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2018届高中英语知识总结课件


词法

语言知识

冠词和名词 助动词 非谓语动词 动词 实义动词 动词时态.. 词类 代词 和数词 形容词和 副词 情态0动词 动词语态 现象 介词和连词 简单句 并列句 定语从句

词汇量:5500多单词

系动词

高 中 英 语
语言运用

句法

复合句 虚拟语气 主谓一致 倒装 强调句型 省略
口语 阅读

名词性从句
状语从句

听力

写作

翻译

1.最高级的表达方式 2.倍数表达 3.多个形容词修饰一个名词 4.加不加-ly均是副词意义有区别 的词 5.比较级、同级比较级固定搭配

形容词、副词

介词、数词

1.带介词to的短语 2.序数词前的冠词使用

1.抽象名词、物质名词具体化

名词、冠词

2.常见不可数名词 3. 专有名词口语交流中常见用法 1.it引起的易混句式

代词

2.one,ones,that,those
3.人称代词在短文改错中的考查 4. 不定代词的考查

分类

重点、难点

词类

1. 一般过去时和现在完成时 2. 将来时的表达及其用法 动词时态 3. “本打算,希望做却没有做” 的六种表达方式 4. 说话之前刚刚结束的动作 5. 完成时态的考查 1.根据语境,找时间 点或时间段 2.紧扣概念进行选择

1. 主动形式表被动含义的情况 动词语态 2. get + v-ed/-v-ing

1.根据句意辨别词义 2.主语与动词构成的 主被动关系

分类

重点、难点

解题关键

动词时态语态

1. should +动词原形 虚拟语气 2. if 引导的虚拟条件句

理解句义

3. 固定句式

结合记忆

情态动词

1.固定搭配考查: ①can but 的用法 ②can?t help but ,can?t help 的用法
2.表示对现在和过去的推测 3.情态动词+have done

理解句义

记忆

重点、难点
分类 情态动词和虚拟语气 解题关键

形 式 to do

一般式
(not) to do (not) doing (not) done

被动式
(not) to be done (not) being done

进行式
(not) to be doing

完成式
(not) to have done (not) having done

非 谓 语 动 词

V-ing done

主语 宾语 状语 定语 补足语

表语

插入语

to do
作 用 V-ing done

to make matters worse, to put it mildly, to tell the truth, generally speaking, considering, allowing for, judging from

1非谓语动词作状语与独立主格结构、 状语从句的区分。

2非谓语动词作定语。
3with复合结构和as引导的状语从句 的区别。 4既可以接不定式又接v-ing做宾语 有区分的动词。 5it做形式主语和形式宾语的句式。 6使役性动词的过去分词和v-ing的 理解。 7不定式各种形式的考查 。 1. 非谓语动作与主句动作发 生的时间先后

2. 与逻辑主语之间的关系

重点、难点

解题关键

非谓语动词

并列句中第一个句子是祈使句的考查,尤其是 名词短语作祈使句

并列句中的虚拟语气

并列句

并列连词的考查 句中出现三个或三个以上动词在改错中的考 查 一般疑问句的多种肯定回答 I think、I?m sure等引导宾语从句时,反意疑 问句的考查 带主语的祈使句的反意疑问句

准确理解语意 捕捉关键词 结合基础知识 解题

简单句

感叹句置于从句中时how 与what的选用 简单句中的虚拟语气

分类

重点、难点

解题关键

简单句 并列句

就近一致 原则

单个名词作 主语 并列主语

集体名词, 以-s结尾的学科名词,常见不可数 名词,复数名词,不可数名词具体化

意义一致 原则

And连接的名词表示一个人或物用单数,多 个用复数;or, not only…but ,either…or, not so much…as.., neither…nor…,not…but; every/each/no/many a/more than one…and every
a quantity of, a kind of, a mountain of , a pile of, a box of, much, an amount of, a great deal of, lots of, plenty of, the rest, the remaining, the majority of

量词做 主语 数词修 饰主语

分类记忆 规则联系 语意解题

语法一致 原则

分类

重点难点

解题方法



谓 一 致

陈述句句式
助动词do +V.
助动词do的形式随 主语和时态而变化

It is/was …that/who…

一般疑问句式(be动词放句首) 特殊疑问句式
特殊疑问词+be+ it + that …?

强 调

强调句句型 (重难点)

反意疑问句式( 必须和主句一致 ) 强调句用在名词性从句中
a.强调句子的主语时,要与强调句的 谓语动 词一致。 b.表语一般不能用这一句型进行强调 c. 条件、让步状语从句不能强调 d. 强调 because 引导的原因状语从句, 但强调的原因状语不能用 as , since 来引导 e.可强调so that引导的目的状语从句, 但不能强调so that引导的结果状语从 句 f. 对由until引起的短语或从句,要注 意否定前移

倒装句

注 意

句中加语气词 等词汇来强调

surely, really, certainly, definitely, utter, sheer, such, so等

名 词 性 从 句

陈述语序 引导词 主语从句 宾语从句 分类 表语从句

从属接连词that/whether,在句中不成分作 连接代词 what/who/whom/whose/which/whatever/w hoever/whomever/whichever 在句中作主 语、宾语、表语或定语 连接副词 when/where/why/how/whenever/wherever /however在句中作状语

复 合 句
定 语 从 句
限 制 性 与 非 限 制 性

同位语从句 状语从句 9种 时间、条件、原因、让步、目的、结果、 方式、比较、地点状语从句 关系代词 关系词 关系副词 介词+关系词
介词+which/whom 介词+where/whose +n. 复合介词短语+which 介词+which=关系副词 such…as/ the same …as

as引导

as与which引导非限制性定语从句 区别

1. 关系词考查,尤其是as,which等,特别注意 引导定语从句时与其他句式的转换 定语从句 2. 介词+关系词 3. position, case, situation, point, condition 作先行词,关系词在定语从句中作状语用 where 1. 介词后的宾语 名词性从句 2. 引导词的选择 3. it作形式主语、形式宾语的句式

细读题干

划分句子成分

不缺成分用that,” 是否”用whether, 缺什么成分补什么 成分+语意 记忆

状语从句

常考引导词

翻译

分类

重点、难点

解题关键

主从复合句

冠词用法详解
? 1. 冠词的泛指和特指用法

? 泛指是指首次提到的,不限定的人或事 物。特指是指在上文已提到的人或事物, 或是指被限制性修饰语在其后加以限定 意义的人或事物.也可以是指说话者双方 心目中所默认的特指的人或事物。冠词 的泛指和特指用法可归纳为下表:

单数可数名词一定要用冠 词

复数可数名词和不可数名 词

泛指单一,每一, 任一 a, 事物 a, an an 指类别

泛指单一,每一, 任 一事物
被限制性修饰语所 限定的人或事物 指类别
特指: 1.上文提到过的人或事物 2.被限制性修饰语所限度的人或 事 3.说话双方默认的人或事物 4.世上独一无二的事物

特指: 1.上文提到过的人或事物

the

2.被限制性修饰语所限度的人或 事物 3.说话双方默认的人或事物 4.世上独一无二的事物

the

指类别

指类别

? 不定冠词修饰可数名词.其意思 为"一个";定冠词既可修饰可 数名词,也可修饰不可数名词, 往往表特指.其意思相当于"这个 ",单数可数名词只要不用在抽

象化的语境中,一定要加冠词
(或者加不定冠词,或者加定冠 词)。这时不妨可用"一个"或"这 个(种)"来检验。

(1)---Have you seen _____ pen? I left it here this morning. ---Is it _____ black one? I think I saw it somewhere. A. a; the B. the; the C. the; a D. a; a (2)Most animal have little connection with _____ animals of _____ different kind unless they kill them for food. A. the; a B. /; a C. the; the D. /; /

2.不定冠词a(n)的几种特殊用法 (1)不定冠词a(n)用于有或没有形容词修饰的抽 象名词前。 Many people agreed that a knowledge of English is a must in international trade today. 许多人都持相同的看法,在当前国际贸易交往中, 英语知识是必备的知识。 (2)不定冠词a(n)用于有形容词修饰的一日三餐 前。 Before I go to work every morning, I've a light breakfast. 我每天早晨上班前.吃点简单的早餐。

? (3)不定冠词a(n)用于有形容词修饰 的季节、日期前。 ? The traffic accident happened on a Sunday towards the end of July. ? 车祸是7月底的一个星期天发生的。 ? (4)不定冠词a(n)用于序数词前,表 示一次,又一。 ? How important it is to learn a second language! ? 再学一门语言是多么重要啊!

(5)不定冠词a(n)表示"per"的意思。 His income is one thousand yuan a month. 他的月收入是1000元。 (6)不定冠词a(n)用于有good/ great many修饰的名词复数前。 I've visited the Great Wall a good many times. 我参观过长城好多次。

? (7)不定冠词a(n)用于形式为复数, 但意义仍为单数的名词前。 ? A thousand miles is a good distance. ? 一千英里是相当远的距离。 ? (8)不定冠词a(n)用于一些原来是动 词的名词前。 ? Let's have a walk around the playground after supper. ? 晚饭后,让我们围着操场散步吧!

? (9)有一些抽象名词:advice(忠告), behavior(行为),fortune(运气), fun(娱乐),information(情报), progress(进步),damage(损害), harm(伤害) 等,即使被形容词修饰, 也不加不定冠词。 ? Karl Marx gave us some advice on how to learn foreign language well. ? 卡尔?马克思就怎样学好外语,提出了 许多建议。

(10)用在某些固定词组中 a few, a little, a lot of, a bit, a couple of,
all of a sudden(突然), as a matter of fact(实际上), in a hurry(匆忙的), in a word(简言之), have a good time(玩 得愉快), do sb. a favor (帮忙), pay a visit to(访问), as a rule(惯例), as a whole(总之), in a day or two(一两天), in a way(在某种程度上), of a size(大小相同), have a word with sb.(与…交谈), make a living(谋生), take a pride in(自豪), take a walk (break, bath, seat)(散步(休息、洗 澡、就座)), a great deal of(大量), be a pity(遗憾), have a cold (headache, fever)(感冒(头痛、发烧)), many a(许 多), catch a cold(感冒).

