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analysis of sentence elements


Grammar
Analysis of Sentence Elements

201201008

Sentence elements
★ 句子成份:

主·谓·宾· 表 定· 状·补

句子的主体,全句述说的对象。一般由 名词,代词,数次, ,动名词,动词不定式或从句 担任,

常置于句首。 The sun rises in the east. (名词) He likes dancing. (代词) Twenty years is a short time. (数词) Seeing is believing. (动名词) (不定式) To see is to believe. What he needs is a book. (主语从句)

1) 主语(subject)

1) 主语(subject)
It is clear that the sun rises in the east.

It形式主语,that从句是真正主语

(一)Find out the subjects.

① The teacher with two of his students is walking into the classroom. ② There is an old man coming here. ③ The useful dictionary was given by my mother last year. ④ To do today's homework without the teacher's help is very difficult.

2)谓语(predicate)
表示主语的行为或状态,常用动词或者 动词词组担任, 放在主语的后面。 We study English. He is asleep.

① I don't like the picture on the wall. A. don't B. like C. picture D. wall ② The days get longer and longer when summer comes. A. get B. longer C. days D. summer ③ Do you usually go to school by bus? A. Do B. usually C. go D. bus

2)谓语(predicate)
④ There will be a meeting at the library this afternoon. A. will be B. meeting C. the library D. afternoon

3)宾语(object)
表示行为的对象,常由名词或者代词担任。 放在及物动词或者介词之后。如: I like China.(n.) He hates you.(代词) I enjoy working with you.(动名词) I hope to see you again. (不定式) Did you write down what he said? (宾语从句)

3)宾语(object)
★介词后的名词、代词和动名词--介 宾 Are you afraid of the snake? Under the snow, there are many rocks.

3)宾语(object)
★双宾语— 间宾(指人)和直宾(指物) He gave me a book yesterday. Give the poor man some money.

3)宾语(object)
1.My brother hasn't done his homework. 2.People all over the world speak English. 3.You must pay good attention to your handwriting. 4.How many new words did you learn last class? 5.Some of the students in the school want to go swimming, how about you?

4)表语(predicative)
放于系动词后,表示主语的性质、 状态和特征。 He is a teacher. (名词) You don’t look it. (代词) Five and five is ten. (数词) (形容词) He is asleep. His father is in. (副词)

4)表语(predicative)
The picture is on the wall. (介词短语) My watch is gone / missing / lost. (形容词化的分词) The question is whether they will come. (表语从句)

4)表语(predicative)
常见的系动词:
1)表感官的动词:

feel, smell, taste, sound, look, appear, seem …
2) 表转变变化的动词:

become, get, grow, turn, go…
3) 表延续的动词

remain, keep, hold, stay, rest…

4)表语(predicative)
1.The old man was feeling very tired. 2.Why is he worried about Jim? 3.The leaves have turned yellow. 4.Soon They all became interested in the subject. 5.She was the first to learn about it.

5)宾补(objective complement)
补充说明宾语的情况 。 由n. /adj. /介宾 /分词 /不定式等 担任。 We elected him monitor.

5)宾补(objective complement)
1.She likes the children to read newspapers and books in the reading-room. 2.He asked her to take the boy out of school. 3.They call me Lily sometimes. 4.I saw Mr. Wang get on the bus. 5.Did you see Li Ming playing football on the playground just now?

6)定语
修饰或限制名词或代词的词、词组或句子。 汉语中常用‘……的’表示
He was advised to teach the lazy boy a lesson.(形容词) The man over there is my old friend. (副词)

6)定语
The woman with a baby in her arms is my sister. (介词) The boys playing football are in Class 2. (现在分词)

The trees planted last year are growing well now. (过去分词) I have an idea to do it well. (不定式) You should do everything that I do. (定语从句)

6)定语
★:当定语修饰不定代词如:nothing , anything , everything , something 等时, 定语要放在其后作后置定语 I tell him something interesting . ★:不定式、短语或从句作定语时,也放在 被修饰的名词之后。

The boys in the room are in Class Ten.

