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四六级 语法 词汇 天下无敌 过关宝典

第一节 动词的时态 考试重点:一般现在时(if 从句和 as soon as 从句);进行时表将来;现在完成时和现在完成进行时的区别;完成时瞬间动词以 及 have (has)been, have(has)gone 的区别;过去完成时的时间状语;将来完成时。 一、一般现在式: 1、表示经常发生的动作或存在的状态:常和 always, usually, often ,sometimes, every day, every week 的等时间状语连用。 He goes to work every day. 他每天去上班 2、表示普遍的真理。由于是众所周知的客观事实,所以一般不用时间状语。 The earth is round. 地球是圆的 3、有些表示心理状态或感情的动词往往用一般现在时。 I don’t think you are right.我以为你错了 4、在时间、条件状语从句中表示将来的动作:常用的连词有 as soon as,when,till,if They will go home for winter vocation as soon as they _finish_their exams When the mixture __is heated, it will give off a powerful force 二、一般过去时: 1、表示过去的动作或状态:常和过去时间状语连用。just now, last year, when I was 8years old 等。 You've already missed too many classes this term .You _missed_ two classes just last week 2、used to do sth:过去常常做? I used to take a walk in the morning 3、it is high time(that)?句型中,谓语动词用过去时 Don’t you think it is time you _gave up_ smoking? 三、一般将来时 1、will(shall)+原形动词:表示将来的动作或状态。 He will come and help you. 他会来帮助你的 2、be going to +动词原形:表示马上就要发生的事情或打算好要做的事。 Are you going to attend the lecture? 你打算去听这个演讲吗 3、be to +动词原形: 表示安排或计划好了的动作。 The Third-Ring Road is to be open to traffic before National Day 4、be about to +动词原形:表示即将发生的动作。 The lecture is about to begin.讲座即将开始。 5、某些表示开始、终结、往来行动的动词如:go ,come, start, arrive, leave 等的现在进行时可表示将来。

We are leaving for Beijing tomorrow. 我们明天动身去北京。 The foreign guests are arriving in Jinan tonight. 外宾今晚到达济南 四、过去将来时 表示在过去预计将要发生的动作,常用于宾语从句。 He wanted to know when the conference would start. 他想知道会议何时开始 五、现在进行时 1、表示此时此刻(说话时)正在进行的动作。 The teacher is talking with his students. 这位老师正在同他的学生交谈 2、表示现阶段正在进行的动作,但此刻并不一定在进行。 I am attending a conference in Beijing. 我正在北京参加一个会议 六、过去进行时 1、表示在过去某一段时间正在进行的动作。常需用表示过去的时间状语或通过上下文来判断时间。 He was doing his homework from seven to nine last night. 昨天晚上七点到九点他正在做作业 2、when 和 while 的用法 I fell and hurt myself while I __was playing___tennis 连接词 when 表示时间上的点,其所引导的句子用过去时,while 表示持续的一段时间,其所引导的句子用过去进行时。 3、过去进行时表示过去将来的动作。现在进行时可以表示将来的动作,同样,过去进行时也可以表示从过去某时间看将来要发生的 动作。 He went to see Xiao Li. He was leaving early the next morning. 他去看小李。他第二天一早就要离开此地了 七、现在完成时 1、表示动作刚刚结束(常和 just, now, already, yet 等词连用);或表示动作的结果(一般不用时间状语)。 Li Ming has just turned off the light. 李明刚刚把灯关上。(说明现在灯已经关上了 I have lost my pen. 我把笔丢了。(说明过去某时丢的,现在我还没有找到这支笔。) 2、表示过去某时开始的动作一直延续到现在,并且可能会继续延续下去(常用 since 引导的短语或从句,或由 for 引导的短语 连用)。 1)He has lived here for 30 years. 他住在这儿已经三十年了。(现在还住在这儿) 2)They’ve known each other since childhood. 他们从小彼此相识。(现在还继续来往)

3、非延续性动词的完成时和 it is +时间+since?..(过去时) 英语中有些动词不能延续, 因此不能和表示延续的时间状语连用。 He has __been in___ the army for ten years and is now an officer. 用现在完成时表示“继续”的概念时,只能用含有持续意义的动词,不可用瞬间性动词。 It is 3 years since I left Shanghai .我离开上海已经三年了 如果是非延续动词,这时常用 it is +时间+since 的句型代替,从句用过去时态。 4、have(has)been to 和 have (has)gone to 的区别 have(has )been to:去过某地(表示某人的一种经历),可以和 once,twice,often,never,ever 连用。 have (has) gone to: 去某地了 (表示某人已经离开此地, 在去某地的路途上或已在某地, 所以一般来说此句型只用于第三人称) , 此句型不能与上述时间状语连用。 (1)He has gone to America.(意思为他已经去了美国,现在不在此地) (2)He has been to America twice. 他去过美国两次 八、过去完成时 1、表示在过去的某一时间或动作之前已经完成了的动作(即过去的过去)。这个过去的某一时间可用 by, before 等介词或连词 引导的短语或一个从句来表示。 About the sixth century A.D. when few Europeans could read, the Chinese __ had invented___ paper 2、表示从过去某一时间开始,一直持续到另一个过去的时间的动作。 The chemistry class ___had been on__ for five minutes when we hurried there 3、在含有 before, after, as soon as 等连词引导的状语从句的复合句中,由于连词本身可以明确表示动作发生的先后顺序, 因此,主句和从句都可以用一般过去时表示,而不用过去完成时。 I called him as soon as I arrived.我刚一到就给他打电话 4、过去完成时常用在 no sooner ?than?, hardly/scarcely/barely?when?,一?就?。句型之中,句子倒装。 (1)No sooner had we sat down __ than___ we found it was time to go. (2)Scarcely had he opened the door when a gust of wind blew the candle out. 他刚打开门,蜡烛就被一阵风吹灭了 九. 将来完成时:表示在将来某一时间以前完成的动作.Will(shall) have done 信号词 By the time(...的时候) 信号词 By then 1、By the time John gets home, his aunt _will have left____. 2、I __shall have finished___ writing the article by the time you get back. 十、现在完成进行时:表示从过去某时一直延续到现在的一个动作,这个动作一般会继续延续下去,或是到说话时结束, 但是强调 到说话时为止一直在做的动作。 I _have been knocking_ on the door for ten minutes now without an answer.

第二节 被动语态 考试重点:感官动词和使役动词的被动语态;动词短语的被动语态;情态动词的被动语态;用主动表示被动的含义。 一、感官动词及使役动词如:see,feel,hear,watch,make,bid)在主动语态中用无 to 不定式做宾补,改为被动语态时要加 to The middle-aged man was seen _to come_ out of the house on the afternoon of the murder We were made to study harder. 我们被要求努力学习 二、有些动词后面接一个介词或副词,构成短语。变被动语态时,短语动词做及物动词用。 1、The children are well looked after. 这些孩子得到了很好的照顾。 2、The doctor has been sent for. 已经派人去请大夫了 三、情态动词的被动语态 构成:情态动词 must/can +be+过去分词。 1、The work must be finished before lunch. 这项工作必须在午饭前干完。 2、Nothing can be seen from here. 从这儿什么也看不见 四、用主动表示被动的含义 常用:need/require +doing sth(=to be done)(此句型主语大多为物) My room is a mess. It needs _tidying up 整理_ 第三节 情态动词 考试重点:情态动词+完成时 情态动词用来表示能力、允许、许诺、可能、劝告、意愿等概念或态度。情态动词无人称变化,在句子中和动词原形一起构成谓 语。根据这几年的考试看,着重测验情态动词接完成时的用法。 一、must +现在完成时 表示对已发生的事情的一种肯定的猜测。 Mr. Green _must have failed to receive_ my letter, otherwise he would have replied before now 二、should (ought to )+完成时 表示应该做的事情而没有做,否定式表示不该做的事情做了。含有对过去的动作的责备、批评。 1、They have done things they ought _not to have done_. 2、I’m sorry I couldn’t get in touch with him before he left, I _should have phoned_ him earlier. 三、could +完成时 表示能做的事情而没有做。表示对过去能做而未做的事情感到惋惜,遗憾 1、He could have joined us, but he didn’t get our invitation in time. 他本来能够参加我们的,但是他没有收到我们的请贴。

2、I could have passed, but I did not study hard enough. 我本来能及格的,但是没有努力学习 四、 need+have done 表示需要做的没做.否定式表示没必要的事,却做了. 第四节 虚拟语气 如果所表示的条件根本不可能实现或实现的可能性很小时,称为虚拟条件句。 考试重点:虚拟语气的基本形式和用法;if 的省略形式;含蓄条件句;以 wish(that)引导的表示“愿望”的宾语从句;would rather 引导的从句;以 as if, as though 引导的从句;以 suggest, advise, insist 等词后引导的宾 语从句;It is necessary(important)that 引导的主语从句;It is time (that)?句型中。 一、虚拟语气的基本形式和用法: 虚拟(条件)语气中,主句与从句中谓语动词的形式可分为下面三类:

I would ask George to lend us the money if I _knew__ him 与现在的事实相反,从句用过去时 If Bob_had come___ with us, he would have had a good time. 与过去的事实相反,从句的谓语动词用过去完成时

二、if 的省略形式 在虚拟条件句中,如谓语包含 were ,had,should 等词,则可以把这些词放到主语前面,省略 if. 1、__Had I realized___ you were busy, I wouldn't have bothered you with my questions. 虚拟条件句有时可以省略 if,而将谓语中的过去式 were,had,或 should 等移至主语之前 2、__Should they come to us___, I should ask them some questions. 与将来事实相反 3. 表委婉 may(as well ) might (not have had) 三、含蓄条件句 有时一个假设的情况不用条件从句表示,而用其它方式来表示,这样的句子叫含蓄条件句。常用 with,without,but for. 1、Without your help, we __would not have achieved___ so much. 这是一句含蓄条件句,条件暗含在介词短语 without your help 中,因此要用虚拟语气 四、以 wish(that)引导的表示“愿望”的宾语从句 wish 后的宾语从句中要用虚拟语气,而在虚拟语气中时态的应用类似在非真实条件中从句时态的应用。表示现在或将来的愿望 用:主语+wish +从句(主语+过去时);表示一个过去没有实现的愿望用:主语+wish +从句(主语+过去完成时); 1、Peter wishes that he __had studied___ law instead of literature when he was in college. 2、I didn’t go to the party, but I do wish I __had been___ there. 五、would rather+句子(过去时) 1、I’d __rather___ you didn’t touch that, if you don’t mind. 2、I am too busy these days. I would rather all of you __came___ next month for a dinner. 六、以 as if,as though 引导的从句 在 as if,as though 引导的从句中,如果谈论的是不可能或不真实的情况时,它们所引用的状语从句要用虚拟语气,动词形式 和 wish 后面的从中动词形式变化相同。 1、He talks as if he __knew___ everything in the world. as if(though)从句中非真实性情况用虚拟语气,本句表示说话人对现在的情况有所怀疑,所以用过去时. 2、You are talking as if you had seen them 你谈的那么起劲,好像你真的见过似的。(表示想象中的过去的动作 七、以 suggest 建议,advise 建议,insist 坚持 等词后引导的宾语从句中,从句的谓语动词要用 should+动词原形,should 可以省

略。类似的动词有:propose 建议,insist 坚持,suggest 建议,recommend 建议,order 命令,订购,demand 要求,需求,require 要 求,request 要求 等。 + should +do 或 +be The doctor advised that Mr. Malan __have___ an operation right away so as to save his life 八、It is necessary/important/urgent that 引导的主语从句中,从句的谓语动词要用 should+原形动词,should 可以省略。 It is Direct 指示 that + should +do 或 +be It is essential 必需的 that + should +do 或 +be It is highly desirable 强烈渴望 that + should +do 或 +be It is vital 重大的,生死攸关的 that + should +do 或 +be 1、It’s desired that she _ come____ to teach us at least twice a week. 2、It’s urgent 紧急的 that a meeting __be arranged 安排___ before the final 最终的 decision 决定 is made 九、It is time (that)?引导的定语从句中,谓语动词用过去时。 Don’t you think it is time you _gave up____ smoking? 虚拟语气的用法: 用在条件从句中 与现在事实相反,从句为:If +主语+动词过去式 主句为:主语+should(/would/could/might) + 动词原形 与过去事实相反,从句为:If +主语+had +过去分词 主句为:主语+should(would/could/might)+have +过去分词 与将来事实相反,从句为:If+主语+动词过去式 主句为:主语+should(would/could/might)+动词原形 用在主语从句中 常用句型为:it is(was)+ important (necessary , imperative , desirable, advisable ) +that ?.. 谓语用 should +动词原形(或 should+have+ 过去分词)或只用动词原形 用在宾语从句中 主句谓语动词用 wish 的,that 从句的谓语动词可用过去式, 表示与现在事实相反;用过去完成式,表示与过去事实相反。 也可用 would rather 表愿望,从句用过去式。

