清华高中英语语法复习（模块 1-模块 4）
（一）定义 1)在复合句中（一个句子的某一成分由句子承当），修饰某一名词或代词从句叫定语从句或 形容词从句；在句中起定语的作用. 2)被定语从句修饰的词叫做先行词 antecedent 1) The man who lives next to us is a policeman. 先行词 关系代词 定语从句 2) You must do everything that I do. 先行词 关系代词 定语从句 (二)：关系代词的作用; 1.连接主句和从句。 2.代表被修饰的先行词。 3.在定语从句做一个句子成分。 eg. This is the room which I lived in last year. 先行词 关系代词 定语从句 (三)：定语从句中有 关系代词 who, whom, whose, which, that, as. 关系副词 when, where, why 等引导定语从句。 ★清华大学★英语系学生专用学习机：适合初中、高中、大学学生、以及英语工作者使用。
清华大学英语教授研究组提供 （四）：用关系代词还是用关系副词 关系代词起代词的作用， 关系副词起副词的作用， 因此同样的先行词， 选用什么样的关系词， 要由它在定语从句中担任的逻辑作用来决定。 词行 who Whom That Which As Whose=of whom\of which When=at\in\on\during which Where=at\in\to which Why=for which that 在口语中可以代替 关系副词 先行词 人 人 人&物 物 物 人&物 时间 地点 原因 以上三者 充当成分 主、宾、表 宾 主、宾、表 主、宾、表 主、宾 定语 状 状 状 状
关 系 代 词
关 系 副 词
This is the place where we work.（vi.） (关系词所做的成分关键是有从句中的动词来决定的) This is the place which we visited. (vt. )
先行词 （人）在 从句中做 主语或宾 语
语 物在从句 中做主语 或宾语 which
This is the doctor who saved the who 在从句中做主语 whom 在从句中做宾语， boy’s life . 这就是救了孩子生命的医生。 口 语中 who 可 以代 替 She is the new student whom I want whom，也可以被省去， 但做介词宾语时只能用 to introduce to you . 她就是我要介绍给你的新学生 whom Please pass me the book which is which 在从句中做主语。 lying on the table. 请递给我摆在桌上的那本书。 which 充当宾语时可以 The novel which Tom bought is 省去。 very interesting. 汤姆买的小说很有意思。 Can you lend me the magazine which 做介词宾语不可 about which you talked yesterday? 省 你能把昨天谈到的那本杂志借给 我吗？
whose 定 语 从 句 人 或 物 的
The professor whose daughter teaches you whose 在从句中做定 语 English is Dr. Williams 那位教授是威廉斯他的女儿教你英语。 指 某 人 的 也 可 以 The professor, the daughter of whom 用 ?of whom 代替 teaches you English is Dr. Williams. whose The bike whose brake was damaged has 指物时也可以用?of now been repaired. 那辆坏了闸的自行车现在已经修好了。 which 代替 whose =The bike the brake of which was damaged has now been repaired
that 人 或
The woman that is playing the piano is Miss that 指人做主语 Zhang. 正在弹钢琴的那位妇女是张小姐。 I’d like to see the films that are just on that 指物做主语 show. 我想看那些刚上映的电影。
物 all, little much that 和 some,any every ,no 构 成的 合 成代词 人 或 物
They talked for about an hour of things 先 行 词 分 别 表 示 人 and persons that they remember in the 和物，关系代词要用 that ， 不 用 who 或 school. 他们谈起他们所记得起的学校里的人和事，which 谈了大约有半个小时。 先行词表示物，关系 代 词 用 that 不 用 I’ll tell you all(that )I know about it . 我要告诉你我所知道这件事的一切情况。 which, 在 从 句 中 做 宾语可省去 。如果 Is there anything (that) I can do for you? 有什么我可以帮助做的事吗？ 先行词是人时，关系 代词不受制约，用 I’ve brought everything (that )you need. 我把你需要的东西都拿来了。 that 或 who (whom) 均可 This is the best film that I have seen . 这是我看过的最好的一部电影。
that 先行词被形容词最 The first place that we’ll visit is Beijing 高 级 或 序 数 词 修 饰 时定语从句用 that 引 Library. 我们要参观的第一个地方是北京图书馆 导。 that 先 行 词 被 the only, the very,the same 等 John is the very person that she wants to see. 修 饰 时 用 关 系 代 词 约翰正是她要见的人。 that. Who is the man that is talking with Tom ? 正在和汤姆谈话的人是谁？ which Which of the books that you bought is easy to 当主句以 who、 开头的特殊疑问句 read? 你买的那些书中哪一本容易读。 时，定语从句要用 He is the only person that is believable. 他是唯一可靠的人。 that when He came at a time when we. needed him 在 定 语 从 句 中 作 时 most.他在我们最需要的时候来了。 间状语 We’ll never forget the day when the People’s Republic of China was founded. 我们永远不会忘记中华人民共和国成立的 那一天。
定 语 从 句
物 时 间
注：先行词是 time, minute, moment, next time 很少用关系副词 when,可用 that 但通常省 去。
地点 原因 理由
where This is the room where he put up for the 在定语从句中作地点状语 night. 这就是他渡过夜晚的那房子。 why I know the reason why she studies so well . 在定语从句中作原因状语 我知道她学习好的原因。
This is the place where work.（vi.） (关系词所做的成分关键是有从句中的动词来决定的) This is the place which we visited. (vt. ) （五）：限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的区别 限制性定语从句 从句与先行词的关系 非限制性定语从句
从句是先行词不可缺少的定 从句只是对先行词的附加说 语，如果省去，主句的意思就 明， 如果省去,主句的意思仍然 会不完整或不明确。 清楚或完整 从句和主句之间不用逗号分开 从句和主句之间通常用逗号 分开 指人 who (that) whom 指人 who （作主语） whom （做 指物 which (that) 宾语） 人和物 whose 指物 which 关系代词在从句中作宾语时可 人和物的 whose 以省去 关系代词一般不可省 从句只修饰一个名词或代词 可以修饰一个名词或代词也 可修饰整个主句
标 点 关 系 代 词 修饰 翻译
定语从句译在被修饰词的前面 定语从句通常被译成另一个 独立的句子 限制性 非限制性 有逗号 先行词是唯一的，定语从句 可有可无。 不可用 that ,why。关系词一 律不省。 名词或代词，也可以使整个 句子 无逗号
形式上 内容上 关系词 先行词
先行词不是唯一的 可用 that ,why.作宾语可以省 略 名词或代词
1．二者差异比较 限制定语从句紧跟先行词， 同先行词之间一般不加逗号， 仅修饰先行词， 可以由关系代词． 关 系副词或 that 来引导。非限制性定语从句仅作补充或说明，用逗号与主句隔开，既可修饰先 行词，又可修饰整个主句，不可用 that 引导。 He has a brother who is a physicist. He has a brother, who is a physicist. (只有一个) He returned all the books which are written in English.