? 3.用冠词与不用冠词的差异

? 在某些习惯用语中,用还是不用冠词,意义不同, 有时甚至差别很大,使用时要特别注意。
? at table 进餐 at the table 在桌子旁 in hospital 住院 in the hospital 在医院里 by sea 乘船(由海路) by the sea 在海边 go to sea 当水手 go to the sea 去海边 in future 从今以后,将来 in the future 未来

take place 发生 take the place of 代替 two of us 我们当中的两人 the two of us 我们两人(共计两 人) out of question 毫无疑问,一定 out of the question 不可能 on the whole = in general 大体上, 一般地 as a whole = altogether 全部地, 整体 a most important meeting 一个重 要的会议 the most important meeting 最重要 的会议 a third time 又一次

? on earth 究竟 on the earth 在地球上,在世上 go to school (church…) 上学(做礼拜…) go to the school (church…) 到学校(教堂)去 in front of 在…(外部的)前面 in the front of 在…(内部的)前面 on horseback 骑着马 on the horseback 在马背上 the third time 第三次 at a distance 稍远一些 in the distance 在远处 A number of 许多 the number of …的数目 for a moment 一会儿 for the moment 目前,暂时 be in charge of 负责… be in the charge of 由…负责,在…掌管之下

? by day 在白天 by the day 按日计算 in possession of 拥有 in the possession of 为…所有 in sight of 能看见 in the sight of 据…的见解 in place of 代替 in the place of 在…的地方
?

? ? ? ? ?

be of age 成年 be of an age 同龄 take advice 征求意见 take the advice 听从劝告 He is still in office. 他仍在执政。 He is still in the office. 他仍在办公室里。

? 1.可数名词单、复数变化形式 ? (1)规则变化。 ? ①单数名词词尾直接加-s。如:boy - boys, pen - pens。 ? ②以s、x 、ch 、sh结尾的单词一般加-es。 如:glass - glasses, box- boxes, watch watches, brush - brushes。 ? 特例:stomach - stomachs ? ③以"辅音字母 + y"结尾的变"y"为"i"再加"es"。如: ? baby - babies, lady - ladies, fly - flies。

④以"o"结尾的多数加-es。如:tomato tomatoes, potato - potatoes, hero - heroes。但 以两个元音字母结尾的名词和部分外来词中以o结 尾的词只加-s。 如:radio - radios, zoo - zoos, photo - photos, piano - pianos, kilo - kilos, tobacco - tobaccos。 ⑤以"f"或"fe"结尾的名词复数形式变"f"或"fe"为"v", 之后再加-es。 如:wife - wives, life - lives, knife - knives, wolfwolves, self - selves, leaf - leaves等。 特例:handkerchief- handkerchiefs, roof - roofs, chief - chiefs, gulf - gulfs, belief - beliefs, cliff cliffs。

? ⑥改变元音字母的。如:man men, mouse - mice, foot - feet, woman - women, tooth - teeth, goose - geese, ox - oxen。特例: child - children。 ⑦复合名词的复数形式。 ? (A)在复合词中最后名词尾加-s。 ? 如:armchair - armchairs, bookcase - bookcases, bookstore - bookstores。

? (B)man和woman作定语修饰另一个名 词时,前后两个名词都要变成复数。 ? 如:man doctor - men doctors, woman driver - women drivers。 ? (C)与介词或副词一起构成的复合名词应 在主体名词部分加-s。 ? 如:brother-in-law - brothers-in-law, passer-by - passers-by。 ? ⑧有的名词有两种复数形式。 ? 如:zero - zeros 、zeroes; penny的两种 复数形式含义有所不同:pence(便士的钱 数),pennies(便士的枚数)。

? (2)不规则变化。 ? ①单、复数同形。 ? 如:means, aircraft, deer, fish, Chinese, Japanese, sheep, works (工厂 )cattle。 ? ②合成名词的复数。 ? 如:boy-friend - boy-friends, gobetween- go-betweens(中间人), grown-up - grown-ups。

? ③有些名词通常只用作复数。 ? 如:glasses眼镜,clothes衣服,goods 货物,trousers裤子,belongings所有 物,wages工资,riches财富, surroundings环境,ashes灰尘, compasses圆规,cattle家畜, congratulations祝贺,have words with sb. 同某人吵架,in high spirits 以很高热 情地,give one's regards to sb.向某人问 侯,in rags衣衫破烂,It is good manners to do sth.有礼貌做某事。

? ④集体名词的数。有些集体名词通常只用作 复数, ? 如:people, cattle, police; 有些名词只用 作单数,如:machinery, furniture, mankind, jewelery; ? 有些名词既可用作单数又可用作复数,单数 看做整体,复数看做集体的各个成员。 ? 如:The crew is large.船员人数很多(指 整体);The crew are all tired.船员们都累 坏了(个体)。

? 2、不可数名词的数

? (1)一般说来抽象名词为不可数名词, 但当抽象名词表示具体的东西时,可 用作可数名词且词义发生变化,主要 类型如下:

? ①抽象名词表示具有某种特性、状态、感情情绪的人 或事。如: ? 抽象名词(不可数) 具体化(个体名词,可数名词) ? in surprise惊讶地 a surprise一件令人惊讶的事 ? win success获得成功 a success一个(件)成功的人(事) ? win honor赢得荣誉 an honor一个(件)引以为荣的(事) ? Failure(失败)is the mother of success 失败是成功之 母。 a failure失败者 ? by experience靠经验 an experience一次经历 ? youth青春 a youth一个青年人 ? have pity on sb.怜悯某人 a pity可惜的事情 ? with pleasure乐意 ? a pleasure乐事

? ②抽象名词与a (an)连用,淡化了抽象概念, 转化为似乎可以体验到的动作、行为或类别。 如: ? A knowledge of English is a must in international trade. ? Would you like to have a walk (swim, bath, talk) with me? ? It is waste of time reading such a novel. ? She made an apology to her mother for her wrong doings.

? (2)物质名词是不可数名词,但表示数量或 种类之多时,可以用作可数名词。如: ? ①物质名词有形或数的相应物体,有单、 复数。 ? 如:some coffee一些咖啡,a coffee一 杯咖啡,three coffees三杯咖啡,some drink一些饮料, a drink一杯饮料,three drinks三杯饮料,his hair他的头发,a few grey hairs几根白发,glass玻璃,a glass一只玻璃杯。

? ②物质名词有前置后置修饰时,前 面要使用不定冠词。
? have breakfast The road is covered with snow. ? have a wonderful breakfast They have a heavy snow every year. ? Time and tide wait for no man. ? We had a wonderful time last night.

? (3)有复数形式的不可数名词 ? ①有些抽象名词往往以复数形式出现,起到一种 丰富语言感情色彩或强调某种特殊状态的作用。 如: ? Use your brains, please. ? They have smoothed away the difficulties. ? Have you made preparations for tomorrow's meeting? ? Many thanks for your kindness. ? No pains, no gains. ? After many failures, they finally succeeded.

②有些物质名词以复数形式出现, 表示数量之多,范围之广。如: The boy burst into tears at the bad news. The rising waters did a lot of harm to the crops. The stone bridge broke down in heavy rains.

? 3.名词所有格 ? (1)"'s"所有格的特殊表示形式有: ? ① 用于表示时间、距离、价格、重量等的名 词后, ? 如:today's newspaper, five minutes' walk (drive), five pounds'weight, ten dollars'worth of coffee ②用于表示国家、世界、城市等地方的名词 后。 ? 如:the earth's planet, the word's population, China's industry, New York's parks。

? (2)"of"所有格的特殊表示方式有: ? ①表示"部分"时,一般在所修饰的名词 前有一个表示数量的词(a、two、 several、some、no、many等), ? 如:Some students of Mister Zhang's have gone to college.张老 师的一些学生已经上大学了。

? ②表示"其中之一,其中一部分"的意思 时,用:a friend of Tom's汤姆的一个 朋友(许多朋友中的一位)。 ? ③表示赞扬、批评或厌恶等感情色彩时, 应该用:that/this/these/those + 名词 (单、复数)of Mary's/yours/his/hers。如: ? That invention of hers belongs to the world. 她的那项发明是属于全世界 的(表赞赏)。

? 4、名词作定语 ? 英语中有些名词没有其对应的同根形容词, 这些名词可以直接用来作定语修饰另一个名 词。 ? (1)分类意义。 ? air pollution 空气污染 boy friend 男朋友 ? coffee cup咖啡杯 income tax所得税 ? tennis ball网球 song writer歌曲作家 ? body language身体语言 road accident 交通事故Nobel Prize诺贝尔奖

? (2)时间、地点、称呼等。 ? Doctor Jack杰克医生 Professor Li 李教授 ? evening school夜校 winter sleep冬 眠 ? street dance 街舞 country music乡 村音乐 ? village people村民 school education学校教育 ? China problem中国问题

? (3)表目的、手段、来源,所属 意义。 ? reception desk 接待台 ? sports field 田径场 ? stone table 石桌 ? color TV 彩电 ? weather report 天气预报

名词性从句

主语从句

宾语从句

表语从句

同位语从句

主语从句在句中做------ 主语 表语从句在句中做------ 表语 1. That he will come is certain.
主语从句

宾语从句在句中做------ 宾语 同位语从句在句中----- 同位语

2. I know that he will come.
宾语从句

3. The truth is that I have been there.
表语从句

4. The fact that she was late surprised us.
同位语从句

1. 为什么叫名词性从句?
整个从句相当于一个名词 _______________________

名词能做的成分,从句都能 做

2. 为什么要有名词性从句? 比较: The man looked around. 那人看了看四周. (名词作主语) That the boy failed again in the exam disappointed his mother.
那孩子考试又不及格令他母亲很失望.
(从句作主语)

从句表达的意思比名词复杂得多

同样作主语,从句可以表示较复杂的含义,一般是个动作或性质

I know him. I know that he is writing his composition in his room 我知道他在房间里写作文. 从句的特征: 是一个句子,有一个引导词,引导词做从句的一个成分 (that 除外)

主语从句 位于句首

从 句 that whether who whom whose 引导词: what which when where why how

1. That he knows Japanese is known to all. That无词义,不可省略 他懂英语,这一点大家都知道 2. What surprised me was to see him here . What “什么”, “所…. 3. When he will come is unknown . 的”
令我惊讶的是在这儿见到他.
他什么时候来不清楚.

Details
Details Details Details

When “什么时候” 4. Whether he is coming doesn’t matter much. 主语从句不用 if 5. It remains a secret how they climbed up the mountain. 他们是怎么登上山顶的仍是个秘密.
他来不来没什么要紧的

主语太长了!放到句尾

主语从句的位置 1.在句首 2.主语较长时通常放在后面,句首主语用 It

It 作主语的常用句型有: 1. It + be +形容词 + that 从句 2. It + be +名称词组(duty/pity..) + that 从句 3. It + be + 过去分词(said/thought..) + that 从句 4. It +不及物动词(seem/happen..) + that 从句
1. 2. 3. 4. 真可惜我们不能去游泳.

It is a pity that we can’t go swimming.
碰巧那天我外出了. 他考试肯定会考好.

