides 等表示“除了??”之意的后面时，假 如这些介词之前有行为动词 do 的各种形式，那么介词后的不定式不带 to,否则带 to。 She could do nothing but cry. 她只有哭泣。 Tom did nothing except wait before his parents came home. 父母回家之前，汤姆只有等待。 Capitalists would do nothing besides make profit from the workers. 资本家除了从工人身上榨取利益之外，什么也不顾及。 What do you like to do besides swim? 除了游泳你喜欢做什么？ He did nothing else than laugh. 他只笑笑而已。 I have no choice but to accept the fact. 除了接受这一事实，我别无选择。 I have no choice but to go. 我别无选择，只有走。 1、在 can’t but , can’t help but , can’t choose but(不得不，只能)结构后，不定 式不带 to。 I can‘t help but be sorry. 我只能说抱歉。 There being no buses, he can‘t but walk home. 由于没有公共汽车，他只能步行回家。 He can‘t choose but accept the offer. 他只能接受提议。 I cannot but admire his courage.
我只能钦佩他的勇气。 We could not but weep at our bad luck. 对于我们的恶运我们只能哭泣。 It‘s raining hard. I cannot help but stay at home. 天在下大雨，我只好停在家里。 They couldn‘t choose but stay there. 他们不得不呆在那儿。 Two: Finish activity 1 and activity 2 on page 36. （必学部分） Three: Exercises. （A1、A2、B1 必学，B2、B3、A3 选学） 1、除了让步，他别无选择。 （翻译句子） 2、________ this cake, you’ll need 2 eggs, 175g sugar and 175g flour. A、Having made B、Make C、To make D、Making 3、The Chinese are proud of the 29th Olympic Games in Beijing in 2008. A、hold B、holding C、held D、to be held 4、He hurried to the booking office only ________ that all the tickets had been sold out. A、to tell B、to be toldC、telling D、told 5、I send you 100 dollars today, the rest ________ in a year. A、follows B、followedC、to follow D、being followed 6、I don’t think it wise ______ the hard work that they have refused to do. A、for you to take on B、of you to take on C、for you taking on D、of you taking on 7、Complete the short passage. Use the right forms of the verbs given below. address; live; do; clean; cause; lower; offer; add; understand; make Scientists have helped people _______ the dangers facing our planet. If we do not deal with the problem _______ by air pollution, our planet may no longer be a healthy place for plants, animals and people _______. _______ up the air is a job of all nations. A lot of work needs _______. Governments around the world are beginning to work together _______ the levels of dangerous gases in the atmosphere.
In 1967, the government of the USA passed the Clean Air Act. It is said that more parts are _______ soon. As a result, cars must release lowered amounts of harmful gases. In 1970, the Environment Protection Agency was formed. The EPA's job is _______ sure that environmental laws are being followed and to investigate new dangers and _______solutions. While it is very important _______air pollution on a global level, each and every person should also contribute to the well-being of the earth.
Great people and Great Invention
Teaching planModule FiveGreat People and Great Inventions of Ancient China Teaching Aims: 1. Knowledge and Skill a. To make them know something about some great people and inventions in ancient China such as :Confucius, Mencius , Mozi and their teaching thoughts. b. Enable the students to learn how to express their own opinions and how to give reasons. c. Enable Ss to express their opinions about philosophers. d. Learn how to describe a famous person in ancient China. e. Grasp the usage of defining attributive clause. 2.Emotion and Values a. Cultivate their awareness of culture and the sense of pride to the motherland. b. To encourage the Ss to be active and cooperative in the class 3. Cross-cultural awareness: a. Understand Chinese and foreign philosophers and their thought, culture, strengthen their awareness of culture. b. Compare the Industrial Revolution in Europe and China, and enable them know the importance of creativity. 4. Character-building: a. To arouse their curiosity of the great inventions both at home and abroad. And let them know the importance of being creative. Difficulties and Importance: a. Use the expressions of giving reasons freely. b. Help the students understand the text exactly and retell the text in students‘ own words. b. Master the usage of attributive clause. Teaching Method:
a. Task-based methodology b. Communicative Approach Teaching Time: Five periods: Period 1 vocabulary and speaking Function Giving a definition Period 2 Reading and Vocabulary Period 3 Grammar 1 Defining attributive clauses Grammar 2 Defining attributive clauses: of whom, in which Everyday English Period 4 Listening and Vocabulary Speaking Period 5 Cultural corner Writing Teaching Procedures:
Step 1. Warming up Look at the pictures and answer the following questions.
Q1. Who are they? Q2. What is their life-long career? Q3. How much do you know about them and their teachings? Suggested answers: 1. They are Confucius, Mencius, and Mozi. 2. They are private teachers. 3. Open question. Step 2. Vocabulary.
Know the meaning of the following words and use some of the words to complete the gaps. Equal importance look after Ruler state philosopher philosophy treat war
In ancient China, private teachers traveled from state to s_______ explaining their p________ Confucius was the most important of the ancient Chinese p________ Confucius‘s t_________ influenced society for more than 2000 years. Other important t_______ included Mencius and Mozi. All three teachers believed in the i_________ of kindness and good government. Mencius‘s ideas were very similar to those of Confucius, but some of Mozi‘s t_________ were very different. For example, he hated the idea of w_____ and believed that strong people should l_________ weaker people. Suggested answers: 1. state 2. philosophy 3. philosophers 4. teachings 5. thinkers 6. importance 7. teachings 8. war 9. look after
Step 3 Read the passage above again and answer the following questions. Q1. Which ancient philosophers were mentioned in the passage? Q2. What did they all believe in? Q3. In what way were Confucius‘ ideas different from Mozi‘s ideas? Suggested ideas. 1. Confucius, Mencius, and Mozi. 2. They all believe in the importance of kindness and good government. 3. Mozi hated the idea of war and believed that strong people should look after weaker people.
Step 4 Read the following statements. Translate them into Chinese first and then tick the ideas that Confucius taught. 1. Man is born good 2. All human beings are equal. 3. The family is important. We are members of a group. 4. Treat others in the way you want to be treated. 5. People are more important than rulers 6. We should love all human beings. Suggested answers: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 人之初性本善。 众生平等。 家庭重要，我们是群体的成员。 以其人之道还治其人之身。 民为贵，君为轻。 我们应爱所有的人。
Confucius idea: 3, 4. Step 5 Function Giving Reasons a. Presentation:
I am tired today because I didn't sleep well last night. The reason why I am tired today is that I didn't sleep well last night. b. Explanation How to give reasons? …because …,The reason why …is(was) that… c. Practice
we remember the ancient philosophers because their ideas are important. I bought the book because it is about philosophy. 1 Mencius resigned because the ruler was not following his advice. Mozi hated the idea of war because he thought people should not kill each ,other. 3 Suggested answers: , 5 1. The reason why we remember the ancient philosophers is that their ideas are important. 2. The reason why I bought the book is that it is about philosophy. 3. The reason why Mencius resigned was that the ruler was not following his advice. 4. The reason why Mozi hated the idea of war was that he thought people shouldn‘t kill each other. Step 6. Discussion: 1. Choose two ideas in Step 4 that you agree with most. Write one or two sentences explaining why. 2. Say three things you know about Confucius. 3. Say what you know about Mencius and Mozi. Homework: 1. To get more information about great philosophers in ancient China from other resources. 2. Preview the content of the passage in reading and vocabulary. Period 2 Step 1 Pre-reading: Q1. How do people usually measure a country‘s achievement? Q2. Why can ―Education‖ measure a country‘s achievement? Q3. What have you known about Confucius, Mencius, and Mozi? Q4. Can you translate the following sentences into Chinese? a. Where there are three men walking together, one of them is bound to be able to teach me something. b. What you do not want done to you, don‘t do to others.