主句谓语动词为 demand , suggest , propose , order , arrange , insist,command , require , desire 等,that 从句谓语用 should+ 动词原形或只用动词原形。 用在表语从句中 句子主语常是 suggestion , proposal , idea , motion 等,其谓语是 should+动词原形。 用在定语从句中 常用在 it is time (that)?.句型里。 两个重要的情态动词结构: 别嫌烦,考的就是知识点! must have done 对过去所做的肯定性推断; should have done 本来应该做却没做; 第五节 非谓语动词 非谓语动词分三种,即:不定式,动名词和分词。下面分三部分进行介绍。 一、动词不定式 考试重点:动词不定式的基本结构和用法(尤其是复合结构,否定式,被动式,完成式等。);stop 和 go on 接不定式和动名 词的区别;remember,forget 接不定式和动名词的区别;have sth done 和 have sb do sth。 基本形式 -主动形式。 -被动形式 一般式-(not) to make。 (not) to be made 完成式-(not) to have made (not) to have been made 进行式-(not) to be making在句子中可以充当主语、宾语、表语、定语、状语和补足语。 (一)动词不定式的基本结构和用法 动词不定式是一种非谓语动词形式, 由不定式符号 to 加动词原形构成。 Good-bye , Mr. Wang. I’m pleased ___ to meet__ you (二)动词不定式的被动式 当不定式的逻辑主语是不定式所表示的对象时(或动作的承受者时),不定式一般要用被动式。 1、The ability _ to be clearly heard____ is very important for any speaker. 动词不定式的被动式 2、Mr. and Mrs. Smith didn’t expect the house _ to be decorated 装修____ so well

(三)动词不定式的复合结构 如需指出不定式动作的发出者时(即逻辑主语时)要在不定式前用 for 加名词(或代词)表示。 1、It was very difficult _for____ me to learn Spanish. 2、It is necessary __ for you to hand in___ the papers immediately (四)动词不定式的完成式 表示不定式的动作发生在句子谓语所表示的动作之前。 1、Judging from 从...来看 his manners at the party, he doesn’t seem __ to have received___ much education. 表示发生在主要动词之前的动作,要用动词不定式的完成式 2、The book is said _ to have been translated____ into several foreign languages up to now (五)stop 和 go on 后面接不定式和动名词的区别 动名词表示停下或继续正在做的事情;不定式表示停下以便做某事或改做另外一件事情。 1、The old man walked slowly, stopping frequently __ to res___. “to rest”作目的状语,意思为“停下来的目的是为了休息 2、Men will never stop __. searching___ for new ways of getting new energy. 3、You have been talking for two hours. How long do you intend to go on _ talking____ like that? (六)remember 和 forget 接不定式和动名词的区别 remember, forget + doing sth:表示动作发生在过去。 remember, forget +to do sth:表示动作尚未发生。 1、Don’t forget __to close___ the window before leaving the room. to close 表示一个在 leaving 之后发生的将来的动作 2、I remember giving the letter to him. 我记得把信给他了。(giving 表示一个在 remember 之前发生过的动作。) (七)have sth done 和 的用法 have sth done:表示这个动作由别人来做 want sth done IF you want the job done you have to get the fund somewhere. Keep sth done have sb do sth 表示让某人做某事 1、We are going to have our office _ rearrange 重新整理,重新安排____ to make room for a new engineer. have sth done:表示这个动作由别人来做 2、I’ll __ have you know___ that I’m a qualified engineer. 表示让某人做某事

第五节 非谓语动词 动名词 考试重点:动名词的逻辑主语,完成式,被动式,否定式;动名词做介词的宾语,有时介词可省略;“to”的作用。 基本形式: -主动形式被动形式 一般时-doingbeing done 完成时-having donehaving been done 在句子中可以充当主语、表语、宾语和定语。 一、动名词的基本用法: 1、We shall appreciate __hearing___ from you soon.appreciate 后接动名词做宾语 2、John suggested __not saying___ anything about it until they found out more facts. suggest 后接动名词做宾语,否定式要在动名词前加“not” 二、动名词的完成时:表示的动作在谓语所表示的动作之前发生时,用动名词的完成时。 1、I don’t remember __having ever said that___. 2、I regret having done such a thing.我后悔做了这样的事。 三、动名词的被动式 1、No one avoid __being influenced___ by advertisements. 2、Susan was very unhappy for not _having been invited____ to the party. 四、动名词的逻辑主语 当动名词的逻辑主语是代词时可使用形容词性的物主代词或代词的宾格。 1、He forgot about __my asking___ him to attend my wife’s birthday party. 做介词 about 的宾语, 物主代词+动名词,构成动名词的复合结构。 2、I object to his (him)making private calls on the office phone. 我反对他用办公室的电话打私人电话 五、动名词做介词的宾语,有时介词可省略。 1、Don’t risk _losing____ the job which so many people want. risk 后接动名词做宾语,risk(in)doing sth.中的介词 in 常省略 2、I don’t think it is any use _ discussing____ this matter any further. it is no use (good)doing?做?没有用(好处),动名词做介词 in 的宾语,常省略

六、有的动词后的 to 既可以是不定式符号,又可以是介词,使用时要特别注意。 1、You don’t object __to my calling___ you by your first name, do you? object to 中的 to 是介词,故接动名词做 宾语 2、The students are looking forward to _seeing____ their parents in winter vacation. 第五节 非谓语动词 分词 考试重点:分词在句中的作用;现在分词的被动式和过去分词的区别;现在分词和过去分词的区别;分词的逻辑主语与主句的主语是 否一致;分词的独立主格;with(without)引导的分词的独立结构。 -ING 分词是指由动词原形+-ING 构成的、具有完成时态和被动语态的一种非谓语动词形式,具体形式如下: -主动形式被动形式 现在式-doingbeing done 过去时--done 完成时-having donehaving been done 就其语法功能而言,它可以作表语、补足语、状语和定语。 一、分词在句中的作用 1、She was sitting in an armchair __reading___ a book. (答案:A。分词短语在句中做伴随状语。)(1995 年 37 题) 2、__Not knowing___ anything about the accident, he went to work as well. ( 答案:D。分词做原因状语)(2000 年 28 题) 3、They all returned to the village __convinced___ that the danger was over. (答案:B。过去分词做伴随状语)(1997 年 57 题) 4、We kept our ___fire burning__ all night to frighten the wolves. (答案:C。现在分词作宾补表示动作正在进行)(1997 年 55 题) 二、现在分词和过去分词的区别 1、She told me that it was the most delighting_ gift her daughter had received 现在分词修饰的是事物,常译作“令人??”,具有主动、进行的意思。过去分词修饰人,常译作“感到??”,具有被动、完 成的概念。又如:a moved audience:受感动的观众 2、My parents are __pleased___ with my progress. 三、现在分词的被动式和过去分词的区别。 1、The interviewer should take down notes at the moment the person __being interviewed___ answers the questions. 现在分词的被动式。表示动作正在发生)(1997 年 33 题)

2、We found the eggs eaten by the snake. 我们发现鸡蛋被蛇吃了。 (过去分词表示动作的完成和结果。) 四、分词的逻辑主语与主句的主语是否一致。 1、Arriving at the bus stop, __he found a lot of people___ waiting there. 分词短语做伴随状语时,和主句共用一个主语 2、Being felt__ tired after a hard work, she fell into bed and went straight to sleep 五.分词的独立主格:分词短语带有自己的逻辑主语,(一般由名词担任)称为分词的独立主格 1、The plane crashed, its bombs __exploding___ as it hit the ground. 2、Weather permitting, we’ll go to the Summer Palace. 如果天气允许的话,我们去颐和园 六、with (without) 引导的分词的独立结构。 1、He walked across the meeting room __with___ everyone looking at her. with 或 without 可以引导分词的独立结构,做伴随状语 2、With the old man _ leading____ the way, we had no trouble in finding that mysterious cave 语法部分重要单词 1 虚拟语气宾语从句 order, demand, require, request, direct, command, urge, rule, suggest,advise, vote, propose move, recommend, prefer, decide, insist, desire, decree 主语从句 vital, important, essential, imperative, obligatory, necessary, unnecessary, impossible, sad, strange, natural, advisable, fitting, proper, appropriate, desirable 2 不定式 1)通常只接动词不定式作宾语的常考动词: agree, attempt, claim, decide demand, ask, hesitate, beg ,fail, care, consent, promise, desire, hope, intend, learn, offer, plan, refuse, prepare, pretend, strive, require, appear, arrange, expect,manage, tend, afford, wish, want, seem ,struggle, swear, threaten, wait, undertake, venture, seek ,resolve, aim, determine, endeavor, apply, claim, pledge, pretend, profess, refuse, volunteer, vow, happen ,guarantee, neglect, proceed, prove, condescend, consent, trouble, bother(negative), care(negative), choose, fail etc 2)用于动词+宾语+不定式结构的常考动词:

force, hire, tell, require, teach, warn ,allow, ask, inform, beg, convince, expect, invite, order, permit, promise, instruct, prepare, urge, remind, want, advise, persuade, dare, forbid, like, challenge, request, get, need ,oblige, encourage, enable, compel, recommend, declare, prove, command, encourage, enable, lead, press, etc 3)用于 be+形容词+不定式结构的常考形容词 anxious, boring, dangerous, pleased, hard, eager, easy, fortunate, strange, good, ready, usual, prepared, surprised, common, useless, asked, lucky, difficult, likely satisfied, careful, sure, glad, bored, certain, etc 4)用于名词+不定式结构的常考名词: failure, offer, plan, ability, decision, desire, chance, permission, occasion, fun, honor, capacity, wish, pleasure, opportunity, demand, way ,refusal, responsibility, freedom, promise, etc. 5)后面跟省去“to”的不定式作宾补的常考动词: see watch, notice, observe, hear, listen to, feel ,get, make, have, let ,help, bid, know, look at ,smell ,etc. 动名词 1)通常只接动名词作宾语的动词: admit, appreciate, avoid, delay, deny, enjoy, finish, miss, postpone, put off, practice, quit, resent, suggest, keep, complete, anticipate, discuss, mention, tolerate, understand, favor, escape, forgive, consider, prohibit, mind, dislike, can’t help, risk, involve, imagine, fancy, defer, acknowledge, deny, look forward to, evade, favor, detest, dread, risk, advocate, can’t resist, can’t stand, consider, contemplate, ensure, excuse ,pardon, facilitate, give up, include, keep on, report, suggest ,involve ,etc. 2)常跟动名词作宾语的动词短语: (dis)approve of ,insist on, think about, persist in spend in ,engage in ,depend on ,keep on ,rely on ,worry about, succeed in, count on ,give up, calculate on ,lead to ,contribute to ,devote to ,object to ,look forward to ,dedicate to ,confess to concentrate on focus on ,etc. 3)用于“名词+介词+动名词”结构的名词:pleasure in , chance of ,opportunity of ,

advise on ,choice of ,method for, excuse for ,intention of ,probability of ,concern about, difficulty in ,trouble in ,shortage of ,harm in ,point in, comment on ,report in ,importance of necessity of ,approach to ,etc. 4)用于“be+形容词+介词+动名词”结构的形容词 accustomed to , afraid of ,fond of, successful in ,capable of ,tired of ,interested in ,intent on ,keep on ,used to ,quick at ,good at ,particular about, bent on ,engaged in ,involved in ,addicted to ,devoted to ,etc. 5)动词后可跟原形动词和动名词 discover ,feel ,find ,force ,get, imagine etc +do/doing 6)v. + sb. into doing cheat ,trick, deceive, fool, trap ,shame ,mislead, surprise ,talk, blackmail etc. 7) v. + sb. from doing prevent ,stop ,keep ,hinder(阻碍), restrain(抑制),save. 倒装句 neither=nor=no more, little, seldom, hardly, scarcely, rarely, never, not ,no, in no case, in no way, under(in)no??circumstances, not only??but also, not until??, hardly (scarcely) ??when, no sooner??than?? 主谓一致 as much as , as well as, rather than, more than, no less than, in addition to ,with, along with, together with, except ,all of ,some of ,none of , half of ,most of ,lots of, plenty of. 动名词 虚拟语气的语法细节 语法小点——动名词 1.动名词主语 1) 名词直接放在句首作主语。例如: Using the right hand to shake hands is a convention in many countries. 用右手握手是许多国家的一种习俗。 2) 动名词在“It is no use/ no good/ fun / a waste of time/ a good pleasure 等名词 + doing”结构中作主语,it 为 形式主语。例如: be used to doing sth 经常?