It happened that I was out that day.

happen只有 it 句型

It is certain that he will do well in the exam.
据说他已告诉了她一切.

It is said that he told her everything.

It is said只有 it 句型 More

注意: It looked that he was right. ( × ) 可以说: It looks as if….

1

Is it true that the scientist will give us a lecture? ( √ )
Is that the scientist will give us a lecture true? 疑问句中应该用 形式主语It 句型 ( )

2

Whatever we do must be in the interest of the people. ( √ ) It must be in the interest of the people whatever we do ( × ) 名词性关系代词whatever/whoever/whichever /wherever/what引导的主语从句一般放在句首

改 错

1. It is true what he said.

What he said is true. 放在句首

2. Is that he will come certain? Is it true that he will come? 问句

3.He can swim is known to all. That he can swim is known to all. 从句必须有引导词

表语从句

系动词后面 1. The truth is that he has never been to the countryside. 实际情况是他从未去过农村. that 一般不省略 2. The question is whether w can finish the experiment by Friday. 问题在于我们能否在明天下午之前完成这项实验. 表语从句不用 if

从 句 同主语从句 (11个), 外加as if / 引导词: as though,

3. It looks as if it were going to rain.
好象看上去要下雨似的. (其实不会)

as if /as though从句常表示 不真实的情况

又比如:

She talks as if /as though she had been there before . 她说话的口气好象以前去过那儿似的.

4. This school is no longer what it was before.
这所学校已不再是从前的那个样子了. what =the thing that

More

注意下列表语从句中where, how, why 的译法
1. This is where Lu Xun once lived. 固定句型: This is where…

这就是鲁迅曾经住过的地方. 这就是…的地方 This is why … 2. That was how they won the match. 这就是…的原因 他们就是这样赢得这场比赛的. This is how…. 3. This is why she got up so early this morning. 这就是…的方法 这就是她为什么今天早上起得这么早的原因.
1. 我们就是这样克服困难的.

This is / That was how we overcame the difficulties.
2. 那就是他昨天缺席的原因.

That is why he was absent yesterday.
3. 这就是我们上星期碰头的地方.

This is where we met last Sunday.

This is 总是现在时 That is 表示性质 That was 指过去动作

宾语从句

从 句 ( 同主语从句 ) ,增加 if ,可与whether 引导词: 互换, 但不与 or not 连用
他们假装知道怎么做这事。

1. They pretended ( that ) they knew how to do it. 2. I thought to myself that he was not telling the truth.

That从句做pretend的宾语

More

我暗中想他讲的不是真话. 谓语与从

句之间有插入语时,that 不可省略

3.She said (that) she couldn’t tell me and that I couldn’t understand.
4. Everything depends on whether we have enough time. ( if ) 5. I don’t know whether he will come or not. ( if )

宾语从句并列时,只省略 第一个 that
if /whether 表示“是否” 可 以互换,五种情况只用 whether: 1.在介 词后面 2.与or not连用 3.在主语从句,表语从句,同 位语从句中

6. The question is whether he will agree . ( if )

doubt问题
1. I doubt if / whether he will pass the exam. 2. I don’t doubt that we will win the match. 3. Do you doubt that he did it on his own? 肯定句中用 if / whether

否定句中用 that
疑定句中用 that

1. I doubt if _________he / whether is telling the truth. that 2. We never doubt _________ the plan will be carried out . that 3. Does he doubt _________ you are from Austria?

/ whether he will agree to this. 4. I’m doubtful if _________

宾语从句经常做介词的宾语

that 从句只跟在 except,but, in ,besides, save五个介词后面

1. The Swede stood still, except _____ that his lips moved slightly. 2. She is not satisfied with what ____ she has achieved. how she can do more for the class. 3. Mary always thinks of ____ 4. He wrote a letter of thanks to whoever ______ helped him. (任何一个)

5. It depends on if whether we have we enough have enough time. time.
what you 6. Are you sorry for which youhave havedone? done? 宾语从句经常作表语形容词的宾语 1. I’m afraid (that ) I’ll be late. 我恐怕要迟到了. that 可以省略 2. We were surprised that he lost the game.
我们对他在比赛中的失败感到惊异.

介词后面不用 if

介词后面不用 which

M

此类表语形容词有: afraid pleased happy satisfied anxious sure surprised certain glad aware用它们造句

We consider her suitable for the job.
I consider that we should learn English well
宾语 宾补

necessary.

it不能漏 I consider it necessary that we should learn English well consider find think feel make 等动词常带宾语补足 语,这时要用形式宾语 it ,宾语从句放到宾补之后

我认为学好英 语是必要的.

1. We think that middle school students master one foreign language possible . (改用形式宾语 it ) We think it possible that middle school students master one foreign language. 2. We have made that a foreign language is useful weapon in the struggle of life clear. (改用形式宾语 it )

We have made it clear that a foreign language is useful weapon in the struggle of life.

More

correction

which不做介词宾语

1. The emperor was pleased by which what the minister told him about it.
that不做介词宾语 2. Are you sorry for that you have annoyed him? it necessary that should kept secret for the time 3. I find that this should bethis kept secretbe for the time being necessary. being 4. Can you doubt if she will succeed? that she will succeed ?

5. I worried about if my brother will return time.in time. whether my brother willin return 6. She said that she had has never told a lie. will leave for Paris? 7. Will you tell me when he leaves for Paris?
从句缺少引导词

football team won match Sunday excited allus. of us 8. That Ourour football team won the the match lastlast Sunday excited all of seemed 9. ItIt looked that he was well prepared for the unexpected challenge. 10.What That he said moved everyone present. 没有It look that…表达式 that不做句子成分

同位语从句
同位语从句说 明它们的内容

被修饰词有: fact, news, hope, opinion, order, question, problem, belief, truth, theory, decision, discovery, conclusion, promise, rumor, fear, thought, suggestion, plan, idea…

常见引导词: that , whether ( if ), how, wh- 疑问词 1. The fact that deeds are better than words is quite clear.

2. The question how I did it is hard to answer.
我怎么做的这一问题难回答.

事实胜于雄辨这一道理非常清楚.

that 无词义

3. They had no idea where they should go to find some food.
他们根本不知去哪儿找食物

4. The question whether he comes or not is not important. ( if )
他是否来这个问题不重要.

5. A thought came to me that he might be in the library.
我突然想到他可能在图书馆.

被别的词隔开

合并成一句: 1. We were excited at the news. Our football team had won a third match . We were excited at the news that our football team had won a third match. 2. They have made a new plan. Another experiment building will be put up beside the library. They have made a new plan that another experiment building will be put up beside the library. 3. They had the question. Could he pass the final exam? They had the question whether he could pass the final exam. 4. Who did the damaged computer belong to ? No one had any idea. No one had any idea who the damaged computer belonged to. 5. The problem has been solved. Why were so many areas flooded during the heavy storm? The problem why so many areas were flooded during the heavy storm has been solved.

同位语从句和定语从句的区别: The fact that the young man had been a prisoner astonished her . The fact that was unbelievable astonished everyone. We were excited about the news (that) he had told us. We were excited about the news that he had passed the exam. The question who helped us out of difficulty remains to be answered. The question which seems so strange remains to be answered.
同位语从句: 说明名词的内容, wh-表示疑问, that 不做成分, 不能省略

定 语 从 句:说明名词的性质特征, wh-不表示疑问,引导词做句子成分,做宾语 可以省略

用形式主语 it 的主语从句常见结构
1. It is clear (necessary, important, possible,remarkable that… 很清楚(必要, 重要,可能, 值得注意等)…

2. It is a fact (a good thing, good news…) that … 事实是 ( 好事是,好消息是…)…
3. It is well-known ( reported, recorded, estimated,said, believed) that…众所周知( 据报道,,据记载,据说,据估 )… out ( seems, happens, appears…) that… 结果 4. 计 It turns 是 ( 似乎是, 碰巧是, 好象是…)…

5. It has been found (has been proved,can be seen,must be pointed out) that …已发现( 已证明,可以看出,需指 出)…

用 it 句型翻译:
1. 据说今年高一学生要学新教材.

→ It is said that the Senior Grade one students will learn a new text 2. 事实是他们靠自己完成了所有的任务. this year. → It is a fact that they finished all the work by themselves. √
3. 4. 5.

→ It happened that they had had their military training.

碰巧他们已经参加过军训了.

→ It is well-known that Bill Gates is the richest person in the world.
→ It is important that we (should) form a good habit of studying. √
我们应该养成好的学习习惯这很重要.

众所周知, 比尔 ·盖茨是世界上最富有的人.

Note: It is important/necessary/natural/our duty/essential/strange that sb (should) do sth. 固定句型, should可以省略
翻译: 真奇怪他今天竟然迟到了. It is strange that he should be late today. strange不省略should为好

that引导陈述句, 在从句中没有词义, 不可省略 她会讲法语这一点大家都知道. That she can speak French is known to us all.
她一声不响拿走了他的杂志, 这使他很生气.

That he took away his magazine without a word made him angry. __________________________________________________________
五班输了比赛, 这事令所有的人感到惊讶.

That Class Five lost the game surprised everyone. __________________________________________________________
他干了一上午的活,这使他感到很累.

That he worked all morning made him feel very tired. __________________________________________________________
她不可能是美国人,这一点是很清楚的.

That she can’t be an American is quite clear. __________________________________________________________
她已经入团了,这件事很快会被宣布.

That she has joined the League will be announced soon. __________________________________________________________

What在从句中表示“什么”或 “所…..的”
比如:他下一步做什么我们不清楚。

What he will do next is unknown .
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 在那儿所看到的(事物)是无法描述的.

What 表示疑问 “什么”

What was seen there is beyond description.
我们怎么处理这些书与你无关.

What we will do with the food has nothing to do with you.
她会给我们带些什么食物来还不清楚.

What food he will bring to us is not clear.
明天会发生什么事还是个谜.

What will happen tomorrow is still a mystery.
她所买的只是一些蔬菜.

What she has bought are only some vegetables

What只用于名词性从句中

when where why how who whom whose分别表示什么时候、 什么地方、为什么、怎么、谁(主格/宾格)、谁的
1. 我们什么时候开会不清楚.

When we will have a meeting is unknown.
2.
3.

我们在什么地方开会不清楚.

Where we will have a meeting is unknown.
我们为什么要开会不清楚.

Why we should have a meeting is unknown.
4. 他们是怎么发现那个秘密的令大家很感兴趣.

How they discovered that secret interested everyone.
5. 谁来当他们的班主任还没有决定

Who will be their class teacher has not been decided. went Where did they go last week is of no importance. ( 错 ) 凡是从句都必须用陈述语序

whether从句作主语时不能用 if
1. 2. 3. 4. 我们是否要重新做这个实验好没有决定.