He returned all the books, which are written in English. I will wear no clothes which will be out of ordinary. I will wear no clothes, which will be out of ordinary. The man who lives next door is a doctor. My sister, who lives next door, is a doctor. I’m sure I know the person who served me. Tom, who served us, is the owner of the restaurant. A student who studies hard will make good progress. The student, who lives far from school, is the leader of their football match. （六） 关系代词 that 和 which 的区别 <1>． 只能用 that 的情况 (1) 如果先行词是 all, much, anything, something, nothing, everything, little, none ，few.等不 定代词，关系代词一般只用 that，不用 which。例如： All the people that are present burst into tears. Everything that we saw was interesting. I’m interested in everything that I don’t know. All that is needed is a supply of oil. (2) 如果先等词被 all ,little none any, only, few, much, no, some, very 等词修饰， 关系代词常 用 that,不用 which. 例如：I read all the books that you gave to me. This is the only money that I have in my pocket. All the money that was collected was given to the Hope Project. (3) 如果先行词被序数词、形容词最高级修饰或者先行词是最高级时，关系代词常用 that, 不用 which。 This is the first book that was written in English. This is the last factory that I visited. This is the best film that I have ever seen. This is the funniest thing that I ever heard. (4) 如果先等词被 the only ,the very , the same ,the last 修饰， 关系代词常用 that,不用 which. This is the only book that I really like. He was the only person in the office that was invited to the ball. (5) 先行词有两个，一个指人，一个指物，关系代词应该用 that。而不用 who, which. 例如： The boy and the dog that are in the picture are very lovely. He talked about the teachers and schools that he had visited. (6)who ,which 开头的特殊疑问句中，关系代词用 that. Who is the person that is standing there? Which of us that knows English doesn’t know this? which of the novel do you like best? (7) 关系代词作表语时，关系代词用 that. It took us many years to make the city that it is today. He is not the man that he used to be. China isn’t the country it used to be.
(8) 先行词是奇数词或是序数词时，关系代词用 that . Yesterday I caught two fish. Now you can see the two that are still alive in the basin of water. (9) 当主句 “ there be “开头时，关系代词要用 that 引导的定语从句修饰该句型的主语。 There are four desks in the middle of the office that are used for the teachers. (10) 当先行词是 “ to be “ 后面的表语时关系代词用 that . This is the dictionary that was bought in the bookstore yesterday. <2>．只能用 which 的情况 1) 非限制性定语从句中，不能用关系代词 that,作宾语用的关系代词也不能省略。如： There are about seven million people taking part in the election, most of whom、are well educated. Bei jing , which is china’s capital, is rich in culture. 2)those/that +名词后的定语从句用 which 引导。不能用关系代词 that。 That pen which he took is mine. A shop should keep those goods which sells well. 3) 介词后只用 which This is the room in which he lived. I don’t know the man to whom you talked. The chair on which he is sitting is made of wood. (4) which 还有一种特殊用法，它可以引导从句修饰前面的整个主句，代替主句所表示的 整体概念或部分概念。在这种从句中，which 可以作主语，也可以作宾语或表语， 不用 that..例如： He succeeded in the competition, which made his parents very happy. (5)先行词是 that 时，关系代词要用 which. What’s that which flashed in the sky just now? (6) 关系代词后面有插入语时，益用关系代词 which. Here is the English grammar book which, as I have told you, will help to improve your English. <3>．只用 who, whom.而不用 that 的情况 (1) 如果先行词是 anyone, anybody, everyone, everybody, someone, somebody, those, ones 等时，关系代词应该用 who 或 whom，不用 which .that。例如： Is there anyone here who will go with you? People all like those who have good manners. （2） 当先行词是指人的集合名词时，如果作这个名词着眼于集体的整体，关系代词用 which;若是指集体中的各个成员，则用 who。 Mr. Smith came to visit my family, who were watching TV then. Our class, which is a very good one, was praised again at the meeting. (3)当先行词有较长的 后置定语或者在被分割的定语从句中，宜用关系代词 who Pro. Wang is coming soon who will give us a talk on how to learn English. (4) 当先行词用-body 或-one 构成的复合不定代词时，关系代词用 who We’d better not believe in anyone who we don’t know. (5) 当先行词是一个限定性的表示人的特定名词时，常用 who
The aunt/uncle who came to see us last week is my brother’s sister. （七）．“介词＋关系代词“是一个普遍使用的结构 (1)“介词＋关系代词“可以引导限制性定语从句，也可以引导非限制性定语从句。“介词 ＋关系代词“结构中的介词可以是 in, on, about, from, for, with, to at, of, without 等， 关系代词 只可用 whom 或 which,不可用 that 。其中 whom 代表人，which 代表物 Who is the comrade with whom you shook hands? He works in a factory, in front of which there is a river Give me the book the cover of which is red (the cover of which=whose cover) He is the man whose father is a teacher.=He is the man the father of whom is a teacher. This is the neighborhood from whom I borrowed the bicycle. (2) from where 为“介词＋关系副词“结构，但也可以引导定语从句（不常用）。例如： We stood at the top of the hill, from where we can see the town.. （3）***关系代词前的介词如何确定？ A.依据定语从句中动词的某种习惯搭配 Mr. Smith bought a new house on which he spent all his money. B.依据先行词的某种习惯搭配确定 There was no way in which it could be bought back to the earth. ( in this way) C.根据所表达的意思确定 The gas with which doctors can save the patients is called oxygen. The gas without which we can not live is called oxygen. (4)***注意关系代词的位置 介词在关系代词前时，只能用 which 和 whom 不能用 that 代替，也不可省略；介词在句 尾时，关系代词可 which ,that ,whom, who,都行，而且还可以省略。 This is the drawer in which I put my letters. = This is the drawer (which/that )I put my letters in. Have you seen the pen with which I wrote letters this morning? = Have you seen the pen (which/that) I wrote letters with this morning? 所以一个句子有时有多种用法 如：那就是他工作的大学 This is the college at which he works. This is the college that/which he works at. This is the college where he works. 但像 listen to, look at, depend on, pay attention to, take care of 等固定短语动词， 在定语从句中 一般不宜将介词与动词分开。例如： This is the boy whom she has taken care of. This is the book which /that I am looking for. This is the girl I have been looking for the whole afternoon. （八） whose 引导从句的意义 1）指人=of whom 表示所修饰的“某（些）人的用做所修饰的先行词的所有格。 A child whose parents are dead is called an orphan. 2) 指物=of which 表所修饰的“某物的“ I live in the room whose window faces south. I live in the room, the window of which faces south