7. 8. 9. 10.
c. To study and not think is a waste; to think and not study is dangerous. Suggested answers: 1. life expectancy; education; income 2. It is very important factor for the development of a country not only at present but also in ancient time and in future. 3. open. 4. a. 三人行，必有我师焉。 b. 己所不欲，毋施于人。 c. 学而不思则罔，思而不学则殆。 Step 2 While-reading: a. Skimming:
Read the passage quickly and find the answer to the questions: Who are the three great persons that the writer is talking about? b. Scanning Read the passage quickly and try to find the answers. 1. The Chinese people ______for over 2,000 years. A. followed Confucius‘s teachings B. influenced Confucius
2. Mencius believed that people are _____important than rulers. A. less B. more
3. Mohism began _______. A. in 476 BC 4. Mozi did not agree with ________. A. kindness B. war B. by mozi
5. Mencius had important government positions, _________. A. but Mozi did not Suggested answers: B. and so did Mozi
1. A c.
3. B 4. B 5. A
Read the passage carefully; and fill the form with the proper information. Name Year of Birth Length of living Confucius Mencius Background Ideas Influence
Mozi Suggested answers:
Year Name of Birth
Length of living Background Ideas Influence
1.States were at war with each 551 Confucius BC 72 2. There are many great philosophers 1. Came from poor family. 372 Mencius BC clothes and behavior. 1. His father died. 2. Brought up 476 Mozi BC 86 3. An important position in the government. by his mother. 83 2. Unusual other.
kindness, duty; order in society
1. Chinese society was influenced by these ideas for more than 2000 years 2. The founder of the Ru School of Chinese thought.
kindness; people were more important
1. Every influential. 2. Found the philosophy called Mohism
men were equal; love for the weak
The book of Mencius
Step 3 Post-reading Ex1. Read the passage again, and then decide whether the following statements are true or false. 1. Confucius lived in a country where there was no war a long time ago. 2. Confucius was a philosopher whose influence has been the greatest for more than 2000 years. 3. Mencius was a student taught by Confucius. 4. Some rulers followed the advice which was given by Mencius. 5. Mozi was a man who lived an unusual life. Suggested answers: 1,3, 4, F 2, 5, T
Ex2. Reading comprehension. 1. Whose influence has been the greatest among all the philosophers of ancient China? A. Mencius B. Mozi C. Confucius D. Zhuangzi
2. Confucius stressed the importance of the following aspects except__________ A. Kindness B. friendship C. order D. duty
3. Which is NOT the right statement about Mozi? A. He was known for his unusual clothes and behavior. B. He hated the idea of war. C. All his beliefs were the same as Confucius. D. He believed all men were equal.
4. ―If the government was kind, then people would be good.‖ is the teaching of _________. A. Mencius C. Mozi B.Confucius D. Xunzi
5. Which belief by Mozi was similar to that of Confucius? A. We should love all human beings. B. The government shouldn‘t treat people badly. C. We should look after those who are weaker than ourselves. D. The government was most important. 6. What‘s main idea of the passage? A. The author wants to make people believe in the teachings by thinkers of ancient. B. The author wants to introduce three influential philosophers of ancient China. C. The author wants to tell interesting stories about three important teachers in ancient China. D. The author wants to show the history of philosophy in ancient China. 7. Which shows the right order of time when the three great thinkers lived? A. Confucius--- Mencius ---Mozi C. Confucius---Mozi---Mencius 8. B.Mencius----Mozi----Confucius D.Mozi--- Mencius---Confucius
From the text we can infer that___________ A. Only in time of war could philosophers produce great teaching. B. It was not easy to find a state where people would follow the thinker's teaching.
C. Great philosophers must have been born in poor families. D. Influential philosophers wouldn‘t agree with each other. Suggested answers: 1. C 2. B 3. C 4. A 5. D 6. B. 7. C 8. B
Step 4. Language Explanations: 【词条 1】influence 【课文原句】 Confucius‘s teachings influenced society for more than 2,000 years. (Page 43) 【点拨】此处 influence 为动词，意思是“对??有影响” ，整句意为“孔子的学说影响了中 国社会有两千多年” 。如：
My teacher influenced my decision to study art. 【词条 2】stress, order 【课文原句】He stressed the importance of kindness, duty and order in society. (Page43) 【点拨】stress 此处意为“强调，着重” ，相当于 emphasize。整句话意为“他强调了仁爱、 责任和社会秩序的重要性” 。如：
He stressed the point that we should be punctual. 【拓展】stress 可作名词，有“压力；强调”之意。如：under the stress of 在??的压力下； place / put / lay stress on 重视，强调。如： The boy stole the bread under the stress of huger.
Our English teacher put particular stress on the important of reading English aloud. 【点拨 2】 order 此处意为 “秩序， 次序” 。 常见的搭配有： in order 按顺序， 整齐； out of order 不整齐，状态混乱。如：
Since the war broke out, the whole society was totally out of order. 【拓展】order 还可意为“命令；点（菜等） ；定货” ，可作名词或动词。如： It‘s time we ordered dinner. May I have your order, please? 【词条 3】found 【课文原句】Mozi founded the philosophy called mohism. (Page 43) 【点拨】found 此处意为“创立” 。该句意为“墨子创立了墨家哲学” 。如： The rich man founded a school for poor children in his hometown. 【拓展】
found on / unpon 意为“把??建在??上；基于??” ，常用于被动语态。如：
This story isn‘t founded on fact at all. 2. found 的名词形式为 foundation， 意为 “地基； 基础” 。 如： lay the foundations of a building
【词条 4】bring up 【课文原句】
His father died when he was young, and he was brought up by his mother. (Page 43)
【点拨】bring up 此处意为“抚养、养育” 。如： The old man has brought up three children. The boy was brought up by his aunt. 【词条 5】a time 【课文原句】It was also a time when there were many great philosophers. (Page 43) 【点拨】a time 此处意为“一个时期，一段时间” 。如： It‘s a time since I saw you last. 【拓展】time 常见的搭配还有： 1. at a time 每次，一次。常用于“数词＋at a time”的场合。如： He spoke two hours at a time. 2. at one time 过去某个时候，曾经。如： At one time I used to go swimming every Sunday. 3. at the same time 同时，一齐。如： Can a man both read and write at the same time? 【词条 6】be at war with 【课文原句】Ancient China was a place where states were often at war with each other. (Page43) 【点拨】at war 意为“处于战争状态中” ， be at war with 意为“与??处于战争状态中” ， 而 at /in peace 则是“处于和平状态，相安无事”的意思。如： The two country are always at war with each other these years.