get use to doing sth 经常? It is no use/ no good/ fun/ waste time / a good pleasure +doing It is no good writing to him; he never answers letters. 写信给他不妥,他从来不回信。 It is no use your complaining; the company won’t do anything about it. 抱怨是没有用的,公司是不会管的。 3) 动名词在“It is useless/ nice/ good/ interesting/ worthwhile 等形容词 + doing”结构中作主语。例如: It is useless /nice/ good/ interesting/ worthwhile + doing It is good playing chess after supper. 晚饭后弈棋挺好。 It is useless speaking. 光说是没有用的。 4) 动名词在“There is(was) no + doing”结构中作主语。例如: There is no denying that she is very efficient. 她效率高是不容否认的。 There is no telling what he is going to do. 他要做什么一点消息都没有。 2. 动名词作宾语 1) 有些动词后面要求跟动名词作宾语。常这样用的动词有: admit 承认 ; excuse 原谅 ; postpone 拖延 ;anticipate 期望; fancy 想象 practise 练习; appreciate 欣赏; finish 完成; prevent 防止; avoid 避免; forbid 禁止; propose 建议; consider 考虑; forgive 宽恕; recollect 回忆; delay 耽搁; imagine 想象; resent 厌恶; deny 否认; involve 涉及; resist 抵制; detest 厌恶; keep 保留; risk 冒险; dislike 讨厌; mind 在意; save 挽救; dread 害怕; miss 错 过; suggest 建议; enjoy 喜欢; pardon 原谅; understand 理解; escape 逃避;permit 允许 例如: I recommend buying the dictionary. 我建议买这本词典。 I don’t anticipate meeting any opposition. 我估计不会遇到任何反对意见。

Will you admit having broken the window? 你承认不承认打破了窗户? 2) 有些动词短语后也要求跟动名词作宾语。常这样用的动词短语有: can’t stand 忍不住; can’t help 忍不住; feel like 想,欲; give up 放弃; put off 推迟 例如: He put off making a decision till he had more information. 在获得详情之前,他没有急于作出决定。 Do you feel like taking a walk? 你要不要去散步? 3) 动名词常跟在介词或介词短语后做宾语。常这样用的介词短语有: instead of, look forward to, object to, keep on, see about, take to 等。 例如: We are looking forward to coming to China. 我们期待着来中国。 We succeeded in getting over all the difficulties. 我们终于克服了所有的困难。 4) 在“have difficulty (trouble, problem, a hard time, fun, a good time) (+in) + 动名词; be busy (in) + 动 名词; waste time (in) + 动名词; lost time (in) + 动名词; There is no point (in) + 动名词”等结构中, 动名词做介词宾语, in 常要省去。例如: The children are busy doing their homework. 孩子们忙于做作业。 There is no point (in) making the simple experiments once again. 再做一次这种简单的实验是毫无意义的。 5) 在复合宾语中,用 it 作形式宾语,将动名词短语放在后面。例如: I consider it a waste of time arguing about it. 我认为辩论这事是很浪费时间的。 6) 在“there be”结构当中,be 为动名词时,该结构也是一种带逻辑主语的动名词形式。例如: We can imagine there being a lot of fuss about it. 我们可以想象到人们对此大惊小怪。 Were you disappointed at there not having been more gifts?

你对没有更多的礼物感到失望吗? 3. 动名词的被动式 1) 动词 need, require, want, deserve 后,用动名词的主动形式表示被动意义。其用法相当于不定式的被动结构。例如: The watch needs repairing. (=The watch needs to be repaired.) 这块表需要修理。 The problem deserves thinking about. (=The problem deservers to be thought about.) 这个问题值得考虑。 2) 在(be)worth 后面只能用动名词的主动态来表示被动意义。例如: His suggestion is worth considering. 他的提议值得考虑。 属“动词+介词+动名词”结构,这类词有: look forward to doing pay attention to doing feel like +doing 想要,有?感觉 give up doing apologize for doing succeed in doing dream of doing object to doing insist on doing worry about doing provent(stop)?from doing excuse sb for doing devote?to doing accuse sb of doing 受人指责的 aid sb in doing 资助 agree on doing think about doing ; 属“名词+介词+动名词”结构,这类词有: difficulty in doing advice on doing delay in doing experience in doing insist in doing habit of doing possibility of doing apology for doing success in doing sth. 等; 有些动词后只能跟动名词,这类词有: enjoy , admit , avoid 避免 , consider , dislike , delay , finish , imagine , include , keep , mind , miss , practise , recall , repent , resent , resist , risk , stop , suggest ; watch +doing 属“形容词+介词+动名词”结构,这类词有: busy (in) doing according to doing aware of doing apologentic for doing capable of doing confident of doing angry about doing exact in doing afraid of doing fond of doing guilty of doing hopeful of doing intent on doing tired of doing responsible for doing suitable for doing, wrong in doing right in doing 等; 部分连接动词的区别: ○try doing 意为“尝试”,重在做 ; try to do 意谓“企图”,重在想办法; ○regret doing 指对过去的行为懊悔; regret to do 指对现在的事情抱歉;

○cannot help doing 禁不住; cannot help to do 不能帮忙; ○propose doing 建议做; propose to do 打算做; ○stop smoking 戒烟; stop to smok 停下来吹烟; ○go on doing 继续做同一件事;go on to do 接着做另一件事; ○remember doing 表已完成的; remember to do 表未完成的动作; ○forget doing 忘记已做了的事;forget to do 忘记要做的事; ○agree on doing 商量做某事; agree to do 同意做某事; ○be good at eating 会吃 it is good to eat 很好吃 ○be afraid of dying 恐怕要死了(客观); be afraid to die 害怕得要死(主观); ○like doing (长期的) 爱好; like to do (一时的)兴趣; ○living 钟爱的;lovely 可爱的; likely 可能的; one?.another? 同一组中的两个个体 some?other?. 一些?..另一些?? others 其它的 ,不特指 ; the others 特指的那些 ; both?.and?. 两者都 either?or?. 两者中任一个 neither?.nor?.两者都不 One? ,the other? . 两个中的一个----,另一个----。 none of? 当中任何一个都不 第六节 各种从句 ??英语中从句包括:名词从句、定语从句、同位语从句和状语从句。 一、名词从句包括主语从句、宾语从句和表语从句。 (一)主语从句 考试重点:主语从句常用的连词的用法;it is desirable that 引导的主语从句的用法。 在句子中担当主语的是一个从句,这个从句就叫主语从句。主语从句可以由下列连词、连接代词和连接副词引导,且不能省略。 连词:that,whether 连接代词:what,whatever,who,whoever 等。 连接副词:when,where,how,why 1、由连词 that,whether 引导的主语从句。

连词 that,whether 在主语从句中的作用只是引导主语从句,它在从句中不担任成分,不能省略,且由它们引导的主语从句,多 用 it 做形式主语。 (1)__Whether he enjoyed our dinner or not___ was unimportant. (2)That the earth is round is true.(It is true that the earth is round.) 2、由连接代词和连接副词引导的主语从句 它们分别在从句中担任主语、宾语和状语,不能省略。注意翻译时不能把它们译为疑问句。由它们引导的主语从句,也可以用形 式主语 it 引导。 (1)Who let out the news remained unknown.(It remained unknown who let out the news.) 谁泄露了那个消息仍旧无人知道。 (2)When we’ll start is not clear.(It is not clear when we’ll start.) 我们何时出发还不清楚。 3、以关系代词 what, whatever, whoever?引导的主语从句。 What 有时可以用来表示 the thing which 这种意思,引导从句,表示一样东西或一件事情。Who,whom,which,what,可以和 ever 构成合成词,和 what 一样引导从句,ever 起强调作用。此类句子不能用形式主语 it 引导,它们在句子中担任成份,不能省略, 语序为陈述句的语序。 (1)__What___ I saw was two men crossing the street. (2)__What the press reported___ was not the way the event happened. 4、句型 It is desirable (suggested, necessary, requested, ordered, proposed, urgent)+that+主语+should(可省略) +V(动词原形)。 It’s urgent that a meeting _be arranged____ before the final decision is made It is highly desirable that a new president _be appointed____ for this university (二)表语从句 考试重点:表语从句的基本用法;含有 suggestion,proposal 等词的表语从句的用法。 1、在从句中做表语的从句叫表语从句。它位于主句中的系动词之后,常用的关联词和主语从句相同。 (1)This is what he wants. 这就是他想要的东西。 (2)The question is whether we can finish our work by tomorrow morning. 2、用 suggestion 等词表示愿望、建议、命令等情绪时,用虚拟语气,从句中用 should(可省略)+动词原形。 (1)The general’s command was that the soldiers __leave___ their fort and carry out more important tasks. (2)His proposal is that they(should)challenge the other groups to a friendly competition. 他提议他们和别 的组挑战进行一场友谊竞赛。

(三)宾语从句 考试重点:宾语从句用陈述句的语序;介词后面的宾语从句;suggest,insist,order,demand 等动词后接宾语从句时,用虚 拟语气;if 和 whether 的区别。 1、宾语从句用陈述句的语序 (1)Can you tell me __what it is___ about the city that makes people love it so much? 宾语从句用陈述句的语序 (2)No one doubts __that___ it is true. I doubt whether/if?我怀疑。I don’t doubt that ?我毫不怀疑。又如:I doubt whether he can speak English. 我怀 疑他是否会说英语。 2、介词后面的宾语从句 (1)The people at the party were worried about Janet because no one was aware __of where___ she had gone.(where 引导的从句做介词的宾语) (2)He was a man of fine character in all points __except that___ he was rather timid. 3、suggest,insist,order,demand 等动词后作宾语时,表示欲望、建议、命令等时,用虚拟语气。 ①His mother insisted that he _put on____ the coat when going out. ②The doctor advised that Mr. Malan __have___ an operation right away so as to save his life. 4、在下列情况下不能用 if , 而用 whether。 后跟不定式:He didn’t tell me whether to go or stay. 他没有告诉我是走还是留下。 前面有介词:He raised the question of whether we could find the necessary money. 他提出我们能否筹集到必要的资金这个问题。 引导主语从句:Whether they win or lose is all the same to me. 他们胜利也好,失败也好,对我来说都是一样的。 后面直接跟 or not:I wonder whether I’ll catch the last bus or not. 我不知道我能否赶上末班车。 ??二、定语从句 考试重点:限定性定语从句中关系代词的用法;关系副词 when,where,why,引导的定语从句;带介词的定语从句;非限定性 定语从句;“名词(代词)+介词+关系代词”引出,一般是非限定性定语从句。 在复合句中起定语作用的从句叫做定语从句。定语从句分为两种:限定性定语从句和非限定性定语从句。注意关系代词和关系副 词在从句中的应用。 (一)关系代词 who,whom,whose,which,that 引导的定语从句