Whether we should do the experiment again has not been decided.
这本书是否林先生写的这一点很重要.

Whether the book was written by Mr. Lin is very important.
他们是否能按时达到要看天气.

Whether they can arrive in time depends on the weather.
她是否能考上大学要看她是否努力.

Whether she can pass the college entrance examination depends on whether she will work hard .
5. 是留在教室里上课还是去看电影要有老师来决定.

Whether we will stay in the classroom to go on with our lesson or we will go to see a film has to be decided by our teacher.
Whether that she can come or not doesn’t matter. ( 一个从句只能有一个引导词 错 )

用表语从句合并

1. He was absent from the meeting. That’s the fact.
The fact is that he was absent from the meeting. 2. Is he a student? That’s my question. 标点符号 My question is whether he is student. 从句一律陈述语序 3. When will we leave for the Island.? That’s what I want to know.

What I want to know is when we’ll leave for the Island 4. Whom must our education serve ? That’s the most important.
The most important is whom our education must serve. that we should practice speaking English every day. 5. My idea is_______________________________________
(我们应该每天练习讲英语) 6. That无词义,是引导词,不要遗漏 重要的是我们怎样提高英语成绩.

The important thing is how we could improve our English. _________________________________________________________

宾语从句常做动词的宾语

1. 我记不得他是怎么找到这个答案的.
I don’t remember how he found the answer.

2. 请告诉我林教授住在哪里.
Please tell me where Professor Lin lives.

3. 我不在乎这是谁的责任.
I don’t care whose duty it is.

4. 他拿不定主意该去看哪场篮球比赛.
He can’t decide which basketball match he should go and watch .

5. 我不知道为什么她对她的儿子这么以严厉.
I don’t know why she is so hard on her son.

做介词宾语
1. 2. 他总是想到任何为人民多做事.

He always thinks of how he can do more for the people.
除了下雨,他天天坚持锻炼.

He keeps on doing exercise every day except when it rains.
3.
4.

她一切很顺利只是工作较忙.

Everything does on well except that he is busy with his work
我们对她女儿的遭遇感到震惊.

5.

We were shocked by what her daughter had suffered .
这是一个谁来做这项手术的问题.

It is a matter of who will do the operation.

6. Did you hear about that he was fully recovered?
7. It all depends on if the humid weather will change soon enough.( × ) whether 8. I am very interested in how he did more with less money.

( ×)

(√ )

1. We think that Mr. Lin didn’t come yesterday strange. (划出宾语/ 改用it)

We think it strange that Mr. Lin didn’t come yesterday.
2. 3. 4. 每人都要写一篇作文这一点她已经讲得很清楚了.

She has made it clear that everyone should write a composition.
我们觉得互相帮助是我们的责任.

We feel it our duty that we should help each other.
我们认为他们在渡船上吸烟是不对的.

We don’t think it right that they smoke on the ferry.
5. 我们认为他们不可能的懂得怎么操作电脑.

We consider it impossible that they could know how to operate a computer.

一、同位语从句与定语 从句的相似之处
1、两种从句都可以译成定语 e.g. The news that our team has won the final match
is encouraging. (同位语从句) 我们队取得决赛胜利的消息令人鼓舞。 The news that you told us is really encouraging. (定语从句)你告诉我们的消息真的令人鼓舞。

2、两种从句都可以用that引导 e.g.
The suggestion that students should learn something practical is worth considering. (同位语从句) 学生应该学些实用的东西的建议值得考虑。 The suggestion that is worth considering is that the students should learn something practical. (定语从句)值得考虑的建议是学生应该学 些实用的东西。

二、同位语从句与定语 从句的不同之处

1、从句的作用不同:同位语从句用来进一步 说明前面名词的内容;定语从句用来修饰、 限定前面的名词。
e.g. The news that our team has won the final match is encouraging. (从句说明“消息”的内容:我们队 取得了决赛胜利。) The news that you told us is really encouraging. (从句对“消息”加以限定:是你告诉我们的,而非 来自其他渠道。但消息是何内容却不得而知。)

2、引导从句的关联词that的功能不同: that引导同位语从句时是一个纯连词, 不充当任何成分;而引导定语从句的 that是关系代词,既指代先行词又须在 从句中充当成分。
e.g.1) Dad made a promise that he would buy me CD player if I passed the English test. (that 不充 当任何成分) 2) Dad made a promise that excited all his children. (that指代promise,又在从句中充当主语。)

whether与if均为“是否”但下列情况下只用 whether : 1. whether引导主语从句并在句首 Whether he will come is not clear. 2. whether引导表语从句 The question is whether he?ll come. 3. whether从句作介词宾语 I?m not sure about whether we?ll win. 4. 从句后紧跟“or not”或 “to…” Whether you like it or not, you ?ll have to do it.

Practice
I. Tell the function of the clauses in the following sentences 说出下列从句的功能:A: Appositive(同位语); B: Attributive(定语) 1. His proposal that we go there on foot is acceptable. 2. Many teachers hold the view that teenagers should not spend too much time online. 3. 3.The first request that he made was to ask for freedom. 4. He made an excuse that his car broke down on the way. 5. Is this the company where your father works? 6. This is the reason that he gave for his absence.

? 考点之一:考查名词性从句中that与what 的区别 ? 考例: _______ we can't get seems better than _______ we have. ? A. What; what B. What; that ? C. That; that D. That; what ? 分析: (注:划线的选项为最佳答案,下 同.)在名词性从句中that与what的区别 是:that在名词性从句中不作句子成分,只 起连接作用;而what在名词性从句中不仅 起连接作用,而且作句子成分.句子的意思 是:我们不能得到的似乎比我们已经拥有 的要好.此题考查了两个名词性从句:主语 从句和宾语从句,what在这两个名词性从 句中都作宾语.

? 考点之二:考查名词性从句中的it作形式主语或形式宾 语 ? 考例1: _______ is a fact that English is being accepted as an international language. ? A. There B. This C. That D. It ? 分析:在这种名词性从句中为了保持句子的平衡,往 往用先行词it作形式主语或形式宾语,而把真正的主语 或宾语放到后面,尤其是that引导的主语从句往往用先 行词it作形式主语.此句也可以改写为:That English is being accepted as an international language is a fact. 考例2: I hate _______ when people talk with their mouths full. ? A. it B. that C. this D. them ? 分析:此题考查的是用先行词it作形式宾语,而把真 正的宾语从句放到后面.其他几个词均不能作形式宾语.

考点之三:考查名词性从句的语序 考例:The photographs will show you _______ . A. what does our village look like B. what our village looks like C. how does our village look like D. how our village looks like

分析:在名词性从句中,除了关联词要提到句首之外,一律要用陈述 句语序。当关联词含疑问意义时,有的学生就会受习惯影响错误地 使用疑问句语序。克服这种错误的关键是要找准从句中的主语和谓 语。本题句子的意思是:这些照片会告诉你我们村子是什么样。本 题中根据引导词what要作介词like的宾语,而副词how不能作介词 like的宾语,所以首先排除C、D,而A项是疑问句语序,故只能选B。

考点之四:考查名词性从句中的whether, if以及that的区别 考例1: _______ we'll go camping tomorrow depends on the weather. A. If B. Whether C. That D. Where 分析:句子的意思是:我们明天是否去野营要视天气而定. whether与if当"是否"讲时的区别是:在引导宾语从句时两者可以互 换,但在引导主语从句、表语从句和同位语从句以及介词后面的宾 语从句或后面紧跟or not时通常只能用whether,而不能用if. 考例2: What the doctors really doubt is _______ my mother will recover from the serious disease soon. A. when B. how C. whether D. why
分析:本题句子的意思是:医生真正怀疑的是我母亲是否能很快从重 病中恢复过来.whether引导的是表语从句.

考例3: It worried her a bit _______ her hair was turning gray. A. while B. that C. if D. for 分析:本题句子的意思是:头发变白使她有点儿不安。It 作形式主语,that引导的是主语从句。whether, if以及 that引导的名词性从句的区别是:whether与if(当"是否" 讲时)引导的名词性从句含有疑问意义;而that引导的名词 性从句不含有疑问意义。

考点之五:考查名词性从句中的疑问词+ever引导的名词性从句及其 与no matter+疑问词引导的从句的区别

考例 1:It is generally considered unwise to give a child _______ he or she wants. A. however B. whatever C. whichever D. whenever
分析:本题句子的意思是:一般认为孩子要什么就给什么是不明 智的.whatever引导的是宾语从句,A. however 和D. whenever是 不能作宾语的;而C. whichever表示"无论哪一个、无论哪些",表示 在一定范围内的人或事物,此处并不涉及"一定范围内的人或事物", 所以也不能选.

考例2: Sarah hopes to become a friend of ______ shares her interests.

A. anyone B. whomever C. whoever D. no matter who
分析:本题句子的意思是:萨拉希望跟自己有共同爱好的人交 朋友.疑问词+ever引导的名词性从句与no matter+疑问词引导 的从句的区别是:前者既可以引导名词性从句也可以引导让步状 语从句;后者只能引导让步状语从句.首先排除D.而选A. anyone 则应在其后加who.从句中需要的是主语,所以whomever也不行.

考点之六:考查名词性从句的虚拟语气问题
考例:It is necessary that a college student ______ at least a foreign language. A. masters B. should master C. mastered D. will master 分析:本题选B.句子的意思是:大学生至少应该掌握一门外语。 It作形式主语,that引导的主语从句中谓语动词用虚拟语气。 (1) 在主语从句中用来表示惊奇、不相信、惋惜、理应如此等,谓语 动词用虚拟语气"(should) +do",常用的句型有:I. It is necessary (important, natural, strange, etc.) that... II. It is a pity(a shame, no wonder, etc.) that... III. It is suggested (requested, proposed, desired, etc.) that...如: It is strange that she (should) think so.

(2) 表示建议、请求、命令、要求、坚持等及物动词后面 的宾语从句中要用虚拟语气,常用的这类动词有suggest, propose, insist, desire, demand, request, order, command等。如: I insist that she (should) do her work alone. (3) 主语是suggestion, proposal, request, decision等 表示"建议、请求、要求、决定等"意思的词时,表语从句 中谓语动词要用虚拟语气"(should) +do"。如: His suggestion is that we (should) hold another meeting to discuss the question.

(4) 表示"建议、请求、命令、要求、决定等"意思 的名词后面的同位语从句中谓语动词要用虚拟语 气"(should)+do"。如: They received orders that the work(should)be done at once.