We hope all the countries in the world will be at peace forever. 【词条 7】be similar to 【课文原句】Mengzi was a thinker whose teachings were very similar to that of Confucius. 【点拨】be similar to 是“和??相似”的意思， “在??方面相似”用 be similar in。如： Shenzhen is similar to Hongkong in many ways. Gold is similar in color to brass. 【拓展】 be the same as 与??相同； be different from 与??不同。如： His appearance is quite different from his elder brother. I‘ll get the same bicycle as I had before. Step 5. Discussion: Q1. What kind of conclusion can you draw after learning the philosophers of Ancient China? Q2. What should you do after knowing something about three great philosophers and their thoughts? Suggested answers: 1. They all believed in the importance of kindness and good government. They were all teachers, thinkers and philosophies. Mozi hated the idea of war. 2. Treasure them and learn from these ideas; develop the Chinese traditional virtues-- to respect teachers and elders. Homework:
1. Read the passage several times to get more familiar with the information in it. 2. Write a biography of famous person in ancient China. Period 3 Step 1 Presentation: Look at the pictures and fill in the blanks with proper words. the red the green the small the big
The apple which is red is mine. The apple which is green is yours. The apple which is red is small. The apple which is green is big. the handsome the tall the strong the clever the naughty
The boy who is handsome is Tom. The boy who is tall is Declan. The boy who is strong is Declan. The boy who is clever is Declan. The boy who is naughty is Declan. Step 2 Explanations. 概念
关系代词有：who, whom, whose, that, which 等。 关系副词有：when, where, why 等。 1. 关系代词所代替的先行词是人或物的名词或代词，并在从句中充当主语、宾语等成分。 关系代词在定语从句中作主语时，从句谓语动词的人称和数要和先行词保持一致。 (1) who, whom, that。这些词代替的先行词是人的名词或代词，在从句中作主语和宾语。如： He is the right actor I want to find for my film. (2) whose 用来指人或物，只用作定语。 若指物时，它可以同 of which 互换，互换时为：n + of which。如： Please pass me the book whose cover is torn. Please pass me the book the cover of which is torn. (3) which, that 所代替的先行词是事物的名词或代词，在从句中可作主语、宾语等。如： Italy is a famous city which has a lot of great buildings. 2. 关系副词引导的定语从句 关系副词的先行词是时间、地点或理由的名词，如： when, where, why，在从句中作状语。 关系副词的含义相当于“介词+ which”结构。如： Beijing is the place where(in which) I was born.
Is this the reason why (for which) he refused our offer? 3. 判断关系代词与关系副词 (1) 用关系代词， 还是关系副词完全取决于从句中的谓语动词。 及物动词后面要求用关系代 词作宾语；而不及物动词则要求用关系副词作状语。如： This is the mountain village where I visited last year. (错) This is the mountain village where I stayed last year. (对) I will never forget the days when I spent in the countryside. (错) I'll never forget the days when I worked together with you. (对) (2) 准确判断先行词在定语从句中的成分（主、谓、宾、定、状） ，也能正确选择出关系代 词/关系副词。 [例句 1] Is this museum ___ you visited a few days age? A. where B. that C. on which D. the one [分析] 正确选项为 D。该句变为肯定句为：This museum is ___ you visited a few days ago. 该句所缺部分为宾语，而 where, that, on which 都不能起到宾语的作用，只有 the one 既作了 主句的表语，又可作从句的宾语，可以省略关系代词，所以应选 D。 [例句 2] Is this the museum ____ the exhibition was held. A. where B. that C. which D. the one [分析] 正确选项为 A。该句变为肯定句为：This is the museum ___ the exhibition was held. 该句中主、谓、宾俱全，从句部分为句子的状语表地点，既可用副词 where，也可用介词 in + which 引导地点状语。如果 C 项中的 which 前面加 in，也是正确选项。 Step 3 Practices: Ex1. Join the following two sentences into one using attributive clause. 1 The woman is a teacher. 2 The woman lives next door. Which woman is a teacher? 1. The boys are from Grade one. 2. The boys are playing basketball. The boys _________are from Grade One. The boys __________are playing basketball. 1.The nurse is kind. 2.The nurse looks after my sister. The nurse _______ is kind Suggested answers: 1. The woman who lives next door is a teacher. 2. who/that are playing basketball ; who/that are from Grade one 3. who/that looks after my sister Ex2. Fill in the blanks with proper words. 1. He married a poor girl _____made his parents angry. 2. He married a poor girl, _____made his parents angry. 3. He said nothing _____made his father angry. 4. He said nothing, _____made his father angry. 5. She has a son _____is a doctor. 6. She has a son ,_____is a doctor. 7. She lives in a house, ____windows face south.
8. This is the car ____which I paid 100$. 9. This is the car ____which I spent 100$. 10. This is the car ____which I go to work every day. 11. This is the car ______ which I can‘t go to work. 12. This is the car ____which the old man was knocked down 13. This is the car ____which a boy threw a stone. 14. This is the car ____which we talked . 15. This is the car ____which the window was broken 16. This is the car ____which I bought last year. Suggested answers: 1. who 2. which 3. that 4. which 5. who 6. who 7. whose 8. for 9. on 10. in 11. without 12. by 13. at 14. about 15. of 16. / Step 4. Everyday English Use these expressions to complete the conversations. If so They say(that)… For the first time ever Tell the time to give an example 1. A: _______you need to be a bit mad to be an inventor. B: _______, then my friend Peter Ling is a bit mad. He‘s an inventor. He‘s just invented a clock that not only _______, but also plays a song to wake you up! 2. A. The Chinese are very clever people. ________, they‘re much better at maths than most westerners. B. I agree. A Chinese friend of mine explained a difficult maths problem to me, and ______I understood. Suggested answers: 1. They say that; If so, tells the time 2. To give an example; for the first time ever Homework: 1. Review the grammar points we have learned. 2. Finish the exercises 1,2,3 on page 91.
Step 1. Pre-listening Discuss the following questions with your partner. Q1. Have you ever heard the great four inventions of ancient China? Q2. What are they? Q3. Can you speak out some names of great inventors in the world? Suggested answers: Q2; compass paper making powder printing Step 2 While-listening Listen to the passage in which five important inventions are described. Match the dates with the inventions. Invention Date of invention
1. silk 2. clock 3. paper 4. printing 5. toothbrush Suggested answers; 1. 3200BC 2. 1092 AD 3. 105 AD 4. 868 AD 5. 1498 AD Step 3 Post-listening Fill in the blanks with proper words according to what you hear. China has given the world many important______. To give an example, it is the country in which ______was first invented. Silk was made there as long ago as 3200 BC. Chinese farmers grew mulberry ______because they knew that a certain kind of caterpillar ate them. The Chinese did not tell other countries how silk was made and other countries paid a lot for this soft, strong______. Su Song was an eleventh century ______about whom very little is known. However, we do know that in 1092 AD he invented the first real________. For the first time ever, it became possible to tell the time. In the 1950s a ______was built and this copy can be seen today in Beijing. They say that a man called Cai Lun made ______from the bark of a tree in about 105 AD._______, he is a man of whom China can be proud. Paper was a very important invention because it was ______and people could afford to buy it. Before that time, writers had used _______materials such as silk. The invention was immediately_______. However, paper did not spread to other countries for another 500 years. _______was invented in China as early as 868 AD. The book in which printing first ______was called The Diamond Sutra. With printing, it became possible to _______many copies at the same time. In 1041 AD, a chemist called Bi Sheng invented a type of print that could move. It was not until 1454 that the first book was printed in________. The first time that we hear of a real _______is in a Chinese book of 1498 AD. This toothbrush could clean teeth quickly and well. The toothbrush only reached Europe in the _______century, when it quickly became very popular. Suggested answers: 1. inventions 2. silk 3. leaves 4. material 5. monk 6. clock 7. copy 8. paper 9. If so 10. cheap 11. expensive 12. successful 13. Printing 14. appeared 15. produce 16. Europe 17. toothbrush 18. seventeenth Step 4. Speaking 1. Read the following passage about great inventions and then discuss the following questions with your partners. Great Inventions 伟大发明 There have been many great inventions, things that changed the way we live. The first great invention was one that is still very important today—the wheel. This made it easier to carry heavy things and to travel long distances. For hundreds of years after that, there were few inventions that had as much effect as the wheel. Then in the early 1800's the world started to change. There was little unknown land in the world people did not have to explore much any more. They began to work instead to make life better.