( whose +从句 可以用“of which +从句”代替) （九）As 与 which 是有区别的 A) 相同之处： 都可以用来引导非限制性定语从句，指代前面的主句所表达的内容。which 可做宾语或表语 He failed once more in the match, which was a great pity. He succeeded in the composition, which made his parents very happy. B) 区别： 1）as 引导的非限制性定语从句位置较灵活，可以位于主句前面．中间或后面，一般用逗 号与主句隔开，但 which 所引导的非限制性定语从句只能放在主句之后。例如： 1) As we all know, Galileo’s theory of falling objects is right. = Galileo’s theory of falling objects, as we all know, is right = Galileo’s theory of falling objects is right, as we all know. 2) He was thrown into prison, which got round throughout our village 3) As is expected, the England team won the football match. 4) The earth runs around the sun, as is known by everyone. 5) He was late again, which made me unhappy 6) As you know, he is good at English. 2.） as 有“如” 、“正如”、“像”、“正像”的含义，which 没有。后面的谓语动词 多是 see, know, expect, say, mention, report 等。 Bob did an excellent job, as we had expected. Our team won the game, which made us happy. As is known to all, Taiwan is part of China. We are facing the same problems as we did years ago. We are facing the problems which we faced years ago. We hope to get such a tool as he is using. We hope to get the tool which he is using. 3.) as 在引导限制性定语从句多与 such 或 the same 连用， 可以代替先行词是人或物的名词。 the same…as such….as This is the same story as he told me. I hope to get such a book as he is using 4).as 也可单独使用，引导非限制性定语从句，作用相当于 which。可代表一个句子。例如： The elephant’s nose is like a snake, as anybody can see. 5).as 做主语时， 其后必跟系动词，而 which 无此限制 The meeting was put off, as was what we wanted. He was murdered, as seemed true. 6)as 引导从句时，从句语义必须和主句一致 She was married again, which was unexpected She was married again, as was unexpected 7 7）the same …as 与 the same ..that 的区别： 前者修饰的是原物同样的 而后者修饰的就是先行词 This is the same watch as I lost.这和我丢的那一只手表是一样的。 This is the dame watch that I lost.着就是我丢的那一只手表。 （十）什么时候 that 可以省略？
1) 引导同位语从句，主语从句，表语从句不能省略，且不做成分。 The name “ whitewater ”comes from the fact that the water in these streams and rivers looks white when it moves quickly. It’s known to all that light travels in straight lines. ( that 置后可一省略) The reason for his absence was that he was ill. ( 有时可省，一般不省) 2）宾语从句中可以省略 I don’t think (that) you are right. 3）that 只有在定语从句中做成分，可做主、宾、表语。 （十一）关系代词做主语，谓语动词的单复数取决于先行词而不是关系代词。 I want to see the film that is on show. The students who don’t study hard will not pas the exam. (十二)one of the… 与 the one of the … 做先行词时谓语不一致。 Li Bai is one of the greatest poets that have lived in China. Li Bai is the one of the greatest poets that has lived in China. This is one of the books that I have been written in Chinese. This is the only one of the books that has been written in Chinese. He is one of the boys who are willing to do it. He is the only one of the boys who is willing to do it. （十三）．关系副词引导的定语从句 1．关系副词也可以引导定语从句 关系副词在从句中分别表示时间．地点或原因。关系副词 when 在从句中充当时间状 语，where 充当地点状语，why 充当原因状语。 1)when 表示时间, 充当时间状语 when=on/ in/ of /at…+which I still remember the day when I join the party I will never forget the day when I first came to Beijing. 但注意： 1.当先行词是表地点：place ,room, mountain, airport 等时间：time, day, year, month, week, 等原因： reason 等名词时,并且分别在句中做地点、 时间、 原因状语时， 应用 where ,when ,why 引导。但是如果如果表示时间地点原因的名词不做状语，而是做主语，宾语，或者表语时， 必须用关系代词 that /which 来引导而不是用 where 等。 I still remember the day that we spent together。 May 1 is the day that I will never forget。 The Yangtze Gorges is a beautiful place (that /which) people all over the world look forward to visiting. 长江三峡是个美丽的地方，全世界的人都渴望来参观。 The moment (that /which) I turned around, she had left and disappeared in the crowd. Is this the reason that he gave us for being late? This is the factory that we visited That is the house that he lived in.. The place that we had been to was far. The shop that /which we saw is beautiful. 2.当先行词为 by the time ,any time , the way, every time, the first time ,the last time 时，关系 词不用 when 而用 that.或省略
This is the last time that I shall give you a lesson. The first time I saw him was in 1980 By the time he was 14 he had learned advanced mathematics 但如果 time 前无修饰语,关系词用 that when 均可 I will never forgot the time when (that) we met for the first time. 3. 当先行词为 way 时，关系词用 in which ,that, 或省略. This is the way that/ in which / 不加 he smiles. 但注意： 4.why 表示原因（现行词只有一个 reason），做原因状语。 Why= for which That is the reason why he was late. （十四）学生容易出现的问题。 1. 在定语从句中多加了宾语，如： Some of the boys I invited them didn’t come. Some of the boys I invited didn’t come. Is this the horse you drew it yesterday? Is this the horse you drew yesterday? 2. 把定语从句的动词的单复数弄错。 Those who has finished may leave the classroom now. They key opens the room is missing. Those who have finished may leave the classroom now. This is one of the rivers in China which flows northward. This is one of the rivers in China which flows northward. 3. 省略了定语从句中做主语的关系代词。 Children eat a lot of sugar often get bad teeth. Children who eat a lot of sugar often get bad teeth. They key opens the room is missing. They key which/that opens the room is missing. 4. 定语从句中加了多余的关系副词或者是介词。 The house where he lives in needs repairing. The house where he lives needs repairing. The house which/that he lives in needs repairing. This is the time at when he’s more likely to be in. This is the time when he’s more likely to be in. This is the time at which he’s more likely to be in. （十五）代有插入语的定语从句 who 与 whom 的选用。 担主语成分时用 who ,担 宾格成分时用 whom 方法：要区分是定语从句中的插入语还是主谓结构。 Jason is a man who (I believed) is honest.(去掉仍成立) Jason is a man whom I believe to be honest. 做宾语 The girl who we supposed was drowned came back. The girl who we supposed to be drowned came back. （十六）什么时候宜用非限制性定语从句
1） 当先行词是专有名词时，通常用非限制性定语从句，它本身就具有特殊性，无需在加限 定。 Shenzhen, which is in South China, is developing rapidly. My house, which I bought last year, has got a garden . Mr. Smith bought a new house on which he spent all his money. 2) 当先行词是具有某一特征的人或者物中的一个，但跟非限制从句时则表示唯一的一个， compare: Her room has a window which faces south. Her room has a window, which faces south. I have a brother who is working in Beijing. I have a brother, who is working in Beijing. 3.当先行词表示类属意义，即表示某类动物，事物或人时，其后所跟的定语从句一般是非限 制性的。 A sleep is a useful animal, whose wool has many uses. Football, which is a very interesting game, is now played all over the world.
1) 经常性或习惯性的动作，常与表示频腮度的时间状语连用。 时间状语： every?, sometimes, at?, on Sunday I leave home for school at 7 every morning. 2) 客观真理，客观存在，科学事实。 The earth moves around the sun. Shanghai lies in the east of China. 3) 表示格言或警句中。 Pride goes before a fall. 骄者必败。 注意：此用法如果出现在宾语从句中，即使主句是过去时，从句谓语也要用一般现在时。 例：Columbus proved that the earth is round.. 4) 现在时刻的状态、能力、性格、个性。 I don't want so much. Ann Wang writes good English but does not speak well. 比较：Now I put the sugar in the cup. I am doing my homework now. 第一句用一般现在时，用于操作演示或指导说明的示范性动作，表示言行的瞬间动作。再如： Now watch me, I switch on the current and stand back. 第二句中的 now 是进行时的标志， 表示正在 进行的动作的客观状况，所以后句用一般现在时。
1）在确定的过去时间里所发生的动作或存在的状态。 时间状语有：yesterday, last week, an hour ago, the other day, in 1982 等。 Where did you go just now? 2）表示在过去一段时间内，经常性或习惯性的动作。 When I was a child, I often played football in the street.
