Is true friendship dying away? Mark Vernon
To anyone paying attention these days,it's clear that social media—whether
Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn or any of the countless other modern-day water coolers—are changing the way we live.
Indeed, we might feel as if we are suddenly awash in friends. Yet right before
our eyes, we're also changing the way we conduct relationships. Face-to-face chatting is giving way to texting and messaging; people even prefer these electronic exchanges to, for instance, simply talking on a phone. Smaller circles of friends are being partially eclipsed by Facebook acquaintances routinely numbered in the hundreds. Amid these smaller trends, growing research suggests we could be entering a period of crisis for the entire concept of friendship. Where is all this leading modern-day society? Perhaps to a dark place, one where electronic stimuli slowly replace the joys of human contact.
Awareness of a possible problem took off just as the online world was
emerging. Sociologist Robert Putnam published the book Bowling Alone, a survey of the depleting levels of "social capital" in communities, from churches to bowling alleys. The pattern has been replicated elsewhere in the Western world. In the United Kingdom, the Mental Health Foundation just published The Lonely Society, which notes that about half of Brits believe they're living in, well, a lonelier society. One in three would like to live closer to their families, though social trends are forcing them to live farther apart.
Typically, the pressures of urban life are blamed: In London, another poll had
two-fifths of respondents reporting that they face a prevailing drift away from their closest friends. Witness crowded bars and restaurants after work: We have plenty of acquaintances, though perhaps few individuals we can turn to and share deep intimacies. American sociologists have tracked related trends
on a broader scale, well beyond the urban jungle. According to work published in the American Sociological Review, the average American has only two close friends and a quarter don't have any. Shallow friendships
It should be noted that other social scientists contest these conclusions. Hua
Wang and Barry Wellman, of the universities of Southern California and Toronto respectively, refer to "some panic in the United States about a possible decline in social connectivity." But notice their language: "social connectivity." That is not the same as intimate friendship. While social networking sites and the like have grown exponentially, the element that is crucial, and harder to investigate, is the quality of the connections they nurture.
Yet we know that less is more when it comes to deeper relationships. It is
lonely in the crowd. A connection may only be a click away, but cultivating a good friendship takes more.It seems common sense to conclude that "friending" online nurtures shallow relationships—as the neologism "friending" itself implies.
It is striking that loneliness should be regarded as a mental health issue, and
that seems right. At least since the ancient Greeks, it has been recognized in our political philosophies that we are social animals. Aristotle was just one thinker to remark that an individual could have everything that life can offer—career, family and money—but if a person didn't have a good friend, his or her life would be fundamentally lacking. A society that thwarts opportunities for deeper sociality, therefore, stymies well-being.
No single person is at fault, of course. The pressures on friendship today are
broad. They arise from the demands of work, say, or a general busyness that means we have less quality time for others. How many individuals would say
that friendship is the most important thing in their lives, only to move thousands of miles across the continent to take up a better-paid job? It starts with childhood
Of course, we learn how to make friends—or not—in our most formative
years, as children. Recent studies on childhood, and how the contemporary life of the child affects friendships, are illuminating. Again, the general mood is one of concern, and a central conclusion often reached relates to a lack of what is called "unstructured time."
Structured time results from the way an average day is parceled up for our
kids—time for school, time for homework, time for music practice, even time for play. Yet too often today, no period is left unstructured. After all, who these days lets his child just wander off down the street? But that is precisely the kind of fallow time so vital for deeper friendships. It's then that we simply "hang out," with no tasks, no deadlines and no pressures. It is in those moments that children and adults alike can get to know others for who they are in themselves.
If there is a secret to close friendship, that's it. Put down the device; engage
Aristotle had an attractive expression to capture the thought: Close friends,
he observed, "share salt together." It's not just that they sit together, passing the salt across the meal table. It's that they sit with one another across the course of their lives, sharing its savor—its moments, bitter and sweet. "The desire for friendship comes quickly; friendship does not," Aristotle also remarked. It's a key insight for an age of instant social connectivity, though one in which we paradoxically have an apparently growing need to be more deeply connected.
确实如此，我们似乎感到突然之间好友数量井喷。 不过，我们眼下也正在改变为人处世的 方式。 面对面的聊天正在被短信取代；相比打个电话，人们甚至更愿意使用这些电子交流 方式。 脸谱网上的熟人圈儿动辄数百人，相比之下，现实生活中规模较小的朋友圈则显得 黯淡少光。 在这些较细微的趋势中，越来越多的研究表明友谊的整个概念正在遭受危机， 而我们也许正在迈向这个危机时代。 所有这一切要把现代社会引向何方？ 也许现代社会就 此陷入黑暗深渊，在这个深渊里，人与人之间交往的乐趣慢慢地被电子诱惑所取代。
在网络世界出现之初，有人就意识到了可能出现的问题。 社会学家罗伯特?普特南曾经出版 名为《独自打保龄球》一书。该书调查了从教堂到保龄球馆诸多社群中的社会资本正在逐步 耗竭的现象。 在美国以外的西方世界，一模一样的模式也已出现。 在英国，精神健康基金 会刚刚发表一篇名为《孤独的社会》的报告。报告指出将近一半的英国人认为他们活得比以 前更孤独。 三分之一的人愿意靠近家人居住，但是社会发展趋势正在迫使他们不断远离家 人。
社会潮流裹挟而日益远离自己最亲密的朋友。 看看下班后的酒吧和饭店，到处人头攒动： 我们有很多熟人，不过能够推心置腹的人可能少之又少。 几位美国社会学家追踪调查了远 离都市的更广范围内的相关现象。 根据《美国社会学评论》期刊上发表的文章，普通的美 国人只有两个私交甚笃的朋友，而四分之一的美国人竟然连一个朋友都没有。
值得一提的是，这些结论遭到其他社会学家的质疑。 来自南加州大学的王华和来自多伦多 大学的巴里?韦尔曼两位社会学家就提到“一些美国民众对社会关联性可能降低而感到恐慌” 。 请读者注意这两位社会学家的用词——“社会关联性” ，这与“私交甚笃”不同。 尽管社交媒体 网站或类似的社交媒体增长迅猛， 这些媒体所滋生的人际关系的质量如何则是关键性的因素， 同时也是更难展开调查的因素。
不过我们知道，对于深厚友谊而言，少既是多。 身处人群中却会感到寂寞。 虽说鼠标一点 就能建立联系，但是彼此要成为好朋友则需更多。 网络交友，情薄如纸，与新词“加为好友” 寓意契合，这一结论看似常识。
令人吃惊的是， 孤独竟然被认为是一种精神疾病， 而这好像颇为正确。 至少从古希腊以来， 政治哲学中一向认为我们是社会性动物。 包括亚里士多德在内的一些思想家认为一个人可 以拥有人生所能赋予的一切东西，包括事业、家庭和金钱，但是，一个人如果没有一位好朋 友，那么他/她的生命从根本上说将是不完整的。 一个阻碍人们深入交往的社会，则势必阻 碍人们的健康成长。
当然，这并不是某个人的错。 如今，交友压力来自方方面面。 比如来自工作压力，或是整 天瞎忙，无法和他人享有高质量的沟通时间。 有人嘴上说友谊是生命中最重要的东西，却 为了一份收入颇丰的工作远赴千里之外。这样的人还少吗？
当然，我们在性格成型的最重要的孩提时期学会如何结交朋友或是如何断交。 最近，关于 儿童期和儿时生活对交友的影响的研究很有启发性。 这些研究再一次关注了风气这个问题， 其主要结论都与孩子缺少“计划外时间”有关。
“计划内时间”源自每一天的时间安排方式， 何时上学， 何时做家庭作业， 何时进行音乐训练， 甚至何时玩耍，一股脑儿地塞给孩子。 然而，如今再寻常不过的是，没有任何一个时段是 没有安排的。 毕竟，现在谁还会让自己的孩子在街上闲逛呢？ 但是，恰恰就是这种“无所 事事”的时间对于深厚的友谊至关重要。 在这个时间段，我们只是闲逛，没有任务，没有最 后期限，没有压力。 就在那些时候，孩子也罢，成人也罢，才能真正了解同行之人。
亚里士多德曾经这样表达此意，妙不可言。他说，亲密的朋友，是“一起吃盐的朋友” 。 他并 不是说朋友们坐在一起，在饭桌上把盐传来传去。 他的意思是朋友们共享人生经历，分享 各种滋味，苦的，甜的。 亚里士多德还说过： “交友的想法常常匆匆而至，但是真正的友情
往往姗姗来迟。 ” 这对于当今这个时代来说是一种重要的真知灼见。因为，在这个时代里， 虽然人们能迅速建立关系，不过我们反倒越发觉得需要更深一步结识他人
1. Indeed, we might feel as if we are suddenly awash in friends. (para. 2, sentence 1) awash: a. containing too many things or people of a particular kind 充斥的； 泛滥的， 其后常接介词 with。 e.g. This campaign has been the best example of how politics is awash with money. 政治充斥着金钱，竞选运动就是最好的例子。 a- 是一个前缀，用来构成一般用作表语的形容词或是副词，表示“处于……情况” 或是“呈现……状态”。类似的词还有 afire, asleep 等。 2. Smaller circles of friends are being partially eclipsed by Facebook acquaintances routinely numbered in the hundreds. (para. 2, sentence 4) eclipse: vt.to become more important, powerful, famous, etc. than someone or something else, so that they are no longer noticed 使失色；盖过 e.g. It seems that digital media will eclipse print in a matter of decades. 数字媒体取 代印刷品可能是几十年的事。 This sentence can be paraphrased like this: Your Facebook acquaintances usually add up to hundreds. In contrast, the number of your face-to-face friends is much smaller. 3. Awareness of a possible problem took off just as the online world was emerging. (para. 3, sentence 1) 1) take off: to start or to start spreading 开始；开始流行 e.g. The design first took off in American colleges. 这款设计最初在美国大学里开 始流行。 2) emerge: vi. to begin to be known or noticed 开始为人所知；兴起 e.g. Several important facts emerged after a lengthy investigation. 长时间调查后， 几项重要的事实浮出了水面。 This sentence can be paraphrased like this: People realize as early as the appearance
of the online world that some problems might occur. 4. In London, another poll had two-fifths of respondents reporting that they face a prevailing drift away from their closest friends. (para. 4, sentence 1) prevailing: a. (only before noun) existing or accepted in a particular place or at a particular time 流行的；盛行的 e.g. Green energy growth is now the prevailing economic model of our time. 如今， 发展绿色能源是我们时代盛行的经济模式。 This sentence can be paraphrased like this: According to another poll conducted in London, 40% participants feel that they have to follow the social trend and as a result, gradually moved farther and farther away from their closest friends. 5. American sociologists have tracked related trends on a broader scale, well beyond the urban jungle. (para. 4, sentence 3) 1) on a large (small, grand, etc.) scale: to a relatively large (small, grand, etc.) degree or extent 大（小、宏大等）规模 e.g. Many scientists are understandably nervous about improving the atmosphere and the oceans on a grand scale. 许多科学家对大规模地改善大气层和海洋充满 忧虑，这是可以理解的。 2) urban jungle: city life, especially the unpleasant parts of it 都市丛林 e.g. How can people survive in the urban jungle which is awash with traffic jam, haze and high concrete buildings? 人们怎么能受得了在交通堵塞、满是雾霾和布满高 层混凝土建筑的都市里生存呢？ This sentence can be paraphrased like this: American sociologists have recorded the progress of related social trends in different areas far away from cities. 6. While social networking sites and the like have grown exponentially, the element that is crucial, and harder to investigate, is the quality of the connections they nurture. (para. 5, sentence 5) 1) exponentially: ad. increasing or growing very fast 增长迅猛地；呈几何级数增长 地 e.g. Civilian casualties in those war-stricken areas are increasing exponentially. 战乱
地区的平民伤亡人数在迅猛增长。 2) crucial: a. something that is crucial is extremely important, because everything else depends on it 至关重要的；关键性的 e.g. It is crucial that the investigation is continued until more facts emerge. 在更多 事实出现之前继续进行调查是极其重要的。 3) investigate: vt. to try to find out the truth about something, such as a crime, accident or scientific problem 查明，调查，侦查（犯罪、事故或科学问题等的真 相） e.g. It took us several months to investigate the real cause of the air crash. 我们花了 几个月来调查此次空难的真正起因。 4) nurture: vt. (fml.) to help a plan, idea, feeling, etc. to develop 发展（计划、想法 等） ；培养（感情等） e.g. It is easy to nurture instant connections but much harder to cultivate real friendship in the virtual world. 在虚拟世界里，进行即时交流容易，但要结交真正 的朋友就困难多了。 This sentence can be paraphrased like this: Despite the fact that the number of social media websites and other similar service providers has been skyrocketing, it is the quality of the online relationship that matters greatly and demands more effort to evaluate. 7. Yet we know that less is more when it comes to deeper relationships. (para. 6, sentence 1) when it comes to (doing) sth.: when the subject being discussed is a particular thing 谈到（做）某事时 e.g. When it comes to the issue of “nature vs. nurture,” it is still hard to decide which one is more crucial. 当谈到“先天和后天”这个问题时，依旧很难抉择哪一个更关 键。 This sentence can be paraphrased like this: It may not matter much how many friends you have. But it does matter a lot how deeply you are connected with them.