In the second half of the 19th century many great inventions were made. Among them were the camera, the electric light and the radio. These all became a big part of our life today. The first part of the 20th century saw more great inventions: the helicopter in 1909;moves with sound in 1926;the computer in 1928;and jet planes in 1930.This was also a time when a new material was first made. Nyloh came out in 1935.It changed the kind of clothes people had been wearing. The middle part of the 20th century brought new ways to help people get over diseases. They worked very well. They made people healthier and let them live longer lives. By the 1960's most people could expect to live at least 60. By this time most people had a very good life. Of course new inventions continued to be made. But man now had a desire to explore again. The world was known to man but the stars were not. Man began looking for ways to go into space. Russia made the first step. Then the United States took a step .Since then other countries, including China and Japan, have made their steps into space. In 1969 man took his biggest step away from the earth. Americans first walked on the moon. This is certainly just a beginning thought. New inventions will someday allow us to do things we have never dreamed of. Q1. Think of three 20th inventions to do with travel Q2. Think of three 20th inventions to do with food and cooking Q3. Which of the invention do you think would be more useful? Why? Q4. Is there anything you would like to invent? If so, what and why? Q5. Compare the inventions you have listed. Discuss the importance of each invention. Example: I think fridges are more important than cans because fridges can keep meat fresh. Homework: 1. Finish the exercises 10-14 on page 94-95. 2. Preview the content of Cultural Corner.
Step 1. Pre-reading Look at the photos on page 49. And answer the following questions. Q1. What can you see in the picture? Q2. What was the main energy source of it? Q3. Who was the person to invent it? Q4. What do you know about the Industrial Revolution? Q5. Where did it start first? Suggested answers: 1. A train. 2. the steam engine. 3. James Watt 4. open 5. Europe. Step 2. While-reading Read the passage carefully, and then answer the following questions.
Q1. When did the Industrial Revolution start? Q2. Before that, what kind of society does Europe belong to? Q3. What kind of phenomenon appeared first? Q4. Why did thousands of people left the countryside to work in the city? Q5. How did it spread in the world? Suggested answers: 1. in the second half of the 18th century. 2. a farming society 3. factories appeared and mass production became possible 4. in order to survive and live a better life 5. through Europe and the US and then to other countries such as Japan Step 3 Post-reading Read the passage again and decide whether the following statements are true or false. 1. Industrial Revolution started in the early 18th century in Europe. 2. The reason of Industrial Revolution was the increasing of the population of towns and cities. 3. Steam engine was invented in 1769 by James Watt. 4. The steam engine was used on the railways first. 5. During the period of Industrial Revolution, land owners are more powerful than factory owners. 6. From 1830 to the early 20th century, the Industrial Revolution spread very fast. Suggested answers: 1. F 2. F 3. T 4. F 5. F 6. T Step 4 Guided writing Topic: Writing about a famous person from ancient China a. Think of someone you would like to write about and make some notes about him/her. b. Using the words and expressions we have learned in this module. c. Write two or three paragraphs about this person. Homework: 1. Go over the key points of this module. 1 2. Finish the other exercises in this module. , 3 , 5
Module 6 Old and New 教学设计 Periods 1&2
Reading—The Three Gorges Dam
■Goals ●To learn to read passages with defining relative clauses about philosophers of ancient China To learn to read with strategies ■Procedures Step 1: Warming up by defining dams A dam is a barrier across flowing water that obstructs, directs or retards the flow, often creating a reservoir, lake or impoundment. Most dams have a section called a spillway, over which or through which it is intended that water will flow. Warming up by tell about China Yangtze Three Gorges Project China Yangtze Three Gorges Project (TGP), as one of the biggest hydropower-complex project in the world, ranks as the key project for improvement and
development of Yangtze River. The dam is located in the areas of Xilingxia gorge, one of the three gorges of the river, which will control a drainage area of 1 million km 2, with an average annual runoff of 451 billion m3. The open valley at the dam site, with hard and complete granite as the bedrock, has provided the favorable topographical and geological conditions for dam construction.
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Step 2: Before you read Please go over the word list for this module, paying attention to the pronunciation of the word, the relationship between its pronunciation and its spelling. Step 3: While you read 1. Type of writing and summary of The Three Gorges Dam Type of writing Para. 1 Mao Zedong‘s dream has come true. Para. 2 The Three Gorged Dam has been built to control flooding and provide hydro- electric power for the central region of China. Para. 3 Sun Yat- sen first suggested the idea of a dam across the Yangtze River in 1919. An exposition Para. 4 The reservoir has flooded 2 cities, 11 counties, 140 towns and more than 4,000 villages. Para. 5 The Three Gorges area is one of the most beautiful areas of China and the project has flooded some of China‘s most famous historical sites.
2. Draw a diagram of The Three Gorges Dam
The Three Gorges Dam
Mao Zedong‘s dream
control flooding and provide hydroelectric power
the idea first suggested by Sun Yat- sen
places flooded by the reservoir
Some of China‘s most famous historical sites flooded
3. Complete the article with one word in each blank. The Three Gorged Dam has made Mao Zedong‘s _1_come true. The power of the Yangtze River has now been controlled by the Three _2_ Dam. The Three Gorged Dam has been built to control flooding and provide hydro- electric _3_ for the central region of China. Sun Yat- sen, the leader of the 1911 Revolution, first _4_ the idea of a dam across the Yangtze River in 1919. The dam will generate electricity _5_ to about 40 million tons of coal without causing so much air pollution. More than a million people _6_ in the region have moved to other places. Now they‘re living a happy new life in different _7_. About 800 historical relics have been submerged. Some of them are being removed and some _8_ being put into museums. Keys: 1 dream 2 Gorges 3 power 4 suggested 5 equal 6 living 7 areas 8 are 4. Answer the reading comprehension questions according to the text. 1. The power of the Yangtze River, which is _____, has been harnessed by the Three Gorges Dam. A. the world‘s third longest river B. the world‘s second longest river C. the world‘s fifth longest river D. the world‘s sixth longest river 2. The Three Gorged Dam, which is the biggest construction project in China since the building of the Great Wall and the Grand Canal, has been built _____. A. to hold back clouds and control flooding B. to heat and generate electricity C. to control flooding and provide hydro- electric power D. to increases global warming and generate electricity 3. The dam is nearly _____ metres high and _____ kilometres wide. A. 20, 1.5 B. 25, 2,5 C. 30, 3 D. 40, 3.5 4. The dam will generate electricity equal to about ____ million tons of coal without causing so much air pollution. A. 30 B. 40 C. 50 D. 60 Keys: 1-4 ACAB Step 4: After you read 1. Copy all the useful expressions into your Expression Book. If possible, make your own sentences with these expressions.
Useful expressions from The Three Gorges Dam dream of…, rise in the narrow gorges, come true, the world‘s third longest river, be harnessed by… , the biggest construction project in China, since the building of the Great Wall and the Grand Canal, control flooding, provide hydro- electric power for the central region of China, nearly 200 meters high/wide, the largest hydro- electric power station, cost more than…, in history, the leader of the 1911 Revolution, suggest the idea of a dam, across the Yangtze River, three quarters of China‘s energy, be produced by burning coal, used 1.2 billion tons of coal for heating and generating electricity, burn coal, cause serious air pollution, increase global warming, generate electricity, equal to about 40 million tons of coal, flood 2 cities,11 counties, 140 towns and more than 4,000 villages, live a happy new life, flood some of China‘s most famous historical sites, historical relics, put… into museums Sentences made from expressions from Module 6
I dream of living on a tropical island.
A huge dam is rising in the narrow gorges.
I'd always dreamt of owning my own house, but I never thought it would come true.