1、The company official __whom___ I thought would be fired received a raise. 关系代词 whom 在定语从句中做宾语,修饰先行词 official 2、The investigation , __whose results___ will soon be published, was made by John. 关系代词 whose 在定语从句中做定语 (二)关系副词 when ,where, why, 引导的定语从句 1、The time will come __when___ man can fly to outer space freely. (三)关系代词前带介词的定语从句 1、Before her marriage, she spent a considerable time in that very part of Shanghai, __to which___ she belonged. 关系代词 which 和 whom 还可以做“动词词组”后面的前置宾语。这里的动词词组是 belong to (四)非限定定语从句对被修饰的名词起附加说明,或进一步描述或补充。 这种从句有一定的独立性,即使去掉,主句的意思仍然完整,只是内容相对地不够具体。与主句之间常用逗号分开,所用的关系 代词与限定性定语从句基本相同,但不能用关系代词 that 引导。 (1)An Old friend from abroad, __whom___I was expecting to stay with, telephoned me from the airport. (2)His brother had become a teacher, __which___he wanted to be. which 引导的非限定性定语从句,在从句中做宾语,修饰先行词 a teacher (3)He has made another wonderful discovery, __which I think is___of great importance to science. which 引导的非限定性定语从句,修饰前面整个句子 (五)“名词(代词)+介词+关系代词”引出,一般是非限定性定语从句。 We’ve tested three hundred types of boot, _none of which__is completely water proof. “名词(代词)+of+which(whom)”引起的定语从句常表示部分与整体的关系 同位语从句 ? 考试重点:同位语从句的基本用法;含有 suggestion,proposal 等词的同位语从句。 一、同位语从句的基本用法 常跟在 fact,idea,news 等名词的后面,通常用连词 that 引导。 1、Would the news __that___ he failed to pass the exam bother you? 2、I had no idea that you were here. 我没有想到你会在这里。 二、如果同位语从句所修饰的先行词是 suggestion,proposal 等名词的时候,谓语动词用 should+原形动词。should 可以省略。 1、My suggestion that we do the experiment again is accepted by them. 我的再做一次实验的建议被他们所接纳。

2、His proposal that they(should)challenge the other groups to a friendly competition is praised by the teacher. 他提议他们和别的组挑战,来一场友谊竞赛。这个提议受到了老师的表扬。 状语从句 主将从现 If you somke in a non-smoking section 禁烟区 people will object. ??考试重点: 状语从句的种类及一些连词的基本用法;让步状语从句;unless, supposed (that) whomever,whenever, , wherever 等连词的含义和用法。 在主从句中起状语作用的从句叫状语从句。常见的状语从句有时间、地点、条件、原因、让步、方式、比较、目的、结果。 一、时间状语从句 常用的连词有:when,whenever(无论什么时候),since,as,until,hardly?when,no sooner?than,as soon as,before, after,the moment,the minute(一?就?) 1、No sooner had they got the goods covered up __than___ it started raining hard. 2、She has wanted to become a nurse __ever___ since she was a young girl. (答案:D。时间状语从句,ever since 表示从?以后一直。) 二、条件状语从句 常用 if,unless(除非,如果不),as/so long as 只要。 1、__Unless___ I’m mistaken, I’ve seen that man before. unless 引导条件状语从句 三、原因状语从句 常用:because, as, since。如果表示必然的因果关系,一般用 because 引入;而 since 表示一种间接或附带的原因;用 as 只 是提一下。 1、He cannot go to school because he is ill. 他因为生病不能上学。 2、Everyone likes you as you are both kind and honest. 人人都喜欢你,因为你既和气,又诚实。 四、让步状语从句 常用 though/although,as (尽管),even if/though,however,whatever,wherever,whoever,no matter how/what/who 等。 1、In short, __wherever___ he lives, a man belongs to some society. wherever 引导让步状语从句,wherever = no matter where) 2、__Whoever you are___, you must show your ticket to go into the cinema. whoever,引导让步状语从句,= no matter who 3、___Even if__ you disagree with her, her idea is still worth considering.

让步状语从句 4、Young ___as__ he is, he knows what is the right thing to do. as 引导让步状语从句,被强调的部分放在句子之前,进行倒装 五、方式状语从句 常用 as, just as, as if/though 等词。 1、__As___ was pointed above, this substance can be used as a substitute. As 引导方式状语从句 2、He talks as if he __knew___ everything in the world. as if(though)引导的方式状语从句,谓语动词用虚拟语气。) 六、目的状语从句 常用 so that , in order that, lest (以免, 以防), in case。 1、I wrote it down ___in case__ I should forget it. 2、I’ll give you my phone number, so that you can call me when you arrive here. 我把我的电话号码告诉你,以便你到达这里后可以给我打电话。 七、结果状语从句 常用 so?that, such?that They are _such diligent____ students that they all performed well in the nationwide examinations. 第七节 主谓一致 考试重点:形式上复数、意义单数的名词做主语;动名词、不定式,从句做主语;a number+of+复数名词和 the number+of+可数或 不可数名词做主语;主语由 as well as 等词修饰时的主谓一致;当用 and 连接的名词前有 each,every 等修饰时,谓语动词用单数。 一、名词 physics (物理),maths(数学),news(新闻),means(方法),works(工厂)等一般被认为是形式是复数,意 思是单数的名词,它们做主语的时候动词一般用单数形式。 Every means has been tried. 每一种方式都试过了。 二、动名词、不定式、从句做主语时,谓语动词用单数。 When and where the new hospital will be built _remains____ a mystery. 三、当主语是 a number+of+复数名词时,谓语动词用复数;当主语是 the number+of+可数或不可数名词时,谓语动词用单数 A number of cars _are parked____ in front of my house. 四、当主语由 as well as 等词修饰时的主谓一致。当句中的主语后接 as well as,along with,together with,including, accompanied by 等短语+名词(代词)时,主语与谓语的一致关系不受影响,主语是单数名词时,谓语动词用单数形式,主语是复数 形式时,谓语动词用复数。

1、John, along with twenty friends, is planning a party. 约翰和二十个朋友正在计划举行一个集会。 2、No one but Jane and Tom was there then. 那时除了珍尼和汤姆之外,没有别人在那儿。 五、 当用 and 连接的名词前有 each, every 等修饰时, 谓语动词用单数。 当主语是 each?and?, every?and every?, many a?and? 结构时,谓语动词用单数。 1、Many a singer and dancer is to attend our evening party. 许多歌唱家和舞蹈家将参加我们的晚会。 2、In our country every boy and every girl has the right to receive education. 在我们国家每个人都有接受教育的权利。 第八节 倒装句 考试重点: 1、否定词放置句首时,助动词或 be 动词要放置主语的前面进行倒装。常用的否定词有:not,scarcely,barely,seldom,not until,little,(in)under no circumstance,by no means,no sooner?than 等。 2、only+adv.句子要倒装。 3、nor,neither,so 用于句首时,句子要倒装。 4、虚拟条件句中省略 if 时要倒装。 一、否定词放置句首时,助动词或 be 动词要放置主语的前面进行倒装。常用的否定词有:not,scarcely,barely,seldom,not until,little,(in)under no circumstance,by no means,no sooner?than 等。 1、Not until I reminded him for the third time __did he stop___ working and looked up。 2、__Little do they realize___ the importance of wearing seat belts while driving. 二、only+ adv. 句子要倒装。 1、Only under such a condition will he make steady progress. 只有在这样的条件下,他才会取得扎实的进步。 2、Only this morning did I hear the sad news. 我今天早晨才听到这不幸的消息。 三、nor, neither, so 用于句首时, 句子要倒装。 So little _did I know_about stock exchange that the lecture was completely beyond me.

四、虚拟条件句中省略 if 时要倒装。 1、__Had I realized___ you were busy, I wouldn’t have bothered you with my questions. 2、_Should they come to us__, I should ask them some questions. 第九节 强调结构 考试重点:强调句型的基本形式 It is(was)+被强调部分+that(who)?;强调句型用来强调状语。 一、强调句型的基本形式 It is(was)+被强调部分+that(who)?。 二、强调句型用来强调状语。 1、It was in that small room__that___ they worked hard and dreamed of better days to come. 强调地点状语 2、It is because she is very devoted to her students ___that____she is respected by them. 强调原因状语 3、It was not until she arrived in class _that she__realized she had forgotten her book. 强调时间 4. It was in the 1960’s 20 世纪 60 年代 that the trade between the two countries reached its highest point. 第十节 附加疑问句 考试重点:附加疑问句的基本用法;含有否定词的疑问句;祈使句的附加疑问句;一些特殊用法。 一、附加疑问句的基本用法 附加疑问句由两部分构成:陈述句+附加问句。一般的规则是:前肯定,后否定;前否定,后肯定。 1、He had to finish the work yesterday, __didn’t he___? have 作“有”以外解释时,附加疑问句要用助动词 do/does/did 2、There won’t be any concert this Saturday evening __will there___? 当陈述句为 there be 句型时,附加疑问句用其否定或肯定的疑问句式 二、含有否定词的用法 若陈述句部分已有表示否定的 hardly,scarcely,never,seldom 等词时,反问句部分要用肯定。 1、She scarcely cares for anything __does she___? 2、You never told me you have seen the film, __did you___? 三、祈使句: 1、Please let us have more time , __will you___?

Let’s 表示第一人称的祈使句,反问部分主语用 we 时,谓语用 shall。如:Let’s go,shall we? 2、Don't forget to write to me, _will you____? 四、一些特殊用法: 1、I suppose you’re not serious, __are you___? 主句的谓语是 suppose 和 think,主语是第一人称,反问句部分要和从句的谓语一致。 再如 :“I don’t suppose you’re going today, aren’t you?” 2、I don’t think you’ve heard of him before, __have you___?

Owe 欠,亏欠 own,自己的,拥有,自身 (2)affect Vt影响,假装,感动 /эfэkt/ effect n.结果,效果 /ifekt/ Vt.招致,效应,实现 effort n.努力,成就 /efэt/ afford Vt.买得起,供应 /эfo:d/ (3)adapt 适应 adopt 采用 adept 内行 (4)angel 天使 angle 角度 (5)dairy 牛奶厂 diary 日记 abroad 国外 aboard 上(船,飞机) Helicopter 直升飞机 aeroplane 飞机 Aripor 机场指示 intruction airborne 空降 Air condition 空调 Mr.smith involve advised us to 包括,笼 withdraw so 罩,陷于 as not to get withdraw involved in 撤出 the affair. affair

事,事务 Long live 毛主席万 chairman Mao 岁 (6)contend v.奋斗,斗争 strive努力,奋斗 effort努力 struggle奋斗 exertion发挥,努力 extend 延长 expand 扩张 expend 花费 distend扩张,涨 indent缩进 distant远的,冷漠的 Tend to 趋向,往往 Lead to导致 Attend 出席 Trend 趋势,走向 Tender温柔的,嫩的a.投标v. Love me tender温柔的爱我 content n.内容,目录,容量 a.满足的 context n.上下文 contest v.争论,n.比赛 contact Vt.n.联系,接触 contract n.合同,婚约 V.感染 Concert音乐会,一致 Concern关注,涉及 Concern 与?相关 with dependent 依赖的 独立的,无党 independent 派的 连接,联合, connect 联系 relevant 有关 Conceal隐藏 Concept概念,观念 Concise简明的 Concoct编造 Concur同时发生 Condom避孕套 Confer授予,协商 Confess坦白,忏悔 Confidence信心 Configure配置,设定 Confound it!讨厌,该死的 Confuse使糊涂,迷惑,忐忑 contrast n.v.对照,对比 Consent赞成,允诺 Consider考虑,认为 Consign托运 consigner发件人 Sign签字v. 符号,招牌,手势n.