Whenever the Browns went during their visit, they were given a warm welcome. 3）句型： It is time for sb. to do sth "到??时间了" 你该睡觉了。 你早该睡觉了。 表示'宁愿某人做某事' "该??了" It is time sb. did sth. "时间已迟了" It is time for you to go to bed. It is time you went to bed. would (had) rather sb. did sth. I'd rather you came tomorrow. 4) wish, wonder, think, hope 等用过去时，作试探性的询问、请求、建议等。 I thought you might have some. 我以为你想要一些。 比较： 一般过去时表示的动作或状态都已成为过去，现已不复存在。 Christine was an invalid all her life. (含义：她已不在人间。) Christine has been an invalid all her life. (含义：她现在还活着) Mrs. Darby lived in Kentucky for seven years. (含义：达比太太已不再住在肯塔基州。) Mrs. Darby has lived in Kentucky for seven years. ( 含义：现在还住在肯塔基州，有可能指刚离去) 注意： 用过去时表示现在，表示委婉语气。 1）动词 want, hope, wonder, think, intend 等。 Did you want anything else? I wondered if you could help me. 2）情态动词 could, would. Could you lend me your bike? "早该??了"
3 used to / be used to
used to + do："过去常常"表示过去习惯性的动作或状态，但如今已不存在。 Mother used not to be so forgetful. Scarf used to take a walk. (过去常常散步) be used to + doing： 对??已感到习惯，或"习惯于"，to 是介词，后需加名词或动名词。 He is used to a vegetarian diet. Scarf is used to taking a walk.(现在习惯于散步) 典型例题 ---- Your phone number again? I ___ quite catch it. ---- It's 69568442. A. didn't B. couldn't C. don't D. can't 答案 A. 本句虽没有明确的时间状语，但从语意上看 出，在听的时候没有听懂这个动作发 生在过去，因此应用过去时。
1) shall 用于第一人称，常被 will 所代替。 will 在陈述句中用于各人称，在争求意见时常用于第二人称。 Which paragraph shall I read first. Will you be at home at seven this evening?
be going to +不定式，表示将来。 a. 主语的意图，即将做某事。 What are you going to do tomorrow? b. 计划，安排要发生的事。 The play is going to be produced next month。 c. 有迹象要发生的事 Look at the dark clouds, there is going to be a storm.
be +不定式表将来，按计划或正式安排将发生的事。 We are to discuss the report next Saturday. be about to +不定式，意为马上做某事。 He is about to leave for Beijing. 注意：be about to 不能与 tomorrow, next week 等表示明确将来时的时间状语连用。
5 be going to / will
用于条件句时， be going to 表将来 will 表意愿 If you are going to make a journey, you'd better get ready for it as soon as possible. Now if you will take off your clothes, we will fit the new clothes on you in front of the mirror.
6 be to 和 be going to
be to 表示客观安排或受人指示而做某事。 be going to 表示主观的打算或计划。 I am to play football tomorrow afternoon. (客观安排) I'm going to play football tomorrow afternoon. (主观安排)
1）下列动词：come, go, arrive, leave, start, begin, return 的一般现在时表将来。这主要用来表示在 时间上已确定或安排好的事情。 The train leaves at six tomorrow morning. When does the bus star? It stars in ten minutes. 2）倒装句，表示动作正在进行，如： Here comes the bus. = The bus is coming. There goes the bell. = The bell is ringing. 3）在时间或条件句中。 When Bill comes (不是 will come), ask him to wait for me. I'll write to you as soon as I arrive there. 4）在动词 hope, take care that, make sure that 等后。 I hope they have a nice time next week. Make sure that the windows are closed before you leave the room.
意为："意图"、"打算"、"安排"、常用于人。常用词为 come, go, start, arrive, leave, stay 等。 I'm leaving tomorrow. Are you staying here till next week?
现在完成时用来表示之前已发生或完成的动作或状 状态发生在过去 态， 其结果的确和现在有联系。 动作或 状态。 其构成： have 但它的影响现在还存在； 也可表示持续到现在的动作或
1）过去时表示过去某时发生的动作或单纯叙述过去的事情，强调动作；现在完成时为过去发 生的，强调过去的事情对现在的影响，强调的是影响。 2）过去时常与具体的时间状语连用，而现在完成时通常与模糊的时间状语连用，或无时间状 语。 一般过去时的时间状语: yesterday, last week，?ago, in1980, in October, just now, 具体的时间状语 共同的时间状语: this morning, tonight,this April, now, once，before, already, recently，lately 现在完成时的时间状语 for, since, so far, ever, never, just, yet, 不确定的时间状语 3）现在完成时可表示持续到现在的动作或状态，动词一般是延续性的，如 live, teach, learn, work, study, know. 过去时常用的非持续性动词有 come, go, leave, start, die, finish, become, get married 等。 举例： I saw this film yesterday. （强调看的动作发生过了。） I have seen this film. （强调对现在的影响，电影的内容已经知道了。） Why did you get up so early? （强调起床的动作已发生过了。） Who hasn't handed in his paper? （强调有卷子，可能为不公平竞争。） She has returned from Paris. 她已从巴黎回来了。 She returned yesterday. 她是昨天回来了。 He has been in the League for three years. (在团内的状态可延续) He has been a League member for three years. (是团员的状态可持续) He joined the League three years ago. ( 三年前入团，joined 为短暂行为。) I have finished my homework now. ---Will somebody go and get Dr. White? ---He's already been sent for. 句子中如有过去时的时间副词（如 yesterday, last, week, in 1960）时，不能使用现在完成时， 要用过去时。 （错）Tom has written a letter to his parents last night. （对）Tom wrote a letter to his parents last night. till / until, up to now, in past years, always,
1）It is the first / second time?. that?结构中的从句部分，用现在完成时。
It is the first time that I have visited the city. It was the third time that the boy had been late. 2）This is the? that?结构，that 从句要用现在完成时. This is the best film that I've (ever) seen. 这是我看过的最好的电影。 This is the first time (that) I've heard him sing. 典型例题 (1) ---Do you know our town at all? --- No, this is the first time I ___ here. A. was B. have been C. came D. am coming 答案 B. This is the first time 后面所加从句应为现在完成时，故选 B。 (2) ---Have you ____ been to our town before? ---No, it's the first time I ___ here. A. even, come B. even, have come C. ever, come D. ever, have come 答案 D. ever 意为曾经或无论何时，反意词为 never，此两词常用于完成时。 This is the largest fish I have ever seen. It is / was the first time +that-clause 的句型中，从句要用完成时。 注意：非延续性动词的否定形式可以与表示延续时间的状语连用。即动作不发生的状态是可 以持续的。 （错）I have received his letter for a month. （对）I haven't received his letter for almost a month. 这是我第一次听他唱歌。
12 比较 since 和 for
Since 用来说明动作起始时间，for 用来说明动作延续时间长度。 I have lived here for more than twenty years. I have lived here since I was born.. My aunt has worked in a clinic since 1949. Some new oilfields have been opened up since 1976. I have known Xiao Li since she was a little girl. My brother has been in the Youth League for two years. I have not heard from my uncle for a long time. 注意：并非有 for 作为时间状语的句子都用现在完成时。 I worked here for more than twenty years. (我现在已不在这里工作。) I have worked here for many years. (现在我仍在这里工作。) 小窍门： 当现在完成时+一段时间，这一结构中，我们用下面的公式转化，很容易就能排 除非延续动词在完成时中的误使。 1) 2) (对) Tom has studied Russian for three years. = Tom began to study Russian three years ago, and is still studying it now. (错) Harry has got married for six years. = Harry began to get married six years ago, and is still getting married now. 显然，第二句不对，它应改为 Harry got married six years ago. six years. 或 Harry has been married for
13 since 的四种用法
1) since +过去一个时间点 (如具体的年、月、日期、钟点、1980, last month, half past six)。
I have been here since 1989. 2) since +一段时间+ ago I have been here since five months ago. 3) since +从句 Great changes have taken place since you left. Considerable time has elapsed since we have been here. 4) It is +一段时间+ since 从句 It is two years since I became a postgraduate student.
