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四川省巴中市2016高考英语二轮复习 阅读理解(2)


阅读理解(2)
阅读下列短文,从每题所给的四个选项(A、B、C 和 D)中,选出最佳选项。 (The Affect of Electricity on Cancer) Can electricity cause cancer? In a society that literally runs on electric power, the very idea seems

preposterous. But for more than a decade, a growing band of scientists and journalists has pointed to studies that seem to link exposure to electromagnetic fields with increased risk of leukemia and other malignancies. The implications are unsettling, to say the least, since everyone comes into contact with such fields, which are generated by everything electrical, from power lines and antennas to personal computers and micro-wave ovens. Because evidence on the subject is inconclusive and often contradictory, it has been hard to decide whether concern about the health effects of electricity is legitimate—or the worst kind of paranoia. Now the alarmists have gained some qualified support from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In the executive summary of a new scientific review, released in draft form late last week, the EPA has put forward what amounts to the most serious government warning to date. The agency tentatively concludes that scientific evidence “suggests a casual link” between extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields—those having very longwave-lengths—and leukemia, lymphoma and brain cancer, While the report falls short of classifying ELF fields as probable carcinogens, it does identify the common 60-hertz magnetic field as “a possible, but not proven, cause of cancer in humans.” The report is no reason to panic—or even to lost sleep. If there is a cancer risk, it is a small one. The evidence is still so controversial that the draft stirred a great deal of debate within the Bush Administration, and the EPA released it over strong objections from the Pentagon and the Whit House. But now no one can deny that the issue must be taken seriously and that much more research is needed. At the heart of the debate is a simple and well-understood physical phenomenon: When an electric current passes through a wire, tit generates an electromagnetic field that exerts forces on surrounding objects, For many years, scientists dismissed any

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suggestion that such forces might be harmful, primarily because they are so extraordinarily weak. The ELF magnetic field generated by a video terminal measures only a few milligauss, or about one-hundredth the strength of the earth’s own magnetic field, The electric fields surrounding a power line can be as high as 10 kilovolts per meter, but the corresponding field induced in human cells will be only about 1 millivolt per meter. This is far less than the electric fields that the cells themselves generate. How could such minuscule forces pose a health danger? The consensus used to be that they could not, and for decades scientists concentrated on more powerful kinds of radiation, like X-rays, that pack sufficient wallop to knock electrons out of the molecules that make up the human body. Such “ionizing” radiations have been clearly linked to increased cancer risks and there are regulations to control emissions. But epidemiological studies, which find statistical associations between sets of data, do not prove cause and effect. Though there is a body of laboratory work showing that exposure to ELF fields can have biological effects on animal tissues, a mechanism by which those effects could lead to cancerous growths has never been found. The Pentagon is for from persuaded. In a blistering 33-page critique of the EPA report, Air Force scientists charge its authors with having “biased the entire document” toward proving a link. “Our reviewers are convinced that there is no suggestion that (electromagnetic fields) present in the environment induce or promote cancer,” the Air Force concludes. “It is astonishing that the EPA would lend its imprimatur on this report.” Then Pentagon’s concern is understandable. There is hardly a unit of the modern military that does not depend on the heavy use of some kind of electronic equipment, from huge ground-based radar towers to the defense systems built into every warship and plane.

1.The main idea of this passage is [A]. studies on the cause of cancer . controversial view-points in the cause of cancer [C]. the relationship between electricity and cancer.
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[D]. different ideas about the effect of electricity on caner. 2.The view-point of the EPA is [A]. there is casual link between electricity and cancer. . electricity really affects cancer. [C]. controversial. [D].low frequency electromagnetic field is a possible cause of cancer 3.Why did the Pentagon and Whit House object to the release of the report? Because [A]. it may stir a great deal of debate among the Bush Administration. . every unit of the modern military has depended on the heavy use of some kind of electronic equipment. [C]. the Pentagon’s concern was understandable. [D]. they had different arguments. 4.It can be inferred from physical phenomenon [A]. the force of the electromagnetic field is too weak to be harmful. . the force of the electromagnetic field is weaker than the electric field that the cells generate. [C]. electromagnetic field may affect health. [D]. only more powerful radiation can knock electron out of human body. 5.What do you think ordinary citizens may do after reading the different arguments? [A].They are indifferent. [C]. The may exercise prudent avoidance. . They are worried very much. [C]. They are shocked.