The Yangtze River is the world’s third longest river. The river is being harnessed by the newly-built dam, the biggest construction project in China. Since the building of the Great Wall and the Grand Canal, Chinese have been trying hard to control flooding. His dream is to provide hydro- electric power for the central region of China. The building is nearly 200 meters high, 1.5kilometres wide. We shall set up the largest hydro- electric power station here. The project costs more than two billion yuan. No construction project is more important than this one in history. It is the leader of the 1911 Revolution who suggests the idea of a dam across the Yangtze River. I guess three quarters of China’s energy is produced by burning coal. We used 1.2 billion tons of coal for heating and generating electricity last year. Burning coal may cause serious air pollution, increasing global warming. Generating electricity by pumping air is possible. The new technology saves energy equal to about 40 million tons of coal. The sudden rain flooded 2 cities, 11 counties, 140 towns and more than 4,000 villages. By moving from their homes, the farmers are expected to live a happy new life in different areas. The rising sea flooded some of China‘s most famous historical sites. Historical relics will be submerged if they are not put into museums soon. 2. Read to transfer information The Three Gorges Dam About poem Mao?s About the purposes of the dam to control flooding and provide hydroelectric power About Sun Yat-sen?s wish a dam across the Yangtze River in 1919. About the places flooded s flooded 2 cities, 11 counties, 140 towns and more than 4,000 About the flooded historical sites the Qu Yuan Temple, the Han Watchtower and the Moya Cliff
―walls of stone to hold back clouds and rain till a smooth lake
rises in the narrow gorges‖
for the central region of China.
Period 3 Grammar—Non-defining relative clauses
■Goals ●To learn about non-defining clauses and contraction of relative clauses ■Procedures Step 1: Understanding relative clause Non-defining relative clauses When a relative clause merely describes an object without having the function of defining or identifying to which object the speaker or writer is referring, the clause must be placed between commas. Such a clause can be called a non-defining or non-limiting relative clause, i.e., a non-defining relative clause gives extra information about a noun or noun phrase and has commas at both ends.(非 限 定 性 定 语 从 句 和 先 行 词 关 系 松 散 ， 只 是 对 先 行 词 做 附 加 说 明 ，如 果 省 去 ，主 句 的 意 思 仍 然 完 整 或 清 楚 。非 限 定 性 定 语 从 句 和 主 句之间用逗号隔开。) The door, which was bright red, was very conspicuous. My sister, who lives in Beijing, is coming to stay with me next week. (?who lives in Beijing‘ is not essential, which means that I only have one sister and she does not need to be defined by the relative clause) ?Who? and ?whose? are used for people. ?Which? and ?whose? are used for things. ?That? cannot be used in a non-defining relative clause. Step 2: Understanding the differences between defining and non-defining relative clause 1. My sister, who is studying German, wants to travel to Switzerland. 2. The girl (who, whom, that) you saw at the meeting is a well-known swimmer. 3. Mr. Henry, whom we will meet tomorrow, will be our guide. 4. His uncle, to whom we send a birthday card every year, is ninety-one years old. 5. Is that the student to whom you lent your dictionary? 6. Wang Hong has a cat which follows her everywhere. 7. The package that arrived last night is on the table. 8. The TV set in the corner, which is covered in books, is mine. 9. He lives in Boston, which is only half an hours ride from here. 10. My cousin, whose family lives in Europe, will visit us for a few weeks. 11. He is the very worker whose picture we saw in the newspaper yesterday. 12. The tree, the branches of which overhung the street, was covered with blossoms. 高考链接 1. New York, ____ last year, is a nice old city. (2003 北京)
A. that I visited B. which I visited C. where I visited D. in which I visited 2. ---It’s thirty years since we last met. (2006 四川) ---But I still remember the story, believe it or not, ___ we got lost on a rainy night. A. which B. that C. what D. none 3. I have many friends, some are businessmen.(2005 山西) A．of them B．from which C．who of D．of whom 4. Jim passed the driving test, _________ surprised everybody in the office. (2005 浙江) A. which B. hat C. this D. it 5. The place ______ the bridge is supposed to be built should be________the cross-river traffic is the heaviest. (2005 江苏) A. which; where B. at which; which C. at which; where D. which; in which 答案：1-5 BBDAC Step 3: Practicing non-defining relative clauses 1. There is a hotel doctor on call, _____ A. who will provide emergency medical treatment. B. where you can sweat out the dirt from the city. C. where you can get your hair done. D. where you can keep fit. 2. There is a team of highly qualified secretaries available, _____ A. where you can unwind over a few drinks. B. where you can sweat out the dirt from the city. C. where you can keep fit. D. who will help you with your paperwork. 3. There is 24 hour room service, _____ A. who provides a manicure(修指甲) service in your room. B. which will take you to and from the airport. C. which provides an excellent selection of snacks and drinks. D. where you can send and receive faxes. 4. There is a typical English pub, _____ A. where you can get seats for all the hit shows. B. who provides a manicure service in your room. C. which will take you to and from the airport. D. where you can enjoy a pint of bitter. 5. There is a gymnasium in the basement, _____ A. where you can unwind over a few drinks. B. where you can sweat out the dirt from the city. C. where you can keep fit. D. where you can buy goods at duty free prices. 6. There is a qualified chiropodist(手足病医生) available, _____ A. where you can get seats for all the hit shows. B. who provides a manicure service in your room. C. where you can relax over a gourmet meal. D. which will clean your clothes overnight. 7. We have a ticket reservation(预定) service, _____ A. where you can get seats for all the hit shows. B. where you can relax over a gourmet meal. C. which will clean your clothes overnight. D. where you can send and receive faxes. 8. There is a top class hairdressing salon on the ground floor, _____ A. where you can sweat out the dirt from the city. B. where you can get your hair done. C. which stays open until 4.00 a.m. D. where you can buy goods at duty free prices.
9. There is a typical English fish and chip restaurant, _____ A. where you can have cod(鳕) and chips. B. which will take you to and from the airport C. which provides an excellent selection of snacks and drinks. D. where you can enjoy a pint of bitter. 10. If you have a problem, contact the senior receptionist, _____ A. where you can have cod and chips. B. who will deal with it as a top priority. C. which will take you to and from the airport D. where you can enjoy a pint of bitter. 11. There is a fax machine at the front desk, _____ A. where you can unwind over a few drinks. B. who will look after your small children whilst you go shopping. C. where you can relax over a gourmet meal. D. where you can send and receive faxes. 12. There is a dry-cleaning service available, _____ A. where you can unwind over a few drinks. B. where you can relax over a gourmet meal. C. which will clean your clothes overnight. D. who will help you with your paperwork. 13. Be sure to speak to our tourist guide, _____ A. who will deal with it as a top priority. B. who will tell you about interesting places to visit. C. which provides an excellent selection of snacks and drinks. D. where you can enjoy a pint of bitter. 14. There is a sauna(桑拿浴) in the hotel, _____ A. where you can unwind over a few drinks. B. where you can sweat out the dirt from the city. C. which stays open until 4.00 a.m. D. where you can buy goods at duty free prices. 15. There is a night club in the hotel, _____ A. where you can unwind over a few drinks. B. who will deal with it as a top priority. C. which stays open until 4.00 a.m. D. where you can buy goods at duty free prices. 16. There is a five-star restaurant, _____ A. where you can unwind over a few drinks. B. where you can relax over a gourmet meal. C. where you can keep fit. D. who will help you with your paperwork. 17. There is a trained nursery nurse available, _____ A. where you can unwind over a few drinks. B. who will look after your small children whilst you go shopping. C. where you can get your hair done. D. who will help you with your paperwork. 18. There is a shuttle bus service, _____ A. where you can get seats for all the hit shows. B. which will take you to and from the airport. C. which will clean your clothes overnight. D. where you can send and receive faxes. 19. For a late drink, come to our night-club, _____ A. where you can have cod and chips. B. who will deal with it as a top priority. C. which stays open until 4.00 a.m. D. where you can enjoy a pint of bitter. 20. For that perfect gift, come to our gift shop, _____ A. where you can have cod and chips. B. who will tell you about interesting places to visit. C. which stays open until 4.00 a.m. D. where you can buy goods at duty free prices. Keys: 1-5 ADCDC 6-10 BABAB 11-15 DCBBA 16-20 BBBCD Step 4: Absorb information concerning National College Entrance Examination
