P121. War and peace
1. If they had known it would start a war
2. She would not have written that letter 3. If he had not been badly wounded 4. If there had been enough UN pea
cekeepers 5. We would have put flowers on the grave
a.he could have escaped.
b.they would not have invaded. c.they might have been able to stop the war.
d.if we had been able to find it. e.if she had not been so angry about the war.
1. If had not invaded Hilter_____________ (not invade) Poland in 1939, perhaps Britain would not have declared _______________ (not declare) war.
2.She would have married _____________ (marry)in 1945, if her fiancee had not died ______________ (not die) in Normandy.
3.If I __________ (not had not seen see) that film, I would never have known _____________ (never know) how terrifying war can be.
4. The battle _________________ would have finished (finish) much sooner if our troops had had ____________ (have) better guns.
5. If we had not sacrificed _____________ (not sacrifice) so many lives, we would have had _______________ (not have) our freedom today.
When the first shell(1) landed ______ on the beach, didn’t explode it (2)____________ (not explode). This (3) saved _______(save) me.
If it had exploded (4)____________(expl ode), I would have died (5)___________ (die) immediately. I lost (6)______ (lose) many of my friends that day.
When we (7)_______(leave) left England to go to France in the boats, we(8) ____________ were excited (be excited)
If we (9)____________ had known (know) what war (10) was ______(be) really like, we (11) would have been __________________ frightened (be __________ frightened).
But we (12) ____________(not didn’t have have) time to find out.
1. If I knew why she ran away, 2. She would sleep better,
a.if you met a monster?
b.if you thought I was behaving badly? c.I would know it immediately. d.I would tell you. e.if she watched fewer horror films on TV. f. this research would end tomorrow.
3. If I saw his face again,
4. Would you tell me, 5. If cloning were banned,
6. Wouldn’t it be terrifying
对过去的假设： If +主语+had done
主语+should\would\could\might +have done
如：If I had gone there, I would have been unhappy.
对现在的假设： If +主语+谓语动词的过去式 （was\were\did), 主语+should\would\could\might + 谓语动词（do） 如：If I were\hurt you, I would be unhappy.
对将来的假设： If +主语+谓语动词的过去式 （was\were\did), 或 If +主语+should\were to + do, 主语+should\would\could\might + 谓语动词（do）
1. I’m not the head of the laboratory. If I ________(be), I were/was would not allow _____________(not allow) this research.
2. He needed a lot of sleep when he was ill. hadn’t got If he ___________ (not get), he would have felt ______________ (feel) very tired.
3. She feels very lonely in that school. made If she _______(make) more friends, she __________ (not be) would not be so lonely.
4. He wanted to get married,but how could ________(can) he marry if he never ________(meet) any met women?
5. Everyone is frightened of the monster. If he were _______ (not be) so ugly, theywould not be ________ (not be) so frightened.
be not be able to buy not have like make pay work
I’ve always been a poor man. If I(1) _______ rich, I were (2)_________ to visit would like other countries.
I (3)_________ my would buy daughter a house pay and (4)_________ for her education.
But even if I ______ worked as hard as possible, I would not have ___________ enough money for these dreams.
On the other hand, if made I _____ lots of money, I would be so worried about losing would not it that I ___________ be able to sleep at night.
have/has been doing
1. 现在完成时：表示动作已经完成，强调 过去 发生的某一动作对现在造成的影响
already; yet; by this time; just;
ever; never; now; before; lately 等。
2.一般过去时仅仅说明动作在过 去，不强调对现在的影响。结 构：did/was/were
常用时间状语： yesterday, …ago, last …, in
3. 现在完成进行时表示从过去一直持续到现在 或一直到说话时为止的一段时间一再重复的动 作。强调动作的持续性。
have/has been doing 常用状语：all this time, all night, these days, for…, since… etc.
1. She has been playing the harp 2. My father has been listening to the radio for hours, 3. He said he had only been watching MTV for a short time, and 4. My friend John has been trying 5. They started recording at 6 a.m. 6. He only started to learn the pipa when he arrived in China,
a. promised he would do his homework soon. b. but he has been practising every day and he’s really good. c. since she was about 10 years old.
d. and they have been working ever since. e. hoping to hear some news.
f. to get into the team for two years.
