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doing作状语


1.作表语

现 在 分 词

2.作定语 3.作宾补 4.作状语

三.V-ing作表语
We are learning English. 动词进行时 现在分词作表语

The story is interesting.

My job is teaching Eng

lish. 动名词作表语 =Teaching English is my job. 动名词作表语用来说明主语的内容,与主语是 同一个概念,表语和主语的位置可互换。

区别动名词与现在分词:
His hobby is painting.

动名词作表语用来说明主语的具体内容。
The news is inspiring.

现在分词作表语是用来表示主语所具有的 特征,有的已变成了形容词,主语和表语的 位置不能互换。

翻译下列句子: 1.我们的工作就是演奏各种音乐。 playing all kinds of music Our job is _________________________. 2. 他们演奏的音乐史如此的令人兴奋。 The music they are playing is __________. so exciting

四 V-ing作定语——现在分词

现在分词作定语,被修饰的词与V-ing之间有一 种逻辑上的主谓关系,相当于一个定语从句。 当现在分词单独作定语时,放在所修饰的名词前; 如果是现在分词短语作定语,则放在所修饰的名 词后。
The girl crying in the classroom is my desk mate. The crying girl is my desk mate.

The tower ___________ the warring states is well worth visiting. A.dated from B. dated back from C. dating from D. to date from The flowers __________ sweet in the botanic garden attract the visitors to the beauty of nature. A.to smell B. smelling C. smelt D. to be smelt

(1) a walking man =a man who is walking (2) a walking stick = a stick for walking What’s the difference between (1) and (2)?

V-ing作定语时,现在分词与动名词区别:
现在分词作定语时,它和被修饰的词之间有有 种逻辑上的主谓关系,相当于一个定语从句 a waiting room = a room for waiting
a waiting man = a man who is waiting 而动名词作定语时,与被修饰的词之间 没有这种关系,它仅仅表示一种用途, “作…用”相当于一个for引导的介词短 语

Translate the following phrases.
a reading room a washing machine 阅览室 洗衣机 an exciting evening

激动人心的夜晚 an interesting crosstalk
有趣的相声

Describe the bears with V-ing used as attribute
1.What ______________ bears they are! (charm) charming

surprising/inspiring idea the ad 2.What a/an ____________________ has.
enjoying cocacola are content 3. The bears _________________ with their life.skiing on the ice 4.The bears __________________ drinking cocacola make cocacola more popular.

五 V-ing形式作宾语补足语
V-ing形式作宾补时,它与宾语构成逻辑上的主谓 关系,即宾语是其逻辑上的主语。S+V+O+C

I heard the girl singing in the classroom. We have the fire burning all day. 动词-ing形式作宾语补足语 I noticed a long queue outside the bank 常放在宾语后面,表示一个 waiting for it to open. 正在进行的主动性的动作, The baby watched his dad shaving his face 强调一个过程或一种状态。 with great interest.

1. 能跟-ing形式作宾语补足语的常见 动词有: make, let, have, keep, leave, look at, see, watch, hear, listen to, notice, find, feel 等。

怎么记?

“五让、三看、两听、 一注意、一发现、一 感觉”。简单又好记!

He looked around and caught a man _________ his hand into the pocket of a passenger. A.put B. to be putting C. to put D. putting

Practice: 1. I saw them ______(force) the door forcing open with a hammer. 2. We heard them _________ quarreling (quarrel) about money after the concert; they looked very angry. 3. I heard him ________ dropping (drop) lots of coins into the collecting tin.

2.有些动词词组,如:regard, describe, accept, think of, look on等 之后可由as引出V-ing形式作宾补。 They describe the cartoon as being attractive.

六 分词作状语
分词作状语,表示动作发生的条件、原因、结 果、让步、时间、方式或伴随等,通常相当 于一个状语从句或并列分句。 一般说来,这种结构的逻辑主语就是句子的 主语。

作状语时,选择现在分词还是过去分词,关键 看主句的主语。如分词的动作是主句的主语 发出,就选用现在分词,反之就用过去分词。

条件状语
If you use your head, you’ll find a good way. Using your head, you’ll find a good way.

If I am invited,I’ll go to your party.
Invited,I’ll go to your party. 作条件状语一般放在句首

原因状语 Because he was poor , he couldn’t afford a TV set. Being poor, he couldn’t afford a TV set.
Because he was satisfied with his job,he had a big smile on his face.

Satisfied with his job,he had a big smile on his face.
作原因状语一般放在句首

让步状语

Though he studied hard, he didn’t pass the exam. Studying hard, he didn’t pass the exam. Though he was born in a poor family,he was optimistic. Born in a poor family, he was optimistic.

作让步状语一般放在句首

时间状语

While I was walking in the street, I saw a tailor’s shop. Walking in the street,I saw a tailor’s shop. When she was surrounded by a mad dog, she was very frightened and screamed. Surrounded by a mad dog,she was very frightened and screamed.
作时间状语一般放在句首

在使用的过程中,我发现这本书很有用。 Using the book, I find it useful. _______ 由于用了很长时间,这本书看上去很旧。 Used for a long time, the book looks old. _______

从上面看,体育场好像一个鸟巢。 ____ from the top, the stadium looks like a bird nest. A. Seeing B. Seen 从太空看, 宇航员看不到长城。 ____ from the space, the astronaut can not discover the Great Wall. A. Seeing B. Seen

并列句 Four people entered the room and looked around in a curious way. Four people entered the room,looking … The teacher came into the classroom and was followed by some students. The teacher came into the classroom, followed by some students. 作伴随状语多放于句末

方式状语或结果状语
He came running back to tell me the news. His father died, and this left the family even worse off. His father died, leaving the family even worse off. 作方式状语或结果多放于句 末

并列句 Four people entered the room and looked around in a curious way. Four people entered the room,looking … The teacher came into the classroom and was followed by some students. The teacher came into the classroom, followed by some students. 作伴随状语多放于句末

分词作状语时的时态和语态:
1)分词的时态:2)分词的语态

一般式: doing ? 完成式:having done ?

done having been done

1)一般式表示与谓语动词同时发生。 1. Hearing the news, he jumped with joy.