Vocabulary 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. preposterous leukemia malignancy legitimate paranoia lymphoma carcinogen 反常的,十分荒谬的,乖戾的 白血病 恶性肿瘤 合法的,合理的 偏执狂,妄想狂。这里指:无根据的担心。 淋巴瘤 致癌物
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8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

minuscule consensus wallop epidemiological blistering critique imprimatur

很小的,很不重要 舆论 乱窜,猛冲,冲击力 流行病学的 罗嗦的,胡扯的 评论,批评 出版许可(官方审查后的) ,批准

难句译注 1. Because evidence on the subject is inconclusive and often contradictory,

it has been hard to decide whether concern about the health effects of electricity is legitimate—or the worst kind of paranoia. [参考译文] 由于这问题的证据还不是结论性的,而且常常是矛盾的,所以就难以断定有关

电力对身体的影响的顾虑是合乎情理,还是毫无根据的怀疑。 2. 3. EPA——U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 美国环境保护署

While the report falls short (缺乏,不够) of classifying ELF fields as

probable carcinogens, it does identify the common 60-hertz magnetic field as “a possible, but not proven, cause of cancer in humans.” [参考译文] 虽然报告没有把极低频磁场归类为可能致癌物,但它确实指出通常 60 赫兹的

磁场是“一种虽尚未证实,但可能导致人患癌症的因素。”

4. a

The evidence is still so controversial that the draft stirred great deal of debate within the

Bush Administration, and the EPA released it over strong objections from the Pentagon and the Whit House [参考译文] 证据争议性仍然很大,所以报告草案在布什政府内引起巨大的争辩,而环保署

无视无角大楼和白宫的强烈反对,公布了这份报告。 5. generate. [参考译文] 这远比细胞所产生的电磁场低的多。
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This is far less than the electric fields that the cells themselves

6.

?and for decades scientists concentrated on more powerful kinds of

radiation, like X-rays, that pack sufficient wallop to knock electrons out of the molecules that make up the human body. [参考译文] 而且几十年来,科学家专注于更为强大的辐射类别,如X光射线,其聚合的冲

击力足以把电子从组成人体的分子中撞出来。 7. But epidemiological studies, which find statistical associations between

sets of data, do not prove cause and effect. [参考译文] 关系。 8. 9. a body of laboratory work 一批研究成果。 可是流行病学的研究发现,几组资料在数据方面有所关联,却没有证实其因果

In a blistering 33-page critique of the EPA report, Air Force scientists

charge its authors with having “biased the entire document” toward proving a link. [参考译文] 在长达 33 页的对环保署文件的十分尖锐的批评中,空军方面的科学家指责,

作者歪曲整个文件以证明癌症和电磁场之间的关联。 10. [参考译文] It is astonishing that the EPA would lend its imprimatur on this report. 令人惊讶的是环保署竟然批准许可这份报告的出笼。

写作方法与文章大意 文章以问答的方式,对比的写作方法,写出了围绕电力是否影响健康——是否致癌因素的两 种观点,及其观点的依据。一种是美国环境保护署为代表的:极低频磁场是一种可能但还未 被证实的致癌因素,而且无视白宫和五角大楼反对,公布了这份报告。理由是科学证据提出 了两者之间的关联偶然性。另一种以空军中科学家为主的观点:电磁场不会诱发或触发癌症, 而且以歪曲整个文件来证明两者之关系,批评了环保署。其理由人人皆知。因军队中任一单 位都有点——从地面雷达到舰艇飞机防卫系统。

答案祥解 1. D 电力对癌症影响的不同观点。文章一开始就提出了“电会致癌吗?”这个问

题。十多年来,一大批科学家和新闻界人士都指出:研究结果似乎表示:接触电磁场可能会 增加患白血病和其他恶性肿瘤的危险性。所以说到目前为止还难以确定电力对健康的影响究 竟是理性的,还是杞人忧天。见难句注释 1。第二段公布了环保署的报告,见难句注释 3。第
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三段说明:即使有致癌危险也是极微的。但应予以认真对待,进行更多的研究。而第七段中 空军方面的科学家还没有被说服(见难句注释 9) ,明确提出,我们的评论员认为没有迹象说 明环境中存在的电力会诱发或促发癌症。 A. 对致癌因素的研究。 毫无关系。 B. 致癌原因方面有争议的观点,这两项根本部队,和文内电力