II. Choose the best answer
1.They expressed the hope ___they would come over to China. A. which B. that C. whom D. when 2.The fact___ he didn’t see Tom yesterday is true. A. that B. which C. when D. what 3.I have no idea ____he will come back. A. where B. when C. what D. that

II. Choose the best answer
4.The news ___ surprised everybody yesterday now proves to be false. A. that B. when C. what D. how 5.One of the men held the view ___ the book said was right. A. what that B. that which C. that what D. which that 6.Word has come ___ some American guests will come for a visit to our college next week. A. what B. whether c. that D. which

II.语序问题

1.The photographs will show you ____ .(MET89) A. what does our village look like B. what our village looks like C. how does our village look like D. how our village looks like

2.He asked____for a violin. (MET92) A. did I pay how much B. I paid how much C. how much did I pay D. how much I paid

找出下列句子中的错误,并总结出规律: 1. Can you tell me how many students are there in your class? Can you tell me how many students there are in your class? 2. I don't know where has he gone. I don't know where he has gone. 3. The owner of the shop came to see what the matter was. The owner of the shop came to see what was the matter. 规律一:名词从句中须使用陈述语序!

找出下列句子中的错误,并总结出规律:
4. We suggested that we would go to the cinema. We suggested that we (should) go to the cinema. 5. My idea is that we must do our homework first. My idea is that we (should) do our homework first. 6. His proposal that we went there on foot is acceptable. His proposal that we (should) go there on foot…...

规律二:注意虚拟语气的使用! 问题:此类虚拟语气有哪些关键词?

找出下列句子中的错误,并总结出规律:
7. If we will have a meeting hasn't been decided yet. Whether we will have a meeting hasn’t been decided yet.
8. It depends on if the weather is suitable for us to do it. It depends on whether the weather is …... 9. The question is if he himself will be present at the meeting. The question is whether he himself will be present …... 10. He asked me if I could go with him or not. He asked me whether I could go with him or not. 规律三:4种情况只能用whether :1)位于句子开头; (2)前面有介词;(3)引导表语从句(4)与or not 连用。

找出下列句子中的错误,并总结出规律:
1. I think that worthwhile that we spent so much money it on these books. 2. That is hard to decide when and where we will held our it sports meeting. 3. Everybody considers it impossible which he wants to finish the job in such a short time. that 4. It doesn’t matter that you will come or not. whether

规律四:主语从句和宾语从句在适当的情况 下可以借助 “it” 而后置。 问题:想想看是什么“适当的情况”?

名词从句与定语 从句的主要区别

1. 成分上的区别: 名词从句和定语从句分别在句中充当什么 样的成分?
1. How the prisoner escaped remains a mystery. 主语 2. I wonder whether/if he is fit for the job. 宾语 3. The problem is who will be equal to the task. 表语 4. He had no idea whether we could overcome the present difficulties or not.
同位语

5. I visited the country which/that had been bombed by
the US-led NATO (美国为首的北约) a month before. 6. I shall never forget the years when I lived in the countryside with the farmers, which has a great effect on my life. 7. In the office I never seem to have time until after 5:30 pm., by which time many people have gone home.

8. I had never seen such a good film as I watched last
night.

结论一:
名词从句充当句子的主要成分; 定语从句充当句子的修饰成分。

2. 引导词含义上的区别:

引导词是否指向句中的某个成分?
1. That he came back made us very happy. 2. I’m sorry (that) I’ve made a mistake. 3. The fact is that his bark is worse than his bite. 4. Word came that he would come to see us all.

5. He made another wonderful discovery, which I think is of great importance to science. 6. Kennedy and Johnson, both of whom were murdered in their terms, once co-worked as president and vice-president. 7. The Oscar is one of the film prizes that have not been offered to any Chinese actor or actress by far. 8. The Oscar is the only one of the film prizes that has not been offered to any Chinese actor or actress by far.

9. The days are gone forever when we used

foreign oil.
10. As we all know, China is a developing country.

11. This is the village where my father once lived
for several years.

12. 1980, when Chinese government began its
reform, is an important year for China.

结论二:
定语从句的引导词在语义上 具有指代先行词的作用。

名词从句的引导词不具备此功能。

3. 关于that:
that 在名词从句和定语从句中各起什么作用?

1. He pretended (that) he didn’t see me.
2. That she lost her necklace on the way home

made her so worried.
3. It is necessary that we should learn a second language. 4. It is said that he works hard at English.

问题:that 作何成分?

5. The school that my sister studies at is far from
here. freedom. (which)

6. The first request that he made was to ask for 7. It was said that that was all that he said.
8. Is this the house that you have bought yourself? (which) 问题:that 作何成分?

结论三: 名词从句中的 that 只起引导词的作用,

无任何意义。

定语从句中的that 在从句中充当主语或宾语, 有时可以与 which 互换。

4. 引导词的不同:
不会出现在名词从句中的关系词:

as, 且 when, where 等不能与 in/on/at which 互换。
不会出现在定语从句中的关系词: whether, if, what, how

5、名词从句与定语从句的一些对应关系: 1. He has done what he can to help me. all that --He has done ____ ____ he can to help me. 2. What I want to say has nothing to do with it. All ____ that I want to say has nothing to do --____ with it.

3. Whoever breaks the law is to be punished. _________ Anyone ______ who breaks the law is to be punished. 4. He will give the dictionary to whoever needs if most. 5. We’ll remember whomever we turned to for help. 6. They will do whatever he wants them to do. They will do ________ wants them to do. anything ______he that

He will give the dictionary to _______ ____ needs it most. anyone who

We’ll remember ________ Anyone _______ (whom) we turned to for help.

7. I’ll read whichever book you give me.
I’ll read ____ any of the books _____ that you give me.

6、其余问题: 1. 误:I don't know if he comes back this month.

正:I don't know if he will come back this month.
2. 误:I have no idea what had happened when I was away. 正:I have no idea what happened when I was

away.

3.误:The reason is because he is ill.

正:The reason is that he is ill.
4.误:Who leaves last turns off the light.

正:Whoever leaves last turns off the light.

名词性从句试题集锦

1.I ask her _______ come with me.
A. if she will B. if will she C. whether will she D. will she 2._______ he said is true.

A. What

B. That

C. Which

D. Whether

3.Can you tell me ________? A. who is that gentleman C. who that gentleman is B. that gentleman is who D. whom is that gentleman

4.He didn't know which room _______. A. they lived B. they lived in C. did they live D. did they live in 5.To get the job started, _______ I need is some money. A. only what A. what B. all what B. how C. all that C. it's D. only that D. that 6.I have no idea _______ far the railway station is from here.

7.Can you tell me _______ the railway station? A. how I can get to B. what can I get to C. where I can got to D. where can I get to 8.Do you know _______? A. what is his name B. how is his name C. what his name is D. how his name is 9._______ you have done might do harm to other people. A. That B. What C. Which D. This 10.They have no idea at all ________. A. where he has gone B. where did he go C. which place has he gone D. where has he gone 11.They want to know _________ do to help us. A. what can they B. what they can C. how they can D. how can they 12.These photographs will show you _______. A. what our village looks like B. what does our village look like C. how does our village look like D. how our village looks like

13.Can you make sure ________ the gold ring? A. where Alice had put B. where had Alice put C. where Alice has put D. where has Alice put 14.No one can be sure ________ in a million years. A. what man will look like B. what will man look like C. man will look like D. what look man like 15.________ the 2008 Olympic Games will be held in Beijing is not known yet. A. Whenever B. If C. Whether D. That 16.Go and get your coat. It's ________ you left it. A. there B. where C. there where D. where there 17.It worried her a bit _______ her hair was turning gray. A. while B. that C. if D. for 18._______ he said at the meeting astonished everybody present. A. What B. That C. The fact D. The matter

19. — Do you remember ________ he came? — Yes, I do. He came by car. A. how B. when C. that D. if 20._________ we can't get seems better than _________ we have. A. What ; what B. What ; that C. That ; that D. That ; what 21.________ we'll go camping tomorrow depends on the weather. A. If B. Whether C. That D. Where 22.It is generally considered unwise to give a child ________ he or she wants. A. however B. whatever C. whichever D. whenever 23. — I drove to Zhuhai for the air show last week. — Is that _________ you had a few days off? A. why B. when C. what D. where 24.These wild flowers are so special that I would do ________ I can to save them. A. whatever B. that C. which D. whichever

25.________ you don't like him is none of my business.

A. What

B. Who

C. That

D. Whether

26.You can't imagine ________ when they received these nice Christmas presents.

A. how they were excited
C. how excited were they

B. how excited they were
D. they were how excited

27.________ caused the accident is still a complete mystery. A. What B. That C. How D. Where

28.I had neither a raincoat nor an umbrella. _________ I got wet through. A. It's the reason C. There's why B. That's why D. It's how

29.It was a matter of ________ would take the position.

A. who

B. whoever

C. whom

D. whomever

30.________ has helped to save the drowning girl is worth praising. A. Who B. The one C. Anyone D. Whoever

31.It was _______ he said _______ disappointed me. A. what ; that B. that ; that

C. what ; what

D. that ; what

32.Eat ________ cake you like and leave the others for ________ comes in late.