Assign 分配,任用 assignment 任务 Consist of由...组成 Consort配偶,结交 Constitute建立(政府),任命 Constrain sb to do sth强迫某人做某事 Constrict压缩 Construe解释,直译 Consult商议,请教 Curtain窗帘 Consume消耗,毁灭 demolish拆除 tear down拆毁 pull down拉下来 destruct毁坏 (7)principal 校长,主要的 principle 原则 fund 资金,基金,基本的 foundation基金会,的基础 fundamental(根本的) reason 根本原因 (8)implicit 含蓄的 explicit 明白的 (9)dessert 甜食 desert 沙漠 v. 放弃 dissert 写论文 (10)pat 轻拍 tap 轻打 slap 掌击 rap 敲,打 (11)decent 正经的 descent n. 向下, 血统 descend v 向下 (12)sweet 甜的 sweat 汗水 (13)later 后来 latter 后者 latest 最近的 lately adv. 最近 (14)costume 服装 custom 习惯 (15)extensive 广泛的 intensive 深刻的 (16)aural 耳的 oral 口头的 (18)altar 祭坛 alter 改变(Alt键) I am awfully sorry, but I 真抱歉,我 had no 没得选择, alternative. 我只是公 I simply have 事公办. to do what I did. (19)assent 同意 ascent 上升 accent 口音

(20)champion 冠军 champagne 香槟酒 campaign 战役 (21)baron 男爵 barren 不毛之地的 barn 粮仓 (22)beam 梁,光束 bean 豆 been have 过去式 (23)precede 领先 Pioneer 先驱,先锋 proceed 进行,继续 (24)pray 祈祷 prey 猎物 (25)chicken 鸡 kitchen 厨房 (26)monkey 猴子 donkey 驴 (27)chore 家务活 chord 和弦 cord 细绳 (28)cite 引用 site 场所 sight 视觉,视力,眼光 (at) the sight of 一见?就 in view of 鉴于(...) in sight of 临近 opinion n.主张,观点,判断 attitude n.态度,意见 standpoint n.立场,观点 viewpoint n.观点. position n.立场,位置,职位,阵地 vt.安置 unique独特的,独一无二的 unique view独特视角 interview 面试,访问 review movies回顾电影 soundtrack电影配音 saddest悲伤的 movies madness电影狂人 (29)clash(金属)幢击声 crash 碰幢,坠落 crush 压坏 (30)compliment 赞美 complement 附加物 (31)confirm 确认,批准 conform 使顺从,使一致,符合,适应 accord 和谐n. 符合v. according to 根据 concord和谐 uniform制服 lose profession identity失去职业身份 step out of uniform脱掉制服 form形状,形成 formal外形的,正式的

former以前的,formula公式,formative形成的 application form 申请表 general普通的,一般的 one generation about the one一代一代 average一般,的平均 natural自然的,天然的 common常见的,普通的,公共的 recommend 建议 comment评论 commerce 商业 commence 开始 community(社区n.公共的a.) kitchen 社区厨房 regular通常的,正常的,定期的 ordinary普通的 organ器官 organize组织 organic有机的 inform通知 well-informed experimenter见多识广的实验者 reform改革,重组 format格式,版式 perform演出,实施 foam泡沫n.起泡v. (40)latitude 纬度 altitude 高度 gratitude 感激 Institute协会,开始(调查) (33)council 议会 counsel 忠告 consul 领事 (34)crow 乌鸦 crowd拥挤,人山人海 crown 王冠 clown 小丑 cow 牛 (35)dose 剂药 doze 打盹(rest休息) (36)drawn draw 过去分词 drown 溺水 (37)emigrant 移民到国外 immigrant 从某国来的移民 (38)excess n. 超过 exceed v.超过 excel /iksel/ 擅长,微软电子表格 excellence 优秀,卓越n. excellency 阁下 Your Excellency excellent 卓越的,极好的 access/эekses/访问,进入,获得,微软数据库 (39)hotel 青年旅社 hostel 旅店 motel 汽车旅馆 inn (乡村)旅馆n. 住旅馆v. roadhouse (公路旁)旅馆

lodge Vi.寄宿 Vt.容纳 n.门房,(浏览区的)旅馆 (41)immoral 不道德的 immortal 不朽的 (42)lone 孤独的 alone 单独的 lonely 寂寞的 (43)mortal 不死的 metal 金属 mental 神经的 medal 勋章 model 模特 meddle 玩弄 (44)scare 惊吓 scarce 缺乏的 (45)drought 天旱 draught 通风,拖,拉 draughts (英)国际跳棋 (47)assure 保证 ensure 使确定 insure 保险 (48)except 除外 expect 期望 accept 接受 excerpt 选录 exempt 免除 respect 尊敬 aspect 方面 inspect 视察 suspect 怀疑 (49)floor 地板 flour 面粉 (50)incident 事件 accident 意外 (51)inspired by 受到?的启发 inspiration 灵感 aspiration 渴望 (52)march 前进,行军,三月(M大写) match 比赛,火柴,匹配 math 数学 (53)patent 专利 potent 有力的 potential 潜在的 you are potential你前途无量! Patient病人,耐心的 We were most impressed by the fact that even those patients who were not told of their serious ill were quite aware of its potential outcome. (54)police 警察 politics 政治 policy 政策 ,industrial policies产业政策 (55)protest 抗议 protect 保护 (56)require 需要 inquire 询问 enquire 询问 acquire 获得,取得 (57)revenge 报仇 avenge 为??报仇

(58)story 故事 storey 楼层 store 商店 (59)strike 打 stick 坚持 strict 严格的 (63)purpose 目的 suppose 假设 propose 建议 (62)through 通过 thorough 彻底的 (al)though 尽管 thought think 过去分词 breakthrough重大突破 (67)strive 努力 stride 大步走 ride骑 (68)allusion 暗示 illusion 幻觉 delusion 错觉 elusion 逃避 (69)prospect 前景 perspective 透视法 (70)stationery 文具 stationary 固定的 (72)amend 改正,修正 emend 校正 (73)amoral unmoral immoral 同义 不道德的 (73)cheat v.欺骗,骗取 n.骗子 dupe vt.欺骗,愚弄 n.易受骗的人 trick vt.欺骗 n.诡计,恶作剧,窍门 hoax v. n. 愚弄 betray vt.出卖,背叛,泄露 delude vt.迷惑,蛊惑 hoodwink vt.欺骗,蒙蔽 (74)规则的说慌,不规则的躺,躺下就下下蛋 lay 念/lei/ vi.下蛋,打赌. vt放置,铺设,平息 n.位置,形势. a.世俗的,外行的 vbl.lie的过去式 过去式,过去分词,现在分词 laid, laid, laying lie 念/lai/ vi.躺,位于. v.说谎. n.谎言 躺,位于: 过去式,过去分词,现在分词 lay, lain, lying 说谎: 过去式,过去分词,现在分词 lied, lied, lying (75)plant /plant/ n.植物,工厂,车间

Vt.种植,培养 Vi.种植 planet /plэenit/ n.行星 (78)ward 病区,行政区n. 监护,守护v. award颁发,奖励,裁决,授予 reward奖金,赏赐 forward向前地,促进 aware意识到,了解 (81)horn /ho:n/(牛,羊)角,喇叭 horror /horэ/恐怖,惨事 hover /hovэl/(简陋)小屋 thriller /θrilэ/n惊悚片 Threat 威胁 honor /onэ/荣幸,兑现 honest /onist/诚实的 (82)increase上升,增长 go up decrease下降,减退 go down (83)harmful smog伤人的(烟)雾 fog雾 flog鞭打 smoke烟 (84)specialist专家 expert专家 except除了?别无(不包括) expect期望 beside除了?还有(包括) apart form除了?之外 as well as既?又,也,又,和 aside form除了?之外 (85)countryside农村 village农村 rural area农村 suburb郊区 (87)时尚fashion vogue fashionable What’s in fashion?流行什么 Makeup化妆品 outfit装扮 popular流行的 prevalent流行 Population人口 pollution污染 (88)immediately, straightway, the instant立即 马上right away at once right off promptly及时 forthwith随即 shortly不久 anon不久 thereupon就此,于是 (89)expense费用,开支 charge收费,冲锋 expenditure的开支,费用 spending花费,支出 fare票价,车费 rate利率,速度 Death rate 死亡率

at the rate 以?的速度 at any rate 无论如何 accurate 准确,精确 moderately 适度 outlay经费,支出 fee收费,收取 toll费,通行税 fermium费 cost的费用,的成本 payment支付,缴费 defray支付 pay money付钱 (90)shade阴凉处 shadow影子 shake shook shaken 摇动,震动 shame羞愧,耻辱 shape形状,塑造 reshape重塑 Reshape you life!重塑人生 share分享 sharp,1.锋利,2.精神,帅气,3.泾渭分明 You look 你今天真帅 sharp today shave剃(胡子) sheet表,一张,床单 shelf架子 shine shone shone 闪耀,发光 shining lines闪光线 shirt衬衫(男式) shock休克,冲击 shoot射击 shore岸,滨 (91)海岸seacoast seaboard seaside coast coastline海岸线 beach海滩 peach桃子n.告密v. pear梨n. (65)glide 滑翔n. 滑行,(时间)消逝v. slide 使滑行v.幻灯片n. skim v.撇去(油脂) slip 跌落 coast n.海岸,滑坡 v.沿海岸而行 Mistake 错误 error 误 差 By mistake错误地,无意中 By accident by all means务必 by and by不久,迟早 By chance偶然 by far最,?得多

By the way顺便地 by way of 经过,通过?的方 法 He did me a good好事 他借给我十 turn行为, 英磅算是做 举止 by 了件好事 lending me ten pounds. 那时(用将 by then 来) 的时候,(用 完成时) by the time 仍然,(用完 yet 成时) By then 用将来完成 时 Deal(合约 n.处理v.) 以其之道还 with a man 冶其人之身 as he deal with you 处理,应付, 从事 deal with 采取行动,谈 deal in 及,经营,交 a good deal 易,买卖 许多,大量+ 不可数 1.deal with 是处理的意

思, 也有做交易的意思, 但 是后面加的主要是做生意 的人或者公司、商店名。 例句:We have dealt with that firm for many years. 2.deal in 是外贸术语,意 思是买卖,经营的意思,后 面主要是加商品名. 例句:That shop deals in men's clothing. (92)hire雇佣,聘请 employ聘用,采用 engage聘用,从事,经营 employment雇佣,工作,就业 dismiss解雇,辞退 fire解雇,火,点燃,开枪 sack解雇,麻袋 discharge放电,卸货,清偿(债务),解雇 cashier出纳 cash现金,兑现 lay-off解雇 ouster下台,推翻 employer雇主 master主人,掌握,硕士,精通 proficient精通 grasp 掌握,抓住 hirer租用人,承租人 employee雇员,员工 employe雇工 staff员工,职员 servant奴仆,雇员 hireling雇工 Job seekers求职者 Seek谋求,企图 Human Resources人力资源 locate(定位) resources 分配资源 (93)rare罕见 rare很少-ly (94)survey调查,测量 measure措施,测量,衡量 take measure采取措施. precaution预防,预防措施 we must take measures to help the poor.-我们必须采取措施,帮助穷人。 Slum 贫民窟

(95)direct 指示 as directed按照(医)嘱 (96)benefit受益,受惠,利益 advantage好处,优点,优势 gain收益,赢得 pains辛劳,痛苦 toil辛劳,劳累 laborious费力的 profit利润,获利 (98)as soon as一?就? in case以免 as long as只要 in order that以便 in order to为了(放在句首) so that以便 lest免得 not that ?but that不是?而是 now that既然 even though虽然 whatever无论 once一旦 until quite recently直到最近 可比性,词语 ?than? 和时态前后 ?and? 一致, 时间点用when,时间段用while Too much to 太?以至于不能 Not?nor不?也不 Neither of 都不 Then 然后 Another cup of tea再来一杯 One at a time一次一种 once at?once at一次?另一次 but for many 但对许多人来说 rather than 而非 twice as much 两倍在前面 No sooner ?than Hardly ?when be made of 制成 be made up 由?组成 of (构成) above all 首先,尤其是 after all 终究

overall总体 regardless of 不管,无论 all but 几乎,差一点 at least至少 allow for 考虑,顾及 at a loss 困惑不解 than ever before 比以往 (108)tour旅行 detour绕道 delay延误 describe描绘 desire渴望 feature特征 character性格 1.活力,精力,力量, 气力 2.能源,能量 能源守恒定律 energy E=MC2 Relative theory相 对论 Stay relative the same保持相对不变 ability 能力 power 权力,电源,动力 strength 实力,强度,力量 Ra镭 Radiation辐射 Nuclear核能 Ream雷姆(0.1念zero point one) strong 强烈的影响 influence Nuclear 核科技 science 课程,进程, course 轨道,程序 组成,作文, composition 布局 section 章节,段 After a few 经过几轮的

rounds of 磋商,各方 talks, both 谈判代表, sides regarded 就领土争端 the territory 达成共识 dispute as settled. Account账户 Count计数 Identity身份 unidentified没标签的,不明的 Feed 饲料,喂 过去式,过去分词fed Climate气候 soil土壤 plants植物 biological situations生态环境 部门,处,系, department 署 分公司,分 branch 支,分行 section 节,段,部分 division 司,科,除法 愿景,眼光, vision 预料 revision 修订 China central CCTV television Television was not 电视不是一 invented by 个人发明的, anyone 更不是一夜 person. Nor 之间蹦出来 has it 的. sprung into being

overnight. government aid政府资助 social support社会资助 support myself养活自己 a huge victory巨大的胜利 tie领带,关系 interpersonal ties人际关系 establish证实 mentally动脑筋的,精神上 bio-chemical changes 生物化学变化 cognitive area 认知领域 (71)loose n.解放,放任 a.松的,散漫的 vt.释放,开船 vi.变松,开火 adv.松散地 lose vt.丢失,浪费,使失去,使迷路 vi.受损失,失败 loss n. 损失,失败,浪费,伤亡,降低 lost a.失去的,迷惑的 lose过去式和过去分词 close 亲近的,关闭,靠近 attention and memory 注意力和记忆力 close attention 密切关注 availability可用性n. available可用的a. avail有利于v.效用,利益n. of no avail无用. Avail oneself of利用 advance先进,推进,预先 advances进展,预付款 prior事先,之前 advancement进步,促进 Advantage优势,好处,利用 Advantageous有利的a. inevitable不可避免 话题,题目,议 topic 题 theme 的主题 point 要点 supply and demand factors供需因素 grapes葡萄 vineyards葡萄园 be able to fill the demand满足需求 be able to meet the demand满足需求 registered residence 户口