C. 电力和癌症的关系,文中涉及的是电力究竟会不会致癌的两种观点,而不

是两者之关系。 2. A. 电和致癌有一定难以确定的关系。答案在第二段第三句,环保署目前的结论

是据科学证据指出极低频电磁场——具有长波的电磁场——和白血病,淋巴瘤及脑癌之间有 着难以确定的联系,见难句注释 3。 A. 电确实致癌,不对。 C. 有争议的。说的不够清楚,争议什么。 D. 低频磁场是一

个可能致癌因素。这只是论点的一面。 3. B. 现代军事的任何部门都一直依赖于应用大量应用电子设备。五角大楼和白宫

所以反对环保署公布报告之理由就在此。空军方面的专家所以说环保署方面的报告“歪曲了 整个文件以证明两者之间的关系”也在此。见难句注释 4。所以文内说“角大楼的关注是可以 理解的。” A. 报告会在布什政府内引起大规模的辩论,这是结果。 的,这不是原因。 4. D. 他们有不同的观点。 C. 五角大楼的关注是可以理解

A.磁场力太弱不会产生有害作用。答案在第四段第二,三句,当电流通过电缆,

产生磁场,对周围物体产生(影响)力。许多年来,科学家把任何有关“这些力可能有害的 想法”置于一边(不予考虑) ,主要是因为它们(所产生的力)非常弱。 B. 磁场力比细胞产生的电磁场弱。只是明确指出的事实。 不对。 5. C. 磁场力对人的健康有害。

D. 只有更强的辐射才能把人体中的电子击出来。不对。 C. 他们会采取谨慎小心避开电器的途径。因为他们不可能象 A 项那样漠不关心。

这种问题直接影响人的生命。 B. 他们非常担忧。 D. 他们感到震惊,这两项都不可能,因为还在争议中,唯一的途径

是尽量避开和电器接触。

阅读下列短文, 从给的四个选项 (A、B、C 和 D) 中, 选出最佳选项。 (2013·海淀区期末,C)

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The early lack of exposure to science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) can be harmful to achieving gender (性别) balance in these fields. It begins when we are young and continues throughout our time in high school. While at home, girls generally don't get to experience the level of exposure or encouragement in STEM fields that their male counterparts do. It is often subtle, but it's the first hurdle that faces and confuses so many women. Boys, on the other hand, get on their path, and are encouraged to do so, generally earlier than girls. For example, boys are more often given science sets as toys, which spark an interest in these subjects. In school, boys are often pushed to take the more challenging math and science classes. So if we want to attract the best and brightest minds into the fields that will advance us as a people, a country, and a planet, we can no longer look to only half of the population. Young girls cannot possibly consider opportunities they do not know exist. If girls are not exposed to certain subject and career paths, they are highly unlikely to choose to follow them in college. Our bias (偏见) toward girls, either from families or from schools, is so rooted in our culture that we often don't even recognize it. Although the situation has changed greatly in the past 20 or 30 years, there is still a sense, that girls aren't as good at math, for instance, even though there is almost no evidence to support such a belief. It is important that as a society we deal with gender stereotypes long before young people are faced with a decision to declare or choose a major in college. Without making efforts to break them, we are limiting the potentials of our youth, both male and female. Providing the necessary resources, exposure, and encouragement would help young women understand that their gender shouldn't determine the career path they choose, and that pursuing a STEM career does not make them less feminine. 文章大意:本文是一篇议论文。由于受传统偏见的影响,女孩最终进入 STEM(科学、技术、工 程、数学)领域的人数不多,直接导致了这些领域中男女比例失衡。作者呼吁,让更多的女性 参与到 STEM 领域中去。 9.According to the passage, not many girls grow to enter STEM fields because ________. A.girls are not as good at STEM as boys B.girls do not like to take science classes C.girls get fewer chances to know about STEM D.girls seldom survive the high pressure positions 答案:C 细节理解题。根据文章第二、三段可知,由于对女孩的偏见,无论在家还是在学校,
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女孩在了解 STEM 方面的机会比男孩要少,这就是女孩进入 STEM 领域人数很少的原因。故答 案选 C。 10.The underlined word “it” in Para. 4 refers to ________. A.our bias C.the situation B.our culture D.a sense

答案:A 指代判断题。画线词前面提到,我们对女孩的偏见不是来自家庭,就是来自学校, 在我们的文化中根深蒂固,而我们却经常对此不承认。由此可推知,不承认的内容是“我们 对女孩的偏见” ,因此,it 指代的就是 our bias。故答案选 A。 11.The main purpose of the passage is to ________. A.show women's potentials in STEM fields B.praise women's contributions to STEM fields C.describe the present gender bias in STEM fields D.call for more involvement of women in STEM fields 答案:D 推理判断题。根据文章最后一段最后一句中的“... help young women understand that their gender shouldn't determine the career path they choose, and that pursuing a STEM career does not make them less feminine.”并结合全文可知,文章主要目的是为 了呼吁更多的女性参与到 STEM 领域中。故答案选 D。 12.Which of the following shows the structure of the passage?