1) 用于完成时的区别 延续动词表示经验、经历； 瞬间动词表示行为的结 果，不能与表示段的时间状语连用。 He has completed the work. I've known him since then. 2) " He didn't come back until ten o'clock. 他到 10 点才回来。 He slept until ten o'clock. 他一直睡到 10 点。 典型例题 1. You don't need to describe her. I ___ her several times. A. had met B. have met C. met D. meet 答案 B. 首先本题后句强调对现在的影响， 我知道她的模样， 你不用描述。 再次， several times 告知为反复发生的动作，因此用现在完成时。 2.---I'm sorry to keep you waiting. ---Oh, not at all. I ___ here only a few minutes. A. have been B. had been C. was D. will be 答案 A. 等待的动作由过去开始，持续到现在，应用现在完成时。 用于 till / until 从句的差异 延续动词用于肯定句， 表示"做??直到??" 瞬间动词用于否定句， 表示"到 ??， 才?? 他已完成了那项工作。 (表结果) 我从那时起就认识他了。(表经历)
1） 概念：表示过去的过去 ----|-------|-----|---->其构成是 had +过去分词构成。 那时以前 2） 用法 a. 在 told, said, knew, heard, thought 等动词后的宾语从句。 She said (that) she had never been to Paris. b. 状语从句 在过去不同时间发生的两个动作中，发生在先，用过去完成时；发生在后，用一般过去时。 When the police arrived, the thieves had run away. c. 表示意向的动词，如 hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose 等，用过去完成时表示" 原本?，未能?" We had hoped that you would come, but you didn't. 3) 过去完成时的时间状语 before, by, until , when, after, once, as soon as。 He said that he had learned some English before. 那时 现在
By the time he was twelve, Edison had began to make a living by himself. Tom was disappointed that most of the guests had left when he arrived at the party. 典型例题 The students ___ busily when Miss Brown went to get a book she ___ in the office. A. had written, left B，were writing, has left C. had written, had left D. were writing, had left 答案 D. "把书忘在办公室"发生在"去取书"这一过去的动作之前，因此"忘了书"这一动作发生 在过去的过去，用过去完成时。句中 when 表示的是时间的一点，表示在"同学们正忙于??"这 一背景下，when 所引导的动作发生。因此 前一句应用过去进行时。 注意： had no ? when had no sooner? than 还没等?? 就?? 刚?? 就??
He had no sooner bought the car than he sold it.
1) 两个动作如按顺序发生，又不强调先后，或用 then，and，but 等连词时，多用一般过去时。 When she saw the mouse， she screamed. My aunt gave me a hat and I lost it. 2 ) 两个动作相继发生，可用一般过去时；如第一个动作需要若干时间完成，用过去完成时。 When I heard the news, I was very excited. 3) 叙述历史事实，可不用过去完成时，而只用一般过去时。 Our teacher told us that Columbus discovered America in 1492.
1) 构成 will / be going to do sth. 2) 概念 a. 状态完成：表示某事继续到将来某一时为止一直有的状态。 b. 动作完成：表示将来某一时或另一个将来的动作之前，已经完成的动作或一获得的经验。 They will have been married for 20 years by then. You will have reached Shanghai by this time tomorrow.
现在进行时的基本用法： a. 表示现在( 指说话人说话时) 正在发生的事情。We are waiting for you. b. 习惯进行：表示长期的或重复性的动作，说话时动作未必正在进行。 Mr. Green is writing another novel. (说话时并未在写，只处于写作的状态。) She is learning piano under Mr. Smith. c. 表示渐变的动词有：get, grow, become, turn, run, go, begin 等。 The leaves are turning red. It's getting warmer and warmer. d. 与 always, constantly, forever 等词连用，表示反复发生的动作或持续存在的状态，往往带有 说话人的主观色彩。 You are always changing your mind. 典型例题 My dictionary ___, I have looked for it everywhere but still___ it. A. has lost, don't find haven't found. B. is missing, don't find C. has lost, haven't found D. is missing,
答案 D. 前句是一个仍在持续的状态，应用进行时，由于没有找到，其影响仍然存在，应用 完成时，瞬间动词用于否定式时可用于完成时。
1) 事实状态的动词 have, belong, possess, cost, owe, exist, include, contain, matter, weigh, measure, continue I have two brothers. This house belongs to my sister. 2) 心理状态的动词 Know, realize, think see, believe, suppose, imagine, agree, recognize, remember, want, need, forget, prefer, mean, understand, love, hate I need your help. He loves her very much. 3 ) 瞬间动词 accept, receive, complete, finish, give, allow, decide, refuse. I accept your advice. 4) 系动词 seem, remain, lie, see, hear, smell, feel, taste, get, become, turn You seem a little tired.
1） 概念：表示过去某时正在进行的状态或动作。 2） 过去进行时的主要用法是描述一件事发生的背景；一个长动作发生的时候，另一个短动作发 生。 3) 常用的时间状语 this morning, the whole morning, all day yesterday, from nine to ten last evening, when, while My brother fell while he was riding his bicycle and hurt himself. It was raining when they left the station. When I got to the top of the mountain, the sun was shining.
典型例题 1) Mary ___ a dress when she cut her finger. A. made B. is making C. was making D. makes 时，when 表时间的同时性，"玛丽在做 答案 C. 割伤手指是已发生的事情，应用过去时。同 衣服时"提供事情发生的背景，因此用过去进行时。 2) As she ___ the newspaper, Granny ___ asleep. read； was falling B. was reading； fell C. was reading； was falling D. read； fell 答案 B.句中的 as = when, while，意为"当??之时"。描述一件事发生的背景时，用过去进行； 一个长动作发生的时候，另一个短动作发生。句意为 "在她看报纸时，奶奶睡着了。"句中的 fell (fall 的过去时)，是系动词，后跟形容词，如：fall sick。
1) 概念：表示将来某时进行的状态或动作，或按预测将来会发生的事情。 She'll be coming soon. I'll be meeting him sometime in the future. 注意：将来进行时不用于表示"意志"，不能说 I'll be having a talk with her.
2）常用的时间状语 Soon, tomorrow, this evening，on Sunday, by this time，tomorrow, in two days, tomorrow evening By this time tomorrow, I'll be lying on the beach.
时间状语从句，条件句中，从句用一般现在时代替将来时 When, while, before, after, till, once, as soon as, so long as, by the time, if, in case (that), unless, even if, whether, the moment, the minute, the day, the year, immediately He is going to visit her aunt the day he arrives in Beijing. 他一到北京，就去看他姨妈。 典型例题 (1)He said he________me a present unless I_______ in doing the experiment. A. had not given; had not succeeded C. will not give; succeed B. would not give; succeed D. would not give; will succeed.
答案 B. 在时间，条件或让步主语从句中一般不用将来时。本题有 He said，故为过去式。主 句用将来时，故选 B. 此处用一般过去式代替了过去将来时。 (2) 表示现在已安排好的未来事项，行程等活动。 The museum opens at ten tomorrow. 博物馆明天 10 点开门。(实际上每天如此。)
1 )"书上说"，"报纸上说"等。 The newspaper says that it's going to be cold tomorrow. 报纸上说明天会很冷的。 2) 叙述往事，使其生动。 Napoleon's army now advances and the great battle begins.
1) 有些动词用一般现在时代替完成时： hear, tell, learn, write , understand, forget, know, find , say, I hear (= have heard) he will go to London. I forget (=have forgotten) how old he is. 2) 句型 " It is ? since?"代替"It has been ? since ?" 3) It is (= has been) five years since we last met. remember.
1) 句型：Here comes? ； There goes? Look, here comes Mr. Li.
1) 表示即将发生的或预定中计划好的活动。 Are you staying with us this weekend? 这周和我们一起度周末吗? We are leaving soon. He is dying. 我们马上就走。 2) 渐变动词，如：get, run, grow, become, begin 及 die。
1) 如果从句所叙述的为真理或不变的事实，则永远用现在时。 At that time, people did not know that the earth moves. He told me last week that he is eighteen. 2) 宾语从句中的助动词 ought, need, must, dare 时态是不变的。 He thought that I need not tell you the truth.