In other words, the fewer friends you have, the more deeply you know each of them and the more their friendship means to you. 8. A society that thwarts opportunities for deeper sociality, therefore, stymies well-being. (para. 7, sentence 4) 1) thwart: vt. (fml. ) to prevent someone from doing what they are trying to do 阻挠； 阻碍 e.g. The security guards thwarted the would-be bomb attack. 警卫人员挫败了炸弹 袭击阴谋。 2) stymie: vt. (infml. ) to prevent someone from doing what they have planned or want to do 阻碍；妨碍；使不能实施 e.g. Our holiday plan has been stymied by the volcano eruption. 我们的度假计划因 火山爆发而受阻。 9. How many individuals would say that friendship is the most important thing in their lives, only to move thousands of miles across the continent to take up a better-paid job? (para. 8, sentence 4) … only to do: used to show that something is surprising or unexpected ……却…… e.g. He made it to the train station, only to find that the train left five minutes ago. 他赶到火车站，结果发现火车五分钟之前开走了。 This sentence can be paraphrased like this: Few people would give up a better-paid job for the sake of friendship though they may claim that friends count most. 10. Structured time results from the way an average day is parceled up for our kids—time for school, time for homework, time for music practice, even time for play. Yet too often today, no period is left unstructured. (para.10, sentences 1 – 2) 1) parcelsth. up: to divide something into small parts, especially so that it is easier to deal with 把……分成小份（以方便处理） e.g. University education is often parceled up into specialist teaching units. 大学教 育往往分成专业教学单位。 2) “No period is left unstructured” is an example of double negation. Both “no” and prefix “un-” mean negative and cancel out each other in the sentence, making the
sentence mean positive. 11. It’s a key insight for an age of instant social connectivity, though one in which we paradoxically have an apparently growing need to be more deeply connected. (para 12, sentence 5) 1) insight: n. [U] the ability to understand and realize what people or situations are really like 洞察力；眼光 e.g. This movie is full of fascinating insight into human nature. 这部电影尽显对人性 的有趣见解。 2) 文中的 one 指代 an age, 而 in which 是定语从句，修饰限定 one。 This sentence can be paraphrased like this: What Aristotle said about friendship is truly insightful for people living in the age of social media. In this age, people seem to be acquainted with each other the moment they meet online while at the same time, they believe that it is necessary for them to know more about their acquaintances so as to further their relationship.
NEW WORDS water cooler n. [C] 办公室里同事说闲 话的地方（情况） awash a. 充斥的；泛滥的 eclipse vt. 使失色；盖过 routinely ad. 惯常地；例行地 amid prep. 在……之中；被……所 环绕 stimulus n.[C](pl. stimuli) （使人或物产生反应的） typically 刺激，刺激物 ad. 一般；通常 emerge vi. poll 开始为人所知；兴起 n. [C] 民意调查； 民意测验 sociologist n. respondent [C] 社会学家 n. [C]（问卷调查的）答卷 deplete 人；（民意调查的）调 vt. 查对象 减少；损耗 prevailing bowling alley a. n. 流行的；盛行的 [C] 保龄球馆 scale replicate n.[singular, U] vt.(fml.) 规模；范围；程度 重做；复制
sociological a. 社会学的 shallow a. 肤浅的；浅薄的 respectively ad. 各自地；依次地 intimate a. 亲密的；密切的 exponentially ad. 增长迅猛地；呈几何级 数增长地 crucial a. 至关重要的；关键性的 investigate vt. 查明，调查，侦查（犯 罪、事故或科学问题等 的真相） nurture vt.(fml.) 方便处理）
发展 （计划、 想法等） ； 培养（感情等） cultivate vt. (为了利益） 与……交往， 结交（朋友） neologism n.[C] (fml.) 新词；新表达方式；旧 词新义 imply vt. 暗示；暗指 striking a. 惊人的；显著的 thwart vt.(fml.) 阻挠；阻碍 sociality n.[C] 社交性；群居性 stymie vt.(infml.) 阻碍；妨碍；使不能实 施
formative a. 强烈影响性格和信仰形 成的 illuminating a. 富于启发性的；令人茅 塞顿开的 fallow a. 空闲的；不运转的 device n. [C] 设备；仪器；装置 engage vi. 参加，参与（活动） PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS give way to sth. 被取代 turn to sb. 求助于 at fault 有过错 parcelsth. up 把……分 成小份（以
People have always needed friendship. Humans are very sociable creatures,
so they need to interact with other people. Even if people have not changed much over the years, the way to make and enjoy friends has changed. These days, we can become friends with people we have never met by using the Internet. In fact, online friends have several advantages over face-to-face friends. You can communicate with online friends in new and different ways, you can share your feelings more deeply and honestly, and you can meet compatible friends that you would never have had the chance to know in the past.
The Internet offers special methods of communication. Traditionally, people
talked with just one person face to face or on the phone, or to groups of people at parties or at school. On the other hand, only the Internet makes it possible to communicate with a large variety of different people sitting in different rooms all over the world. One example of this is the growing popularity of massive multiplayer online role-playing games, commonly called MMORPGs. In these online games, each player chooses a character and interacts with other players' characters. There can be 10 other players, or 50 or 100 or 1,000. Players can join and leave the game whenever they want to, and the next time they join the game, it will have changed depending on what other players have done in that time. With traditional face-to-face friends, this would never be possible. You couldn't have players in China, Australia, Germany, Canada, and other countries all playing the same game at the same time and talking to each other.
The feelings you have communicating online are special, too. When I am
talking in person with a friend, I am more hesitant and shy. I keep some of my ideas hidden. In contrast, when I am writing emails or IMing (instant messaging), I am more honest and open. Online communication feels safer
and more confidential to me, and I don't fear people judging and criticizing me. I express my opinions more directly, and I share thoughts that I would never say out loud. I can't explain why this happens, but my friends tell me they feel the same way. I know when I receive emails and IMs, even from people I have never seen, they share more personal information than my face-to-face friends do. This kind of open honest expression is a relief to me.
The most important advantage of online friends is the possibility of finding
friends without any geographical restriction. No matter what country someone lives in, he or she can become a close friend. Because you are communicating more honestly and openly, you can make friends more quickly and more easily, too. You can then decide to meet in person if you want to. In fact, I met my girlfriend online using MSN Messenger. I talked to her for many hours, and we shared some photos, so I got to know her very well. Then we met in person, and we have been dating ever since. If you can only meet friends in person, you can only meet people who live near you or go to school or work with you. Maybe you will like some of those people, but maybe you won't. If you don't like the people you see every day, you will have no friends. With the Internet, on the other hand, you can easily find friends who share your interests and opinions.
Both your face-to-face and your online friends are important. Unlike online
friends, face-to-face friends can participate in sports with you or spend time with you even when you are not talking or communicating. Therefore, I am not suggesting that people should not have any face-to-face friends. However, if you want to try communicating in an exciting new way, if you want to share your feelings completely and honestly, or if you are looking to a compatible friend or partner, try looking online. When you turn on the computer, you are just a click away from meeting a whole new crowd of friends from all around the world.
FRIENDS.COM 人总是需要友谊的。人类是非常喜好交际的生物，因此，他们需要与他人交往互 动。 即使多年来人类自身并没有多少改变，但是交友方式和乐享友谊的方式却已 改变。近来，我们可以通过互联网与从未谋面的人结为朋友。实际上，相比身边 的朋友，网友具有几大优势。你可以以新型的、不同的方式与网友沟通。你可以 更加深入坦诚地与网友分享感受。你可以交到情投意合的网友，而在过去，你是 完全没有机会认识这些朋友的。 互联网提供了特殊的交流方式。 以往， 人们一对一地面聊、 打电话， 或是在晚会、 学校这样的场合和许多人谈话。 而只有互联网才使我们能够和全世界坐在不同房 间里的各色各样的人群聊天。 这种交流方式的一个例子就是越发流行的大型多人 在线角色扮演游戏，俗称 MMORPGs。在这些网络游戏里，每位玩家选择一个 角色，然后和其他玩家扮演的角色互动。对手玩家可能有 10 人、50 人、100 人 或是 1,000 人。玩家们可以随时加入和退出游戏，当他们下次再加入游戏时，游 戏内容就根据其他玩家们当时玩的情况有所改变。 如果是和传统意义上的身边的 朋友一起，这种玩法简直就是天方夜谭。你的玩家朋友不可能同时遍布中国、澳 大利亚、德国、加拿大和其他国家，他们也不可能同时都在玩同一款游戏，而且 边玩边聊天。 当你在网上交流时，感受也是特殊的。当我和朋友面对面交谈时，我比较踌躇不 定，腼腆害羞。我不会把自己的想法全盘托出。相比而言，当我发电子邮件或是 即时通讯时，我会更加真诚、坦荡。网络交流对我而言更加安全，更加隐秘，我 不用担心被人指指点点、说三道四。我更加直接地表达自己的观点，敢说出自己 从不敢说的话。我无法解释这是为什么，但是，我的朋友们也说有此感觉。当我 收到电子邮件和即时通讯时， 哪怕这些邮件和即时通讯来自我从未谋面的人，我 觉得他们也比我现实生活中的朋友给予的个人信息要多。 这种坦诚相见的表达方 式让我颇感欣慰。 网上交友的最大优势就是交朋友不再受任何地理条件的限制。 不管对方居住在哪 个国家， 你们都能成为亲密的朋友。 同时， 因为你在网上交流时更加真诚、 坦荡，
交朋友也就更快更容易。 然后， 如果你愿意， 你就可以决定和对方见面。 实际上， 我就是在 MSN 上遇到我的女朋友的。 我们聊了很久， 还分享了一些各自的照片， 所以我对她有了很多了解。然后我们见了面，此后我们就开始约会，直到现在。 如果你只能和朋友面见，那么你只能和住在附近的人、或是同所学校的人、或是 同一单位的人见面。也许你会喜欢上他们中的某个人，也许不会。如果你不喜欢 每天都遇见的人，那么你就不会有朋友。而在互联网上，你可以轻而易举地找到 志同道合的朋友。 现实世界中的朋友和网络世界中的朋友都重要。和网络世界中的朋友不同的是， 现实世界中的朋友可以和你一起参加运动， 或是在你们不进行交谈时和你待在一 起。因此，我并不是说人们不需要任何现实世界中的朋友。但是，如果你想尝试 一种令人兴奋的新型的交友方式，如果你想毫无保留地和别人分享感受，如果你 想找一个谈得来的知己或伴侣，不妨试试网络交友。当你打开电脑，你离分布在 世界各地的新朋友们仅仅―一键之遥‖。 1. Online communication feels safer and more confidential to me, and I don’t fear people judging and criticizing me. (para. 3, sentence 5) 1) confidential: a. spoken or written in secret and intended to be kept secret 秘 密的；机密的 e.g. Confidential information must not be submitted via online system. 机密信 息一定不能通过线上系统提交。 2) criticize: v. to express your disapproval of someone or something, or to talk about their faults 批评；指责 e.g. The local government is widely criticized for being inactive in the accident. 当地政府因在事故中不采取行动而广遭批评。
2. The most important advantage of online friends is the possibility of finding friends without any geographical restriction. (para. 4, sentence 1) 1) geographical: a. relating to the place in an area, country, etc. where something or someone is 地理的；地理位置的 e.g. Many American families are split by large geographical distances. 美国许 多家庭成员相互之间离得很远。 2) restriction: n. [C] a rule, action or situation that limits or controls someone or something 限制；约束；限定 e.g. The local government has imposed speed restrictions in this area for fear of more car accidents of this kind. 当地政府在该地区实施限速，唯恐出现更多 此类交通事故。
This sentence can be paraphrased like this: The biggest advantage of friending online is that you could make friends with any person you want no matter where they live. NEW WORDS sociable a. 好交际的；喜欢与人交 往的 interact vi. 交流；交往；互相来往 compatible a. 1 （因为观点或兴趣相 同而）关系好的，相处 的 2 相容的；兼容的 popularity n. 流行；普及；受欢迎 massive a. 巨大的；强大的；极具 破坏力的 multiplayer a. 多玩家的；多人的 hesitant a. 犹豫的；迟疑的；有疑 虑的 confidential a. 秘密的；机密的 criticize v. 批评；指责 directly ad. 率直地；坦率地 geographical a. 地理的；地理位置的 restriction n. [C] 限制；约束；限定 openly ad. 坦白地；公开地 PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS have an advantage over 有优势 in person 亲自；当面
Can emotional intelligence be learned? Daniel Goleman
For ages, people have debated if leaders are born or made. So too goes the
debate about emotional intelligence. Are people born with certain levels of empathy, for example, or do they acquire empathy as a result of life's experiences? The answer is both. Scientific inquiry strongly suggests that there is a genetic component to emotional intelligence. Psychological and developmental research indicates that nurture plays a role as well. How much of each perhaps will never be known, but research and practice clearly demonstrate that emotional intelligence can be learned.
One thing is certain: Emotional intelligence increases with age. There is an
old-fashioned word for the phenomenon: maturity. Yet even with maturity, some people still need training to enhance their emotional intelligence. Unfortunately, far too many training programs that intend to build leadership skills—including emotional intelligence—are a waste of time and money. The problem is simple: They focus on the wrong part of the brain.