A. any ; who
C. whichever ; whoever

B. every ; whoever
D. either ; whoever

单项填空
1.The question is ____the C film is worth seeing. A. if B. what C. whether D. how 2.They received orders _____ the work be done at once. D A .which B. when C. / D .that C I have to go is ____ my mother is ill in bed. 3.The reason ____ A .why; why B. why; because C. why ; that D. that; because 4. ___ A I can?t understand is ___ she wants to change her mind. A. What; why B. Which; how C. That; why D. What; because B his dream of going to college will come true is uncertain. 5. ____ A. That B. Whether C. If D. Even if 6. It is known to us ___ D where there is pollution, there is harm. A. which B. where C. what D. that 7. I have the information ____. B A. of what he?ll come soon B. that he?ll come soon C. of that he?ll come soon D. his coming soon

8. --- I saw your neighbor break your window with a basketball. A it made me nearly mad. --- ____ A. That he broke B. What he broke C. He broke D. His break A we can get so much money in such a 9.It remains a question ____ short time. A.how B. that C. when D. what 10.--- Can I help you? D --- Yes, do you know ____? A. when comes the bus B. when will come the bus C. when does the bus come D. when the bus comes 11. He made a promise ___ D anyone set him free he would make him very rich. A. that B. if C. what D. that if A made matters worse 12. They lost their way in the forest and ____ was ___ night began to fall. A. what; that B. it; that C. what; when D. which; what

Pronounce 代词
1、人称代词 2、物主代词 3、反身代词 4、指示代词 5、相互代词 6、不定代词 7、疑问代词 8、连接代词、关系代词

人称代词
单数 主 复数

格 宾

I, you, he, she, it

we, you , they

me,you ,him, her, 格 it

us, you , them

1.Who is going to help them,_____? A.you or me B. I or you C. you or I D.me or you
2. __will attend the meeting to be held next Thursday. A.I,he and you B. You , he and I C. He, you and I D. You ,I and he 3. Who _____ at the door? It’s ____. A. are you, I B. is he, him C. is it, me D. is it, I

物主代词
形容 词性 名词 性 单数 my, your, his, her,his mine, yours, his ,hers,his 复数 our, your, their ours, yours, theirs

1.Are these trousers yours? No. Mine ______ over there. are 2. Her hair is much longer than mine ____(我). yours (你) never bites. 3. This dog of ____

反身代词
单 数

复 数

myself , yourself, herself,itself ourselves, yourselves,

himself,

themselves

反身代词所搭配的词组: 1.by oneself 独立地 2.for oneself 替/为自己 3.of oneself 自动地,自行地 4.come to oneself 苏醒 5. be not oneself 身体不舒服

6. congratulate oneself on暗自庆幸 7.enjoy oneself 8. express oneself 表达 9.devote oneself to 致力于 10. dress oneself 穿衣 11. find oneself 发现在 12.help oneself to 随便吃 13. hide oneself 躲藏 14. hurt oneself 受伤 15. lose oneself in 陶醉于

16. keep sth. to oneself 保守秘密 17. make oneself at home不要拘束 18. seat oneself 就坐 19. leave sb by oneself 20. teach oneself, learn sth by oneself

_______ opinion. Each student has himself’s his own
one’s own/ of one’s own 某人自己的 The moon has no light of its own.

指示代词
A.
单数 近指 远指 this that 复数 these those

1.a.I want to tell you ___: this the English party will be held on Saturday. b.He hurt his leg yesterday. ____’s that why he didn’t come. 2.a.The weather of Beijing is colder than _____ that of Nanjing.

b. The ears of a rabbit are longer than those a fox. _____of

B. such(这样、如此)same(同样) Such was the story. We have never seen such a tall building. The same can be said of the other article Whether he can do it or not, it is all the same to me.

相互代词
宾格 所有格

each other
one another

each other’s
one another’s

other well. You and I understand each _____ They looked into _______ each other’s eyes for a silent moment. We should learn from one another.

疑问代词 who, whom, which, what, whose (1)who/ what Who is he ? He is my lawyer. _____ What is he? He is a lawyer. _____ (2) who, whom _____ are you chatting with online? Whom Usually those who have something in common with me.

不定代词
1、普通不定代词 some, any, somebody, anybody, someone, anyone,

no
nobody no one

something, anything, nothing something useful(一 We will adopt ____________ something useless 些有用的)and omit____________ (无用的东西).

(1) some 与 any及其合成词 1. He has _____ some Chinese paintings. any questions to ask? 2. Do you have ____ any questions. 3. Ask me if you have ____ any of the students. 4. I don’t know _____ 5. Mum,could you give me ____ some money? 6. Shall we getsomething ______ interesting to read something 7. I am thirsty, would you get ____ _ to drink for me? 8. The problem is quite easy. Anybody _____ can solve it .

2、个体代词 (1) all , any, none, every, both, either, neither, each, (2) another, the other , others 一、 all与 both 的用法及在句中的位子 That’s all for today. All the schools were flooded. All of them have been to Xi’an.

My parents both like this movie. Both the/these boys are tall. This maths problem can be worked out in both ways. (二) all 与 both和not连用表部分否定 Not all the ants go out for food. None of them has failed.(全否定) Any of them hasn’t failed. Both of us are not advisors. Neither of us is an advisor.(全否定) Either of them isn’t an advisor.

(三) both, either,each --- Will you come for the interview on Tuesday or on Friday? ---Either is OK./ Either day is OK. either side There are modern shops on _________ each side of the street. both sides every side of the There are trees on ______ any side playground. all sides

(四) every 与 each a. Is everyone here?= Are we all here? b. Each student has _____own opinion. his Every student has ____ their own opinions. Each of us has got an electronic c. ______ Every one dictionary. d. We each _____ have got an electronic dictionary.

(五)one , ones, that, those, it
1. ____ One should try one’s best to serve people. 2.These books are more interesting than _____ those on the shelf. 3. Here are two pencils. Which ____ one is yours, this ____ one or that ____ one ? 4. The population of China is larger than _____ that of India.

(六)no one与 none None of us have ever surfed in the a. _____ sea. b. How many books are there on the desk? _____. None c. Is there anyone who can do the experiment? No one. ______.

(七)

泛指 another

other

others
the others

特指 the other the other

1. He got two books, one is a textbook, the other is a novel. _________ the others 2.Five of the pencils are red, ________ are yellow. others are dancing. 3.Some are singing, ______ another two 4.He went on swimming for _______ hours before he reached the beach.

5.This coat is too big. Please show another me ________. another ten minutes. 6. Please give me ______
注意: one…another(a second)…a third… the other…一个……一个…… Some… others…others… 一些……一些

3、 数量代词 many,much, a great many, a great deal of a lot of,(许多,大量) a few, few. a little, little a few few a little little Eg.1. He has just graduated from the has he ? college. He has little ___ experience,___ 2.His article was well written. There are a few mistakes in it. only ______

? It 的用法 ? 1.作人称代词 ? John likes playing Pingpong./ He always does it in the afternoon.(指 代上下文提到的事物);/ It's time we went home. / How far is it from here to your home ? / It is getting warmer and warmer./ It's very quiet at the moment.(可指时间、 天气、环境等)

? 2.引导词 ? A.作形式主语,代替由不定式、 动名词或从句表示的真正主语。 ? It's important for us to learn a second language./ It's no use talking to him./ It's known to all that the earth goes round the sun. ? B.作形式宾语,代替由不定式、 动名词或从句表示的真正宾语。 ? We feel it our duty to help others./ He made it clear that he would leave the city.

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C.强调结构:It is (was) +被强调部分+ that (或who)… 注意: 在强调结构中,如被强调部分为 时间状语或地点状语,其后的连接词也绝不 能为when 或where,而应用that 。在复习 中,一定要注意句式的不同。 It was in Shanghai that I bought the guitar.(that引起强调句) It was Shanghai where I bought the guitar.(where引起定从) It was twelve o'clock when we arrived there.(when引起时间状语从句) It was at twelve o'clock that we arrived there.(that 引起强调句)

? 3. it,one,that 的区别:作为代词,这三个 词的对比使用是高考的热点之一。 ? ---Why don't we take a little break? ---Didn't we just have __________? ? A.it B.That C.one D.this ? The Parkers bought a new house but _________will need a lot of work before they can move in. ? A.they B.it C.one D.which ? one 用以指代同类事物中的任一,that 特指 性强,指代可数与不可数词,而it指代上文 提过的同一事物。

? (一)定语从句一般由关系代词和关系副词 引导 ? 1、关系代词:who, whom, whose, which, that, as ? 2、关系副词:when, where, why ? 关系代词和关系副词必须位于从句之首,主 句先行词之后,起着连接先行词和从句的作 用,同时在从句中又充当句子成分。 ? e.g. She is the girl who sings best of all.(关系 代词who在从句中作主语) ? The comrade with whom I came knows French.(whom在从句中作介词with的宾语)

? 3、关系代词和关系副词的用法:1) 当先行词为人时用who 作主语,whom 作宾语;2)当先行词为物或整个句子 时用which ,可作主语或宾语;3)先 行词为人、物时用that ,可作主语或 宾语;4)whose用作定语,可指人或 物;5)关系副词when(指时间,在定 语从句中作时间状语,where(指地点, 在定语从句中作地点状语),why(指 原因,在定语从句中作原因状语)。

? (二)限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句 ? 1、限制性定语从句:从句与主句关系密 切,去掉从句,主句意义不完整,甚至不合 逻辑。 ? e.g. I was the only person in our office who was invited.(去掉定语从句, 意思就不完整) ? 2、非限制性定语从句:从句对先行词关 系不密切,去掉定从句,意思仍然完整。形 式上用逗号隔开,不能that用引导。 ? e.g. Tom?s father, who is over sixty, still works hard day and night.(who引 导非限制性定语从句,整个句子可分成两句 来翻译)

? (三)使用定语从句时特别注意的几个问题 ? 1、that与which的区别。 ? 1)用that而不用 which的情况:①先行词为不定 代词all, anything, nothing, …;②先行词有最高 级修饰,有序数词修饰;③先行词有only, very, any等词修饰;④先行词既有人又有物时。 ? e.g. There is nothing that can prevent him from doing it. 没有什么能阻止他不干那件事。 ? The first place that they visited in Guilin was Elephant Trunk Hill. 在桂林他们所参观的第一个 地方是象鼻山。 ? This is the best film that I have ever seen. 这部 电影是我看过的最好的一部。 ? Mr Smith is the only foreigner that he knows. 史密斯先生是他认识的唯一的外国人。

? 2)用which而不用 that的情况:①引 导非限制性定语从句;②代表整个主 句的意思;③介词 + 关系代词。 ? e.g. He had failed in the maths exam, which made his father very angry. 他 数学考试没有及格,这使他的父亲很 生气。 ? This is the room in which my father lived last year. 这是父亲去年居住过的 房子。

? 3)as引导定语从句时的用法 ? ①as引导限制性定语从句通常用于the same … as, such … as结构中。 ? e.g. I want the same shirt as my friend’s. 我要一件跟我 朋友一样的衬衫。 ? Such machines as are used in our workshop are made in China. 我们车间使用的这种机器是中国制造的。 ? ②as引导非限制性定语从句既可放在主句之前,也可放 在主句之后,用来修饰整个句子。通常用下列句型:as is known to all, as is said, as is reported, as is announced, as we all know, as I expect 等。 ? e.g. As I expected, he got the first place again in this mid-term examination. 正如我所预料的那样,他在这次 期中考试中又获得了第一名。

? 3)as 引导非限制性定语从句时与which的 区别 ? ①当主句和从句语义一致时,用as;反之, 用which来引导非限制性定语从句。 ? e.g. He made a long speech, as we expected. ? He made a long speech, which was unexpected. ? ②当非限制定语从句为否定时,常用which 引导。 ? e.g. Tom drinks a lot every day, which his wife doesn’t like at all.

