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高中英语必修2(北师大版)Unit 6 Design 知识点总结

-- 中国首家承诺学习效果的在线教育公司

高中英语必修 2(北师大版)Unit 6 Design 知识点总结
一、重点词汇 词义辨析:ruin/destroy/damage

ruin destroy damage

侧重彻底的毁坏,通常指由自然现象、疏忽等造成的破坏。 通常指无法修护的损坏。 部分的损坏,可以修复。

He ruined his prospects by carelessness. 他因粗心大意断送了前途。 The fire destroyed the building. 大火毁灭了大楼。 Smoking will damage your health. 抽烟会损害你的健康。

purpose n. 目的,意图
1. on purpose:故意地 2. with the purpose of…:带着…的目的 She sometimes does things on purpose just to annoy me. 她有时存心做些事来使我生气。 He returned to his homeland with the purpose of serving his own people. 他返回祖国,意在为祖国人民服务。

conclusion n. 结尾,结论
1. in conclusion:总而言之,最后 2. draw a conclusion/conclusions:得出结论 In conclusion, I would like to say that you did it very well. 总之,我想说你做得很好。 It took us a long time to draw a conclusion that the man was innocent. 我们花了很长时间得出结论这个人是清白的。

-- 中国首家承诺学习效果的在线教育公司 fix one's eyes on:注视,凝视
Fix your eyes on the road and we will be much safer. 眼睛盯住公路,这样我们就更安全些。

sort of:有点儿,有几分地(=kind of)
I feel sort of surprised at his reason for being absent. 我对他未出席的原因感到有些吃惊。 拓展: 1. a sort of: 一种 2. all sorts of :各种各样的

date back (to) :追溯到…
My family has a vase, which is said to date back to Ming Dynasty. 我家有一个花瓶,据说可追溯到明朝。(date back to 通常加某一个过去的时间点) 拓展: date back to =date from(追溯到…) The Forbidden City can date back to / from the 14th century. 故宫可以追溯到 14 世纪。

relate to:和…有关
All the papers that relate to this subject are written by him. 有关这个问题的所有论文都是他撰写的。 拓展: 1. relate sth. to sth. :将…与…联系起来 2. be related to sth. :与…有关

try out: 试用,实验
I'm always pleased to try out a new variety. 我一直乐于尝试新产品。 拓展:try 短语 1. try on:试穿 2. try one's best to do sth.: 努力做某事 3. try to do sth. :尽力做某事,试图做某事 4. try doing sth. :试着做某事

-- 中国首家承诺学习效果的在线教育公司 hold one's breath:屏住气,屏息凝气
We held our breath in excitement. 我们激动地屏息凝神。 拓展: 1. take a deep breath :深呼吸 2. take one's breath away:使某人大吃一惊

abstract adj. 抽象的 straight adj. 直的 adv. 直接地 wavy adj. 波状的 imagination n. 想象,想象力 exhibition n. 展览,陈列 sweat n. 汗水 creature n. 动物,(有特质或特性的)人 valuable adj. 有价值的,贵重的 typical adj. 典型的 elegantly adv. 优雅地 emphasise/emphasize v. 强调 shallow adj. 浅的 feature n. 特征,特色 skyscraper n. 摩天大楼 angel n. 天使,天使般的人 dynasty n. 王朝 religious adj. 宗教的 pattern n. 样式,图案 character n. 字母;人物;性格;特征 rent n. 出租,租金 mercy n. 怜悯,同情 damp adj. 潮湿的,有湿气的 bathe vi.洗澡

-- 中国首家承诺学习效果的在线教育公司 二、重点句型 Its black eyes, which are fixed on the cabbage, show the creature's interest in the vegetable.
解析:本句主干为:Its back eyes show the creature's interest in the vegetable ;which 引导非限制性定 语从句, 修饰 black eyes,是对被修饰词的补充说明。非限制性定语从句通常和主句间用逗号隔开,将从句拿掉后 其他部分仍 可成立。如: Her house, which was built a hundred years ago, stood still in the earthquake. 那座房子在地震中依然耸立,它是一百多年前建造的。 翻译:它的黑眼睛正盯着白菜,显示出对白菜极大的兴趣。