Emotional intelligence is born largely in the neurotransmitters of the brain's
limbic system, which governs feelings, impulses and drives. Research indicates that the limbic system learns best through motivation, extended practice and feedback. Compare this with the kind of learning that goes on in the neocortex, which governs analytical and technical ability. The neocortex grasps concepts and logic. It is the part of the brain that figures out how to use a computer or make a sales call by reading a book. Not surprisingly—but mistakenly—it is also the part of the brain targeted by most training programs aimed at enhancing emotional intelligence. When such programs take, in effect, a neocortical approach, my research with the Consortium for Research
on Emotional Intelligence in Organizations has shown they can even have a negative impact on people's job performance.
To enhance emotional intelligence, organizations must refocus their training
to include the limbic system. They must help people break old behavioral habits and establish new ones. That not only takes much more time than conventional training programs, but also requires an individualized approach.
Imagine an executive who is thought to be low on empathy by her colleagues.
Part of that deficit shows itself as an inability to listen; she interrupts people and doesn't play close attention to what they are saying. To fix the problem, the executive needs to be motivated to change, and then she needs practice and feedback from others in the company. A colleague or coach could be tapped to let the executive know when she has been observed failing to listen. She would then have to replay the incident and give a better response; that is, demonstrate her ability to absorb what others are saying. And the executive could be directed to observe certain executives who listen well and to mimic their behavior.
With persistence and practice, such a process can lead to lasting results. I
know one Wall Street executive who sought to improve his empathy—specifically his ability to read people's reactions and see their perspectives. Before beginning his quest, the executive's subordinates were terrified of working with him. People even went so far as to hide bad news from him. Naturally, he was shocked when finally confronted with these facts. He went home and told his family—but they only confirmed what he had heard at work. When their opinions on any given subject did not mesh with his, they, too, were frightened of him.
Enlisting the help of a coach, the executive went to work to heighten his
empathy through practice and feedback. His first step was to take a vacation to
a foreign country where he did not speak the language. While there, he monitored his reactions to the unfamiliar and his openness to people who were different from him. When he returned home, humbled by his week abroad, the executive asked his coach to shadow him for parts of the day, several times a week, in order to critique how he treated people with new or different perspectives. At the same time, he consciously used on-the-job interactions as opportunities to practice "hearing" ideas that differed from his. Finally, the executive had himself videotaped in meetings and asked those who worked for and with him to critique his ability to acknowledge and understand the feelings of others. It took several months, but the executive's emotional intelligence did ultimately rise, and the improvement was reflected in his overall performance on the job.
It's important to emphasize that building one's emotional intelligence
cannot—will not—happen without sincere desire and concerted effort. A brief seminar won't help; nor can one buy a how-to manual. It is much harder to learn to empathize—to internalize empathy as a natural response to people—than it is to become adept at regression analysis. But it can be done. "Nothing great was ever achieved without enthusiasm," wrote Ralph Waldo Emerson. If your goal is to become a real leader, these words can serve as a guidepost in your efforts to develop high emotional intelligence.
情商可以后天提高吗？ 领袖是天生的还是后天造就的？对此，人们争论已久。被人们争论已久的还有情商这个话题。例如，人生 来就具有一定程度的同理心，还是在经历了生活之后逐渐获得了同理心？两种回答都正确。科学研究充分 证明，情商的确具有先天成分。心理发展研究表明，后天培养对情商的提高也起作用。虽然我们无法得知 先天与后天因素对情商的影响程度，但是研究与实践都清楚地表明，情商是可以后天培养的。 有一点可以肯定：情商随着年龄的增长而提高。有一个老套的词可以描述这一现象：成熟。但是，有些人 即便已经成熟，依然需要通过训练来提高自己的情商。不幸的是，太多以培养领导才能（包括情商）为目 的的培训方案都只是浪费时间和金钱。问题很简单：他们所关注的脑区是错误的。 情商主要源于大脑边缘系统的神经递质，这种神经递质主管感觉、冲动和欲望。研究表明，通过动机、长 期实践及反馈，大脑边缘系统的学习效果最佳。对比一下大脑边缘系统和主管分析能力与专业技能的新大 脑皮质的学习。新大脑皮质掌握概念和逻辑。就是这个脑区让人们通过阅读学会如何使用电脑或者拨打销
售电话。我们会毫不惊讶地发现，这也是大多数培训方案瞄准的用以提高情商的脑区，但这是错误的。我 在组织情商研究联合会的研究已经表明，事实上，刺激新大脑皮质的培训方案甚至会对受训者的工作表现 产生负面影响。 要提高情商，培训机构必须把大脑边缘系统重新定位为训练区域。他们必须帮助人们抛弃旧的行为习惯， 培养新的习惯。这样做不仅比传统的训练方案耗时更长，还要求个性化的方法。 试想有这样一位主管，同事们认为她没有同理心。这一弱点部分表现为缺乏倾听能力。她总是打断对方， 不能认真听别人在说什么。要克服这一弱点，这位主管首先需要受到激发，从而产生改变自己的愿望。然 后，她还需要实践，需要得到公司其他人的反馈意见。还可以找一位同事或者教练，在观察到她没有倾听 别人讲话时提醒她。而主管则必须将刚才的场景重来一遍，并对对方所说的话有较好的反应，即展示一下 自己有能力倾听对方讲话。此外，这位主管还可以在指导下观察在这方面表现出色的某些领导，并模仿他 们的行为。 只要坚持并不断实践，这样的过程能够带来持久的结果。我认识一位华尔街的主管，他想方设法提高自己 的同理心，具体一点就是读懂对方的反应，了解对方的视角。在开始努力寻求改变之前，这位主管的下属 惧怕与其一起工作，他们甚至对他隐瞒坏消息。最终面对这些情况时，他自己自然大吃一惊。回家后，他 告诉家人，但家人更肯定了他在单位听到的一切。无论什么话题，如果家人的观点未能与其观点吻合，他 们也害怕他。 这位主管向培训师寻求帮助，他回到工作岗位，通过实践和别人的反馈来提高自己的同理心。首先，他到 一个语言不通的国家去度假。在异国他乡，他审视自己面对不熟悉事物的反应以及对异族人群的开放性。 回国时，一周的国外生活使他变得谦卑了一些。这位主管让培训师一周跟随自己几天，每天跟随自己几个 时段，目的是让他评价自己对持新观点或不同观点的人的态度。同时，他还有意识地利用工作场合与人交 往的机会来实践―倾听‖异己观点。最后，这位主管还让人拍摄他开会时的表现，让下属以及合作伙伴评价 自己承认并理解他人感情的能力。这个过程持续数月，但最终，这位主管的情商确实提高了，并体现在他 的整体工作表现上。 需要强调的是，没有真诚的愿望和竭尽全力的付出，培养情商是不可能的，也不会有结果。一场简短的研 讨会起不了作用，买一本实用操作手册也无济于事。要使同理心内化为对别人的一种自然反应，这才算获 得了同理心。这比善于回归分析要难得多。但获得同理心也是能做到的。拉尔夫· 沃尔多· 爱默生写道：―没 有热情，就不可能取得任何伟大的业绩。‖ 如果你的目标是成为一位真正的领袖，这句话可以激励你不断 努力，提高情商。
1. Scientific inquiry strongly suggests that there is a genetic component to emotional intelligence. (para. 1, sentence 5) inquiry: n . [U] the act or process of asking questions in order to get information 查阅；探究 e.g. Truth is the goal of all scientific and all philosophical inquiry. 真理是所有科 学及哲学研究的目标。 This sentence can be paraphrased like this: Scientific study has strong evidence that one’s genes play a role in one’s emotional intelligence, which means that EQ can be at least partly inborn.
2. Yet even with maturity, some people still need training to enhance their emotional intelligence. (para. 2, sentence 3)
enhance: v. to improve something 提高；改进；增强 e.g. I have realized that it is of great importance to enhance our interpersonal skills nowadays. 我认识到：如今，提高人际交往技能非常重要。
3. Emotional intelligence is born largely in the neurotransmitters of the brain’s limbic system, which governs feelings, impulses and drives. (para. 3, sentence 1) 1) largely: ad. mostly or mainly 大半地；主要地 e.g. Our church’s congregation is largely made up of young families with children. 我们教堂的会众主要由有孩子的年轻家庭组成。 2) impulse: n. [C, U] a sudden strong desire to do something without thinking about whether it is a sensible thing to do 冲动；突然的欲望 e.g. People often buy on impulse while they are queueing to pay. 人们在排队 付款的时候常冲动地买东西。
4. Research indicates that the limbic system learns best through motivation, extended practice and feedback. (para. 3, sentence 2) 1) motivation: n. [U] eagerness and willingness to do something without needing to be told or forced to do it 动力；积极性 e.g. Teachers need to make efforts to improve students’ learning motivation. 教师需要努力提高学生的学习积极性。 2) extended: a. long or longer than expected or planned 较长时间的 e.g. Do you have an extended warranty? 你们提供保修期延长服务吗？ 3) feedback: n. [U] advice, criticism, etc. about how successful or useful something is 反馈意见 e.g. Do you have the feedback from our clients? 你们收到顾客的反馈意见了吗？ This sentence can be paraphrased like this: Research shows that the limbic system can help enhance your emotional intelligence most effectively if you have a strong desire, practice more and get feedback.
5. When such programs take, in effect, a neocortical approach, my research with the Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence in Organizations has shown they can even have a negative impact on people’s job performance. (para. 3, sentence 7) 1) in effect: used for giving a summary of what you think the situation really is 实际上；事实上 e.g. In effect, we will be earning less than we were last year. 实际上，我们挣 钱会比去年少。 2) impact: n. [C] the effect or influence that an event, situation, etc. has on someone or something 作用；影响
e.g. Her speech made a profound impact on everyone. 她的讲话对每个人都有 深远的影响。 This sentence can be paraphrased like this: When such training programs focus on the workings of neocortex, that is, on concept and logic, they do not enhance the trainees’ emotional intelligence; they do the opposite and affect the trainees’ job performance. This is what my research with Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence in Organizations has discovered.
6. Part of that deficit shows itself as an inability to listen; she interrupts people and doesn’t pay close attention to what they’re saying. (para. 5, sentence 2) 1) deficit: n. [C] a lack of a quality, skill or ability that you should have （素质、 技能或能力的）缺乏，不足 e.g. He is unpopular among his classmates because of his deficit of empathy. 他在同学们中间不受欢迎，因为他缺乏同理心。 2) inability: n. [U] the fact of being unable to do something 无法；没能力 e.g. His inability to understand her bothered him. 他不能理解她， 这使他大伤脑 筋。
7. A colleague or coach could be tapped to let the executive know when she has been observed failing to listen. (para. 5, sentence 4) tap: vt. to choose someone to do something, especially to have an important job 选择（某人做某事，尤指担任重要工作） e.g. He was tapped for police commissioner. 他被指定为警察局长。 This sentence can be paraphrased like this: It is necessary to find a colleague or coach to observe her performance and remind her when she fails to listen to others.
8. And the executive could be directed to observe certain executives who listen well and to mimic their behavior. (para. 5, sentence 6) mimic: vt. to behave or operate in exactly the same way as something or someone else 学……的样子；模仿 e.g. A parrot can mimic a person’s voice. 鹦鹉能学人的声音。 This sentence can be paraphrased like this: And the executive should observe model executives under the guidance of a coach and imitate their behavior.
9 I know one Wall Street executive who sought to improve his empathy specifically his ability to read people’s reactions and see their perspectives. (para. 6, sentence 2)
1) specifically: ad. used for describing something in a more exact way 确切地 说 e.g. We have been married for over 40 years, specifically since 1973. 我们现 在结婚已经 40 多年了，确切说是 1973 年结婚的。 2) seek to do sth.: to try to do something 试图做某事 e.g. The law must seek to protect the democratic rights of citizens. 法律必须设 法保护公民的民主权利。 3) perspective: n. [C] a way of thinking about something, especially one which is influenced by the type of person you are or by your experiences（思考问题 的）角度，观点，想法 e.g. The problem needs to be looked at from a historical perspective. 这个问题 应该从历史的角度来看待。 The story is told from the perspective of an ordinary soldier. 这个故事是从一个 普通士兵的视角讲述的。 This sentence can be paraphrased like this: I know one executive who worked in the Wall Street. He failed to notice or understand, to be specific, people’s intentions or implications from their facial expressions, words or behavior, and failed to put himself into their place. So he tried to improve in these aspects.
10. Before beginning his quest, the executive’s subordinates were terrified of working with him. People even went so far as to hide bad news from him. (para. 6, sentences 3–4) 1) quest: n. [C] a long search for something that is difficult to find（长期的）寻 求，探索，追求 e.g. Their quest for a cure for the disease continues. 他们继续探索这种疾病的 治疗方法。 2) go so far as to do sth.: to behave in a way that seems surprising or extreme 甚至做出某事 e.g. They did not go so far as to learn the language of the peoples they studied, but they did spell out for later writers the ground rules of such research. 他们 尚未达到去学习所研究人群的语言的程度， 但他们的确为后来的作者提供了此项 研究的基本规则。 These sentences can be paraphrased like this: Before the executive decided to try his best to make a change, his subordinates were so frightened of working with him that they daren’t tell him any bad news.