Temporary residence permits 暂住证 Residence permit 居住证 Residence注册 permit许可 Tele远距离 telephone手机 communication交流 telecommunication电信 launch发射,推出 publish出版,公布 come out问世,出版 author 笔者,作家 authoritative 权威的 domestic and international国内国际 headquarter总部(位于) with a history dating back to 1884.某物的历史可追溯到1884 the 100 largest industrial companies.100强工业公司 (101)technical技术的 technological工艺学的 technique技能n. technology技术n. engine发动机,引擎,火车头 engine-driver火车司机 engineer工程师,火车司机,工兵 engineering工程的,工程学 (102)relationship关系 friendship友谊 hardship困苦,灾情 relationship 关系 scholarships 奖学金 genes基因 genetic基因的 finger-prints指纹 detect 检测,侦查 detective 侦探 determine决定 Different trees bear different fruits什么样的树结什么样的果 taste, 品尝,味道,滋味 waste, 浪费,废弃物,垃圾 garbage 垃圾 refuse 拒绝,垃圾,废物 waste 浪费,废弃物,垃圾 rubbish 废话,废物,垃圾 trash 废物,垃圾 dump 倾倒 discard 丢弃,弃置 Commander-in-chief 总司令 the tour leader 领队,导游

bear 熊n. 承担,忍受,生育,结(果实)

General Manager Deputy General 总经理 Manager 副总经理 Department 部门经理 Manager 销售经理 Sales 客户经理 Manager 渠道经理 Account Manager Channel Manager Chief Executive CEO首席执 Officer 行官 执行的,管 理的a. Executive 行政权,管 理人n. Association协会 CUBA大学生男篮球联赛 china university basketball association China central normal university CCNU华中师范大学 Attachment 附件,附属 Attach附上,附带,系上 Carry off夺走,拿走 Carry on继续 Carry out执行 Catch fire着火 Catch one’s breath屏住呼吸 Catch one’s eye引人注目 Catch sight of 发现,看到 Catch up with赶上 Check in办理登记手续,报到 Check out结账后离开 预 predict 测, 意料

Cuba古巴

v. 焦 点, Focus/fэukэs/ 集中 n. 预测 Forcast/fo:ka:st/ n. (103)the most wonderful film ,这里前边为定冠词the加most修饰wonderful表示形容词最高级,意思是最精彩的一部电影. a most wonderful film ,此处非最高级,most 这里是一个程度副词,表示"相当",翻为一部相当精彩的电影 most用在形容词或副词前面,等于very,起加强语气的作用。表示“很、十分、非常”most前面不可有定冠词the。 (immensely非常,awfully非常,quiet安静,quite相当,十分) 如:This is a most useful book. 这是一本很有用的书。 It's most dangerous to play with fire. 火是很危险的。 almost = very nearly。指在程度上相差很少,almost可与no,none,nothing,never,nobody等表示否定意义的词连用。 如:I almost missed the flight. 我差一点误了航班。 Almost no one believed what he said. 几乎没人相信他的话。 mostly=mainly“大部分”“主要地”“通常地”。如: The students in our class are mostly from the factory. 我们班的学生主要来自这家工厂。 His stories were mostly about his travels in foreign countries. 他的故事大多是关于他在国外旅游的经历。 (76)(a) few + 可数名词 (a) little + 不可数名词 a few / a little 为肯定含义,还有一点 few / little 为否定含义,没有多少了。 He has a few friends. 他有几个朋友。 He has few friends. 他几乎没有朋友。 We still have a little time. 我们还有点时间。

There is little time left.几乎没剩下什么时间了。 典型例题: Although he 's wealthy,he spends___ on clothes. A. little B. few C. a little D. a few 答案: A. spend所指的是钱,不可数,只能用little或 a little. 本句为although引导的让步状语从句,由句意知后句为否定含 义,因此应用little表示几乎不。 固定搭配: only a few (=few) not a few (=many) quite a few (=many) many a (=many) Many books were sold. Many a book was sold. 卖出了许多书。 (77)much加不可数名词,如much milk many加可数名词复数,如many apples How many加可数名词复数,如How many pears How much加不可数名词,如How much water How much也可用于问价钱,如How much are the apples? 意思是这些苹果多少钱?这是How many与How much的最大区别 a lot of = lots of,可修饰可数或不可数名词,意为“许多”, “大量的”,相当于many或much。 a lot, a lot of, lots of通常用于肯定句, 否定句中一般用many或much,如: There’s a lot of work to do and a lot of people have been sent there. 有许多事情要做,许多人已派去那里了 Glances复 眼神 数 glimpses复 一瞥 数 glares复数 瞪 gleams复数 闪烁着

revive 复苏,恢复 release 放开,发布 relieve 缓解 recover 恢复(知觉,健康) hasty 草率 instant 即时 prompt 提示 rapid 迅速 paid back 回报 paid for 为?付出代价 paid up 全部付清 paid off 还清(债务) 输送,供应, supply 供给 provide 提供,供应 议案,提供, Offer 发放 Devote 致力于,奉献 vote 表决,投票 推选v.当选 elect 人n. election 选举n. Raise提高,抚养,举 rise上升,上涨,升级 ask for要求 send for送 call for呼吁 look for寻找 canal运河 channel通道,渠道 tunnel隧道 street街道 dig 打洞 cancel取消,废止 cancer癌症 like 像,喜欢 alike 相同的,一样 unlike 不像 dislike 反感,讨厌 合适的a.可 likely 能,或许adv. feel 想要,有... like+doing 感觉

ask for sent for call for look for Call off取消

要求 送 呼吁 寻找 Call on拜访,号召 众所周知 be well As is known known闻名 的? being known 广为人知 business is 公事公办 business splendid 绚烂的演讲 speeches (希拉里) iron tower 铁塔 accused 受人指责的 of+doing which one is 你的答案? your answer? Yellow Crane 黄鹤楼 Tower Hope project 希望工程 call off 取消 shut up 闭嘴 to be not 将不被重新 re-elected 选举 out of stock 脱销 A dream of the 红楼梦 Red Chamber be supposed to 应当

Call up召集

proposals chiefly to improve be sorry to

space vehicle be busy doing 忙于做某事 sth heavy traffic=traffic 交通堵塞 jam 后悔做?(已 regret doing 经做了) 遗憾?(将会 regret to do 发生或做) wake up 起来 harmful smog 伤人的雾 long march 长征 I haven't seen 一日不见,如 you for ages. 隔三秋 enjoy your 享受健康 health 从?以后,一 ever since 直 what do you 你的想法? suppose so? Purple 紫金山 Mountains pick one's up 接某人 have one's bath 洗澡

议案. Propose建议 主要目的是 提高? 会感到惋惜. 而伤心. 太空船

non-smoking section was almost hurt sudden stop gray building the fifth generation computers artificial intelligence Low-carbon protect environment evironmenttal damage armed forces bored me to death adopted children natural parents He is not so much a writer as a reporter. go ahead get involved in? beyond his power attract large audiences

禁烟区 几乎受到伤 害 突然刹车 灰房子 第五代计算 机 人工智能 低碳 保护环境 环境破坏 军事力量 无聊的要死 领养的孩子 亲生父母 与其说他是 个作家,不如 说是个记者 前进 陷入?(事 件) 爱莫能助 吸引大量观 众(经久不

衰) Even though the punishment was unjust, Helen accepted without complaint. familiar with Could you find someone for me to play tennis with? I have confidence in you. New-born baby Mere(只,不过) fact Give way to the other No sweat汗 水 ,no sweet diamond ring Fruit salad Mouth water Water is made up of hydrogen and oxygen. last emperor pick her up 虽然处罚决 定不公 平,Helen毫 无怨言还是 接受了. 熟悉 你能为我找 人打网球 吗? Find sb for sb to do sth 我对你有信 心 新生儿 单纯的事实 给另一方让 步 先苦后甜 钻研戒指 水果沙拉 口水直流 水是由氢气 和氧气。 末代皇帝 去接她

机遇 低糖版本 频繁 Frequently 经常的(FM frequent 的”F”) my point is that 我的观点是 Never older to 活到老学到 learned 老 look round 环顾 look out 当心 look up 抬头 look on 旁观 spread 蔓延 scratch 抓伤 scattered 散落,离散 burn 燃烧 break down损坏 break in 破门而入 break into强行闯进 break off中断 break out(战争)爆发,使逃走 break through突围 break up打碎 bring about带来,引起 bring forward提出(建议) bring onto effect使生效,实行 bring out出版 bring up教育,培养 get in进入,参加 get on骑?,登?

lose weight Pull back choose select curtain Once a good beginning is made, the work is half don. A luck break diet version

减肥 拉开 ?中选择 选中 窗帘 好的开始是 成功的一半.

get off?下来,逃脱 get up起床 get down?下来,写下 get over克服(困难) get into对?感兴趣,卷入 get on with与?友好相处 give in屈服 give off放出 (光,热) give out发出(气味) give up放弃 hand in交上 hand down把?传下来 hand out散发 hand over移交 go in for从事于 go into调查,进入 go on 继续 go out熄灭,外出 go over复习 go up上升 go down下降 go ahead开始,领先 go after追求,没法得到 look after照顾 look at看着 look back回顾 look down on/upon看不起 look for寻找 look on旁观 look out注意 look over仔细检查 look up向上看 pull in进站 pull on上演 pull off推迟 pull out公布,出版 pull down记下,镇压 pull up举起,张贴 pull up with忍受 take after与?想像 take care当心 take effect生效 take charge接管 take in欺骗,理解 take off脱下,起飞 take on承担,从事 take over接受,借用 take place发生,进行 take turns依次,轮流 take up占据 It takes 花时间/ sometime/money/energy 金钱/精 to do sth 力做?事 take paid work 供职 放轻松 relax youself take it easy At ease稍 ease缓解/iz/ 息 World trade WTO

organization 只有在这 Only under special 种情况 circumstances are 下,新生 freshmen permitted to 被允许补 take make-up tests. 考。 turn in上交 hand in交上 turn on开 turn off关 turned out结果是,原来,竟然 turn over打翻,(营业额)达到,移交 turn to 转向,变成 turn up出现,露面 turn down拒绝 dying 奄奄一息的 straight 径直的 admire 欣赏 imitate 模仿,copy erect 竖起来 audience 公众 key words 关键词 conductor 导体,讲解员 following 跟随 work out 制订 yield 产量,屈服 deliver 发表 equal 等于(1.2=1) freeze 冻结,不许动 stop 不要动 flight 航班 snowstorm 暴风雪 materials 材料 ordered 订购,有序 stock 股票,存货 dozens 数十(种)

decade within impolite court dive refer demanded suburb score calculate cave reception out of town exhibition directed defense desired desire essential deadline appiont vital bitten toy fish rubber spin expenses