时间状语 一般现在时 一般过去时 一般将来时 现在完成时 recently 过去完成时 过去进行时 when, while 将来进行时 soon, tomorrow, this evening, on Sunday, by this time, tomorrow, in two days, tomorrow evening before, by, until, when, after, once, as soon as this morning, the whole morning, all day, yesterday, from nine to ten last evening? every ?, sometimes, at ?, on Sunday, yesterday, last week, an hour ago, the other day, in 1982, just now next?, tomorrow, in+时间, for, since, so far, ever, never, just, yet, till/until, up to now, in past years, always,
1、连接代词：who, whose, whom, what, which。有词义，在从句中担任成分，如主语、 表语、宾语、或定语等。 2、连接副词：when, where, why, how。有词义，在从句中担任成分，作状语。 3、连接词：that, whether, if, as if。that 无词义，在从句中不担任成分，有时可省略；if (whether), as if 虽有词义，但在从句中不担任成分。 注意：连接代词与连接副词在句中不再是疑问句，因而从句中谓语不用疑问式。连接 代词与连接副词在从句充当句子成分，连接词 whether 和 if（是否），as if（好象）在从句 中不充当句子成分，只起连接作用。根据句义，如果连接代词与连接副词，whether、if 和 as if 都用不上时，才用 that 作连接词（that 本身无任何含义）。
1、主语从句在复合句作主语。 e.g. Who will go is not important. 2、用 it 作形式主语，主语从句放在句末。 e.g. It doesn’t matter so much whether you will come or not. 3、that 引导主语从句时，不能省略。 e.g. That he suddenly fell ill last week made us surprised.
1、表语从句在复合句中作表语，位于系动词之后。 e.g. The question was who could go there. 2、引导表语从句的连接词 that 有时可省去。 e.g. My idea is (that) we can get more comrades to help in the work.
1、宾语从句在复合句中作宾语。引导宾语从句的连词 that 一般可省略。 e.g. I hope (that) everything is all right. 2、介词之后的宾语从句，不可用 which 或 if 连接，要分别用 what 或 whether。 e.g. I’m interested in whether you’ve finished the work..
I’m interested in what you’ve said. 3、whether 与 if 都可以引导宾语从句，常可互换。但下面情况不能互换。 ①宾语从句是否定句时，只用 if，不用 whether。 e.g. I wonder if it doesn’t rain. ②用 if 会引起误解，就要用 whether。 e.g. Please let me know whether you want to go. 此句如果把 whether 改成 if， （ 容易当成条 件句理解） ③宾语从句中的 whether 与 or not 直接连用，就不能换成 if；不直接连用，可换。 e.g. I don’t know whether or not the report is true. I don’t know whether/ if the report is true or not. ④介词后的宾语从句要用 whether 引导。whether 可与不定式连用。whether 也可引导主 语从句、表语从句、同位语从句，还可引导让步状语从句，以上均不能换成 if。但引导条件 从句时，只能用 if，而不能用 whether。 e.g. It depends on whether we have enough time. They don’t know whether to go there. Please come to see me if you have time.
同位语从句在句中作某一名词的同位语， 一般位于该名词 （如： news, fact, idea, suggestion, promise 等）之后，说明该名词的具体内容。 e.g. I have no idea when he will be back. The fact that he had not said anything surprised everybody.
1、以单数名词或代词、动词不定式短语、动名词短语或从句作主语时，谓语动词一般 用单数形式； 主语为复数时， 谓语动词用复数形式。 如： father is working on the farm. / To His study English well is not easy. / What he said is very important for us all. / The children were in the classroom two hours ago. / Reading in the sun is bad for your eyes.
注意：由 what 引导的主语从句，后面的谓语动词多数情况用单数形式，但若表语是复
数或 what 从句是一个带有复数意义的并列结构时，主句的谓语动词用复数形式。如：What I bought were three English books. / What I say and do is (are) helpful to you. 2、由连接词 and 或 both … and 连接起来的合成主语后面，要用复数形式的谓语动词。 如：Lucy and Lily are twins. / She and I are classmates. / The boy and the girl were surprised when they heard the news. / Both she and he are Young Pioneers.
注意：① 若 and 所连接的两个词是指同一个人或物时，它后面的谓语动词就应用单数
形式。如：The writer and artist has come.; / ② 由 and 连接的并列单数主语前如果分别有 no, each, every more than a (an) , many a (an)修饰时， 其谓语动词要用单数形式。 Every student 如： and every teacher was in the room.. / No boy and no girl likes it.
3、主语为单数名词或代词，尽管后面跟有 with, together with, except, but, like, as well as, rather than, more than, no less than, besides, including 等引起的短语，谓语动词仍用单数形式； 若主语为复数，谓语用复数形式。如：Mr Green, together with his wife and children, has come to China. / Nobody but Jim and Mike was on the playground. / She, like you and Tom, is very tall. 4、either, neither, each, every 或 no +单数名词和由 some, any, no, every 构成的复合不定 代词，都作单数看待。如：Each of us has a new book. / Everything around us is matter.
注意：① 在口语中当 either 或 neither 后跟有“of+复数名词（或代词）”作主语时，其
谓语动词也可用复数。如：Neither of the texts is (are) interesting. ② 若 none of 后面的名词 是不可数名词，它的谓语动词就要用单数；若它后面的名词是复数，它的谓语动词用单数或 复数都可以。如：None of us has (have) been to America. 5、在定语从句时，关系代词 that, who, which 等作主语时，其谓语动词的数应与句中先 行词的数一致。如：He is one of my friends who are working hard. / He is the only one of my friends who is working hard. 6、如果集体名词指的是整个集体，它的谓语动词用单数；如果它指集体的成员，其谓 语动词就用复数形式。这些词有 family, class, crowd, committee, population, audience 等。如： Class Four is on the third floor. / Class Four are unable to agree upon a monitor.
注意： people, police, cattle 等名词一般都用作复数。 The police are looking for the lost 如：
child. 7、 “a lot of, lots of, plenty of, the rest of, the majority of + 名词” 由 构成的短语以及由 “分 数或百分数+名词”构成的短语作主语，其谓语动词的数要根据短语中后面名词的数而定。 如：There are a lot of people in the classroom. / The rest of the lecture is wonderful. / 50% of the students in our class are girls.
注意： a number of“许多”，作定语修饰复数名词，谓语用复数；the number of“…的
数量”，主语是 number，谓语用单数。 8、 在倒装句中， 谓语动词的数应与其后的主语一致。 There comes the bus./ On the wall 如： are many pictures. / Such is the result. / Such are the facts.