高考链接 定语从句是高中英语学习的重要语法项目之一， 也是历年高考的热点。 它的难度主要是通过 改变句子的正常语序或借助于其它语法项目来体现的，为了提高同学们的应变能力， 现对 定语从句的一些常见考点归纳和总结如下： 一、疑问句中考查定语从句 1. Is this the farm ________ you visited last week? A. where B. the one C. on which D. / 【解析】答案是 D。命题人经常利用疑问句的特殊结构来干扰学生的正确选择。遇到这类定 语从句时，最好的办法是先把疑问句还原成陈述句，然后判断谁是先行词，再看关系词在定 语从句中所充当的成分，最后确定正确答案。 二、倒装句中考查定语从句 2. We came to a place, ________ stood a big tower. A. which B. that C. / D. where 【解析】正确答案是 D。为了保持句子平衡，句子用了倒装语序。倒装的使用使定语从句的 结构变得较为特殊，因此对于使用倒装语序的定语从句，应先把倒装语序还原成正常语序， 这样句子结构就比较清晰了。 三、 拆分词组和固定搭配 3. The second is connected with the use ________ the body makes of food. A. of which B. where C. to do D. that 4. Why can‘t you realize the part ________ they have played in our life? A. which B. on which C. when D. where 【解析】正确答案分别是 D 和 A。一些词组和搭配被拆开后，句子的含义就变得难以理解。 首先把拆开的词组复原是理解此类定语从句的关键。 上述句子中包含以下词组： make use of, play a part (in)。 四、添加插入语或状语 5. The scientist has made another discovery, _______ I believe is of great importance. A. that B. / C. which D. why 【解析】应选择 C。这类句子主要利用插入语或状语的添加来增加试题的难度。常见的插入 语有：I think (suppose, expect, believe, imagine), in my opinion, to tell you the truth 等。做这类 题目时，最佳的办法是先删去插入语或状语，这样句子的主干部分就一目了然了。 五、插入非谓语动词 6. Is this the man ________ you want to have ________ the radio for me? A. who; repaired B. that; repaired C. whom; repairing D. that; repair 【解析】D 项正确。非谓语动词是英语中难度较大的语法项目之一，因而在定语从句中加入 非谓语动词就成了学生最易失分的题目。对付这类题目最有效的办法就是将句子还原。如： 我们可以把几个句子中的定语从句进行还原，还原后的句子应是：You want to have the man repair the radio for me.
Writing—Writing an email
■Goals ● To read a sample email ●To write an email about a visit to a place ■Procedures Step 1: Reading the sample email First you are going to read the email. While reading underline all the expressions, paying attention to the organization of the email. live with…, be born in…, go there once, a beautiful valley, last weekend, visit…again, be part of…, move to…, come back, be full of…, not…at all Step 2: Writing an email about a visit to a place I had longed to visit Zhujiajiao for many years. So, under the hot noon sun on a weekend in early summer, I and several friends got on a bus. After more than an hour's drive our bus stopped at Zhujiajiao. As soon as we got off the bus, we bought a tourist map of Zhujiajiao. This was to be our 3-yuan tour guide for the trip. We spent an hour on a leisurely walk through the ancient town. Walking the streets, we were given an insight into the ancient houses and their residents, who live behind newly painted doors and windows. Their lives were peaceful. Through half-closed wooden doors, we saw housewives busy working around kitchen ranges, preparing meals. The most-loved scenic spot of Zhujiajiao is Fangsheng Bridge. A stone arch bridge built during the mid-Qing Dynasty, the imposing bridge is viewed as the landmark structure of Zhujiajiao. Standing on the bridge, one has panoramic view of the entire town. Located on the Sino-Russian border, the city of Manzhouli is so beautiful. Strolling on the square in the center of the city, I met a traveler who paid a visit here 10 years ago. ―It has changed a lot,‖ said Mr. Chen, a traveler. ―I can barely find the sights I saw ten years ago, except for those Russian-style buildings.‖ At present, Manzhouli has some 160,000 people of more than 20 ethnic groups, including Mongolian, Han, Hui, Korean, Ewenki, Oroqen, and Russian. They live a peaceful, happy life. A city of great historic and cultural significance, Shaoxing in Zhejiang Province has long been known as the Town on the Water. Here, its many bridges add to the beauty of a city that is also reputed（号称） as the Home of Bridges. There are 604 ancient bridges in various forms kept in Shaoxing. One may cross very different stone bridges within the distance of only several steps. There is no market, no road and no village without a bridge. Local residents explain to visitors that there are nine gates, ten temples, a hundred nunneries and eight bridge pavilions inside the city of Shaoxing, displaying the architectural features of old Shaoxing. They will further tell of three hills, ten dams and a 20-opening bridge nearby the vast Jianhu Lake. Almost all forms of China‘s ancient bridges can be found in Shaoxing. At about 3:00 pm the taxi dropped me and a few steps later I was standing at the center of Beijing and at the precise center of political power in China—Tiananmen Square. In the distance, fronting The Square, are the Great Hall of the People, the China National Museum and the Mao Zedong Memorial Hall.
I was looked down upon by these great buildings of government, culture, history and Him. At this place choices were made, destinies cast and power on Earth was changed. And still from here a nation is driven to advance in the world.
Period 5 Speaking—Talking about dams
■Goals ● To learn to talk about dams ■Procedures Step 1: Speaking about the Three Gorges Dam A: By the way, who wrote the poem that reads: ―walls of stone to hold back clouds and rain till a smooth lake rises in the narrow gorges‖? B: I think it was Mao Zedong who wrote that poem. A: The power of the Yangtze River has been harnessed by the Three Gorges Dam. So what he dreamed of in his poem has now come true, hasn‘t it? B: Yes, it has. A: It is said that the power of the Yangtze River is the world‘s third longest river. B: That‘s right. And the Three Gorged Dam is the biggest construction project in China since the building of the Great Wall and the Grand Canal. A: How wonderful! I am proud of being a Chinese. B: Do you know why was it built? A: It has been built to control flooding and provide hydro- electric power for the central region of China. B: How high is the dam? A: It is nearly 200 meters high and 1.5kilometres wide. B: It must be the largest hydro- electric power station and dam in the world. A: Yes, you are right. B: It must be expensive to build such a dam. A: It has in fact cost more than any other construction project in history. B: Have you heard of a person called Sun Yat- sen? A: You are joking! I know he was the leader of the 1911 Revolution. B: It was Sun Yat- sen who first suggested the idea of a dam across the Yangtze River in 1919. A: Really? B: You know three quarters of China‘s energy is produced by burning coal. A: I read in a report that in 1993, China used 1.2 billion tons of coal for heating and generating electricity. B: You are well informed. A: Unfortunately, burning coal causes serious air pollution and increases global warming. B: That‘s why the dam was built? A: How much electricity will it produce? B: I can tell you about that. It will generate electricity equal to about 40 million tons of coal
without causing so much air pollution. A: It seems that many places have been flooded. B: That‘s a pity. The reservoir has flooded 2 cities, 11 counties, 140 towns and more than 4,000 villages. A: What a pity! What about the people? B: More than a million people living in the region have moved from their homes. A: Are they happy in their new homes now? B: Now they‘re living a happy new life in different areas. A: The Three Gorges area is really one of the most beautiful areas of China. B: The project has flooded some of China‘s most famous historical sites, including the Qu Yuan Temple, the Han Watchtower and the Moya Cliff carvings. A: I am told that about 800 historical relics have been submerged. B: Yes, they are. But some of them are being removed and some are being put into museums. A: I‘d like to visit the new The Three Gorges area. B: I am going there tomorrow! Step 2: Speaking about different types of dams A: I hear that with the exception of the Great Wall of China, dams are the largest structures ever built. B: Dams are very important to man. C: You are right. Throughout history, big dams have prevented flooding, irrigated farmland, and generated huge amounts of electricity. A: Without dams, modern life would simply not be the same. B: When was the first big dam built? C: The first large-scale dam was built in Egypt more than 5,000 years ago. A: Can tell us something about the arch dam? B: Yes, I will. Arch dams are good for narrow, rocky rivers. C: Arch dams, like the El Atazar Dam in Spain, are thin and require less material than any other type of dam. A: What about buttress dam? B: Buttress dams may be flat or curved, but one thing is certain: a series of supports, or buttresses, brace the dam on the downstream side. A: And the embankment dam? C: Embankment dams are the most commonly built dams in the United States. They are massive dams made of earth and rock. B: And there is the gravity dam. C: Gravity dams are massive dams that resist the thrust of water entirely by their own weight. Most gravity dams, like the Grand Coulee Dam in Washington, are expensive to build because they require so much concrete. D: All dams -- whether they‘re embankment, buttress, arch, or gravity -- must be maintained as they get older. A: When should dams be taken down? When should they be repaired? D: Now that we know more about different types of dams. We shall think about the advantages and disadvantages of dams next time we meet here.