十年 在(几年内)=in 礼貌的 场地 跳水 提交,查阅 要求 郊区 成绩,得分 计算(钙cal,铜 cu,来晚了 late) 洞穴 接待处 出城 展览会 指示 防务 希望 选拔,渴望 必需 最后期限 任命 /vaitl/重大 的,生死攸关的 咬伤 玩具鱼 橡胶 自转 费用

even if as if whether indicate drug lightening thuder the instant character mention not even via mission despite skin withdraw liquids solids definite volume suspend portrait obtain survey region occur realize spring persuade

即使 仿佛 是否 表明 吸毒,麻醉药 闪电 打雷 立即 人性 提及 更别说 通过,经由 使命,代表团 尽管 皮肤色 退出,吊销 液体 固体 确切 容积 挂 画 获得,取得 调查,测量 地区,区域 出现,遇见 认识到 春天,泉,使? 突然发生 劝说,说服

factor numerous vast most massive increase force press provide Pose hover ensure examine verify testify output surplus production plenty behavior occasion case situation circumstance resemblance appearance wet water soak hold

因素 众多 广阔 最 大规模 增加 力 新闻 提供 提出 盘旋,徘徊,萦绕 确保,保证 检查,检验 证实,确认 作证 产量 剩余,过剩 生产 许多,丰富 行为,举止 场合 事实,情况 情况,形势 环境,形势 相似 外观 湿 水 浸泡 举行

put bring pull push thought thinking idea impression novel contain marvelously Reveal Blame salt crisp brittle delicate fragile nap bitter gap square factor vast massive numerous acceptable refrain prevent

放 带来 拉 推,按 思想 思维 主意 印象 小说 包含 不平凡 揭示 责怪 盐 虚弱的 易碎的 娇嫩,精巧 脆弱 绒毛,小睡 苦 差距 广场 因素 广阔 大规模 众多的 合意的,可接受 的 避免 防止

resist 抵制 retrain 再培训 annoyance 烦恼 offence 罪行 resentment 怨恨 irritation 刺激性 barber 理发师 Subway 地铁 labor unions工会 Comfort 安慰,舒适 well-educated受良好教育 Problems, issues, letters, 问题,争端,信件 Symptoms and diagnosis症状与诊断 fever发烧 My alibi我不在场证明 crime犯罪 The crime report报案 Don’t have 不要把 him as a 他当朋 friend, he’s 友,他是 nothing but a 个犯罪 criminal 分子 Crime scene investigation犯罪现场调查 spot 现场 scene现场,布景 stop thief拦住贼 steal stole stolen偷 steel 钢 leaf叶子 suit适当,适合 mix 混合,模棱两可 out-of-class activities课外活动 post 文章,岗位n. 邮寄,公告,张贴v. native 本地人,土著 tutorial辅导 learning the ropes(绳索) 抱团学习 initiative 主动性n. pronounce 发音,发表,断言 Enthusiasm 热情 neglect 忽视(n,un,dis否定词?) result 结果,收获n. 导致v. consequence 后果,意味,续集n. consequently 从而,作为?结果

pet 宠物n. 宠爱vt. 拥抱,爱抚,发脾气vi. Missing pet!丢失的宠物 On safari在野生动物园 playful 调皮,爱游玩,幽默的? Humor幽默 music, camping and me 音乐,野营和我 go carnival go!去狂欢吧! tent 帐篷 recognize 认为 Most doctors 许多医生 recognize 认为医药 that medicine 就应当成 is as much an 为艺术, art as it is a 而不是一 science. 门科学. Cheer up!打起精神 cheers干杯 desert 沙漠 Oasis 绿洲 Culture 文化 English literature 英语文学 Art 艺术,美术 actor 演员 act 作为,法案,条例n. 扮演,演习,做v. role 角色 Have broken no rules 不作为 rude 无礼的,粗鲁 behave 表现 case sensitive 区分大小写 case 案例,情况 sensitive 敏感 1. ceremony (n.) 仪式,典礼 The awards ceremony was packed with rich and famous people. 颁奖典礼中挤满了有钱及知名人士。 2. organism (n.) 生物,有机体 Any living thing is an organism. 任何有生命的东西都是有机体。 3. nest egg 储蓄 By retirement, they had saved up quite a nest egg.

到退休时,他们已经存了一大笔钱了。 4. plant (n.) 植物 Most plants need dirt, water and sunlight to live. 大部分的植物需要仰赖土壤,水和阳光生存。 5. animal (n.) 动物 What is the biggest animal you have seen? 您所看过最大的动物是什么? 6. college fund 念大学的基金 I've been adding to his college fund for years now.. 我已经为他的大学基金贡献多年了。 7. living (a.) 有生命的;活的 Coral is actually a living animal, living on top of dead animals. 珊瑚事实上是一种有生命的动物,生长在死去动物身上。 8. mammal (n.) 哺乳动物 Did you know that whales are mammals? 您知道鲸鱼是哺乳动物吗? 9. nuclear family 核心家庭 My cousin is not part of my nuclear family. 我的堂表兄弟姊妹并不是核心家庭的一部分。 10. insect (n.) 昆虫 Mosquitoes are my least favorite insect. 蚊子是我最不喜欢的昆虫。 11. fowl (n.) 鸟禽类 Ducks are a type of water fowl. 鸭子是一种水上禽鸟。

12. seeing each other 约会 We've been seeing each other for about 3 months. 我们已经约会大约三个月了。 13. complimentary (a.) 【美】赠送的 The flight attendant gave me a complimentary drink after we took off. 飞机起飞后,服务人员给我们附赠的饮料。 14. currency (n.) 货币 Every country has its own currency. 每个国家都有自己的货币。 15. behave yourself 规矩点 Please behave yourself before the guests. 在宾客面前请你检点一些。 16. reusable (a.) 可重复使用的 Reusable items last longer than disposable ones and help the environment. 可重复使用的物品比抛弃式耐用,而且对环境比较好。 17. impact (n.) 影响 Tourists can have a big impact on the places they visit. 观光客对他们所参观的地方可造成很大的影响。 18. behind the scenes 幕后 He is the man behind the scenes. 他是幕后人物。 19. contraband (n.) 违禁品 If you bring contraband into a country, you may go to jail. 如果你把违禁品带进一个国家,可能要坐牢。 20. quarantine

(n.) 隔离 If you bring your pet to another country, you may have to put it in quarantine for a while. 如果你把宠物带到另一个国家,它可能要被隔离一段时间。 21. between ourselves 私下的话,不可外传 This matter is between ourselves. 这事你我知道就好。 22. provision (n.) 储备粮食 We brought plenty of provisions for the trip. 我们为这趟旅行带了足够的粮食。 23. cuisine (n.) 美食;佳肴 French cuisine is famous around the world. 法国美食举世闻名。 24. beyond the seas 在国外,在海外 He had a good time when he was beyond the seas. 他在国外时曾过得很快活 25. chow (n.) 【口】食物,食品 We had some good chow in that little restaurant. 我们在那家小饭馆吃了一些不错的食物。 26. delicacy (n.) 美食;佳肴 This is a local delicacy and you can't find it anywhere else. 这是当地的美食,而且您无法在其它地方找到它。 27. butt in 插手;介入;插嘴 Don't butt in! 不要管闲事! 28. raw (a.) 生的,未煮过的

In Italy, they serve raw beef. 在意大利,他们提供生牛肉。 29. grill (n.) 烤架;烧烤的肉类食物 This steak is fresh off the grill! 这块新鲜的牛排是刚烧烤好的! 30. by and large 大体上,总的看来 I cannot totally take your point, but by and large I think yours is reasonable. 我不能完全同意你的观点,但大体上你的观点是有道理的。 31. boil (vt.) 烹煮 Dumplings are often eaten boiled. 水饺经常被烹煮来吃。 32 . stew (vt.) (用文火)煮,炖,焖 Can you stew up some meat and vegetables? 您能炖煮一些肉和蔬菜吗? 33. call the shots 做决断 Who do you think you are calling the shots? 在这指发号施令,你以为你是谁啊? 34. steam (vt.) 蒸,煮 She prefers to steam her dumplings. 她比较喜欢蒸的水饺。 35. aromatic (a.) 芳香的 Fresh bread is quite aromatic. 新鲜的面包很香。 38. clown around 胡闹 That boy is seldom serious about anything. He’s always clowning around.

这个男孩对任何事情都不认真,他总是胡闹。 39. flaky (n.) 薄片的;成层状的 The croissants were fresh and flaky. 牛角面包很新鲜又薄而易剥。 40. rich (a.) 味道浓厚 That chocolate cake is too rich for me. 那个巧克力蛋糕对我来说太浓了。 41. cook up 构思;策划 I have to cook up an excuse for being late for class. 我必须为上课迟到编个借口。 42. tender (a.) 嫩的;软的 The steaks were tender and juicy. 那块牛排鲜嫩多汁。 43. sour (a.) 味道浓厚 Let's order sweet and sour pork. 让我们点一份糖醋排骨。 18. crocodile tears 鳄鱼的眼泪,假慈悲 Don’t shed crocodile tears over his misfortune, I know you hate him. 不要假惺惺的为他的厄运假慈悲了,我知道你恨他。 44. spicy (a.) 辣的 The tofu was too spicy for him. 那块豆腐对他来说太辣了。 45. stinky (a.) 臭的 I can't believe you've never had stinky tofu! 我不敢相信你从未吃过臭豆腐

47. rotten (a.) 发臭的 Stinky tofu smells rotten, but it tastes great. 臭豆腐闻起来是臭的,但吃起来却很好吃。 46. cry over spilled milk 做无用的后悔 It is no use crying over spilled milk. 覆水难收。 48. fresh (a.) 新鲜的 Your fish must be fresh if you want to eat it raw. 你的鱼必须是新鲜的,如果你要生吃的话。 49. down and out 穷困潦倒;孤苦无助 People should lend him a helping hand; He’s really down and out. 人们应该助他一臂之力,他已经穷困潦倒了。 73. in a bind 窘迫;陷入困境 I’m really in a bind.我左右为难。 64. high and dry 被抛弃的,处于痛苦之中的 George took all the money away and left his companions high and dry, with nothing to buy the tickets. 乔治带走了所有的钱,把他的同事抛弃了,连买车票的钱也没有。 67. high and low 到处 I looked high and low for my pen,but I couldn’t find it anywhere. 我到处找我的钢笔,但我怎么也找不到它。 61. hang in the balance 未见分晓;悬而未决 I guess my future hangs in the balance. 我想我的未来悬而未决啊。 79. ins and outs 错综复杂事物的因果

After careful investigation, he got to know the ins and outs of the accident. 经过仔细的调查,他终于弄清了事件的前因后果。 82. It's in God's hands 听天由命 It's in God's hands and we have prepared for the worst. 听天由命吧,我们已经做最坏的准备了。 85. let sleeping dogs lie 莫惹是非;别多管闲事;别惹麻烦 Don't tell the teacher what you have done. Let sleeping dogs lie. 不要告诉老师你做了什么。莫惹是非。 88. lose one's temper 发脾气;动怒 Don't lose your temper in front of the class. 别在班上发脾气。 91. make ends meet 使收支平衡 I have to take two part-time jobs at the same time to make ends mee. 为了收支平衡,我不得不同时作两份兼职。 94. make use of 使用;利用 He will make use of all the odds and ends. 他会利用所有这一切零碎东西。 50. past (n.) 过去,昔日 He lives in the past and he doesn't even have a computer! 他还活在过去,竟然没有计算机! 51. present (n.) 现在,目前 Only by living in the present can you be free of worries. 只有活在当下才能无忧虑。 52. eat like a bird 胃口小,吃的少 Jenny is very slim because she eats like a bird.