CP:Central Point P:Point Sp:Subpoint (次要点) C:Conclusion 答案:D 细节理解题。浏览全文可知,第一段是中心段,提出了问题,起到了总领下文的作 用;而第二段和第三段分别谈到在家和在学校的情况,两段是并列平行关系;第四段是对第
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二段和第三段的总结;最后一段是文章的结论部分。因此,D 项符合题意。故答案选 D。

阅读下列短文, 从给的四个选项 (A、B、C 和 D) 中, 选出最佳选项。 (2013·兰州市诊断,B) “I like your smile, but unlike you put your shoes on my face”. A charming way of saying “Keep off the grass”. But could you figure it out? Or this: “Wash Clothing Store” for laundry. They are both typical Chinglish, a combination of English vocabulary and Chinese grammar. Expressions such as “people mountain people sea”, means extremely crowded, and “give you some color to see”, meaning a punishment, are widely known and recognized. Chinglish has been attracting global attention in recent years as China grows rapidly in stature on the world stage, attracting both fans and detractors. The Beijing Speaks Foreign Languages Programme and English First China Company, a language trainer known as EF Education, jointly launched a campaign to root out poor grammar and misused vocabulary in downtown Beijing. They argue Chinglish is an embarrassment that we should let it die out at all costs. “It is meaningful, to allow the capital show its most beautiful historical and cultural heritage to the world.” Michael Lu, vicepresident of EF Education said,

“since the launching of the campaign, foreign teachers and students had been very keen to volunteer participation.” He believed signs were very important in public services. “The signs in some old buildings confused foreign visitors.” Chinglish, although the target of much criticism, has also won supporters who regard it as an interesting way for foreigners to learn how Chinese people think and express themselves. “Many Chinglish logos carry Chinese elements and they will enrich the English language, ” 32yearold Oliver Radtke said. He had even published a book “Chinglish: Found in Translation, ” on the subject. About 50 000 copies of the book have been sold since it was published in 2007. Some Chinese university experts also side with Chinglish. “English has absorbed elements from other languages such as French and Spanish in its growth, and the emergence of Chinglish again testifies to the language's vitality and inclusiveness, ”
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said Shi Anbin, an associate professor of Tsinghua University. 文章大意:本文是一篇议论文。文章介绍了中国式英语在中国的发展及应用,并列举了人们 对其不同的看法和理解。 13.How did Chinglish come into being? A.Chinese people misunderstood the meaning of the new words. B.Chinese people combined English vocabulary with Chinese grammar. C.Chinese people based their English on the native English speakers. D.Chinese people make wide use of English vocabulary with bad spelling. 答案: B 细节理解题。 根据第二段第一句“They are both typical Chinglish, a combination of English vocabulary and Chinese grammar.”可知,答案选 B。 14.What Shi Anbin said means ________. A.there are many French and Spanish words in English B.English is the language with vitality and inclusiveness C.Chinglish enriches English and shouldn't be got rid of D.Chinglish has greater effect on English than French and Spanish 答案:C 推理判断题。 根据文章最后一段可知, Shi Anbin 支持中国式英语。由“English has absorbed elements from other languages such as French and Spanish in its growth, and the emergence of Chinglish again testifies to the language's vitality and inclusiveness”可推知,Shi Anbin 认为中国式英语的存在证明了英语是一种包容性很强的 语言,中国式英语能像法语和西班牙语一样使英语变得丰富。故答案选 C。 15.According to Oliver Radtke, Chinglish ________. A.shows how Chinese people think B.does damage to the English language C.shows the great humor of Chinese people D.should be sold to all over the world 答案:A 推理判断题。根据文章倒数第二段第一句可知,中国式英语带有中国元素。由此可 推知,中国式英语体现了中国人的思维。故答案选 A。

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