（因有时主语形式为单数，但意义为复数；有时形式为复数，但意义为单数）。 1、 what, who, which, any, more, all 等代词可以是单数， 也可是复数， 主要靠意思来决定。 如：Which is your bag? / Which are your bags? / All is going well. / All have gone to Beijing. 2、表示“时间、重量、长度、价值”等的名词的复数作主语时，谓语动词通常用单数 形式，这是由于作主语的名词在概念上是一个整体， Thirty minutes is enough for the work. 如： 3、若英语是书名、片名、格言、剧名、报名、国名等的复数形式，其谓语动词通常用 单数形式。如： “The Arabian Nights”is an interesting story-book. 4、表数量的短语“one and a half”后接复数名词作主语时，其谓语动词可用单数形式 （也可用复数。如：One and a half apples is (are) left on the table. 5、 算式中表示数目 （字） 的主语通常作单数看待， 其谓语动词采用单数形式。 Twelve 如：
plus eight is twenty. / Fifty-six divided by eight is seven. 6、一些学科名词是以 –ics 结尾，如：mathematics, politics, physics 以及 news, works 等，都属于形式上是复数的名词，实际意义为单数名词，它们作主语时，其谓语动词要用单 数形式。如：The paper works was built in 1990. / I think physics isn’t easy to study. 7、trousers, glasses, clothes, shoes, 等词作主语时，谓语用复数，但如果这些名词前有 a (the) pair of 等量词修饰时，谓语动词用单数。如：My glasses are broken. / The pair of shoes under the bed is his. 8、“定冠词 the + 形容词或分词”，表示某一类人时，动词用复数。
一致。 1、 当两个主语由 either … or, neither … nor, whether … or …, not only … but also 连接时， 谓语动词和邻近的主语一致。 Either the teacher or the students are our friends. / Neither they 如： nor he is wholly right. / Is neither he nor they wholly right? 2、there be 句型 be 动词单复数取决于其后的主语。如果其后是由 and 连接的两个主语， 则应与靠近的那个主语保持一致。如：There are two chairs and a desk in the room..
1） 情态动词不能表示正在发生或已经发生的事情，只表示期待或估计某事的发生。 2） 情态动词 除 ought 和 have 外，后面只能接不带 to 的不定式。 3） 情态动词没有人称，数的变化，即情态动词第三人称单数不加-s。 4） 情态动词没有非谓语形式，即没有不定式，分词，等形式。 2 比较 can 和 be able to 1）can could 表示能力；可能 (过去时用 could), 只用于现在式和过去式(could)。be able to 可以用于各种时态。 They will be able to tell you the news soon. 他很快就能告诉你消息了。 2）只用 be able to a. 位于助动词后。 b. 情态动词后。 c. 表示过去某时刻动作时。 d. 用于句首表示条件。 e. 表示成功地做了某事时，只能用 was/were able to， 不能用 could。 He was able to flee Europe before the war broke out. = He managed to flee Europe before the war broke out. 注意：could 不表示时态 1）提出委婉的请求，（注意在回答中不可用 could）。 --- Could I have the television on? --- Yes, you can. / No, you can't.
2）在否定，疑问句中表示推测或怀疑。 He couldn't be a bad man. 他不大可能是坏人。 3 比较 may 和 might 1） 表示允许或请求；表示没有把握的推测；may 放在句首，表示祝愿。 May God bless you! He might be at home. 注意： might 表示推测时，不表示时态。只是可能性比 may 小。 2） 成语： may/might as well，后面接不带 to 的不定式，意为"不妨"。 If that is the case, we may as well try. 典型例题 Peter ___come with us tonight, but he isn't very sure yet. A. must B. may C. can D. will 答案 B. 表可能性只能用 may. 此句意可从后半句推出。 4 比较 have to 和 must 1) 两词都是'必须'的意思，have to 表示客观的需要， must 表示说话人主观上的看法，既 主观上的必要。 My brother was very ill, so I had to call the doctor in the middle of the night. 我弟弟病得 很厉害，我只得半夜里把医生请来。(客观上需要做这件事) He said that they must work hard. 他说他们必须努力工作。（主观上要做这件事） 2) have to 有人称、数、时态的变化，而 must 只有一种形式。但 must 可用于间接引语中 表示过去的必要或义务。 He had to look after his sister yesterday. 3） 在否定结构中： don't have to 表示"不必" mustn't 表示"禁止"， You don't have to tell him about it. 你不一定要把此事告诉他。 You mustn't tell him about it. 你一定不要把这件事告诉他。 5 must 表示推测 1) must 用在肯定句中表示较有把握的推测，意为"一定"。 2) must 表对现在的状态或现在正发生的事情的推测时， must 后面通常接系动词 be 的原 形或行为动词的进行式。 You have worked hard all day.You must be tired. 你辛苦干一整天，一定累了。（对 现在情况的推测判断） He must be working in his office. 他一定在办公室工作呢。 比较： He must be staying there. 他现在肯定呆在那里。 He must stay there. 他必须呆在那。 3) must 表示对已发生的事情的推测时，must 要接完成式。 I didn't hear the phone. I must have been asleep. 我刚才没有听到电话，我想必是睡着 了。 4) must 表示对过去某时正发生的事情的推测，must 后面要接不定式的完成进行式。
---Why didn't you answer my phone call? ---Well, I must have been sleeping, so I didn't hear it. 5) 否定推测用 can't。 If Tom didn't leave here until five o'clock, he can't be home yet. 儿，他此时一定还未到家。 6 表示推测的用法 can, could, may, might, must 皆可表示推测，其用法如下： 1）情态动词+动词原形。 表示对现在或将来的情况的推测，此时动词通常为系动词。 I don't know where she is, she may be in Wuhan. 2）情态动词+动词现在进行时。 表示对现在或将来正在进行的情况进行推测。 At this moment, our teacher must be correcting our exam papers. 这时，我们老师想必在批改试卷。 3）情态动词+动词完成时。 表示对过去情况的推测。 We would have finished this work by the end of next December. 明年十二月底前我们很可能已完成这项工作了。 The road is wet. It must have rained last night. 地是湿的，昨天晚上一定下雨了。 4）情态动词+动词的现在完成进行时。 表示对过去正在发生事情的推测。 Your mother must have been looking for you. 你妈妈一定一直在找你。 5）推测的否定形式，疑问形式用 can't, couldn't 表示。
Mike can't have found his car, for he came to work by bus this morning. 迈克一定还没有找回他的车，因为早上他是坐公共汽车来上班的。 注意：could, might 表示推测时不表示时态，其推测的程度不如 can, may。 7 情态动词+ have +过去分词 1) may(might) have + done sth, can (could) have + done sth 表示过去， 推测过去时间里可能发 生的事情。 Philip may (might) have been hurt seriously in the car accident. Philip can (could) have been hurt seriously in the car accident. 2) must have +done sth，对过去时间里可能发生的事情的推测，语气较强，具有"肯定"，" 谅必"的意思。 --- Linda has gone to work, but her bicycle is still here. ---She must have gone by bus. 3) ought to have done sth, should have done sth 本应该做某事，而事实上并没有做。否定句表示"不该做某事而做了"。 You ought to (should) have been more careful in this experiment. He ought not to have thrown the old clothes away.（事实上已扔了。） ought to 在语气上比 should 要强。
4) needn't have done sth
I dressed very warmly for the trip, but I needn't have done so. The weather was hot. 5) would like to have done sth 本打算做某事 I would like to have read the article, but I was very busy then. 8 should 和 ought to should 和 ought to 都为"应该"的意思，可用于各种人称。 ---Ought he to go? ---Yes. I think he ought to. 表示要求，命令时，语气由 should（应该）、had better 最好）、must（必须）渐强。 9 had better 表示"最好" had better 相当于一个助动词，它只有一种形式，它后面要跟动词原形。 had better do sth had better not do sth It is pretty cold. You'd better put on my coat. She'd better not play with the dog. had better have done sth 表示与事实相反的结果，意为"本来最好"。 You had better have come earlier. 10 would rather 表示"宁愿" would rather do would rather not do would rather? than? 宁愿??而不愿。 还有 would sooner, had rather, had sooner 都表示"宁愿"、"宁可"的意思。 If I have a choice, I had sooner not continue my studies at this school. I would rather stay here than go home. = I would stay here rather than go home. 典型例题 ---- Shall we go skating or stay at home? ----Which ___ do? A. do you rather B. would you rather C. will you rather D. should you rather 答案 B。本题考查情态动词 rather 的用法，would rather +do sth 意为"宁愿"，本题为疑问句， would 提前，所以选 B。 11 will 和 would 注意： 1）would like； Would like to do = want to 想要，为固定搭配。 Would you like to go with me? 2）Will you?? Would you like?? 表示肯定含义的请求劝说时，疑问句中一般用 some, 而不是 any。 Would you like some cake? 3）否定结构中用 will，一般不用 would, won't you 是一种委婉语气。 Won't you sit down? 12 情态动词的回答方式 问句 肯定回答 Need you?? Yes, I must.