11. Naturally, he was shocked when finally confronted with these facts. (para. 6, sentence 5) 1) naturally: ad . as most people would expect or understand 当然；自然地 e.g. My thoughts naturally centered on the difficult task at hand. 我的思绪很自 然地集中到手头的艰巨任务上。
2) confront: vt.if a problem, difficulty, etc. confronts you, it appears and needs to be dealt with 使遇到，使面对（问题、困难等） e.g. The problems confronting them were enormous. 他们面临的难题是巨大的。 be confronted with sth.: 面临（困难、危险等） e.g. The explorers were confronted with gorges almost impassable. 探险者遇 到了几乎不可逾越的峡谷。
12. When their opinions on any given subject did not mesh with his, they, too, were frightened of him. (para. 6, sentence 7) mesh: v. if two ideas or things mesh, they fit together very well（两个想法或事 物）相合，相配，相互协调，通常和介词 with 连用。 e.g. Our future plans must mesh with existing practices. 我们未来的计划必须 与当前的实践相合。 This sentence can be paraphrased like this: Whenever their thoughts were different from his on any particular subject, they would also be too frightened to speak out.
13. Enlisting the help of a coach, the executive went to work to heighten his empathy through practice and feedback. (para. 7, sentence 1) 1) enlist: vt. to persuade someone to help you to do something 谋求（某人的 帮助） enlist the help of: 寻求……的帮助 e.g. Can I enlist your help in collecting money for the people made homeless by the flood? 你能协助我募集钱款，救济因水灾而无家可归的人吗？ 2) heighten: v. if something heightens a feeling, effect, etc. or if a feeling, etc. heightens, it becomes stronger or increases（使）加强；（使）增加 e.g. The latest murder has heightened fears of further attacks. 最近这起谋杀 案让人们更加担心会出现更多的袭击。 This sentence can be paraphrased like this: The executive turned to a coach for help. With the help of the coach, he now went back to work to enhance his ability to control his emotions and understand others through practice and feedback.
14. When he returned home, humbled by his week abroad, the executive asked his coach to shadow him for parts of the day, several times a week, in order to critique how he treated people with new or different perspectives. (para. 7, sentence 4) 1) humble: v. if you are humbled, you realize that you are not as important, good, kind, etc. as you thought you were 感到谦卑；感到自惭
e.g. You can’t help but be humbled upon entering this grand and sacred building. 进入这座庄严肃穆的建筑，你会禁不住感到自己很渺小。 2) shadow: vt. to follow someone closely in order to watch what they are doing 跟随；尾随；盯……的梢 e.g. The criminal was shadowed for a week by a policeman in plain clothes. 罪 犯被一个便衣警察跟踪了一个星期。 This sentence can be paraphrased like this: When he returned home, he realized that he was not as smart as he used to think of himself. Then he asked his coach to follow him and observe him for a certain period of time a day, several times a week. The coach’s responsibility is to evaluate his performance or comment on whether he showed respect and understanding to people who looked at things from new or different angles.
15. Finally, the executive had himself videotaped in meetings and asked those who worked for and with him to critique his ability to acknowledge and understand the feelings of others. (para. 7, sentence 6) videotape: vt.to record a television program, film, event, etc. on a video 把…… 录在录像（录影）带上 e.g. I often videotape the programs I like so that I can replay them later. 我经 常把我喜欢的节目录下来，为了日后重放。 This sentence can be paraphrased like this: Finally, the executive asked others to record his performance in meetings so that he could know how he performed. Moreover, he asked his subordinates and colleagues to comment on his ability to listen to others and understand others’ feelings.
16. A brief seminar won’t help; nor can one buy a how-to manual. (para. 8, sentence 2) how-to manual: 操作手册 This sentence can be paraphrased like this: You won’t enhance emotional intelligence simply by attending a brief seminar, or by reading a book about how to improve your emotional intelligence.
17. It is much harder to learn to emphasize to internalize empathy as a natural response to people than it is to become adept at regression analysis. (para. 8, sentence 3) 1) internalize: vt.if you internalize a particular belief, attitude, behavior, etc., it becomes part of your character 使（信仰、态度、行为等）内在化（成为性格的一部分） e.g. Over time she internalized her parents’ attitudes. 随着时间的流逝，她认同 了父母的看法并将之融为自我意识的一部分。
2) adept: a. good at doing something that needs care and skill 内行的； 熟练的， 后面通常和介词 in 或 at 连用。 e.g. The author is adept in depicting grand scenes. 作者擅长描写宏大的场面。 The nurse is adept at dealing with young children. 这个护士非常擅长处理孩子 的问题。 This sentence can be paraphrased like this: It is very important to realize that empathy is reflected in your unconscious behavior, that is, you understand others because you really comprehend their feelings and situation, not because you must maintain your personal image or please others by showing your respect for them. This is much more difficult than doing some technical things well, such as regression analysis. NEW WORDS acquire vt. 习得（技能）；学到（知 识） inquiry n. [U] 查问；探究 genetic a. 基因的；遗传学的 psychological a. 心理的；精神的 developmental a. 发育的；成长的；发展 的 nurture n. [U] 养育；培育；培养； 教育 demonstrate vt. 说明；证明；论证；证 实 maturity n. [U] 成熟 enhance vt. 提高；改进；增强 leadership n. [U] 领导才能； 领导素质 neurotransmitter n. [C] 神经递质； 神经传递 素 limbic a. 边缘叶的；边缘系统的 impulse n. [C, U] 冲动；突然的欲 望 motivation n. 1 [U] 动力；积极性 2 [C] 动机；原因 extended a. 较长时间的 feedback n. [U] 反馈意见 neocortex n. [C] 新（大脑）皮层 analytical a. （科学）分析的 logic n. [U] 逻辑；（做某事的） 道理，合理的想法 neocortical a. 新（大脑）皮层的 consortium n.[C] (pl. consortia or consortiums) 财团；联合企业 negative a. 1 有害的；不良的 2 消极的；负面的 impact n. [C] 作用；影响 individualized a. 个性化的； 切合个人 （个 体）需要的
executive n. [C] （机构或公司的） 主 管，经理 a. （公司或机构）行政的， 管理的 deficit n. [C]（素质、技能或能力 的）缺乏，不足 inability n. [U] 无法；没能力 motivate vt. 激发；激励；促动 tap vt. 利用，采用（思想、经 验、知识等） mimic vt. 学……的样子；模仿 persistence n. [U] 坚持；执着；执意 specifically ad. 确切地说 perspective n. [C] （思考问题的） 角度， 观点，想法 quest n. [C]（长期的）寻求, 探 索, 追求
subordinate n. [C] 部下；下级；部属 a. 下级的；从属的 naturally ad. 当然；自然地 confront vt. （问题、困难等）使遇 到，使面对 mesh v. （两个想法或事物）相 合，相配，相互协调 enlist vt. 谋求（某人的帮助） v. 参军；入伍 heighten v. （使）加强；（使）增 加 monitor vt. 监测；监控；监督 openness n. [U] 1 公开；坦率 2 开明；思想开通 humble v. 感到谦卑；感到自惭 a. 谦虚的；谦卑的 shadow vt.
跟踪；尾随；盯……的 梢 critique vt. (fml.) 评论（文艺作品等） consciously ad. 有意地；故意地 interaction n. [C,U] 交流；互动 videotape vt. 把……录在录像（录影） 带上 ultimately ad. 最后；最终 overall a. 总的；整体的 emphasize vt. 强调；着重 concerted a. 竭力的；尽力的 manual n. [C]（尤指机器的）说明 书，使用手册 a. 手工的；体力的 internalize vt. 使（信仰，态度，行为 等）内在化（成为性格 的一部分）
adept a. 内行的；熟练的 regression analysis n. [U] 回归分析
enthusiasm n. [U] 热情；热忱 guidepost n. [C] 1 指导方针；指导原则 2 路标；路牌
PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS in effect 实际上；事实 上 go so far as to do sth. 甚至做出某事
Charisma—The mysterious personality of charm Robert Greene
Charisma is seduction on a mass level. Charismatics make crowds of people Charismatics have certain
fall in love with them, then lead them along.
qualities that are powerfully attractive and that make them stand out. This could be their self-belief, their boldness, their serenity. They keep the source of these qualities mysterious. They do not explain where their confidence or
contentment comes from, but it can be felt; it radiates outward, without the appearance of conscious effort. The face of the Charismatic is usually animated, full of energy, desire, alertness—the look of a lover, one that is instantly appealing. Charismatics express a vision. We may not realize it,
but in their presence we have a kind of religious experience: We believe in them, without having any rational evidence for doing so.
Charisma must seem mystical, but that does not mean you cannot learn
certain tricks that will enhance charisma you already possess, or will give you the outward appearance of it. The following are the basic qualities that will help create the illusion of charisma:
If people believe you have a plan, that you know where you are
going, they will follow you instinctively. They will imagine that your confidence comes from something real.
Purposefulness is doubly charismatic in times of trouble.
people hesitate, single-minded self-assurance will make you the focus of attention. When Franklin Roosevelt came to power amidst the Depression,
much of the public had little faith he could turn things around. But in his first few months in office he displayed such decisiveness and clarity in dealing with the country's many problems, that the public began to see him as their savior, someone with intense charisma.
Mystery lives at charisma's heart, but it is a particular kind
expressed by contradiction. The Charismatic may be both cruel and kind (Peter the Great), both excitable and icily detached (Charles de Gaulle), both intimate and distant (Sigmund Freud). These contradictions make you hard
to fathom, and add richness to your character. It is often better to reveal your contradictions slowly and subtly. keep them from figuring you out.
You must keep people at arm's length, to
Another aspect of mystery is a hint of the uncanny. The appearance of
prophetic or psychic gifts will add to your aura. Predict things authoritatively and people will often imagine what you have said has come true.
Eloquence. A Charismatic relies on the power of words. The reason is simple: They can
Words are the quickest way to create emotional disturbance.
uplift, elevate and stir anger, without referring to anything real. Roosevelt, a calm, patrician type, was able to make himself a dynamic speaker, both through his style of delivery and through his brilliant use of imagery, alliteration and biblical rhetoric. The crowds at his rallies were often moved to tears. The slow, authoritative style is often more effective than passion in the long run, for it is more subtly spellbinding, and less tiring.
You need to believe in something, strongly enough for it to
animate all your gestures and make your eyes light up. This cannot be faked. Politicians inevitably lie to the public; what distinguishes Charismatics is that they believe their own lies, which makes them much more believable.
Charismatics display a need for love and affection. They are
open to their audience, and in fact feed off its energy; the audience in turn is electrified by the Charismatics, the current increasing as it passes back and forth. This vulnerable side to charisma softens the self-confident side,
which can seem fanatical and frightening.
Since charisma involves feelings akin to love, you in turn must reveal your
love for your followers. This was a key component to the charisma that Marilyn Monroe radiated on camera. "I knew I belonged to the Public," she wrote in her diary, "and to the world, not because I was talented or even beautiful but because I had never belonged to anything or anyone else. The Public was the only family, the only Prince Charming and the only home I had ever dreamed of." In front of a camera, Monroe suddenly came to life, flirting with and exciting her unseen public. If the audience does not sense this quality in you they
will turn away from you. Imagine your public as a single person whom you are trying to seduce—nothing is more seductive to people than the feeling that they are desired.
Magnetism. If any physical attribute, is crucial in seduction, it is the eyes.
They reveal excitement, tension, detachment, without a word being spoken. Indirect communication is critical in seduction, and also in charisma. demeanor of Charismatics may be poised and calm, but their eyes are magnetic; they have a piercing gaze that disturbs their targets' emotions, exerting force without words or action. Fidel Castro's aggressive gaze can The
reduce his opponents to silence. Roosevelt could dilate his pupils at will, making his stare both hypnotizing and intimidating. The eyes of the Charismatics never show fear or nerves.
All of these skills are acquirable. Napoleon spent hours in front of a mirror,
modeling his gaze on that of the great contemporary actor Talma. The key is self-control. Remember: Your eyes can emanate charisma, but they can also give you away as a faker. Do not leave such an important attribute to
chance. Practice the effect you desire.