1.She __________ jazz in New York since 2003. since 2003
A. has been studying B. studeid
2. My grandmother __ life dancing all her life: whenever I hear 1940s dance music I think of her.
A.has been liking B.. liked
3. Jane ___ in Shanghai since 2001 2001, but she still can’t speak Chinese. Alived
B. has been living
4. People ___ music for thousands of years years.
A.have been playing B. played
5. The top string broke on my lute and I __ to repair it since this morning morning. A.tried B.have been trying
How long (1) have been playing _______________ (play) the piano.
started I (2)__________ (start)
when I was four years old. old
So I have been playing _______________ (play) for 12 years now now.
When I was small, my small bought mother(4) ________ (buy) me a special piano, it (5)______ (be) was only a meter tall.
For the last two years I have been saving (6)______________ (save) my money to buy a really good piano;
I (7)____________ haven’t spent (not spend) any money not on CDs or clothes or sports.
But one day, when I’m famous, I will have a bit more money to spend: I (8)_____________ have been waiting (wait) such a long time for that moment.
P103. Interpersonal Relationship _ Friendship
The –ing form as the Adverbial 动词-ing 作状语 ? V-ing 作状语时表示的动作是主语动 作的一部分，与谓语表示的动作或状 态同时或几乎同时发生的，或是先于 谓语动词发生，它的逻辑主语与句子 的主语一致。V-ing 作状语常表示时 间、条件、原因、方式、伴随、让步、 结果，多用逗号跟句子其他成分隔开。
I was feeling tired, I went to bed early.
Feeling tired, I went to bed early.
I worked hard all day, I
went to bed early.
Having worked hard all day, I went to bed early.
? 作时间状语 Walking along the street, I met Mary. (=While I was walking along the street, …) Hearing the news, they all jumped with joy.
? 作原因状语 Being tired, I stopped to take a rest.
(=Because I was tired, …)
Not knowing her address, we couldn’t get in touch with her.
? 作条件状语 Turning to the left, you will find the school. (=If you turn the left, …) If you work hard, you'll succeed. =Working hard, you'll succeed. ? 作让步状语 1. Working hard as he did, he was still unable to support the whole family. 2. Knowing where I live, he never comes to see me. =Though he knows where I live, he never comes to see me.
1. I stood there, waiting for her.
(=…, and waited for her.)
2. Following Mike, they started to climb.
3. The children laughed and talked merrily, and they ran out of the room. The children ran out of the room, laughing and talking merrily. 那些孩子们跑出房间，愉快地笑着、说着。
? 如果V-ing 表示的动作发生在句子谓语之前， 则要用V-ing 的完成式，即是：
Having +P.P(过去分词)…, 主语+ 谓语
1. After she had finished her work, she went home. Having finish her work, she went home. 2. As we have invited him here to speak, we’d better go to his lecture. Having invited him here to speak, we’d better go to his lecture.
1. We had a cup of coffee together. Then we went home.
2. After I’d spoken to Joe, I understood the situation much better.
3. Nick moved to London. He lost touch with all his old friends in New York.
Lily 4. Lily had not learnt Chinese. So she could not talk to her grandparents in Guangzhou.
5. I didn’t have a bicycle. So I couldn’t go and see Mary when she was ill.
6. After he had visited Jane in hospital, he knew that she would get better.
A. Something that happened in the past.
B. Something important that should be done.
C. Something you feel sorry for.
1. She forgot to send me a birthday card. _______ A 2. I regret to say that she is not invited to the reception. _______ c
3. Please remember to give her my new address. _______ B 4. Unfortunately there’s been a terrible accident. c _______
5. You forgot to lock the A door last night. _______ 6. I hope he remembers to give her the present. B _______
forget to do忘记去做 regret doing遗憾懊悔做过 regret to do遗憾懊悔去做 remember doing记得做过 remember to do去做
stop to do停下来去做另一件 事
try doing尝试做/ try to do努力 去做
mean doing意味着/mean to
1.don’t forget ______ when you are away. away
2. Please stop ____ like that about Sally, she’s my best friend.
A to talk B. talking
3. My father always regrets ____ in touch with his old friends from university. A.not to keep
B. not keeping
4. The manager regrets ___ you that this cinema is now closed for six months. A.informing
B. to inform
5. I can’t stop ___ of my daughter at my party.
A. to think
become变成，变得 do做/助动词 help帮助，救命 see看见，明白 work工作，起作用
I was five years was old when I met Matt.