? 2. 关系代词在从句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词单数还 是用复数应由先行词决定。 ? e.g. The man who lives downstairs speaks English fluently. 住在楼下的那个人英语说得很流利。 ? The students who are in Grade Three are going to climb the hill tomorrow. ? 3. 定语从句有时不直接紧靠先行词,中间由一个定语、 状语或谓语隔开。 ? e.g. There is an expression in his eyes that I can?t understand. ? 4. 引导定语从句的关系副词有时可以用“介词 + which” 来代替。 ? e.g. October 1, 1949 was the day on which ( = when ) the People?s Republic of China was founded.

? 5. 当定语从句中谓语动词是带介词或副词 的固定短语动词时,短语动词的各个固定 部分不要拆开。 ? e.g. The sick man whom she is looking after is her father. ? 6. 介词在关系代词前,只能用which和 whom,且不能省略;介词在句尾,关系代 词可有which, that, whom, 口语中也可用 who,且可省略。 ? e.g. The man (whom/ who/ that) you were talking about has come to school.

状语从句
? 由从句担任的状语,在句子中可修饰 谓语(或其它动词)、形容词、副词 或是整个句子,它可以用来表示时间、 地点、原因、目的、结果、条件、方 式、比较、让步等。状语从句是一较 大的语法项目,也是近几年高考题中 常见的一个重要试点。高考中已考查 了时间、让步、地点、条件、目的等 状语从句,这些从句仍是今后高考热 点,应作充分准备。同时对方式状语 从句也应引起重视。

? (一)时间状语从句 ? 表示时间的状语从句可由when, as, while, whenever, after, before, till (until), since, once, as soon as (或the moment ), by the time, no sooner … than, hardly (scarcely) … when, every time等引导。 ? e.g. When I came into the office, the teachers were having a meeting. ? He started as soon as he received the news. ? Once you see him, you will never forget him. ? No sooner had I gone to bed than I went to sleep.

? (二)原因状语从句 ? 原因状语从句是表示原因或理由的,引 导这类从句的最常用的连词是because, since, as , now that(既然)等,for 表示因 果关系时(它引导的不是从句)为并列连 词,语气不如because强。 ? He is disappointed because he didn't get the position. ? As it is raining, I will not go out. ? Now that you mention it, I do remember.

? (三)地点状语从句 ? 引导地点状语从句的连词是where 和wherever等。 ? e.g. Sit wherever you like. ? Make a mark where you have a question.

? (四)目的状语从句 ? 引导目的状语从句最常用的词(组)是so, so that(从句谓语常有情态动词), in order that, in case(以防,以免)等。 ? Speak clearly, so that they may understand you. ? She has bought the book in order that she could follow the TV lessons. ? He left early in case he should miss the train.

? (五)结果状语从句 ? 结果状语从句是表示事态结果的从句,通常 主句是原因,从句是结果。由so that (从 句谓语一般没有情态动词), so … that, such … that等引导。 ? She was ill, so that she didn?t attend the meeting. ? He was so excited that he could not say a word. ? She is such a good teacher that everyone admires her.

? (六)条件状语从句 ? 条件状语从句分真实性(有可能实现的事情)与非 真实性(条件与事实相反或者在说话者看来不大可能实 现的事情)条件句。引导条件状语从句的词(组)主要 有if, unless, so (as) long as, on condition that, so (as) far as, if only ( = if )。注意:条件从句中的if 不能 用whether替换。 ? If he is not in the office, he must be out for lunch. ? You may borrow the book so long as you keep it clean. ? So far as I know(据我所知), he will be away for three months. ? You can go swimming on condition that ( = if ) you don?t go too far away from the river bank. ? If he had come a few minutes earlier, he could

? (七)让步状语从句 ? 让步状语从句可由although, though, as, even if (though), however, whatever, whether … or, no matter who (when, what, …) 等引导。注意:as引导的让步状 语从句一般是倒装的。 ? Though he is a child, he knows a lot. ? Child as he is, he knows a lot. ? Whatever ( = No matter what ) you say, I?ll never change my mind.

? (八)方式状语从句 ? 方式状语从句常由as, as if (though), the way, rather than等引 导。 ? You must do the exercise as I show you. ? He acted as if nothing had happened.

? (九)比较状语从句 ? 比较状语从句常用than, so (as) … as, the more … the more等引导。 ? I have made a lot more mistakes than you have. ? He smokes cigarettes as expensive as he can afford. ? The busier he is, the happier he feels.

? (十)使用状语从句时要注意的几个问题 ? 1、在时间和条件(有时也在方式、让步等) 从句中,主句是一般将来时,从句通常用一般 现在时表示将来。 ? We?ll go outing if it doesn?t rain tomorrow. ? I?ll write to you as soon as I get to Shanghai. ? 2、有些时间、地点、条件、方式或让步从 句,如果从句的主语与主句主语一致(或虽不 一致,是it),从句的谓语又包含动词be ,就 可省略从句中的“主语 + be”部分。

? When (he was) still a boy of ten, he had to work day and night. ? If (you are) asked you may come in. ? If (it is) necessary I?ll explain to you again.

3、注意区分不同从句:引导的是什么从句,不仅 要根据连词,还要根据句子结构和句意来判别。 以where为例,能引导多种从句。 You are to find it where you left it.(地点状语 从句) Tell me the address where he lives.(定语从句, 句中有先行词) I don?t know where he came from.(宾语从句) Where he has gone is not known yet.(主语从 句) This place is where they once hid.(表语从句)

非谓语动词(一)——动词不定式

? 动词不定式、分词(现在分词,过去分词)和动名词统称为非谓 语动词。现代英语将现在分词和动名词合为一大类叫作v + ing形式。这些动词的形式不能在句中单独作谓语用,因而没 有语法主语。但可以有逻辑主语。由于没有语法主语,也就不 受人称和数的限定,因为不是谓语,也就没有时态和语态,但 这些词仍能表示动作和状态,所以仍有表示与其他动词相对时 间关系的形式。由于与其它词有逻辑上的主谓关系,因此也有 表示主、被动的形式,同时也有自己的宾语和状语,一起构成 非谓语动词的短语(动词不定式短语,分词短语,动名词短语)。 非谓语动词在英语语法中占有特殊且重要的位臵。非谓语动词 形式多样,应用广泛,且在句中起着很活跃的作用,也是语法 项目中的重点和难点,学好非谓语动词,才能正确进行口语和 书面的交流。 ? 动词不定式、过去分词及v-ing形式在句中均不能作谓语 用,所以叫做非谓语动词。

? 动词不定式由“to+ 动词原形” 构成,如:to study, to play, 动词不定式虽然不能作谓语动 词用,但仍留着动词的特征, 它可以带有所需要的宾语或状 语而构成动词不定式短语,如: to study hard, to play table tennis。

1、动词不定式的形式变化:动词不定 式有下列时态和语态的形式变化。
语态式 一般式 完成式 进行式 完成进行式




动 to build to have
动 to be

build

built to have been build

to be to have been building building

? 动词不定式的时态形式所表示的时间关系:(1) 一般式:动词不定式一般式所表示的动作是和谓 语动词所表示的动作同时发生,但在多数情况下, 是在谓语动词所表示的动作之后发生,如:We decided to plant more trees this spring.(其后), They often watch us play table tennis.(同时); (2)完成式:动词不定式完成式所表示的动作 发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前,如:I am sorryto have kept you waiting.(3)进行式:动 词不定式进行式所表示的动作正在进行中,而且 与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生,如:She happened to be writing a letter in the room when I came in.

非谓语动词(二)——动词-ing形式
? (二)-ing形式:动词的-ing形式也是一种 非谓语动词。-ing形式仍保留有动词的特征, 可以带有其所需要的宾语或状语而构成-ing 短语。 ? 1、-ing的形式:-ing有一般式和完成式。 及物动词的-ing还有主动语态和被动语态, 而不及物动词的-ing则没有被动语态。现在 以及物动词make 和不及物动词go为例,将 其-ing各种形式列表如下:

及物动词make 动词语态形式
主动语态 一 般 式 被动语态

不及物动词go
主动语态

making

being made having been made

going







having made

having gone

非谓语动词(三)——过去分词
? (三)过去分词: ? 1、过去分词的基本用法:过去分词只 有一种形式,也没有主动语态,它所表 示的动作是一个被动的或是已完成的动 作。过去分词在句中也可用作定语、表 语、宾语或状语等成分。过去分词在句 中作某种成分时,其逻辑主语一般为该 分词所表示的动作的承受者.

?上述-ing和过去分词的用法中,-ing和 过去分词在句中均有逻辑主语,但有 时它们也能有自己的独立的主语,这 种独立的主语,一般为名词或代词, 位于其前之前,和-ing或过去分词构成 独立主格。独立主格在句中一般只作 状语用,而-ing和过去分词作用的形式, 则要根据它们所表示的动作和句中谓 语动词所表示的时间关系而定。至于 独立主格中是使用-ing或是过去分词, 则要根据它们的主语和其所表示的动 作的主动被动关系而定.

独立主格:

1.The bell ringing, we all stopped talking. 2. The work having been finished, she sat down to have a rest.

①独立结构中的being或having been 常可省去, 如:The meeting (being) over, all left the room. ②作伴随状语的独立结构常可用with 短语来代替,如:She read the letter, tears rolling down her cheeks./ She read the letter with tears rolling down her cheeks.

强调句句型
? ? ?
? ? ?

1、陈述句的强调句型:It is/ was + 被强调 部分(通常是主语、宾语或状语)+ that/ who (当强调主语且主语指人)+ 其它部分。 It was yesterday that he met Li Ping. 2、一般疑问句的强调句型:同上,只是把is/ was提到it前面。 Was it yesterday that he met Li Ping? 3、特殊疑问句的强调句型:被强调部分(通 常是疑问代词或疑问副词)+ is/ was + it + that/ who + 其它部分? When and where was it that you were born?

4、强调句例句:
? 针对I met Li Ming at the railway station yesterday.句子进行强调。 ? 强调主语:It was I that (who) met Li Ming at the railway station yesterday. ? 强调宾语:It was Li Ming that I met at the railway station yesterday. ? 强调地点状语:It was at the railway station that I met Li Ming yesterday. ? 强调时间状语:It was yesterday that I met Li Ming at the railway station.