1. Charismatics have certain qualities that are powerfully attractive and that make them stand out. (para. 1, sentence 3) stand out: to be much impressive or important than others 杰出；出色 2. They do not explain where their confidence or contentment comes from, but it can be felt; it radiates outward, without the appearance of conscious effort. 1) contentment: n. [U] the state of being happy and satisfied 满意；满足 e.g. The baby finished his milk with a smile of contentment. 婴儿喝完牛奶，心满意足 地笑了。 2) radiate: v. if someone radiates a feeling, or if it radiates from them, it is very easy to see that this is how they feel 散发；流露；焕发 e.g. Her voice hadn’t changed but I felt the joy that radiated from her. 尽管她声音没变， 但我还是感受到了她所流露出的快乐。 3. We may not realize it, but in their presence we have a kind of religious experience: We believe in them, without having any rational evidence for doing so. (para. 1, sentence 8) 1) presence: n. [U] when someone or something is present in a particular place 出席； 到场；存在 e.g. I was surprised by the presence of so many people at the meeting. 这么多人出席 会议让我感到吃惊。 in the presence of sb. / in sb.’s presence: in the same place as someone 有某人在场； 有某人出席 e.g. The document is not valid unless it is signed in the presence of a witness. 只有在 有证人在场的情况下签署，这份文件才有效。 This sentence can be paraphrased like this: We may not realize it, but when they are present we naturally see them as a god we worship. We have such absolute and profound belief in them without a good reason. 4. Charisma must seem mystical, but that does not mean you cannot learn certain tricks that will enhance the charisma you already possess, or will give you the outward appearance of it. (para. 2, sentence 1)
mystical: a. involving religious, spiritual or magical powers that people cannot understand 神秘的；神奇的，不可思议的 e.g. The Cabala is an ancient Hebrew mystical system of thought. 喀巴拉是古代希伯 来人的神秘哲学。 This sentence can be paraphrased like this: Charisma must seem sort of hard to understand, which makes people think that imitation is almost impossible. In fact, there are some learnable methods that can help you improve the charisma you already have, or at least will help you exhibit your charming personality in a proper way
5. If people believe you have a plan, that you know where you are going, they will follow you instinctively. (para. 3, sentence 2) 1) 条件状语从句中的谓语动词 believe 引导了两个并列的宾语从句：you have a plan 和 that you know where you are going。 动词引导并列的宾语从句， 第一个从句前的 that 可以省略，第二个及以后的宾语从句前都不能省略 that。 2) instinctive: a. based on instinct and not involving thought 本能的；天性的；直觉的 instinctively: ad. in an instinctive manner 本能地；天性地；直觉地 e.g. Instinctively I knew he was the person who lied. 凭直觉，我知道他是撒谎的那个 人。 6. While most people hesitate, single-minded self-assurance will make you the focus of attention. (para. 4, sentence 2) single-minded: a. someone who is single-minded has one clear aim and works very hard to achieve it 一心一意的；专心致志的 e.g. To succeed in your mission, you must have single-minded devotion to your goal. 要想成功完成任务，你必须专心致志地投入其中。 This sentence can be paraphrased like this: When most people don’t know what to do when in trouble, yet you know clearly where you are heading and you are confident in your achieving that goal. This will make everybody follow you. 7. When Franklin Roosevelt came to power amidst the Depression, much of the public had little faith he could turn things around. (para. 4, sentence 3) 1) amidst: prep. amid 在……中间；在……当中 e.g. Amidst these thoughts, poor Jones passed a long sleepless night. 可怜的琼斯就 这样百感交集，辗转难眠。 2) turnsth. around: to manage an unsuccessful business so well that it becomes successful again 使（企业）好转 e.g. Three presidents have failed. Do you think the new president is able to turn things around? 三位总统都失败了。你觉得新总统有能力扭转局面吗 8. Mystery lives at charisma’s heart, but it is a particular kind expressed by contradiction. (para. 5 sentence 2) heart: n. (singular) the most important or basic part of something 中心；核心；根本 go / get to the heart of sth.: 抓住某事物的核心 e.g. Don’t beat about the bush. Let’s go straight to the heart of these problems. 不要
绕弯子了，我们直接讨论这些问题的核心吧。 be at the heart of sth.: 是……的核心 e.g. The struggle of good against evil is at the heart of the story. 善恶交战才是故事的 核心。 This sentence can be paraphrased like this: Core to the power of charisma is the quality of mystery, something ordinary people cannot see clearly, but it is a very special kind which is a mixture of opposite characters. 9. These contradictions make you hard to fathom, and add richness to your character. It is often better to reveal your contradictions slowly and subtly. (para. 5, sentences 4 – 5) fathom: vt. to understand what something means after thinking about it carefully 理解 e.g. This kind of love is difficult to fathom, but it’s fundamentally reliable. 这种爱难以 理解，但完全可以信赖。 These sentences can be paraphrased like this: Because of these contradictions, people cannot easily understand you and your character becomes more colorful. So you’d better keep yourself mystical and do not show your contradictory characters to them quickly. 10. You must keep people at your arm’s length, to keep them figuring you out. (para. 5, sentence 6) 1) at arm’s length: in a situation where you avoid dealing with or becoming involved with someone else 保持一定距离地 keep / put sb. at arm’s length: to avoid developing a relationship with someone 与某 人保持一定距离 e.g. Tom rarely spoke to his wife, and he always kept her at arm’s length. 汤姆很少和 妻子说话，他总是和她保持一定的距离。 2) figure sb. out: to understand what someone is like and why they behave in the way they do 摸透某人的脾气（或行为方式） e.g. She is quite changeable and it is difficult to figure her out. 她很多变，要摸透她的 脾气很难。 11. They can uplift, elevate and stir anger, without referring to anything real. (para. 7, sentence 4) 1) 这里的 they 指 words。 2) uplift: vt. to make someone feel happier 使（某人）振奋，鼓舞 e.g. Reading good books can uplift the mind and the spirit. 阅读好书可以陶冶情操。 3) elevate: vt. to improve something, especially your mind or feelings 提高，提升（修 养、情感等） e.g. The teacher hopes to elevate the mind of his young pupils by reading them religious stories. 老师希望通过给小学生读宗教故事来提高他们的修养。 4) stir: v. to make someone have a strong feeling or reaction 激发, 激起 （强烈的感情） ； 引起（强烈的反应） e.g. Emily remembered the anger he had stirred in her. 埃米莉记得他曾经怎样惹自己 生气。
12. The slow, authoritative style is often more effective than passion in the long run, for it is more subtly spellbinding, and less tiring. (para. 7, sentence 7) spellbinding: a. extremely interesting and holding your attention completely 极有趣的； 使人入迷的 e.g. She was greatly attracted by the dramatic and spellbinding narration of this novel. 这部小说富有戏剧性的有趣的描述使她深深地着了迷。 This sentence can be paraphrased like this: He spoke slowly, but confidently and forcefully. The style made his speech even more impressive than a passionate speech in the long run, as his speech, never exhausting the audience’s excitement, had a mysterious lasting power. 13. You need to believe in something, strongly enough for it to animate all your gestures and make your eyes light up. (para. 8, sentence 2) light up: if someone’s face or eyes light up, they show pleasure, excitement, etc.（脸 上或眼中）流露出喜悦（兴奋等） e.g. Mary’s eyes lit up when she read the good news. 玛丽看到这个好消息后眼睛一 亮。 This sentence can be paraphrased like this: It is necessary for you to believe something. You should hold a strong belief in it so that the belief can make you energetic and excited
14. Charismatics display a need for love and affection. They are open to their audience, and in fact feed off its energy; the audience in turn is electrified by the Charismatics, the current increasing as it passes back and forth. (para. 9, sentences 2–3) 1) feed off / on: to use something to increase, become stronger, or succeed 因…而壮 大 e.g. Rumors feed on ignorance and superstition. 无知和迷信助长了谣言的传播。 2) electrify: vt. if a performance or a speech electrifies people, it makes them feel very interested or excited（表演或演讲）使激动，使兴奋 e.g. The band electrified the audience who cheered and shouted for five minutes. 乐 队让听众极为激动，欢呼长达五分钟。 These sentences can be paraphrased like this: Charismatics show their need for love and caring. They make their desire open to the audience. In fact, they are encouraged by the audience to do so, and the audience in turn are excited by the Charismatics. Their love and admiration for each other increase in the interaction. 15. This vulnerable side to charisma softens the self-confident side, which can seem fanatical and frightening. (para. 9, sentence 4) soften: v. to become kinder and less severe, or to make someone or something do this （使）变温和；（使）软化 e.g. It seems that she has softened her attitude toward him. 她对他的态度好像已经软 下来了。 This sentence can be paraphrased like this: When someone appears too confident, people tend to think that he / she is very difficult to stay with because he / she would
always be determined to hold his / her opinion, never listen to those who think differently and never seem to need help from others. So people would stay far away, thinking this kind of person frightening. However, the vulnerable side of the person invites help and makes him / her more approachable. 16. Since charisma involves feelings akin to love, you in turn must reveal your love for your followers. (para. 10, sentence 1) 1) involve: vt. if an activity or situation involves something, that thing is part of it or a result of it 包含；需要 e.g. Her job as a public relations director involves a lot of time with other people. 她作 为公共关系主管，需要花很多时间与别人打交道。 2) akin: a. (fml.) very similar to something 与某物相似的；与某物类似的，常和介词 to 连用。 e.g. I looked at him with something akin to panic. 我多少有点恐慌地看着他。 17. If the audience does not sense this quality in you they will turn away from you. (para. 10, sentence 6) turn away from: to refuse to accept someone or use something any longer 拒绝接受； 不再使用 e.g. I’m not saying we should turn away from the old, but that we should turn toward the new. 我不是说我们应该抛弃过去，而是说我们应该面向新事物。 18. The demeanor of Charismatics may be poised and calm, but their eyes are magnetic; they have a piercing gaze that disturbs their targets’ emotions, exerting force without words or action. (para. 11, sentence 5) exert: vt.to use your power, influence, etc. in order to make something happen 运用 （权力）；施加（影响力） e.g. The army exerted strong political pressure on the president. 军队给总统施加了强 大的政治压力。 This sentence can be paraphrased like this: The manners of Charismatics may appear calm and be in good control, but their eyes tightly grasp people’s attention. They don’t say or do anything, but their eyes have an impact on their targets, seeming to be able to see into their hearts and excite their emotions. 19. Fidel Castro’s aggressive gaze can reduce his opponents to silence. Roosevelt could dilate his pupils at will, making his stare both hypnotizing and intimidating. The eyes of the Charismatics never show fear or nerves. (para. 11, sentences 6–8) 1) reduce sb. to tears / silence: to upset or shock someone so much that they cry or are unable to speak 把某人弄哭 / 使某人哑口无言 e.g. The teacher’s stern look reduced him to silence. 老师神情严肃，他便静了下来。 2) dilate: v. if a hollow part of your body dilates or if something dilates it, it becomes wider （使）扩张；（使）张大；（使）膨胀 e.g. The lungs dilate when one breathes. 呼吸时肺部扩张。 These sentences can be paraphrased like this: When Fidel Castro looked at his enemies in a threatening way, he could make them immediately shut up. When looking at others, Roosevelt could make his pupils become larger as he wished, which
made the audience enchanted with him or afraid of him. The eyes of the Chatismatics never have an expression of fear or nervousness.
20. All of these skills are acquirable. Napoleon spent hours in front of a mirror, modeling his gaze on that of the great contemporary actor Talma. (para. 12, sentences 1–2) 1) acquirable: a. that can be gained by one’s own efforts, ability or behavior 可以获得 的 e.g. The device is acquirable online at favorable prices. 这个装置可以以优惠价格从网 上买到。 2) model … on: (often passive) to copy a way of doing something or a system 使仿效； 使模仿 e.g. This machine is modelled on one recently made in Shanghai. 这部机器是模仿上 海的一种新产品制造的。 These sentences can be paraphrased like this: All these skills can be learned. Napoleon used to spend a long time in front of a mirror, practicing looking into others’ eyes in the way the great contemporary actor Talma stared at others.
21. Do not leave such an important attribute to chance. Practice the effect you desire. (para. 12, sentences 5–6) leave … to chance / fate: to not try to change the way something is developing or happening 将某事物留给运气/命运决定；听天由命 e.g. We must not leave it to chance. We must try our best. 我们不能怀有侥幸心理。我 们一定要尽力而为。 These sentences can be paraphrased like this: Don’t take it for granted that you can learn it easily or simply leave it as it goes. You must keep practicing until you feel that
you have achieved the goal you set.