The other children had stopped (1) working __________ and gone out to play.
I remember(2) _______ a boy seeing sitting alone in the classroom.
He had some new trainers, but he didn’t know how to put them on.
I helped him (3) _______ it and (to) do we went on ____________ to become friends.
Yesterday, I remembered helping him _________ all those years ago:
I went to watch him run in the London marathon.
This time he didn’t need me to help him put ________ on his new trainers.
? 如果V-ing 表示的动作与谓语动词同步或伴随， 则要用V-ing 的一般式，即是：
I was feeling tired. I went to bed early.
Feeling tired, I went to bed early.
She felt very , tired. She went to bed early.
He turned away from me. He , looked out of the window.
I watched the bear. I walked , slowly towards it.
The knife lay on , It the road. the knife shone in the bright moonlight.
I keep her photo on my desk. It , means I don’t forget her.
2. Match the sentences with the explanations. A.Two things happening at the same time.
B.One thing happening immediately after another.
Telling me to stay there and wait, she leapt over the wall. _____ Hearing his mater’s voice, the dog barked loudly. _____ Megan ran into the old cottage, shouting Gareth’s name. ________ Talking to him, I could tell he was very frightened. ______ The truck moved away slowly, loud noises coming from its engine. _____
3. Complete the sentences with the
_ing form of the verbs in the
Bring带来 laugh大笑 live生活，居住 look看，看起来 make制造，使得 wake醒来，唤醒
It is always very quiet (1) ________ living in the middle of the countryside.
It is always very quiet (1) ________ living in the middle of the countryside.
But yesterday was even quieter than usual.
Waking (2)________ early in the morning, as usual, I noticed something strange.
The birds had all stopped.
Looking (3)_________ out of the window, I saw the sky growing darker.
The door opened, (4) __________ me making jump: it was my mother, bringing me (5)__________
She saw I was frightened. (6)___________, she Laughing told me that the moon would hide the sun for 10 minutes.
Then everything would go back to normal.
1. Although the books are written for children, 2. My flat in Beijing is very small 3. When I went climbing in the mountains,
a.I needed a guide.
b.and fell from his horse.
c.but I told him they don’t exist.
d.but it’s very comfortable. e.many alduts enjoy reading them. f. and turned him into a frog.
4. The witch put a spell on the prince 5. He was afraid of the spirits in the woods,
6. The king was hurt when he went hunting
P91. Small talk
didn’t need to do 没必要， 实际上也没有做某事。 needn’t have done虽然没 必要，但已经做了某事。
1. You didn’t need to buy these chocolates.
a.I only used one of them.
2. We needn’t have left at 7 b.The cheaper one is just as good. o’clock.
3. I needn’t have taken two cameras to London.
c.Yes, I know, but it’s for her birthday. much too early.
4. She didn’t need to speak d.I know, we arrived Chinese to them. 5. You needn’t have bought e.My uncle could have the expensive paint. 6. They needn’t have taken a taxi from the airport.
f. They can both speak English.
arrive到达 worry担心 give给 pay支付 take拿走 stay留下，保持
1. Mary gave me a new Chinese phrasebook. It’s the same one that I bought in Shanghai.
She needn’t have given me a new ______________________ Chinese phrasebook __________.
2. He arrived at 9 p.m. for the party. No one else came untill 11.
He needn’t have arrived at 9 p.m.. ______________________ __________.
3. When we left the restaurant, I paid the bill. When I got back to the office, my manager told me she had already paid it. I needn’t have paid the bill ______________________ __________.
4. I was worried that no one would come to my birthday party but nearly 100 people came.
I needn’t have worried that no one would ______________________ come to my birthday party. __________.
5. My mother stayed in a hotel for the week, but she could have stayed in the flat.
She needn’t have stayed in a hotel for the ______________________ week. __________.
1. Steve took a map with him, but the taxi driver knew the road. (take) Steve needn’t have taken a map with him.
I didn’t need to buy flowers for the host family. 2. I didn’t buy flowers for the host family because my father had already bought some.
She needn’t have cycled home in the rain.
3. She cycled home in the rain;she didn’t know that John could have driven her home.
We didn’t need to wear formal clothes to the interview. 4. They said that it wasn’t necessory for us to wear formal clothes to the interview.
I needn’t have taken two bags with me on holiday. 5. I took two bags with me on holiday, but when I got there, I realised I had too much.