Period 5 Function—Making use of strong adjectives
■Goals ● To learn about strong adjectives ■Procedures Step 1: Learning about adjectives: What is an adjective? An adjective is a word that modifies or describes a noun or pronoun. An adjective can indicate what kind of, how many, whose, or which. Adjectives provide description about nouns. Every adjective answers one of these three questions: What kind is it? How many are there? Which one is it? An adjective can be a single word, a phrase, or a clause. Each sentence below contains one or more adjectives. Read each sentence carefully and underline the adjectives. The first four sentences have been done for you. 1. I‘m not going to keep these empty paper bottles. 2. Mary was angry when Fred compared her cookies to old mud pies. 3. Pretty yellow birds decorated the ancient walls. 4. A simple explanation will prevent a terrible punishment. 5. My best friend has an exciting new idea! 6. Mary gazed into the cracked mirror and said, ―I really believe that green teeth are attractive.‖ 7. Jason placed the leather boots in that small closet. 8. Ryan gave me two useful gifts. 9. There is nothing like a good book on a comfortable couch. 10. I told them that frozen pizza would make a fine dessert. 11. Eighty awful alligators ate eighteen aimless acrobats. 12. Herman became confused when he read the secret map. Step 2: Learning about strong adjectives: What is a strong adjective? Strong Adjectives Adjectives are declined weak or strong depending on how they are used in a sentence. When the adjective follows a demonstrative or a possessive (like 'the wicked witch' or 'my wicked witch'), the adjective is weak; when it stands alone (like 'the witch is wicked' or 'wicked witches'), the adjective is strong. Superlative adjectives (―Of all the witches in The Wizard of Oz, the wettest witch is the Wicked Witch of the West‖) are generally strong, although there are exceptions. Step 3: Listing adjectives
A List of Adjectives bad purple better tender beautiful kind quiet big long quick tricky black lazy quickest tough blue bright magnificent rainy rare ugly ugliest clumsy ratty vast crazy mighty red watery dizzy mushy roasted wasteful dull nasty robust wide-eyed fat new round wonderful frail nice sad yellow friendly nosy scary yummy funny nutty great nutritious short green odd silly gigantic orange stingy gorgeous ordinary strange grumpy pretty striped handsome precious spotty happy prickly tart horrible tall itchy tame Step 4: Listing pairs of adjectives Good, Bad; Hot, Cold; Delicious, Bitter; Sweet, Spicy; Short, Long; Thick, Thin; Narrow, Spacious; Difficult, Easy; Warm, Cool; Fat, Skinny; Wonderful, Beautiful; Cute, Dirty; Correct, Okay; Funny, Scary; Awesome, Terrible; New, Old; Heavy, Light; Tall, Short / Low; Expensive, Cheap; Numerous, Few; Late, Early; Bright, Dark; Happy, Sad; Fun, Boring; Hot (to the touch), Cool; Hot (weather / air), Cold; Near, Far; Strong, Weak; Strict / Intense, Gentle / Kind; Busy, Spare Time (noun); Hard, Soft; Deep, Shallow; Quiet, Noisy
外研版高中英语必修 3 Module 7 Revision (1) Period One
Part 1 教案设计 1. Teaching aims and requirements: A. To review the grammar of Module 1 Exercises. B. To review the vocabulary of Module 1 2. Main Points and Difficult Points: A. To review the grammar of Module 1 Exercises. B. To review the vocabulary of Module 1 3. Teaching aids: Computer; tape recorder 4. Teaching procedures: Step 1: Greetings (Everyday English). Step 2:
— Module 6 and then ask the students to finish the — Module 6 — Module 6 and then ask the students to finish the — Module 6
To review the active voice and passive voice. 主动形式 一般现在时 一般过去时 一般将来时 过去将来时 现在进行时 过去进行时 现在完成时 过去完成时 情态动词 do did will/shall do would/should do is/am/are doing was/were doing have/has done had done 情态动词+动词原形 被动形式 is/am/are done was/were done will/shall be done would/should be done is/am/are being done was/were being done have/has been done had been done 情态动词+be+过去分词
I 被动语态的用法： (1). 不知谁是动作的执行者时。 eg. His bike has been stolen. (2). 没必要或不想指出谁是动作的执行者时。 eg. China was liberated in 1949. (3). 强调或突出动作的承受者时。但如果需要指出动作的执行者时，可用―by +动作执行 者‖。 eg. The plan has already been made. The man was run over by a car. II．使用被动语态应注意的几个问题 (1). 被动语态与系表结构的区别。 有些―be+ p.p‖并非表示被动，过去分词相当于形容词，仅表示一种状态。 eg. The teacher is pleased with her homework. The glass is broken. (2). 不及物动词、系动词、助动词 have 及表示情况或状态，但不表示动作的某些动词， 如 fit（适合） ， hold （容纳） ，join（参加） ， mean （意味着） ， belong to （属于） 等不能用在被动语态中。 (3). 有些动词以主动形式表示被动含义。如：open, shut, sell, wash, write 等，其后常有副 词修饰。 eg. The door won‘t open. The goods sell both at home and abroad. 1. To review the differences of the conjunction: but/ however/although/while/whereas I.辨析：whereas 与 however 两者在语义上都表示转折，意为―然而‖，―可是‖，但用法略有差异。 A. whereas conj. used to compare or contrast two facts 然而，却，反之（引导与前句内容对 立和对比的一个句子） He is poor, whereas his brother is very rich. =He is poor, while his brother is very rich. Some people like fatty food, whereas others hate it. B. However adv. used to introduce a statement 可是，不过（仅表语义上的转折，不含有对 比性和对立性，而且在句中位置较灵活，一般用标点符号单独隔离出来。 ） You haven‘t told us your opinion. You can, however, make it clear now. Certainly, he apologized. However, I won‘t forgive him.