魔力人格——神秘而迷人的人格 魔力人格是对大众的诱惑。具有魔力人格的人能使众人为之倾倒，并引领他们前行。这种人具有一定特质，使他们极具 吸引力，且引人注目。这些特质可能是他们的自信、他们的无畏、他们的平静。他们对自己为什么具有这些特质保持神 秘。他们不解释自己的自信或满足来自何处，但是人们却能感受到他们的自信或满足；这种自信或满足不用刻意努力表 现自会自然流露。 具有魔力人格的人脸庞通常充满活力、 生机、 期望、 灵气——这是情人的脸庞， 瞬间让人倾倒的脸庞。 这种人表现出非凡的眼界。 我们可能认识不到他们的眼界， 但只要他们在， 我们便产生一种虔诚的体验： 我们信赖他们， 不需要任何理性的理由。 魔力人格一定显得神秘，但这并不意味着你学不会一定的技巧来提升自己已有的魅力，或者让你表现出这种魅力。下面 介绍一下有助于产生这种非凡人格魅力的基本品质。 目标。如果人们相信你胸有成竹，相信你知道前往何方，他们便会本能地追随你。他们会相信你的自信有一定的道理。
目标性在危急时刻能使人魅力倍增。 当大部分人犹豫的时候， 一心一意、 泰然自若的人格将会使你成为人们关注的焦点。 当富兰克林?罗斯福在经济大萧条期间开始执政时，很多民众不相信他能扭转局面。但是，在刚上任的几个月内，他便在 处理国家的许多问题上表现出他是一个果断且思路清晰的人。以至于民众开始将他视为救世主，认为他极具人格魅力。 神秘。 神秘是魔力人格的核心， 但是这种特有的神秘充满矛盾。 具有这种人格魅力的人可能既残酷又和善 （如彼得大帝） ， 既容易激动又极度冷漠（如夏尔?戴高乐），既亲密又疏远（如西格蒙德?弗洛伊德）。这些矛盾使你很难被看穿，使你 的性格更加丰满。你最好将自己的矛盾性格慢慢地、微妙地展现出来。你必须与人保持一定的距离，让人们猜测你。 神秘的另一面是略带怪异。一副具有先知或通灵才能的样子会增加你的神秘感。如果能权威地预见未来，人们通常会想 象你所说的已经实现。 口才。一个具有魔力人格的人依赖语言的力量。原因很简单：语言是激起情绪波动的最快途径。不需要指代任何具体的 事物，语言即可使人振奋，激发愤怒，并激化愤怒。罗斯福属于冷静、高贵的类型。他的演讲方式以及他对意象、头韵 和圣经修辞的绝妙使用，使他成为一位富有活力的演讲者。支持他的人通常被他感动得热泪盈眶。那种缓慢而又权威的 演讲风格往往比激情的影响力更长远，因为它具有更微妙的魅力，不会耗尽听者的兴趣。 炽热的爱。你得有信仰，足够强烈的信仰，这种信仰显现于你的一颦一蹙，使你的眼睛熠熠生辉。这不能弄虚作假。政 治家必然向民众撒谎，但是具有魔力人格的政治家相信自己的谎言，这使他们更加可信。 脆弱。具有魔力人格的人表现出对爱和情感的需求。他们对观众敞开心怀，实际上也从观众那里获取力量；观众反过来 也有触电般的感觉。彼此间的这种电流随着一次次的接触而增强。因其脆弱的一面，具有魔力人格的人那疯狂而吓人的 自信的一面才显得不那么可怕。 由于魔力人格包含类似爱的感觉，你反过来必须向你的崇拜者展现你的爱。这就是玛丽莲?梦露的荧屏魅力之关键所在。 ―我知道我属于公众，‖她在日记中写道，―我也属于世界，这不是因为我多才多艺，甚至不是因为我漂亮，仅仅因为我从 未属于其他任何事物或任何人。公众是我唯一的家人，是我唯一的白马王子和梦想中唯一的家园。‖ 一到摄像机前，梦 露就突然恢复了活力，与看不见的观众打情骂俏，让他们激动不已。如果观众在你身上看不到这种品质，他们便会转身 离去。把观众想象成那个你竭力想要诱惑的人——没有什么比一种被追求的感觉更具诱惑力了。 磁性。如果有哪个身体特征可以产生致命的诱惑，那便是眼睛了。无需言语，眼睛便可流露出激动、紧张、冷漠。间接 的交流是致命的诱惑， 也是魔力人格的关键所在。 具有魔力人格的人可能行为举止沉着冷静， 但他们的眼睛却充满磁性； 尽管无声无息， 他们具有穿透力的眼神却使其目标对象的情感荡起涟漪。 菲德尔?卡斯特罗那极具进攻性的眼神可以让对 手哑口无言。罗斯福可以按照自己的意愿放大瞳孔，使眼神具有催眠和威慑的力量。具有魔力人格的人眼睛里绝没有恐 惧和紧张。 所有这些技巧都是可以获得的。 拿破仑曾在镜子前花数小时的时间模仿当时的伟大演员塔尔玛的眼神。 关键是自我控制。 记住：你的眼睛可以放射出非凡的人格魅力，但也能暴露出你是一个骗子。这样重要的人格特点，不要任其自然形成和 发展。要照你想要的效果去练习和实践。
NEW WORDS seduction n. 1 [C] (usu. pl.)（常常对 人产生不良影响的）诱 惑，魅力，吸引力 2 [C, U] 勾引 charismatic n. [C] 有超凡魅力的人； 有 感召力的人 boldness n. [U] 大胆；勇敢 serenity n. [U] 宁静；安详 contentment n. [U] 满意；满足
radiate v. 散发；流露；焕发 vi. 从中心散开 animated a. 生气勃勃的；活跃的 alertness n. [U] 机警；机敏 instantly ad. 立即；马上 vision n. 1 [C] 看法；希望 2 [U] 视力 presence n. [U] 出席；到场；存在 rational a. （想法、决定等）合理 的，基于理性的 mystical a. 神秘的；神奇的；不可 思议的 illusion n. [C] 1 假象 2 错误的观念；幻想 instinctively ad. 本能地；天性地；直觉 地
self-assurance n. [U] 自信；自恃 amidst prep. 在……中间；在……当 中 depression n. 1 the (Great) Depression （20 世纪 30 年代的）大萧条 2 [C, U] 抑郁症 display vt. 1 显示，显露（某种情 感、态度或特质） 2 展示；陈列 decisiveness n. [U] 果断；决断 clarity n. [U] 1 清晰的思维（理解、 记忆）能力 2 清楚；清晰；明确 savior n. [C] 救助者； 挽救者； 救 星 intense a. 强烈的；剧烈的 contradiction n. [C, U] 由矛盾要素组成 的人 （情况、 事件等） ； 矛盾体
icily ad. 生气地；冷淡地 fathom vt. 理解 reveal vt. 1 揭示；揭露；透露 2 展现；显露 subtly ad. 含蓄地；委婉地；隐晦 地 hint n. [C] 1 少许；微量；细微的 迹象 2 暗示 uncanny a. 离奇的；不可思议的 prophetic a. 预言正确的；有先见之 明的 psychic a. 有超自然力量的；通灵 的 aura n. [C] 气氛；气息；韵味 authoritatively ad. 权威地；有威信地；威 严地
eloquence n. 口才；雄辩 disturbance n. 1 [U] 情绪困扰； 精神失 常 2 [C, U] (fml.) 骚乱；骚 动 uplift vt. 使（某人）振奋，鼓舞 elevate vt. 1 提高，提升（修养、 情感等） 2 (fml.) 提拔；晋升；提 升 stir vt. 1 引起（强烈的反应） 2 搅；搅拌；搅动 patrician a. 贵族的；权贵显要的 delivery n. 1 [U] 风格 2 [C,U] 递送；交付；递 送的物品 imagery n. [U] (诗， 书， 电影中的） 意象，形象化描述；比 喻 alliteration n. [U] 头韵（法） （连续使 用开头读音或字母相同
的单词，以制造特别效 果，尤用于诗歌） biblical a. (usu. before noun) 有关《圣经》的；《圣 经》中的 rhetoric n. [U] （尤指政治家使用的） 雄辩言辞，煽动性语言
current n. [C] 电流 vulnerable a. 感情脆弱的；易受伤的 fanatical a. 狂热的 involve vt. 包含；需要
rally n. (pl. rallies) [C] 大型公众聚会 （尤指 akin 为支持某政治观点、抗 a. (fml.) 议等在户外举行的聚会） 与某物相似的；与某物 spellbinding 类似的 a. flirt 极有趣的；使人入迷的 vi. fervency 调情；打情骂俏 n. seduce [C] 热情；热诚；热烈 vt. fake 勾引 v. seductive 假装；伪装 a. vt. 1 （某物） 有吸引力的， 仿造；伪造 有诱惑力的 inevitably 2（尤指女人）性感的， ad. 勾引人的 必然地；不可避免地 magnetism vulnerability n. [U] n. 1 （某人的）吸引力， [U] 易受伤（性）；脆弱 诱惑力，魅力 （性） ； 易遭攻击 （性） 2 磁性；磁力 electrify vt. （表演或演讲）使激动， 使兴奋 attribute n. [C] 特性；特质；属性 detachment n. [U] 冷静；超然；客观
indirect a. 间接引起的 critical a. 1 紧要的；关键性的 2 批评的；批判的 demeanor n. [U]（反映某人性格特征 的）举止；外表；风度 poised a. 1 镇定的；自信的；泰 然自若的；沉着的 2 （摆好姿势）准备行 动的 magnetic a. 1 有吸引力的；有魅力 的 2 磁的；磁性的 piercing a. 敏锐的；锐利的；有洞 察力的
gaze n. (singular) 凝视；注视 exert vt. 运用（权力）；施加（影 响力） opponent n. [C] （竞争、比赛、打斗、 争执等的）对手，敌手 dilate v. （使）扩张；（使）张 大；（使）膨胀 hypnotize vt. 1 使着迷；使陶醉 2 (usu. passive) 对……施行催眠术 intimidating a. 让人紧张的；令人生畏 的；令人害怕的 nerve n.
nerves (pl.) 紧张（担心）的情绪 emanate vt. (fml.) 发出（气味、光等）； 表现出（某种品质） PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS stand out 显眼；突出 turnsth. around 使（企 业）好转 at arm’s length 保持一 定距离地 figure sb. out 摸透某人 的脾气（或行为方式） light up（脸上或眼中） 流露出喜悦（兴奋等） feed off sth. 因……而 壮大 reduce sb. to tears / silence 把某人弄哭 / 使某人哑口无言 give sb. / sth. away（说 或做某事而）泄露（秘 密）
Characteristics of science Charles Van Doren
Science, in our common everyday sense of the word, is a human activity
characterized by three things.
First, science is practiced by special people with a specific view of the world.
Scientists try to be objective, unsentimental, and unemotional. They do not let their feelings get in the way of their observations of real things, facts, as they call them. They often work in laboratories or in other areas where they can carefully control what they are working on. They do not just wander out onto the dock at sunset and look at the world with wonder, as a poet might. Ideally, they are also both honest and humble. They always try to report their findings so others can check them out and then utilize them in their own work. They do not claim more than they can prove, and often even less. But they are very proud of their calling and prefer to talk to other scientists rather than anybody else, especially poets, who tend to make them feel uncomfortable, to put them down. (Of course poets also feel scientists return the favor.)
Second, science deals almost exclusively with things, not ideas or feelings,
and with the external world and its workings, not inner states and their workings, despite the effort of some psychologists to be or seem scientific. The human body is considered to be a part of the external world; the soul is not. Therefore, scientists work to understand the body but not the soul. Most scientists doubt the soul exists. The solar system and the universe are also part of the external world, although we have little enough direct evidence of their mode of existence. Scientists tend to assume the basic conditions of nature on Earth are the same everywhere in the cosmos.
Mankind is only questionably part of the external world in this sense.
Scientists are generally reluctant to deal with the behavior of large groups of
men and women. Thus economists, for example, struggle to be considered scientists, but usually in vain. The external world of scientists contains some things, like quanta, quarks, and quasars, That are as mysterious as angels and normally as invisible. But this does not trouble them, as they believe they can deal effectively with the elementary particles that they cannot see and according to the uncertainty principle never can see, but not with angles, which will probably never appear to scientists because scientists do not believe in them.
When you come right down to it, the external world is anything that scientists
can measure and describe in mathematical terms, and it excludes everything they cannot. This means the external world is a rather hazy notion, but the idea behind it is not hazy at all.
Third, science deals with whatever it deals with in a special way, employing
special methods and a language for reporting results that is unique to it. The best-known method, but not necessarily the most often employed, consists of experiment, which involves getting an idea—from where, most scientists do not question—frame it in a testable hypothesis, and then testing the hypothesis in a controlled environment to find out whether or not it is valid. The environment must be carefully controlled so that the extraneous elements do not intrude to invalidate the experiment, and so that others can repeat the experiment in the hope of arriving at the same result, which is the best evidence of its reliability.
But it is the language in which results are reported and in which the work
itself is done and with which it is controlled—namely, mathematics—that is perhaps the most distinctive characteristics of all. Most scientists would say that if you cannot describe what you are doing in mathematical terms, you are not doing science, and they prefer to report their results in mathematical terms
because doing so is much easier and quicker (for them) and because scientists all around the world can understand them.
It is also important that the work itself is done mathematically, which means
that the observations being studied must be transformed into—or reduced to—numbers in the first instance, so they can be studied in a rational manner. The old idea of the earliest Greek scientists—that the world is essentially intelligible because it is somehow conformed to the human mind —is thus converted into the Pythagorean view that the world, at least the external world that is the subject matter of science, is essentially mathematical and thus intelligible because the human mind is essentially mathematical, too.
Wherever mankind has been able to measure things, which means to
transform or reduce them to numbers, it has indeed made great progress both in understanding and in controlling them. Where human beings have failed to find a way to measure, they have been much less successful, which partly explains the relative failure of psychology, economics, and literary criticism to acquire the status of science.
Science was the major discovery, or invention, of the 17th century. Men of
that time learned—and it was a very great, revolutionary discovery—how to measure, explain, and manipulate natural phenomena in the way that today we call scientific. Since the 17th century, science has progressed a great deal and has discovered many truths, and conferred many benefits that the 17th century did not know. But it has not found a new way to discover natural truths. For this reason, the 17th century is possibly the most important century in human history. It instituted irrevocable changes in the way human beings live on Earth. We can never go back to living the way we lived in the Renaissance, for instance. We can only wonder whether the changes was in all ways for the better.