6)定语
① They use Mr., Mrs. with the family name. ② What is your given name? ③ On the third lap are Class 1 and Class 3. ④ I am afraid some people forgot to sweep the floor. ⑤ The man downstairs was trying to sleep.

7)状语(adverbial)
修饰v., adj., adv., or 句子。 表示时间、地点、原因、目的、结果、程度、 条件、方式和让步。 I will go there tomorrow. The meeting will be held in the meeting room. The meat went bad because of the hot weather.

7)状语(adverbial)
?He studies hard to learn English well. ?He didn’t study hard so that he failed in the exam. ?I like some of you very much. ?If you study hard, you will pass the exam. ?He goes to school by bike. ?Though he is young, he can do it well.

① There was a big smile on her face. ② Every night he heard the noise upstairs. ③ He began to learn English when he was eleven. ④ The man on the motorbike was travelling too fast. ⑤ With the medicine box under her arm, Miss Li hurried off.

句子类型

简单句 并列句 复合句

Ⅰ.简单句
1. Things changed. 2. Trees are green. 3. We don’t beat children. 4. He gave his sister the piano.
主 + 谓 + 宾 主 + 谓 + 表 主 + 谓

5. I found the book?easy. ?
主 + 谓 + 宾 + 宾补

主 + 谓 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语

Practice
Nobody went. She became a doctor. The car caught fire. I will write you a long letter. I will let him? go. ?
主 + 谓 + 宾 主 + 谓 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语 + 宾补 主 + 谓 + 宾 主 + 谓 + 表 主 + 谓

Ⅱ.并列句
This is me and these are my friends.
They must stay in water, or they will die. It’s not cheap, but it is very good. It was late, so I went to bed. He knocked at the door; there was no answer.

You’re alive! And she’s dead.

Ⅲ.复合句
主语从句 表语从句 宾语从句 同位语从句

名词性从句

状语从句 定语从句
He said that he didn’t like her. A plane is a machine that can fly.

状语从句
分为九类:时间、地点、原因、结果、 目的、条件、让步、方式、程度 1) 时间状语从句 Wait until you are called. When spring came, leaves turn green.
常用的关联词有:as, after, before, since, till/ until, when, while, as soon as, whenever等

2) 地点状语从句 Put it where you found it. Sit down wherever you like.
常用的关联词有:where, wherever, anywhere

3) 原因状语从句 As I didn’t know the way, I asked a policeman
常用的关联词有:because, as, since

4) 结果状语从句
I was in the bath so that I didn’t hear the telephone.
常用的关联词有:so, so that, such that, that

5) 目的状语从句 I’ll show you so you will see how it’s done.
常用的关联词有:so, so that, in order that

6) 条件状语从句
If it snows tomorrow, we will build a snowman.
常用的关联词有:if, unless, in case that, on condition that…

7) 让步状语从句 Though I’m fond of music,I can’t play any instrument.
常用的关联词有:though, although, even if, even though,

8) 方式状语从句
He did just as you told him.
常用的关联词有:as, as if, as though, how

9) 程度状语从句 So long as you need me, I’ll stay.
常用的关联词有:so, so that, as far as, so long as

名词性从句

1) 主语从句
* What he said is not known. * That we shall be late is certain. * It is certain that we shall be late. * How strange it is that the children are

so quiet!

2)表语从句

* That is what he wants to buy.

* The problem is that who we can
get to replace her?

* The reason is that he has lied to
me several times.

3) 宾语从句 * I understand that he is well qualified.

* He said that he didn’t like her.
* I don’t know if you can help me.

4) 同位语从句

* Where did you get the idea
that I couldn’t come?

* The question who should do the work
requires consideration. * Mother made a promise that she would buy me a new coat.

注意!
* * * *

that与what都可以引导名词性从句。 what在从句中充当句子成份(主,宾,表)。 That在句中只起连接作用,不充当成份。 that在引导名词性从句时不可省略(宾语从句除外).

引导词that & what

That is what he wants to buy. That we shall be late is certain. He said (that) he didn’t like her.

Homework
P.40 词汇导练 P.43-P.45 词汇导练 P.48-P.49 词汇导练


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