詹妮十分苗条,因为她吃的少。 54. duration (n.) 持续时间 A basketball game has a duration of 48 minutes. 一场篮球有 48 分钟的比赛时间。 55. for good 永远 Smoke less everyday, then you might be able to quit smoking for good. 每天少吸烟一点, 你就可能会永远戒掉烟。 56. outlook (n.) 前景 The company's outlook was not good. 公司的前景不怎么看好。 57. potential (n.) 潜力 I think this young man has a lot of potential. 我觉得这个年轻人的潜力不错。 53. future (n.) 未来,将来 She didn't see any future in their relationship.她对她们的未来没抱希望。 59. fortune (n.) 命运 Before we were married, we had to have our fortunes told. 我们在结婚前已经算过命了。 60. fate (n.) 命运;天命,天数 You can not escape your fate. 你无法逃脱你的命运。 58. get fired 炒鱿鱼 The anchorman of the BBC network’s evening news got fired. 听说 BBC 电视网的晚间新闻主播被炒了鱿鱼。 62. goal

(n.) 目标 After you set your goals, you must work continuously toward them. 设定目标后要持续的往目标努力。 63. plan (n.) 计划 She has a 10-step plan for her future. 她对她的未来设定了十个步骤的计划。 65. projection (n.) 规划 The company's projection of their income was unrealistic. 公司对营利的规划不切实际。 66. schedule (n.) 行程 We are already behind schedule and we haven't even started yet. 我们的行程已经晚了,甚至还没开始呢! 68. intend (vt.) 打算 My parents intend for me to go to university in England. 我的父母打算让我到英国读大学。 69. dream (n.) 梦想 Without dreams, we have no future. 没有梦想就没有未来。 70. hit upon 突然想到 He hit upon a plan to defeat his antagonist. 他突然想出了一个挫败他对手的计划。 71. wish (vt.) 想要;希望,渴望 I wish I had a girlfriend. 我想要有个女朋友。 72. aspire (vi.) 热望,向往;怀有大志 There are many waitresses that aspire to be actresses.

有许多的女服务生向往成为女演员。 74. aspiration (n.) 热望,志向,抱负 My aspirations push me to work harder every day. 我的抱负让我每天要努力工作。 75, priority (n.) 优先考虑的事 Safety is our first priority. 安全是我们的优先考虑。 76. in luck 幸运 You are in luck. 你很走运。 77. biological (a.) 生物的 Her biological clock was ticking and she really wanted to have a baby. 她的生物时钟在起变化,所以她想要有个小孩。 78. resolution (n.) 决心;决定 Have you made any New Year's resolutions yet? 你许下新年愿望了吗?/你定好新年计划了么? 80. GPS =Global Positioning System 全球定位系统 Did you know you can use the global positioning system to find a difficult address?. 你知道你可以用全球定位系统来找一个难找的地址吗? 81. LAN =local area network 局域网 All our office computers are on a local area network. 我们公司里所有的计算机都在局域网上。 83. abdomen (n.) 腹;下腹;腹部 The pregnant woman has an enlarged abdomen. 那位孕妇有增大的下腹。

84. bereave (vt.) 使失去(希望、生命等) The lost hikers were bereft of hope when the rescue plane did not see them. 当救援的飞机没有看到他们时,那些迷路的徒步者丧失了希望。 86. bereave (vt.) 使孤寂;使凄凉 The children were bereaved by the death of their parents. 那些失去双亲的孩子是可怜和孤独的。 87. consecrate (vt.) 奉……为神圣;尊崇 This battlefield is consecrated to the memory of the soldiers who died here. 这个战场被视为圣地以纪念死于该处的战士。 89. evoke 唤起(记忆等);引起 A good joke does not necessarily evoke a hearty laugh. 好笑话并不一定逗人大笑。 90. groove (n.) 沟;槽;凹线 Wheels left grooves in a muddy dirt road. 车轮在泥泞的路上留下凹痕。 92. jolt (vt.) 使摇动;使颠簸 The old car jolted its passengers badly as it went over the rough road. 那辆旧车走过崎岖的道路时,很厉害地颠簸着它的乘客。 93. obsolete (a.) 过时的,老式的 Bowing to greet a lady is now an obsolete custom. 用鞠躬来欢迎女士如今已是过时的习俗。 95. prowl (vi.) (野兽等)四处觅食;暗中来回寻觅 Many wild animals prowl at night looking for something to eat. 许多野兽在夜间巡行觅食。 96. scoop

(vt.) 挖出;挖成 The children scooped holes in the sand. 孩子们挖了沙坑。 97. monkey business 胡闹耍骗人的把戏;捣鬼 He told the boys to quit their monkey business, or he would call a teacher. 他告诉那些男孩子不要再胡闹,不然他就叫老师。 98.Status (n.) 情形,状况,状态 Diplomats are interested in the status of world affairs. 外交家关心世界局势。 99. sue (vt.) 控告 The farmer sued the railroad station because his cow was killed by the train. 那位农夫因他的牛被火车压死而控告火车站。 100. on and off 间断地 It rained on and off all day long. 今天断断续续地下着小雨。 101. bandit (n.) 强盗,土匪 The bandit in a typical Western movie rides a horse and goes armed, either alone of in a group. 在典型的西部片中,土匪单独或成群结队骑着马且全副武装。 102. commemorate (vt.) 庆祝;纪念 Christmas commemorates the birth of Jesus Christ. 圣诞节是庆祝耶稣基督的诞生。 106. out and about 户外活动 Mr. Smith recovers quickly,and he'll be out and about very soon. 史密斯先生复原得很好,很快他就能到户外活动了 107. defile (vt.) 弄脏 The children's muddy shoes defiled all the rugs in the hotel.

孩子们泥泞的鞋子把旅馆的地毯全弄脏了。 108 . deviation (n.) 越轨;偏向 Running in the hall is a deviation from the school rules and will not be allowed. 在走廊上奔跑是违反校规且不被允许的。 109. out and out 完全地;彻底地 What I said is an out and out truth. 我说的全都是事实。 110. fortitude (n.) 坚忍;刚毅 She could bear the disappointments of other people with tolerable fortitude. 她能够毅然忍受他人带给她的失望。 111. inconsolable (a.) 极为伤心的 The little girl was inconsolable at the loss of her kitten. 那个小女孩因失去她的小猫而伤心不已。 112. deal with 处理…… How can I deal with the problem? 我要怎样处理这个问题呢? 113. nibble (vt.) 一点点地咬(或吃) Aren’t you hungry? You are only nibbling your food. 你不饿吗?你只是在轻咬你的食物。 114. pageant (n.) 壮丽的场面 The coronation of the new king was a splendid pageant. 新国王的加冕典礼非常壮观。 115. be attentive to 留心……;注意…… He's really attentive to his work. 他做事真的很用心。

118. with attention 留心地;注意地 He often works with undivided attention. 他经常是一心一意的做事。 116. scourge (n.) 引发灾害的人或事 After the scourge of flood usually comes the scourge of disease. 洪水之后往往有瘟疫发生。 117. tumble (vi.) 跌倒;滚下;坠落 The crippled child tumbled down the stairs and was badly hurt. 那个跛脚的小孩从楼梯上跌下来,伤得很重。 119. afflict (vt.) 使痛苦,使苦恼,折磨 There are many illnesses which afflict old people. 老人受到许多病痛的折磨。 120. censure (vt.) 责备;谴责 His employer censured him for neglecting his work. 他因忽视了工作而受到雇主的责备。 121. think about 觉得…… What do you think about those members of the motorcycle racing clan? 你对那些飙车族成员有什么看法? 122 . dissimulation (n.) 掩饰 The thief intruded into the house with caution and dissimulation. 窃贼小心掩饰地潜入室内。 123. flog (vt.) 鞭打 Nowadays, it is an inhumane punishment to flog the disobedient soldiers of sailors. 今天,鞭笞抗命士兵或水手是不人道的惩罚。 124. be tarred with the same brush

一丘之貉 They’re all tarred with the same brush. 他们是一丘之貉。 125. inscription (n.) 铭刻;铭文;碑文 According to the inscription on its cornerstone, this building was erected in 1919. 根据基石上的碑铭,这栋建筑物建于 1919 年。 126. lump (n.) 团,块 On his desk, many articles and documents are always piled in great lump. 在他的桌上,许多物品和文件总是被堆成一大堆。 127. leap to the eye 一目了然 A: What does this proverb mean? B: Gee, it leaps to the eye. Need I explain it for you? -这句格言是什么意思? -咦,那一目了然。需要我为你解释吗? 128. posture (n.) 姿势,姿态 He doesn’t sit straight, his posture is very bad. 他坐得不正,他的姿势很糟糕。 129. rummage (vt.) 翻找,仔细搜查 John rummaged all the drawers to find his gloves. 约翰为了寻找他的手套,翻遍了所有的抽屉。 130. go off without a hitch 一帆风顺 A: How about your business? B: Thank you for your concern. It has gone off without a hitch so far. -你的事业如何? -感谢关心。到目前为止一帆风顺。 131. wistful (a.) 渴望的;向往的;留恋的

A child stood looking with wistful eyes at the toys in the shop window. 小孩站在橱窗前渴望地看着那些玩具。 132. amicable (a.) 友善的,友好的;温和的 The amicable flash of her white teeth was very impressive. 她友善地露齿一笑,给人很深刻的印象。 133. Every minute counts 一刻千金 A: How come you make good of your time? B: It’s quite obvious that every minute counts. -为何你如何善用时间? -很明显,一刻千金啊 134. blizzard (n.) 大风雪,暴风雪 The soldiers are very exhausted for they have advanced forward without rest in a blizzard. 士兵们精疲力竭,因为他们在暴风雪中没有休息地连续前进。 135. cruise (vi.) 巡航;航游 If I were rich, I would like to cruise in the Southern Pacific for six months in a private yacht. 假如我有钱的话,我要乘私人游艇在南太平洋上航行六个月。 136. All have ended in smoke 一事无成 A: How about his business, studies and marital status? B: Regretfully, all have ended in smoke. -他的事业、学业和婚姻如何? -说来遗憾,一事无成。 137. eradicate (vt.) 根除;消灭 Yellow fever has been eradicated in the United States but it still exists in some countries. 黄热病在美国已经根除绝迹,但在一些国家却依然存在。 138. glimmer (n.) 微光 The doctor's report gave us only a glimmer of hope.

医生的报告仅给我们一丝的希望。 139. bite the dust 一败涂地 A: What was the outcome of the election about the candidate? B: It bit the dust. -该候选人的选举结果怎样? -一败涂地。 140. ransack (vt.) 彻底搜索,仔细搜查 The woman ransacked the house for her lost jewelry. 那位女士仔细搜索房屋寻找遗失的珠宝。 141. slash (vt.) (用刀,剑等)砍;砍击 He slashed a path through the high grass with a long knife. 他用一把长刀在高高的草丛中开辟出一条小径。 142. hit the right nail on the head 一针见血 A: What do you think about his comment on the current news? B: He hit the right nail on the head. -你觉得他对时事新闻的评论如何? -一针见血。 143. slump (vi.) 倒下,陷落 Our feet slumped repeatedly through the melting ice. 经过融化的冰时,我们的脚一再地陷了进去。 144. vogue (n.) 流行;风行;时髦 That pop song had a great vogue at one time. 那首流行歌曲有一阵子非常流行。 145. as clear as crystal 一清二楚 A: Something is wrong with the accounts. B: Nope. They’re as clear as crystal.

-这些账目有问题。 -不,它们一清二楚。 146. ascribe (vt.) 把……归因(于) He ascribes his success to skill and hard work. 他把他的成功归于技能和努力的工作。 147. bulwark (n.) 堡垒,壁垒 The soldiers kept their heads down behind the bulwark. 士兵们低头隐蔽在堡垒的后面。 148. go one's own way 一意孤行 A: The wayward girl is a great trouble to her parents. B: Absolutely. She is always going her own way. -那叛逆的女孩让她父母非常头痛。 -对极了,她总是一意孤行。 149. dubious (a.) 怀疑的,暧昧的,含糊的 She looked around this way and that in a dubious manner. 她以一种怀疑的态度看着四周。 150. facet (n.) (问题等的)一个方面 Selfishness was a facet of his character that we seldom saw before. 我们以前很少看到他个性中自私的一面。 151. go to pot 一落千丈 A: How about your son's schoolwork? B: It has gone to pot. He really lets me down. -你儿子的课业如何? -一落千丈。他实在令我失望。


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