Qi Baishi's style of painting often leaves the audience guessing and makes them use their imagination.
解析:本句为 and 连接的并列句,主语为:Qi Baishi's style of painting,前一句中 guessing 对宾语 the audience 进 行补充说明, 是宾语补足语, 后一句中 use their imagination 对宾语 them 进行补充说明, 做宾语补足语。 翻译:齐白石的绘画方式常给观赏者留出运用想象力解读其内涵的余地。 拓展: 1. leave 的宾补结构为: leave +宾语+v-ing/v-ed/adj./n./prep.,意为:让某人/某物处于某一状态 2. make 的宾补结构为:make+宾语+v./v-ing/v-ed/adj./n.,意为:让某人做某事,或让某人/某物处于某 一状态。

"A Young farmer who wanted a wife would look at a young woman's papercutting skills before marrying her!" explained Mr. Chen, laughing at the look of surprise on my face.
解析: 句中直接引语部分 who 引导定语从句, 修饰 a young farmer, 引导词 who 在定语从句中做主语。 laughing at the look of surprise on my face 为现在分词做伴随状语,与句子主语 Mr. Chen 含有逻辑上的主动关系。 翻译: 看着我脸上的惊异表清, 陈先生笑着说: “年轻农夫会一句年轻女子的剪纸艺术来挑选自己的新娘! ”

But what I remembered most is moving a lot.
解析:本句中 what 引导主语从句,做句子的主语,谓语动词为系动词 is,动名词 moving a lot 做表语。 翻译:但我记的最深的就是搬了很多次家。

-- 中国首家承诺学习效果的在线教育公司
拓展:what 在英语中可以引导名词性从句,起名词的作用。这些从句包括:主语从句、宾语从句、表语 从句、同位 语从句。 1. 主语从句, 表示“…的人或事”。 What he said at the meeting astonished everybody present. 他在会上说的话令每个与会者震惊。 2. 宾语从句(用作动词或介词的宾语) When you answer questions in a job interview,please remember the golden rule:Always give the monkey exactly what he wants. 求职面试时,请记住这条黄金定律:永远给予对方确实想要的东西。 3. 表语从句 Perseverance is a kind of quality and that's what it takes to do anything well. 坚定不移是一种品质——能使人做好任何事情。 4. 同位语从句(用在 idea, message 等名词后) I have no idea what we should do next. 我不知道下一步我们该干什么。

The house on Mango Street is ours, and we don't have to pay rent to anybody, or share the yard with the people downstairs, or be careful not to make too much noise, and worried about the landlord being angry.
解析:本句中第一个 and 连接并列句,第二个分句中两个 or 连接三个并列成分,表示否定意义。第二 个 and 连接并 列成分 be careful…和(be) worried about…。the landlord being angry 为动名词的复合结构,做介 词 about 的宾语。 翻译:芒果街的房子是我们自己的,我们不必给任何人交房租,不用和楼下的住户公用院子,不用小心 翼翼地不大 声喧哗,也不用担心房东生气。 拓展:动名词的复合结构可以做主语、宾语或表语,一般有四种形式: 1. 形容词性物主代词+动名词 Your going there will help a lot.

-- 中国首家承诺学习效果的在线教育公司
你到那里去将能帮上大忙。 2. 名词所有格+动名词 We are looking forward to the expert’s coming to give a speech to us. 我们正盼望着那位专家来给我们演讲。 3. 代词宾格+动名词 Do you mind me opening the door? 您介意我把门打开吗? 4. 名词+动名词 Can you hear the noise of the machine running? 你能听到机器运转的噪音吗?

Our house would be white with trees around it, a great big yard and grass growing without a fence.

解析: 本句中有两处 with 复合结构, 分别是: with trees around it 和(with) grass growing。a great big yard 前省略 了 with,意为:带有,without a fence 意为:没有栅栏,修饰 grass。
翻译:我们的房子将是由绿树环绕的白房子,有个很大的院子,还有长势茂盛没有栅栏的草坪。 拓展:with 复合结构,在句中可作伴随、方式、原因状语等。形式主要有: 1. with +宾语+介词短语 The teacher entered the classroom with a book in his hand. 2. with+ 宾语+ 过去分词 Without anything left in the cupboard, she went out to get something to eat. 3. with +宾语+ 现在分词 She fell asleep with the light burning. 4. with+宾语+形容词 She came into the room,with her nose red because of cold. 5. with +宾语+副词 With the meal over, we all went home. 6. with+宾语+动词不定式 He could not finish it without me to help him.

