Adverbial clause of condition
Look at the sentences from the passage.
? If you say the word “communication”, most people think of words and sentences. ? We use “
learned” body language when we
are introduced to strangers.
Now tick the true statements
The sentences from the passage … √ 1. Describe common situations 2. Describe impossible situations 3. Use if or when to introduce the √ situation 4. Explain the result of the situation in √ the other part of the sentence 5. Use the present simple tense in √ both parts of the sentence
Match the two parts of these sentences.
A. 1. When you meet someone B. for the first time C. 2. If you say goodbye to D. someone
you usually mean no you usually point you often wave to them you don’t take your 3. When you show someone shoes off the way E. you shake hands with 4. If you nod your head them. 5. When you enter a house F. you usually mean yes. 6. If you shake your head
3.Adverbial Clauses of Condition I. if 1) If he had worked harder, he would have passed the exam. 2) If you work harder, you will succeed. Work harder, and you will succeed.
Work harder, or you won’t succeed.
Working harder, you will succeed.
II. unless 1)We can’t write to Mary unless she tells us her address.
We can’t write to Mary if she doesn’t tell us her address. *III. as long as(只要 ) 1)I will never give up learning as long as I live. 2)You may borrow the book as long as you keep it clean.
*IV. on condition that（条件是） We’ll let you use the room on condition that you keep it tidy.
*V. in case (万一） You’d better take your raincoat with you in case it rains.
条 件 状 语 从 句
? Difficulties are nothing if if unless we are not afraid of them. as/so ? We shall go there tomorrow long as unless it rains. = We shall go there tomorrow in case so far as if it doesn’t rain. ? So/As long as you work hard, you will succeed. ? In case I forget, please remind me about it . ? So far as I know, the book will be published next month.
的谓语只能 用肯定式。 unless和 if…not同义， unless是书 面语， if…not是口 语，通常二 者可以换用。 条件状语从 句中的谓语 动词的时态 一般要用现 在时或过去 时代替一般 将来时或过 去将来时。
1、The WTO cannot live up to its name ____ it does not include C
a country that is home to one fifth of mankind. （2000全国）
A 2、 It is known to all that _____ you exercise regularly, you
won’t keep good health. （05重庆卷）
A. unless B. whenever C. although D. if
A．as long as
unless 相当于 if not，意思是“除非…”“如果不…
1、_____ I can see, there is only one possible way to keep B
away from the danger. （04北京春季） A. As long as B. As far as C. Just as D. Even if 2、I always take something to read when I go to the doctor’s ________ I have to wait. （05全国卷3） A A．in case B．so that C．in order D．as if
as long as 与 as far as 都可引导条件状语从句，as long as 表示“只要…”，as far as 表示“就…而论
（而言）”。题1根据题意应该选用B。in case 表示 “以防”，根据题2的句意，不难作出选择。
Exercise 2 on Page 26
Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. will be 1. If you _________ a cake your host _________ very take pleased. (take, be) gets will stay 2. Unless the weather ________ better, I ________at home. (get, stay) doesn’t feel will go 3. He _______ home early if he ___________ well. (go, not feel) 4. What shall I _______if they ______ about politics? ____ do talk (do, talk) raise 5. If you ____ your hand the taxi _______. (raise, stop) will stop 6. I ____________ anything unless he ______ me. will not say asks (not say, ask)
Adverbial clause of concession
Clauses of Concession(让步）
1) Although (Though) he is old ,he works hard. He is old, but he works hard. *2) Even though (even if) you say so, I don’t believe it. (即使 )
*3. Difficult as the work is, we’ll finish it on time. Though the work is difficult, we’ll finish it on time. 4.Whenever(No matter when) you come to our country, you will be warmly welcomed. 5.Wherever(No matter where) he goes, he always brings two bodyguards with him.
让 步 状 语 从 句
Although (Though) he was over sixty, (yet) he began to learn French.
虽然他六十多岁了，但仍开始 学习法语 。
We were not tired though (although) we had worked all day.
了“虽然”就不 能再用“但是” （but）但可以与 yet或still连用。
2. though / although
even if even though
意义相同，用法 基本一样，前者 通俗，口语化， 后者正式多放主 句的前面。
even if 和even though
I’ll go even if (though) it rains tomorrow. 即使明天下雨，我也要去。
的意思为“即 使”“纵使”有 退一步设想的意 味，多用于书面 语中。
让 步 状 语
no matter (who, what when, where which, how…)
Child as he is , he knows a lot . 虽然他是一个孩子，但他懂得很多。 Cold as it is, (= Though it is cold,)the children play outdoors. 虽然天气冷，但孩子们仍在户外玩。
Do it no matter what others say. 不管别人怎么说,尽管干。 No matter how busy he was, he studied English every day. 不管他多忙，他都每天坚持学习英语。 No matter who takes up the matter for me ,I shall be very grateful. 不管谁为我处理这件事，我都将非常感激。
as引出的状语从句多用于 书面语，它比用 though或although引导的 从句，语气强，更有表 现力，从句常放在句首 ，语序部分倒装。 no matter……与 who-ever 引导的让步状语从句意 义基本一 样，no matter……引导的从句 可是以位于主句前或主 句后。
wh－ever (whatever whoever whenever Whichever however)
Whatever happens / may happen , we shall not lose heart. 无论发生什么，我们都不要失去信心。 Whoever comes, he will be welcome. 无论谁来，都会受到欢迎。
1. Wh-ever从句中的动词有 时可以和may连用。 2. 判断wh-ever引导的是状 语从句还是名词性从句 的一点是: 名词性从句， 主句中一定有一个成分 要在从句担任，一般从 句与主句之间没有逗号。 不可将no matter与whever连用
问题1： 1、 _____ I accept that he is not perfect, I do actually like the A
A. While B. Since C. Before D. Unless 2、Allow children the space to voice their opinions, ____they B
are different from your own. (05湖南卷）(B)
A. until B. even if C. unless D. as though
while 是高考中的高频词，它既可引导时间状语从句，又可 引导并列句，还可引导让步状语从句，表示“尽管”。 even if 等于 even though，表示“即使、尽管”。as though 等于 as if，引导方式状语从句，表示“好像、似 乎”。
1. He tried his best to solve the problem, ___ difficult it was. A
（05天津卷） A. however B. no matter C. whatever D although 2、 2. The old tower must be saved, ______the cost. （05浙江） B A．however B．whatever C．whichever D．wherever no matter wh- 与 wh-ever 的联系及区别： no matter wh- 只引导让步状语从句，此时与 wh-ever通用。 如: No matter when / Whenever he comes back, he should be invited to the party. wh-ever又可引导名词性从句, No matter wh-不能。如： Whatever I can do for you will be nothing but paying a debt. Whoever can help us will be welcome
Exercise 2 on page 27
Complete the sentences with whoever, wherever, whenever, or however.
1. __________ I feel lonely, I think about you. Whenever 2. ________ he is, he is very rude to me. Whoever 3. _________ I go, I always meet interesting people. Wherever 4. You can invite ________ you like to the party. whoever 5. _________ late you arrive, I’ll come and meet you. However 6. I feel shy whenever she says hello to me. __________ 7. I hear that song __________ I switch on radio. whenever However 8. ___________ much I study, I find these exercises difficult.