首先，从事科学工作的是特殊的一类人，他们具有特定的世界观。科学家努力保持客观、理性， 不感情用事， 不会让感情妨碍他们观察他们所说的实物和事实。 科学家常常在实验室或者他们能 够严格控制研究对象的场所工作。他们不会像诗人那样，在日落时去码头闲逛，惊奇地观赏这个 世界。理想的科学家既朴实，又谦恭。他们总是尽量汇报他们的科学发现，以便别人能够证实并 在工作中加以运用。 他们不会对自己不能证明的事物妄加断言， 甚至常常连自己能够证明的也不 去多说。然而，他们对―科学家‖这一称谓引以为傲，更喜欢彼此相互交流，而不太愿意和其他人 交流，尤其是和诗人，因为诗人总让他们感觉不自在，且常贬低他们。（当然了，科学家在诗人 眼里也不过如此。） 其次，科学的研究对象基本上仅限于事物，而非思想或者情感，仅限于外部世界及其运作，而非 内在状态及其运作， 尽管一些心理学家也试图让自己的工作具备或者显得具备科学性。 人体被认 为是外部世界的一部分，而人的灵魂则不然。因此，科学家探索的是人的肌体，而不是灵魂。大 部分科学家怀疑灵魂的存在。 太阳系和宇宙也是外部世界的一部分， 虽然我们没有充足的直接证 据来证实它们的存在模式。 科学家往往认为， 地球上自然界的基本状况无论在宇宙何处都是一样 的。 从这个意义上讲， 把人类归为外部世界的一部分是有争议的。 科学家一般不愿意研究大量人群的 行为。因此，举例来说，尽管经济学家努力想被当作科学家，却通常徒劳无果。科学家所关注的 外部世界包括具体事物， 比如量子、 夸克、 类星体， 它们像天使一样神秘， 通常是肉眼看不见的。 但是这并没有使他们苦恼， 因为他们相信自己能够有效地研究基本粒子， 虽然他们看不见这些粒 子，而且根据不确定性原理，他们永远也看不见它们。但是科学家却不能有效地研究天使，因为 他们不相信天使的存在，天使可能永远不会出现在他们面前。 总之，外部世界可以归结为科学家能够测量并且能用数学术语加以描述的任何事物，反之，不能 被科学家测量和描述的一切都不属于外部世界。这意味着虽然外部世界是一个相当模糊的概念， 但是概念背后的事物却相当明晰。 再次， 科学使用一种特殊的方式研究一切可研究的对象， 采用特殊的研究方法和独特的语言来汇 报结果。最为人熟知而又未必最常用的方法是实验，包括产生一个想法（大部分科学家不关心这 一想法从何而来），把想法拟定为一个可测试的假设，然后在一个可控环境中测试这个假设，检 验它是否成立。实验环境必须严格控制，一是为防止外界因素侵扰而使实验无效，二是为其他人 能够重复该实验以期获得相同结果，这是实验可靠度的最佳证据。 但是，科学最显著的特征也许是它使用的独特语言——数学。通过数学，科学发现得以汇报，科 学工作得以完成和控制。大多数科学家会说，如果你不能用数学术语描述你所做的工作，那么你 就不是在进行科学研究。 科学家之所以喜欢用数学术语汇报他们的成果， 是因为 （对于他们而言） 这样做更简便快捷，而且全世界的科学家都能理解。 同样重要的是， 科学研究本身借助于数学进行， 也就是说， 所研究的观察资料必须首先转化成 （或 者简化成）数字，这样，科学家才能用理性的方式研究它们。最早的希腊科学家的古老观点（世 界的本质是可认知的，因为它总是和人类的思维一致）也是这样转变为毕达哥拉斯学派的观点， 即世界，至少作为科学研究对象的外部世界，本质上是数学的，并且是可认知的，因为人类的思 维本质上也是数学性质的。 无论在什么情况下，只要人类能够测量事物，即意味着把事物转化或者简化成数字，这实际上就 在理解和控制该事物方面取得了巨大进步。如果人类找不到一种方法去测量，那么，他们的成就 就会小得多， 这也从某种程度上解释了为什么心理学、 经济学和文学批评相对而言无法获得科学 的身份。
科学是 17 世纪的主要发现或者发明。那个时代的人们发现了如何用我们今天称之为科学的方法 去测量、解释和利用自然现象（这是一个非常伟大的、突破性的发现）。 17 世纪以来，科学取 得了巨大的进步，发现了很多真理，带来了大量惠泽，这些在 17 世纪都不为人所知。但是自 17 世纪之后，科学并没有找到新的方法来发现自然真相，因此，17 世纪或许是人类历史上最重要 的世纪，它使人类在地球上的生活方式产生了不可逆的变化，比如，我们永远不可能回归文艺复 兴时期的生活方式。我们只能自问，这种变化是否会让一切变得更加美好。
1. They do not let their feelings get in the way of their observations of real things, facts, as they call them. (para. 2, sentence 3) get in the way of sth.: to prevent something from happening 防止 （某事） 发生； 阻碍某事 e.g. Her poor English got in the way of her further study abroad. 她英语不好， 这阻碍了她出国深造。 2. But they are very proud of their calling and prefer to talk to other scientists rather than anybody else, especially poets, who tend to make them feel uncomfortable, to put them down. (para. 2, sentence 9) put sb. / sth. down: to say critical or insulting things about someone or something 贬低；奚落 e.g. She put her husband down in the party. 聚会上，她使丈夫下不了台。 This sentence can be paraphrased like this: But they take great pride in the status of scientists and enjoy communicating with each other more than with anybody else, particularly with poets, because poets often embarrass them and make them look stupid. 3. But this does not trouble them, as they believe they can deal effectively with the elementary particles that they cannot see and according to the uncertainty principle never can see, but not with angels, which will probably never appear to scientists because scientists do not believe in them. This sentence can be paraphrased like this: But this is not a trouble for them, because they have a faith that they can effectively study the elementary particles, although they can never see the particles in accordance with the uncertainty principle. However, scientists do not think they can effectively study angels, which are invisible to them, because they do not believe in the existence of angels. 4. When you come right down to it, the external world is anything that scientists can measure and describe in mathematical terms, and it excludes everything they cannot. (para. 5, sentence 1) come down to sth.: to deal with a subject directly 谈论到；处理；涉及 e.g. The novel came down to a question of truth and history. 这部小说谈到了 事实与历史的问题。 This sentence can be paraphrased like this: It can be concluded that the external world refers to whatever scientists can measure and describe in mathematical terms, and it does not include anything that cannot be measured or described in mathematical terms
5. But it is the language in which results are reported and in which the work itself is done and with which it is controlled—namely, mathematics—that is perhaps the most distinctive characteristic of all. (para. 7, sentence 1) 这句话使用了强调句结构：It is + 强调的内容 + that + 句子的剩余部分。如果 强调的内容是人，其后的 that 也可用 who 或 whom 替换。 e.g. It is his perseverance that led to his success as a scientist. 他的坚持使他 成了一名成功的科学家。 It was Peter who saw your brother in New York last week. 是彼得上周在纽约 看到了你兄弟。 It’s Tom whom you should ask. 汤姆是你应该询问的人。 This sentence can be paraphrased like this: But the most remarkable feature of science could be its language, that is, mathematics. Findings from scientific studies are presented in mathematics, while research work is operated in and controlled with mathematics. 6. It is also important that the work itself is done mathematically, which means that the observations being studied must be transformed into or reduced to numbers in the first instance, so they can be studied in a rational manner. (para. 8, sentence 1) in the first instance: before other events happen, as the first thing in a series of actions 首先；起初 e.g. In the first instance, we had better ensure that our plan is workable. 首先， 我们最好确保计划可行。 The funding for the project should be ensured in the first instance. 首先要确保 项目的资金。 7. The old idea of the earliest Greek scientists—that the world is essentially intelligible because it is somehow conformed to the human mind —is thus converted into the Pythagorean view that the world, at least the external world that is the subject matter of science, is essentially mathematical and thus intelligible because the human mind is essentially mathematical, too. (para. 8, sentence 2) 1) conform: v. to agree with or match something 一致。 既可以用作不及物动词， 也可以用作及物动词。用作不及物动词时, 通常和 to / with 搭配。 e.g. He conformed himself to the social conventions of this village. 他遵从这个 村子的社会习俗。 The painting conforms to the character of the room. 这幅画与房间的特点一致。 2) convert: v. to change to, or persuade someone to change to a different set of ideas, principles or ways of doing something（使）改变（观点、原则或做事 方式），常见的用法为 convert A (from A) into / to B。 e.g. The old cinema is going to be converted into / to a bowling alley. 老电影院 将要被改建成保龄球球场。 Shenzhen has converted from a fishing village into / to a modern city. 深圳已 经从一个渔村变成了一个现代化城市。
8. Men of that time learned—and it was a very great, revolutionary discovery—how to measure, explain and manipulate natural phenomena in the way that today we call scientific. (para. 10, sentence 2) manipulate: vt. to skillfully handle, control, or use something（熟练地）控制， 操作，使用 e.g. She could not manipulate chopsticks well when dining at Chinese restaurants. 在中餐馆吃饭时，她不能熟练地使用筷子。 9. Since the 17th century, science has progressed a great deal and has discovered many truths, and conferred many benefits, that the 17th century did not know. (para. 10, sentence 3) confer: vt.to officially give someone an award, a degree, a right, etc. 授予（奖 品、学位、权利等） e.g. The title confers prestige to the holder. 这个称号使持有者享有声望。 They are convinced that tourism confers significant benefits to the city. 他们确 信旅游业会给这座城市带来巨大的收益。 NEW WORDS characteristic n. [C]（物或人的）特征； 特色；特性 characterize vt. （人、地方或事物） 以……为特征 objective a. 客观的；不带个人感情 的 unsentimental a. 不感情用事的；不易动 感情的 observation n. [C,U] 观察； 注意； 监视 dock n. [C] 码头；船坞 finding n. (usu.pl.) 研究的结果；发现 utilize vt. (fml.) 利用；使用 claim vt. 声称；断言；主张 exclusively ad. 仅仅；唯独 external a. 外部的；外面的 psychologist n. [C] 心理学家 cosmos n. [U] 宇宙 reluctant a. 勉强的；不情愿的 economist n. [C] 经济学家 quantum n. [C] (pl. quanta) 量子 quark n. [C] 夸克 quasar n. [C] 类星体 invisible a. 看不见的 particle n. [C] 粒子；质点 exclude vt.
（故意） 不包括； 把…… 排除在外 hazy a. 1 模糊的；不明确的 2 雾蒙蒙的；朦胧的 notion n. [C] 概念；观点；看法 frame vt. 仔细地表达 n. [C] 框架；边框 hypothesis n. [C] 假设；假说 valid a. 1 有根据的；令人信服 的 2（文件或票证）有效的 extraneous a. 无关的；无直接联系的 intrude vi. 闯入；侵扰 invalidate vt.
1 使无效；使作废 2 证明(信念、解释等) 错误 distinctive a. （特征、性格或外表） 独特的，特别的，与众 不同的 Greek a. 希腊的；希腊人的；希 腊语的 intelligible a. （言语，文章或想法） 明白易懂的 conform vi. 1 从众；像大多数人那 样行 2 遵守，遵从（法律、 规定等） convert v. （使）改变（观点、原 则或做事方式） Pythagorean 毕达哥拉斯的；毕达哥 拉斯学说（或哲学）的 manipulate vt. Coffee stains Jay Ingram
1（以巧妙或不诚实的方 式）影响，操纵，摆布 2（熟练地）操作，使用 （信息、系统等） confer vt. 授予（奖品、学位、权 利等） institute v. 建立；设立；组织 n. 学院；协会；机构 irrevocable a. （决定、行动等）不可 更改的，不可取消的， 不可撤回的 PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS put sb. / sth. down 贬 低；奚落 in vain 徒劳 come down to sth. 谈 论到；处理；涉及到 in the first instance 首 先；起初
If you can position a cup of hot, black coffee so that light strikes it at an angle,
you should see a whitish sheen on the surface. (This works even better with a cup of clear tea.) There's something more to this sheen than first meets the
eye. It makes a flagstone pattern on the surface of the coffee, with patches of this lighter color separated from other patches by dark lines. The patches are usually a centimeter or so across.
These patches are what scientists call convection "cells", areas where warm
fluid is rising and cold is sinking. Convection is what the weather is all about, not to mention ocean currents, and the same thing in miniature happens in your coffee. As the surface layer cools from contact with the air above it, it becomes denser and sinks, forcing warmer, less dense coffee up to the surface. But this doesn't happen in a haphazard or confusing way. Rather, the areas of upflow and downflow organize themselves into roughly similar sized columns, one beside the other. In the coffee cup the areas with the whitish sheen are rising columns of hot coffee, and it's the heat of that coffee that creates the sheen, although saying it in that straight forward way misses the point: a drama is being played out at the surface of the coffee.
The sheen is actually a thin layer of tiny water droplets, droplets that have
condensed just above the surface of the coffee and are hovering there, less than a millimeter above the surface. It's whitish because so much light reflects from the surfaces of the droplets. The droplets form because as the water evaporates from the hot surface of the liquid, it cools suddenly, condenses and coalesces. The drops that form do not fall back onto the surface of the
coffee because they are buoyed up by the trillions of water molecules still rising up underneath them. Held there, suspended above the surface, they
are clouds on a scale so minute that only careful lighting reveals them. It would be an incredible experience to be there in the tiny space under the droplets but above the liquid coffee. It would be hellishly hot for one thing, but you'd also
be buffeted by stuff evaporating from the surface, and concerned all the while about slipping into the downstream convection (the black lines separating the
clouds) and vanishing into the blackness of the coffee below. Even from our mundane perspective (simply looking down on the cup) it should have been apparent from the start that the drops were hovering—you would have noticed that a breath scatters them instantly, like clouds before the wind, but they form again just as quickly.
The only place where you can see right down to the coffee surface is along
the black lines, as if you are seeing the surface of Venus through a sudden break in its impenetrable clouds. The cool coffee sinks in those black lines, completing the convection cell ...
Less beauteous than evanescent clouds or churning convection cells, but Even
certainly more common, is the dark ring left behind when coffee spills.
the ring presented a puzzle for physicists to solve. Funnily enough, when the puzzle was solved, the processes involved turned out to be the same as seen in coffee when it was still in the cup: the flagstone pattern and the clouds, the movement of fluid from one place to another, and evaporation.
The puzzle is this: why, when a drop, or half a cup, of coffee spills and then
dries, does it form a ring, with almost all of the dark coffee stuff in the ring and the center almost empty? Why shouldn't it dry and leave a uniform beige stain on the counter?