II opposite: A. prep. across 在?的对面 The store is opposite the station. He stood opposite me, glaring at me. B. adj. contrary 对面的；相反的； （立场、意见、性质等）相反的，相对立的 He stood on the opposite side of the street. Her view and mine are completely opposite. Light is opposite to shadow. 相关链接: opposite to 与 ……相对，相反 on the contrary 正相反，反之 III．knock down: 击倒；打倒 He was knocked down by a bike. He knocked his opponent down three times in the first round. IV. enough: A. adj. 足够的；充分的。作形容词修饰名词时，可置于名词之前，也可置于名词之后。 eg. We have enough ice cream for children. Do you have time enough to finish the work? B. adv. 足够地；充分地（必须置于形容词和副词之后） eg. Are you warm enough in such a light jacket? Strangely enough, he can‘t recognize my voice. C．pron. 足够；充分 eg. Enough has been said on this subject. V. marry: A. vt. 嫁；娶；把?嫁给，与…结婚；主持婚礼 eg. He married his boss‘s daughter. I don‘t want to marry my daughter to you. B. vi. 结婚 eg. She married young in her life. 相关链接: be married (to sb) 结婚 get married to sb 和某人结婚 marry sb to sb 使某人与某人结婚 be engaged to sb 与某人订婚 get divorced from sb 和某人离婚 VI. cover v. A. 盖住；遮盖 The flood covered large areas on both banks of the river. B. 溅；洒 A taxi went by and covered us with mud. C. 保护 She covered her children with her long dress. D. 走完（一段路） By sunset, we gave covered 30 miles. E. 包罗；涵盖 His research covers a wide field. F. 报道；采访 She covered the poor children‘s education in the mountainous area. 相关链接:
be covered with 被?盖着；结满了； 天然生有（毛皮等） ；为?所克服 Cover …from… 保护?免受 VII．population A. n. 人口 the population of +地点 某地的人口或人口数 The population of Shanghai is very large. B. have a population of 有一个?的人口数量 The country has a population of 400000. C. 用 what 提问人口数量的多少，说其多时用 large, 说其少时用 small. —What‘s the population of your city? —The population of our city is 3 times as large as that of your city. 注：用 what 提问，意为―多少‖的度量名词还有：speed, size, number, amount, weight, length, price 等。 What‘s the price of the book? What‘s the number of the boy? What‘s the weight of the pig? VIII. frighten: vt. 使吃惊；使惊骇；使害怕 fright n. 惊骇； 怪物 frightful adj. 可怕的；讨厌的 frightened adj. 害怕的；心惊的 frightening adj. 令人害怕的；可怕的 frighten sb into/ out of doing sth. 恐吓某人做/不做? frighten…. away/ out 把?吓跑 be frightened of 害怕? be frightened to do 不敢做? give sb a fright 让某人大吃一惊 shake with fright 吓得发抖 Step 3. To review the attributive clauses. If you have time, you can finish some exercises after class. Step 4 Homework To finish some attributive clause exercises. Part 2 教学反思 本堂课能够顺利成功地完成教学目标和教学要求。集中复习 1—6 模块所学的语法项目和词 汇， 帮助学生归纳和巩固相关语言知识； 归纳总结的能力有待提高， 部分练习出的过于简单， 缺乏实效性。 Part 3 教学点评： 高中英语外研版必修三各个模块的语法安排如下：Module1：一般现在时和一般过去时 的被动语态，Module 2：连词（but/however, although/while, Module 3: 过去完成时的被动语 态以及部分间接引语，Module 4：不定式以及 but+不定式，Module 5：限定性定语从句介词 +关系代词，Module 6：非限定性定语从句。Module 7 对以上各个模块的语法进行了复习， 详略删减。 优点： 从本教案可以看出，设计教师设计的教案为语法和词汇复习。以语法为复习重点，突出 了对被动语态和定语从句的重点复习， 增加了定语从句的练习题。 该两部分内容是本册书中
学生掌握的难点，作为重点强化练习，可以使学生加强巩固相关知识。 不足： 1 教案过程设计上有些步骤模糊，比如，首先是对被动语态的复习，然后是连词，之后 就掺杂了词汇复习的讲解，然后把定语从句放在最后，略显混乱；同时，第二个步骤之后没 有了第三个步骤，直接是第四个步骤了，这点要在书写时候注意避免。标题号码的使用也混 乱，要看者不能清晰明了的抓住步骤顺序。 2 重难点没有全面的体现出来，如在连词部分的设计上，重点辨析了 whereas 与 however，但是，while，although 和 but 等学生容易犯错的连词使用方面，从教案上，没有 表现出来；词汇的复习也拘泥于教材了。 3 教学教辅用具上，录音机也是多于的设置。 Module 7 教材的设计上也不能覆盖前面 6 个模块的语法内容，甚至有的部分缺失，所 以教师在设计时候就不能单纯的按照教材走，要多结合各自的实际情况进行内容的设计。
外研版高中英语必修 3 Module 7 Revision(1) Period Two
Part 1 教学设计 1. Teaching aims and requirements: A. To read the passage and answer the questions and master the reading skills. B. Writing. 2. Main points and difficult points: A. To read the passage and answer the questions and master the reading skills. B. Writing. 3. Teaching aids: Computer; tape recorder 4. Teaching procedures: Step 1: Greetings (Everyday English). Step 2: 1. Reading: ①Fast-reading: to ask the students to read the passage by themselves and then number these
countries in the order that Mark visited them. China France Greece India ② Read the passage again and then fill in the form. Experience Country France Italy Greece India China Japan Things he did
Time he spent
2. To explain some language points in the passage ① spend time/ money on sth. / (in) doing sth. 在?上花时间/金钱 Waste time/ money on sth / in doing sth 浪费时间/ 金钱在?上 辨析：spend, pay, cost, 与 take spend 主语为人 pay 主语为人，意为―补偿‖，用于词组：pay sb. money for sth. cost 主语为物，意指花费时间、生命、精力、金钱等，用于结构：sth. Cost sb. to do sth. take 主语多为形式主语，构成句式：It takes sb. time to do sth.主语也可为物。 Careless driving costs him his life. I paid 3 yuan for the book. ② be known for / be famous for 因?而闻名 He is known for his oral skill. 他以口技而闻名。 辨析：be known as, be known for 与 be known to be known as = be famous as 意为―作为?而被大家公认‖ be known for 意为―因?而闻名‖ be known to =be familiar to 意为―为?所熟知‖。 As is known to all, he is known for his bravery as a hunter in this village. He is known as a fair judge. ③have a wonderful time = enjoy oneself 度过一段快乐时光，享受时光 have a bad time 生活困苦，不快乐 ④ protect…from = protect against 保护?免受损害 He is wearing glass to protect his eyes from the strong sunlight. ⑤ imagine vt. A. form a picture of …in the mind 想象（后接名词、动名词、从句作宾语） Can you imagine life on the moon? I can‘t imagine living in such a place. B. think of 认为（ 接宾语从句时，变否定要前移，变反意疑问句因主句的主语不同而 不同，第一人称时与从句一致，否则就与主句一致。 ） I can‘t imagine they will come if it rains. —Do you think we‘ll have a good harvest? —I imagine not. ⑥ take turns to do sth. Do it one after the other 轮流做?
可表达为: take turns ( at/in) doing sth. He and his sister take turns (at) sitting up with his sick mother. Let‘s take turns to listen to each other. 6. Work in groups of four: imagine spending a month traveling around America. Where would you go? What would you do? Then choose the best one to tell all the students. Place to visit Time to spend Things to do
Step 3 Homework To write a brief description of China for an encyclopaedia information you have learnt in this book according to the page 66. Part 2 教学反思 本堂课能够顺利成功地完成教学目标和教学要求。 通过阅读文章， 教给他们正确的学习阅读 方法。学生用英语进行思考问题的能力有待提高。写作能力较差。 Part 3 教学点评： 本教案设计比较合理，以阅读为重点，带动写作。阅读时，在进行快速阅读、skimming 以及之后的 scanning 的时候，注意了阅读技巧的培养。另外，如果能给学生就课文整体结 构上面，再进行一个 organization 的话，就可以给学生就文章的结构，有一个更清晰的呈现。 新教材和新课改一直强调要加强学生阅读能力，我们不仅要关注快速阅读和细节阅读的技 巧，更要强化学生对文章整体结构的把握。
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