This was the house Papa talked about when he dreamed of being rich and this was the

-- 中国首家承诺学习效果的在线教育公司 house Mama dreamed up in the stories she told us before we went to bed.
解析:本句为 and 连接的并列句,前一句主干为:This was the house;Papa talked about when he dreamed of being rich 为省略引导词的定语从句,同时定语从句中又包含了 when 引导的时间状语从句。后一句主干 为:this was the house;Mama dreamed up in the stories she told us before we went to bed 为省略引导词的定语从 句,同时定 语从句中又包含了一个定语从句,即 she told us when we went to bed,这个定语从句中含有 when 引导 的时间状语从 句。 翻译:这是爸爸梦想富有时所谈到的房子,也是妈妈在睡觉前给我们讲的故事中所梦想的房子。

But the house on Mango Street is not the way they described it at all.
解析:本句主干为:But the house is not the way;they described it at all 为定语从句,修饰 the way。 翻译:但是芒果街的房子完全不像他们描述的那样。 拓展: 当先行词 the way 在定语从句中做状语, 表示“用…样的方式时”, 引导词有三种形式, 分别为: that/in which/ 省略。 This is the way (in which/that) he studies English. 这就是他学英语的方式。 She admired the way (in which/that) I answered the questions. 她欣赏我回答问题的方式。 注意下面的句子: I was impressed by the way she told us. 她告诉我们的方法让我印象深刻。(the way 在定语从句中做宾语,引导词用 that/which 或省略)

It's small and red with windows so small that you'd think they were holding their breath.
解析:本句含有 so…that 引导的结果状语从句,意为:如此…以至于…,主句为:It's small and red with windows small,采用了 with 复合结构。 翻译:房子很小,是红色的,前面是窄窄的楼梯,窗子小得让你觉得它们在屏住呼吸。

Out back is a small garage for the car we don't own yet and a small yard that looks smaller between the two buildings on either side.

-- 中国首家承诺学习效果的在线教育公司
解析: 本句是一个倒装句, out back 为句子的表语, 谓语为 is, 并列主语为: a small garage 和 a small yard。 we don't own yet 和 that looks smaller between the two buildings on either side 为定语从句,分别修饰:the car 和 a small yard。 翻译: 出门往后院走有一间小车库, 但现在我们还没有车。 还有一个小院子, 夹在两边的高楼中显得更小。 拓展: 当句首为表示方位或方式等的副词或介词短语时, 句子全部倒装, 这样的表达是为了使语言更生动。 常见 的这些词有:here, there, then, up ,down, in, away, off, out, in the room, on the wall, south, north, east, west, opposite 等。其结构为:地点方位词+动词+主语,若主语为人称代词,主语和谓语动词的位置不变,只将 副词放在 句首。 Just in front of the bus lies an injured man, all covered with blood. 车前躺着一个受伤的人,全身是血。 Away went the crowd one by one. 人们一个一个走了。

三、重点语法 定语从句(1):关系代词引导的定语从句
本单元学习关系代词引导的定语从句,我们通过下面几个句子,掌握其基本用法: 1. We need comrades _______ can help us. 2. The man ______ you saw yesterday was a doctor from Beijing. 3. This is a story about a heroine______ name is Liu Hu-lan. 4. This is our classroom,______ windows face the south. 5. Here is a book ______ will give a lot of useful knowledge. 6. This is the song ____we like best. 以上几个句子,我们分析如下: 1. 把 comrade 代入从句还原为 comrades can help us。 comrades 在从句中作主语, 用 that/who 代替。 2. 把 the man 代入从句还原为 you saw the man yesterday。 the man 在从句中作宾语, 用 that/whom 代 替,可以 省略。 3. 把 heroine 代入从句还原为 a heroine's name。name 与 heroine 表示所属关系用 whose。

-- 中国首家承诺学习效果的在线教育公司
4. 把 classroom 代入从句还原为 our classroom's windows,两者表示所属关系用 whose。 5. 把 book 代入从句还原为 the book will give a lot of useful knowledge。the book 在从句中作主语, 用 that/which。 6. 把 the song 代入从句还原为 we like the song best。the song 在从句中作宾语,用 that/which,可 以省略。 总结: 定语从句学习的根本是选对或填对关系词(引导词)。我们选择关系词要采用还原法,即把先行词(被 修饰名 词)代入从句,看其在从句中的成分,然后用相应关系词代替。所以,同学们一定要清楚每个关系词的作 用:

先行词 人 人 物 人/物 人/物 人/物

关系代词 who/that whom Which that as whose

从句中所充当的成分 主 宾 表 宾 主 宾 表 主 宾 表 主 宾 表 定语(表所属关系)

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