2. Surrounded by the students, the teacher was answering questions one by one.

2)完成时表示动作发生在谓语动词之前。

1.As he had finished his homework, he went out. =Having finished his homework, he went out. 2.Because she had not got a reply, she decided to write to him again. =Not having got a reply, she decided to write to him again. ___ a reply, he decided to write again. A.Not receiving B. Receiving not C. Not having received D. Having not received 可理解为:Because he had not received a reply, he decided to write again.

完成被动式:having been done 表示动作发生在谓语动词之前且含被动意义 (现代英语中往往用过去分词done替代)
Having been praised for his job, Tom worked harder. =Praised for his job, Tom worked harder.

______ by a snake, she was frightened at it.
A. Being bitten B. Bitten

C. Having been bitten

D. both B and C

几点注意 一、有些惯用的v-ing形式不表示句子主语的动 作,而是表示说话人的态度、观点等。可当作 一个插入语 generally speaking strictly speaking frankly speaking … judging from/by … considering … supposing 一般说来 严格说来 坦白地说 根据……来判断 考虑到…… 假如,如果

1. Generally speaking, boys are more interested in science than girls. 一般说,男孩比女孩对科学更感兴趣。 2. Judging from his accent, he must come from Canada. 从他的口音看,他一定来自加拿大。 3. Considering his age, he did it quite well. 考虑到他的年龄,他做得很好了。 4. Supposing it rains, what will you do? 假使下雨,你会怎么办呢?

二、分词作状语时,可以根据需要在其前加上when, while, before, after, until, once, though, although, unless, as if, even if, as long as等 1.Once losing this chance, you can’t easily find it. 2. If allowed to read in the reading room, you should keep quiet.

3. When leaving the station, he waved again
and again to me.

三、 当表示分词的动作一发生,主句的动作 随之也发生时,可以使用“on+动名词”的结构,翻 译成“一……就……”, 能够用于这种用法的动词都是 瞬间动词;如look, hear, see, open, close等。 Hearing the news, they couldn’t help jumping. = On hearing the news, they couldn’t help jumping.

On opening the case, I saw the bird fly out ___ ________
of it. 一打开这个盒子,我看到有只鸟飞出来。

Revision: Finish the sentences. Seeing is believing. 眼见为实。 主语 1. _______ sitting 坐) under 2. In the summer we enjoy _______( 宾语 the big tree. taking care of the babies 照顾 3. Her job is _________________________( 婴儿)。 表语(动名词) interesting 有趣的)。 表语(现在分词) 4. The story is ___________( 5. How can you keep her waiting _______(等待) in the rain. 宾语补足语 over there (站在那里) 6. The man standing ___________________ 定语 is my father.

句型转换: 1. When he heard the news, he jumped with joy.

Hearing the news, he jumped with joy. _________
时间状语
2. As she was ill, she went home.

________ Being ill, she went home. 原因状语
3. The girl came in and she smiled.

smiling 方式状语 The girl came in ___________.
4. She sat at the desk and read a newspaper.

reading a newspaper. She sat at the desk _________

表伴随状况

Tell the differences: 1.She keep the man waiting in the rain. 宾补 2. I will give the present to the student getting the first place. 定语 3. Being ill, she went home.

状语

Questions: 1. 现在分词分别作什么成分? 2. 现在分词的逻辑主语分别是什么? 宾补的逻辑主语是宾语;定语的逻辑主语是它所修饰 的名词或代词;V -ing形式作状语时, 它的逻辑主语必须 与主句的主语一致。

单句改错 1. Having not seen the film, I can’t tell you what I think of it. Not having 2. The men worked for extra hours got an extra pay. working 3. Seen from the top of the hill, we find the city more beautiful. Seeing

4. “ Can’t you read?” the man said, angrily pointed to the notice on the wall. pointing 5. Generally speak, facial expressions are helpful communications, too. speaking 6. European football is played in 80 countries, made it the most popular sport in the world. making

1. ________the piano, someone suddenly knocked at the door.

Choose the best answer.

A. Playing
B. When I was playing

C. Repairing
D. Examining

2. Mother caught the boy ______ in the

corner.
A. smoke

B. to smoke
C. being smoked D. smoking

3. ______ the programme, they have to stay there for another 2 weeks.

A. Not completing
B. Not completed

C. Not having completed
D. Having not completed

4. “We can’t go out in this weather”, said Bob, ____ out of the window. A. looking B. to look C. looked D. having looked 5. _______ such heavy pollution already, it may now be too late to
clean up the river. A. Having suffered C. To suffer B. Suffering D. Suffered

6.I was told that there were about 50 foreign students _____ Chinese in the school, most _____ were from Germany. (2006年 辽宁卷) A. study; of whom B. study; of them C. studying; of them D. studying; of whom

7. Don’t sit there ________ nothing. Come and help me with this table. (2006年 湖北卷) A. do B. to do C. doing D. and doing

8. —Can I smoke here?
—Sorry. We don’t allow ______ here. (2007年 江苏卷)

A. people smoking
B. people smoke

C. to smoke
D. smoking


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