Here are some clues: you can show that it doesn't have anything to do with
gravity by throwing your cup of coffee onto the ceiling, and then watching as it dries. Each individual drop will still form a dark ring at its perimeter. On the other hand, it must have something to do with evaporation, the process by which the water molecules move into the air, leaving the solids behind. couple of early experiments by Sid Nagel and his colleagues at the James Franck Institute at the University of Chicago tested this by interfering with the A
normal evaporative process. In one, a drop was placed under a tiny glass lid that had only a minute hole over the very center of the drop. You would expect under these conditions that the only evaporation possible would be from the center of the drop, not from the edge. In this special circumstance drops did not leave a ring behind. So evaporation from the edge of the spill must have something to do with the formation of the ring.
In a second experiment the scientists placed drops on Teflon, to which, as
you know, nothing sticks. Drops left on Teflon didn't leave a ring either. In this case you'd have to suppose that the smoothness of Teflon would be the key, suggesting that a second factor in ring formation is the surface on which the drop is sitting. Add to these the fact that if you use a microscope to watch
the behavior of tiny particles in the drop as it is drying, you'll see that the particles are streaming headlong out to the edge of the drop. Sid Nagel described it as being like watching rush hour in New York. Evaporation, the surface, the streaming—those are the things you need to know to be able to account for the ring ...
Of course, it's not just the water that vacates the center of the drop for the
edges. With it goes all the dissolved and particulate matter that exists in a cup of coffee. It is carried along, and then finally dumped at the edge of the drop when all the water has evaporated.
The Teflon experiment worked because the surface is virtually free of
irregularities, so the drop can contract as it evaporates, maintaining its preferred shape to the bitter end. The lid experiment worked because the water could not evaporate from the edges of the drop, only from the center, so there was no need for the liquid to migrate out to the edges, no transport of particulate matter from the center and therefore no ring. In that case the particulate matter was simply left where it was, form a smudge.
Sip your coffee, gulp it, even spill it, but above all, take a second or two to After all, a glance at an apple stimulated great thoughts in
check it out.
Isaac Newton's head. It's true there aren't very many Newton's, but a few moments at the breakfast table can serve as a reminder that yes, our lives are under the influence of forces beyond our control: forces like surface tension, viscosity, evaporation and gravity. 1. Convection is what the weather is all about, not to mention ocean currents, and the same thing in miniature happens in your coffee. (para. 2, sentence 2) 1) not to mention 用于引入更多相关信息或强调正在表述的观点，通常作状语。 e.g. She has three companies in this country, not to mention her overseas enterprises. 且不说她在海外的企业，她在国内就有三家公司。 2) in miniature: on a very small scale 小型的 e.g. This model is a replica of the skyscraper in miniature. 这是摩天大楼的缩 微模型。 This sentence can be paraphrased like this: Convection accounts for everything about weather. It is even more closely related to ocean currents. The same phenomenon of convection also occurs on a very small scale in your coffee. 2. In the coffee cup the areas with the whitish sheen are rising columns of hot coffee, and it’s the heat of that coffee that creates the sheen, although saying it in that straightforward way misses the point … (para. 2, sentence 6) straightforward: a. easy to do or to understand; not complicated 简单的；易懂 的 e.g. It is a straightforward process to carry out this experiment. 进行这项实验， 过程相当简单。 This situation is not as straightforward as it appears. 局势并非表面看起来那么 简单。 3. The drops that form do not fall back onto the surface of the coffee because they are buoyed up by the trillions of water molecules still rising up underneath them. (para. 3, sentence 4) underneath: prep. &ad . directly under another object or covered by it 在…下 面；在…底下 e.g. The puppy slept underneath the piano. 小狗睡在钢琴下面。 The device is installed underneath. 装置安装在下面。 4. Held there, suspended above the surface, they are clouds on a scale so minute that only careful lighting reveals them. (para. 3, sentence 5) minute: a. extremely small 极小的 e.g. The scientists noticed very minute changes of temperature. 科学家注意到 了气温有非常微小的变化。
A minute portion of the budget was for people management. 很小一部分预算 用于人员管理。 5. It would be hellishly hot for one thing, but you’d also be buffeted by stuff evaporating from the urface, and concerned all the while about slipping into the downstream convection (the black lines separating the clouds) and vanishing into the blackness of the coffee below. (para. 3, sentence 7) 1) 这句话假设了人处于水滴之下、咖啡之上的微小空间里的情景，描述了这一 微小空间里发生的复杂现象。该长句包含三个分句，描述了三个情景，for one thing, but ... also, all the while 是关键词，表明这三个情景是同时发生、相互联 系的。 2) for one thing 通常用于引入两个或两个以上原因中的一个。 e.g. He does not like spending holidays on the beach. He cannot swim, for one thing. 他不喜欢在海滩度假。原因之一是他不会游泳。 This sentence can be paraphrased like this: On the one hand, you would feel that it is terribly hot; on the other hand, you could be knocked roughly from side to side by the evaporating stuff. Meanwhile, you are worried about falling into the sinking streams, which are the black lines between the clouds, and disappearing in the dark coffee underneath.
咖啡渍 如果你把一杯热的黑咖啡顺着一个光线能照射到它的角度放置， 你应该会看到咖啡表面发白的光 泽。（如果是一杯清茶，效果更明显。）除了首先映入眼帘的发白的光泽之外，你还会看到，这 层光泽在咖啡表面形成类似薄层砂岩的图案， 一块块的白斑由深色的纹路间隔开来。 这些斑块通 常大约一厘米宽。 这些斑块被科学家称之为对流―单体‖， 即热流体上升、 冷流体下沉的区域。 对流关乎气象的一切， 更不用说洋流了， 而微型规模的相同现象就发生在你的咖啡中。 表层咖啡与其上方空气接触变凉 后变得浓稠，然后下沉，迫使热的、不那么浓稠的咖啡上升到表面。但是这个现象的发生并不是 随意的、 混乱的。 相反， 上升流体和下沉流体井然有序地形成大小差不多的柱体， 一个挨着一个。 在咖啡杯里，发出白色光泽的区域是热咖啡形成的上升柱体，正是咖啡的热度产生了这层光泽。 不过，这种简化了的解释遗漏了一点：一场好戏正在咖啡的表面上演。 这层光泽其实是小水滴形成的薄层， 小水滴在咖啡表面上方不到一毫米处凝结并悬浮着。 它之所 以发白， 是因为光线在小水滴的表面发生反射。 小水滴是这样形成的： 水分从咖啡的热表面挥发， 突然受冷后凝结并结合在一起。 水滴形成后没有落回到咖啡表面， 因为它们被底下仍在上升的大 量水分子托浮着。小水滴悬浮在咖啡表面上，就像微小规模的云层，只有在一定角度的光照下才 会显露出来。如果能身处水滴之下、咖啡之上的微小空间，将会有难以置信的体验。一方面，你 会觉得热得可怕，另一方面，你会受到咖啡表面挥发出来的物质的猛击。与此同时，你又会一直 担心跌滑到下行的对流 （就是你看到的云层之间的深色纹路） 中， 从而消失在下方咖啡的黑暗中。 即使从我们通常的观察角度 （只是俯视咖啡杯） ， 也应该从一开始就能清楚地看到水滴悬浮着 —— 就像云层遇到了风被吹散一样， 你会注意到吹一口气可以立刻驱散它们， 但是它们随即迅速地重 新成形。 你俯视咖啡表面时， 唯一能看清的就是沿着黑色纹路的那部分， 就仿佛你从浓密的云层突然产生 的缝隙中看到了金星的表面。冷咖啡在这些黑色纹路中下沉，形成对流单体……
瞬息的云层或翻腾的对流单体固然美丽， 但相比之下， 泼洒的咖啡留在台面上的深色圆环虽不那 么好看，却更常见。这圆环甚至给物理学家们出了一道难题。相当有趣的是，当这道难题得以破 解时，其中的过程竟然和咖啡在杯子里的情况完全一样：薄层砂岩图案和云层，液体从一处流到 另一处，以及液体的挥发。 这道难题是：当一滴或者半杯咖啡泼洒后变干，为什么会形成一个圆环，几乎所有的深色咖啡物 质聚集在圆环上，而中心基本是空白的？为什么变干后没有在台面上留下均匀的浅棕色斑点？ 以下是一些解题线索：你可以把一杯咖啡洒向天花板，然后观察它变干，以此证明圆环现象与重 力无关。因为每滴咖啡依然将在其边缘形成深色的圆环。另一方面，这个现象一定与液体挥发有 关，即水分子进入到空气中而留下固体物质的过程。芝加哥大学詹姆斯?弗兰克研究所的锡德?内 格尔及其同事们通过干扰正常的挥发过程而做过测试。 其中一个实验是， 把一滴咖啡置于一个微 小的玻璃盖子下面，盖子上只有一个很小的孔，正对着这滴咖啡的中心。你会预见到，在这样的 情况下，挥发只可能发生在咖啡滴的中心，而不会在它的边缘。在这种特殊情况下，咖啡滴没有 留下圆环，所以咖啡滴边缘的挥发一定与圆环的形成有关。 第二个实验， 科学家们把咖啡泼在特富龙涂层表面， 大家都知道， 特富龙表面不会粘上任何东西。 特富龙上的咖啡滴也没有留下圆环。在这种情况下，你可以假定，特富龙的光滑表面是一个关键 因素，表明圆环形成的第二个因素是咖啡滴所在的表面。此外，如果你使用显微镜观察咖啡滴变 干过程中微粒的情况，你会看到微粒慌不择路地向液滴的边缘涌去。锡德?内格尔形容这一场面 就像观看纽约的交通高峰时刻。挥发、表面、涌流——你需要知道这些才能解释圆环现象…… 当然，从咖啡滴中心向边缘流动的并不仅仅是水，还有溶解在咖啡杯中的所有微粒物质。当所有 水分挥发后，这些被带到液滴边缘的物质便留在了那里。 特富龙实验有效，是因为特富龙表面实际上没有任何不平整，所以液滴在挥发时能收缩，一直到 挥发结束都能保持原先的形状。盖子实验有效，是因为水分不能从液滴的边缘挥发，只能从中心 挥发，所以液体没有必要向外流到边缘，也不会把微粒从中心移到边缘，因此就不会形成圆环。 这样，微粒只是留在原来的位置，形成了一个斑点。 你会小口地品尝或者大口地喝咖啡， 甚至会不小心把咖啡泼洒出来， 但别忘了花一两秒钟察看一 下。毕竟，艾萨克?牛顿不经意地看了一眼苹果，受到启发，便在头脑中产生了伟大的想法。当 然，世上不会有许多牛顿，但是，吃早餐时的一会儿工夫可以提醒我们，一些不为我们所控制的 力量确实在影响着我们的生活，比如表面张力、黏性、挥发和重力。
NEW WORDS stain n. [C]（尤指液体形成的） 污迹，污点 whitish a. 发白的；带白色的 sheen n. [U]（外表的）光泽，光 彩 flagstone n. [C] 薄层砂岩 patch n. [C] （与周围部分不同的） 斑，小块 convection n. [U]（气体、液体的）对 流 miniature n. [C] 小型物； 微小的模型 haphazard a.
无计划的；没有条理的； 随意的 drama n. [C,U] 1 戏剧性场面 2 戏剧；电视剧；广播 剧 droplet n. [C]（液体的）小滴 condense v. （使）凝结；（使）冷 凝 hover v. （鸟、昆虫）盘旋； （直 升机）悬停 evaporate v. （使液体） 气化； （使） 蒸发 coalesce v. (fml.) 联合；合并 buoy vt. 1 使浮起 2 振奋……精神；鼓舞 trillion n. (infml.) 大量；无数 molecule n. [C] 分子 suspend vt. 1 (fml.) 悬；挂；吊 2 暂停；中止
incredible a. 1 不可相信的；难以置 信的 2 极好的；极大的 hellishly ad. (infml.) 糟透地；极坏地；非常 困难地 buffet vt. 连续猛击；打击 vanish vi. （尤指莫名其妙地）突 然不见，消失 mundane a. 普通的；平凡的；平淡 的；乏味的 scatter v. （使） 分散； 驱散； （使） 散开 Venus n. 金星 impenetrable a. 不能通过的；不能看透 的；无法进入的 beauteous a. 美丽的；优美的 evanescent a. 瞬间即逝的；短暂的 churn v.
（使）搅动；（使）翻 腾 evaporation n. [U] 蒸发 uniform a. 全部相同的；一致的 beige n. [U] 米黄色；浅棕色 perimeter n. [C] 1（军营等地的）周边， 边缘 2 周长 Interfere vi. 介入；干涉；干预 evaporative a. 成为蒸汽的；蒸发的 formation n. [U] 形成 headlong ad. 仓促地；慌不择路地 vacate vt. 腾出；空出；搬出 dissolved a. 溶解的 particulate a. 微粒的；颗粒的
dump vt. 乱放；乱堆；乱扔 virtually ad. 实际上；几乎；差不多 irregularity n. [C] 不平整； 不均匀； 不 光滑 contract vi. 缩小；收缩；缩短 maintain vt. 保持；维持
migrate vi. 1（鸟或兽）移栖，迁徙 2 （尤指为找工作） 移居， 迁移 smudge n. [C] 污迹；污斑；污痕 sip vt. 小口地喝；抿；呷 gulp vt. 大口吞咽；快速吞下
stimulate vt. 激发；鼓励；激励 viscosity n. [U] 黏稠；黏性 PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS play out 演出；把（戏） 演完 buoy up （使）浮起； （使）飘起 account for 作出解释； 作出说明