否定回答 No,I needn't
Must you?? /don't have to. 典型例题 1）---Could I borrow your dictionary? ---Yes, of course, you____. A. might B. will C. can D. should 答案 C.could 表示委婉的语气，并不为时态。答语中 of course，表示肯定的语气，允许 某人做某事时，用 can 和 may 来表达，不能用 could 或 might。复习： will 与 you 连用， 用来提出要求或下命令。should 与 you 连用，用来提出劝告。 2）---Shall I tell John about it? ---No, you ___. I've told him already. A. needn't B. wouldn't C. mustn't D. shouldn't 答案 A。needn't 不必，不用。 wouldn't 将不, 不会的。 mustn't 禁止、不能。 shouldn't 不应该。本题为不需要，不必的意思，应用 needn't。 3）---Don't forget to come to my birthday party tomorrow. ---______. A. I don't B. I won't C. I can't D. I haven't 答案 B. will 既可当作情态动词，表请求、建议、也可作为实义动词表"意愿、意志、 决心"，本题表示决心，选 B。 13 带 to 的情态动词 带 to 的情态动词有四个：ought to, have to, used to, be to, 如加上 have got to ,(=must), be able to，为六个。它们的疑问，否定形式应予以注意： Do they have to pay their bill before the end of the month? She didn't use to play tennis before she was fourteen. You ought not to have told her all about it. Ought he to see a heart specialist at once.? ought to 本身作为情态动词使用。其他的词作为实义动词使用，变疑问，否定时，须有 do 等助动词协助。 典型例题 Tom ought not to ___ me your secret, but he meant no harm. A.have told B.tell C.be telling D. having told 答案 A。由于后句为过去时，告诉秘密的动作又发生在其前因，此地应用过去完成时，但 它在情态动词 ought to 后，所以用 have。 14 比较 need 和 dare 这两词既可做实义动词用，又可做情态动词用。作为情态动词，两者都只能用于疑问句， 否定句和条件句。 need 作实义动词时后面的不定式必须带 to，而 dare 作实义动词用时, 后 面的 to 时常可以被省略。 1) 实义动词： need （需要, 要求） need + n. / to do sth 2) 情态动词： need，只用原形 need 后加 do，否定形式为 need not。 Need you go yet? Yes, I must. / No, I needn't. 3) need 的被动含义：need, want, require, worth（形容词）后面接 doing 也可以表示被动：
need doing = need to be done
语态(Voice)，作为一个语法范畴，是表示主语和动词之间的主动或被动关系的动词行式。英 语动词有两种语态： 主动语态(Active Voice)和被动语态(Passive Voice)。 当主语为动作执行者 即施动者时， 动词用主动态； 如果主语是动作的承受者即受动者时， 动词便用被动态。 例如： (1) John helped Peter. (2) Peter was helped by John. 句(1) helped 是主动态；句(2)was helped 是被动态,可见主动态是无标记的，而被动态是有标 记的。 构成 被动语态由助动词 be 的时态之一和及物动词的过去分词构成。被动语态可用于各种时态， 其时态变化通过助动词 be 的不同形式来体现。如：一般现在时的被动态构成形式为助动词 am/is/are + 过去分词；而一般过去时的被动态构成形式为 was/were + 过去分词。本册要掌 握的被动语态形式有： 一般现在时：am/is/are + 过去分词 e.g. Football is played all over the world. I’m often asked to do this work. 我常常被派做这项工作。 一般过去时：was/were +过去分词 e.g. The terracotta warriors were found in 1974 near Xi’an. They were discovered by workers in a field outside the city. When was the building completed? 这座大楼什么时候建成的？ 一般将来时：will (shall) + be +过去分词 be going to + be + 过去分词 e.g. The result of the exam will be known soon. They are going to be given a difficult test. 一般过去将来时：should(would) be+过去分词 e.g. The teacher said the results would be published soon. He told me that the film would be shown the next week. 现在进行时：am/is/are + being +过去分词 e.g. The new airport is being built by a foreign company. 一家外国公司正在承建这座新机场。 The song is being sung by the girls now. 过去进行时：was/were being+过去分词 e.g. The song was being sung by the girls when I got there. The student was being criticized when I went into the teacher’s office. 将来完成时：will have been+过去分词 e.g. By the end of next term 2000 English words will have been learned.
The building will have been built by next year. 现在完成时：has/have + bee n +过去分词 e.g. All the tickets have been sold . The book has been translated into many languages. 这本书已被译成多种语言。 过去完成时：had been+过去分词 e.g. Forty schools had been visited by last year. All the tickets had been sold out when I got to the cinema. 过去将来完成时：would have been+过去分词 e.g. He said many words would have been learned by 2001. They promised that ten books would have been published by the next month. 情态动词：情态动词 + be + 过去分词 e.g. This road must be mended. The machine parts may be needed in our work. 工作中可能需要这些机器零部件。 动词不定式：to be + 过去分词 e.g. I’m glad to be asked questions. It is impossible for lost time to be made up. 失去的时间不可弥补。 主要用法 被动态常用于下列几种场合： 1．当不知道或不必提出动作的执行者时（这时都不带由 by 引起的短语） ； Printing was introduced into Europe from China. 印刷术是从中国引入欧洲的。 The airplane was made in U.S. Such books are written for children. 这种书是为儿童写的。 2. 动作的承受者是谈话的中心（这时可带有由 by 引起的短语） ； The song was composed by a student. 这首歌曲是一个学生谱写的。 Thousands of rivers are polluted in the country. 3. 出于礼貌措词等原因而不愿说出动作执行者是谁。 You are requested to get here in time. 请您准时来这儿。 带行为主体的被动态 行为主体就是动作的执行者，即执行动词所表达的动作的人或物。在被动句中，往往不提及 行为主体；但当强调动作的执行者时，可用介词 by 引出行为( by +主体行为主体),置于被动 态句的末尾，说明是什么人或物应对有关事件负责。 e.g. The village was destroyed by a bomb. 这个村庄毁于炸弹。 The painting is very valuable. It was painted by Van Gogh. 这幅画很值钱，它是梵·高画的。 其它用法补充
1.“It + 被动语态+ that 从句” 。表示谨慎或不太肯定的语气。常用于该结构的动词有：say, think, believe, agree, expect, consider, feel, know, decide, report, suggest, prove 等。 e.g. It is said that prices will rise again this month. 据说本月物价还将上涨。 It is thought that about a million dogs are born each year. 据认为每年约有一百条狗出生。 It is reported that all the passengers died in the crash. 据报导所有乘客在那次飞机坠毁中遇难。 It is agreed that we will have two weeks holiday this year. 2. 用于通告标题广告等的被动态往往省去助动词 be。 e.g. No Chinese spoken here. Shoes repaired. Famous Painting Stolen. 名画被盗。