? 5、注意:构成强调句的it本身没 有词义;强调句中的连接词一般只 用that, who,即使在强调时间状 语和地点状语时也如此,that, who不可省略;强调句中的时态只 用两种,一般现在时和一般过去时。

原句谓语动词是一般过去时、过去 完成时和过去进行时,用It
was … ,其余的时态用It is … 。

? not … until … 句型的强调句
? 1、句型为:It is/ was not until + 被强调部分 + that + 其它部分 ? 普通句:He didn?t go to bed until/ till his wife came back. ? 强调句:It was not until his wife came back that he went to bed. ? 2、注意:此句型只用until,不用till。但如果不 是强调句型,till, until可通用;因为句型中It is/ was not … 已经是否定句了,that后面的从句要 用肯定句,切勿再用否定句了。

? 谓语动词的强调 ? 1、It is/ was … that … 结构不能强调谓语, 如果需要强调谓语时,用助动词do/ does或did。 ? Do sit down. 务必请坐。 ? He did write to you last week. 上周他确实给 你写了信。 ? Do be careful when you cross the street. 过 马路时,务必(千万)要小心啊! ? 2、注意:此种强调只用do/ does和did ,没有 别的形式;过去时用did ,后面的谓语动词用 原形。

? 为了使讲话和行文简洁,句中某些成分有 时可省略。省略可分以下几种情况: ? (一)简单句中的省略 ? 1、省略主语:祈使句中主语通常省略。 其它省略主语多限于少数现成的说法。 ? (I) Thank you for your help.(括号内为省 略的词语,下同) ? (I) see you tomorrow. (It) Doesn’t matter.

? 英语最基本的语序是主语在前,谓 语动词在后。但有时由于句子结构 的需要或表示强调,就要采用倒装 形式。将谓语动词完全移到主语之 前称为完全倒装,只将助动词或情 态动词放到主语之前称为部分倒装。 强调性倒装和以so, neither, nor开 头的句子是高考例题的热点。

? 倒装的使用情况 ? 1、在 “there be” 结构里,there是引导词, 主语在be后。 ? There is a box on the table. ? 2、在疑问句中。 ? Is she singing in the classroom? ? What does your mother do? ? 3、在here, there等副词开头的某些句子里(要用 一般现在时态)。如果主语是人称代词,主语和 主要动词的词序不变。(完全倒装) ? There goes the bell. ? Here is an apple for you. ? There she comes.

? 4、重复倒装句型,用在以so, nor, neither开 头,表示谓语所述的情况也适用于另一个人或 一事物的肯定或否定句中。so用于肯定句,表 示“也一样”、“也这样”;nor, neither用于 否定句,表示“同样也不,也不这样”。 ? I am watching TV. So is she. ? My parents didn?t watch TV last night. Neither (Nor) did I. ? 5、直接引语的全部或一部分放在句首时,主句 中的主谓也常直接倒装。(完全倒装) ? “Very well,” said the French student. ? “Bring me two eggs and a cup of tea, please.” said he.

? 6、在以never, little, hardly, not only, few, not, seldom等否定副 词开头的句子中,采用部分倒装。 如不放在句首就不要倒装。 ? Little did he say at the meeting. ? Never shall I forget the day when I joined the Army. ? 比较:I shall never forget the day when I joined the Army.

? 7、用于以only所修饰的副词、介词短

语或状语从句的句子中。
? Only when the war was over in 1918 was he able to get happily back to work. ? Only in this way can we learn English well. ? 注意:如果only后的词组不是状语, 不需倒装。 ? Only Wang Lili knows this.

? 8、为了表达生动,有时把表地点、方 位的副词,如 up, down, out, away, in等放在句首,同时把谓语动词放在主 语之前。若主语为人称代词,主语和 谓语动词的位置不变,只将副词放在 句首。(完全倒装) ? Away hurried the boy. ? Out rushed the girl.

? 9、在虚拟结构中,条件从句的谓语含有 were, had 和should这三个词是,可省去if, 将这些词移至主语之前。 ? Had I time (= If I had time), I would go and help you. ? Were I you (= If I were you), I would go abroad. ? Should he come (=If he should come), tell him to ring me up.

? 10、as引导让步状语从句时要倒装 (形容词/ 副词/ 名词/ 动词 + as + 主 语 + 谓语)。 ? Proud as they are, they are afraid to see me. ? Child as he is, he seems to know everything.(child前不加冠词) ? Hard as he worded, he made little progress.

? 11、用于某些表示祝愿的句子里。 ? May you succeed! ? Long live the People?s Republic of China! ? 12、So + 形容词、副词及such 置 于句首时要倒装。 ? So happy did he feel. ? Such was me.

? 一、语气的定义和种类 ? l、语气:语气是动词的一种形式,它表示说话人对某一 行为或事情的看法和态度。 ? 2、语气的种类: ? (1)陈述语气: 表示动作或状态是现实的、确定的或符合事 实的,用于陈述句、疑问句和某些感叹句。如:We are not ready. 我们没准备好。What a fine day it is!多好的 天气啊! ? (2)祈使语气: 表示说话人的建议、请求、邀请、命令等。 如: Open the door, please。请打开门。 ? (3)虚拟语气: 表示动作或状态不是客观存在的事实,而是 说话人的主观愿望、假设或推测等。如: If I were you, I should study English. 如果我是你,我就学英语了。 May you succeed! 祝您成功!

? 二、虚拟语气在条件从句中的用法 ? 条件句有两类,一类是真实条件句,一类是虚拟条件 句。如果假设的情况是有可能发生的,就是真实条件何。 在这种真实条件句中的谓语用陈述语气。如: If it doesn?t rain tomorrow, we will go to the park. 如果 明天不下雨,我们就去公园。 ? 如果假设的情况是过去或现在都不存在的,或将来不大 可能发生的,则是虚拟条件句。如: If he had seen you yesterday, he would have asked you about it. 如果他昨天见到你,他会问你这件事的。(事实上他昨 天没见到你,因此也未能问你这件事。) ? 在含有虚拟条件句的复合句中,主句和从句的谓语都要 用虚拟语气。现将虚拟条件从句和主句的动词形式列表 如下:

从 句 与现在事实相反 动词的过去式 (be的过去式一 般用were) 与过去事实相反 had + 过去分词

与将来事实相反 动词过去式, should + 动词原 形,were to + 动词原形

主 句 would/ could/ 词原形 would/ could/ have + would/ could/ 词原形

should/ might + 动 should/ might + 过去分词 should/ might + 动

? 注: 主句中的should只用于I、we,但在美国 英语中,should常被would代替;从句中的 should 可用于各种人称。 ? l、表示与现在事实相反的假设和结果。如: If my brother were here, everything would be all right. 要是我哥哥在这儿 , 一切都没问题了。 ? 2、表示与过去事实相反的假设和结果。如: If you had taken my advice,you wouldn't (couldn?t) have failed in the exam. 如果你按照我的建议去做,你一定 不会(不可能)考试不及格。

? 3、表示与将来事实可能相反的假设和结果。如: If it were Sunday tomorrow, I should (would,could,might) go to see my grandmother. 如果明天是星期天,我就 (可能) 去看望我奶奶。If it were to snow this evening, they would not go out. 如果今晚下 雪,他们将不出去了。 ? 4、有时条件从句中的动作和主句中的动作发生 的时间不一致(表示错综时间的虚拟语气),这 时动词的形式要根据它所表示的时间加以调整。 例如: If you had listened to the doctor, you would be all right now. 如果你当初听了 医生的话,身体现在就好了。(从句动作指过去, 主句动作指现在)

? 5、虚拟条件句可以转换成下列形式: ? (l)省略连词if。在书面语中,如果虚拟条件从句中有 were,had 或 should,可以把if省略,把这几个词放 到主语之前,构成主谓倒装。例如: Should he come (If he should come), tell him to ring me up. 他 要是来了,让他给我打个电话。Were I you (If I were you), I would not do it. 我要是你,就不做这 事。 ? (2)用介词短语代替条件状语从句。有时假设的情况并 不用条件从句表示出来,而是通过介词短语来表示。如 : Without air (If there were not air), there would be no living things. 如果没有空气的话,就不会有 生物了。But for your help (If it hadn ?t been for your help) I couldn?t have done it. 要是没有你的 帮助,我就不可能完成这件事。

? 假设的情况有时可以通过上下文或其他方 式表现出来。如: I was busy that day. Otherwise I would have gone there with them. (If I hadn?t been busy that day, I would have gone there with them.) 我那天很忙,否则,我就和他们一 起去那儿了。(如果我那天不忙的话,我 就……);I would have finished the work, but I have been ill. (If I hadn?t been ill, I would have finished the work.) 我本来该完成这项工作的,但 我生病了。(如果我没生病的话,我就会完 成……)

? 6、省去条件从句或主句:表示虚拟语气的主句 或从句有时可以省略,但其含义仍可以推知。 ? (1)省去条件从句。如: You could have washed your clothes yourself. 你本可以自已洗衣服的。 省去了"If you had wanted to")(事实是:你自己没 洗衣服,因为你不想洗。) ? (2)省去主句(常用以表示愿望)。如: If my grandmother were with me! 如果我的祖母与我 在一起多好啊!(事实是:祖母已不在世。);If only she had not left! 如果她没走就好了!(事实是:她 已经走了。)

? 三、虚拟语气的其他用法 ? l、虚拟语气在主语从句中的用法:在"It is important (strange,natural, necessary) that…"这类句型里,that所 引导的主语从句中的谓语动词常用 “should十动词原形”结构,表示某事是" 重要"、"奇怪"、"自然"、"必要"等意义。 如: It is important that every member (should) inform himself of these rules. 重要的是每个成员知道这些规则。

? 2、虚拟语气在宾语从句中用法:

? (1)在动词wish后的宾语从句中,表示 与现在或过去的事实相反,或对将来 的主观愿望,从句通常省略连词that。 1)表示对现在情况的虚拟:从句动词用 过去式或过去进行式(be动词一般用 were)。如: I wish I knew the answer to the question. 我希望知道这个问题 的答案。(可惜不知道);

? 2)表示对过去情况的虚拟: 从句动词常用"had十过去分 词"。如: I wish (wished) I hadn?t spent so much money. 我后悔不该花那么多 钱。(实际上已经花掉);

? 3)表示对将来的主观愿望:谓语动词形 式为"would十动词原形"。此时要注意, 主句的主语与从句的主语不能相同, 因为主句的主语所期望的从句动作能 否实现,取决于从句主语的态度或意 愿(非动物名词除外)。如: I wish it would stop raining. 但愿雨能停止; I wish you would come soon. 但愿 你立刻来。 ?

? (2)在suggest,demand,order, propose,insist,command, request,desire等动词后的宾语从 句中,谓语动词用“should + 动词 原形”,表示建议、要求、命令等。 如: I demand that he (should) answer me immediately. 我要求他 立刻答复我。

? 3、虚拟语气在状语从句中的用法 ? (1)在带有even if/ even though引导的让步状语从句的 主从复合句中,主句和从句都用虚拟语气,动词形式与 含有非真实条件句的虚拟语气相同。如: Even if he had been ill, he would have gone t his office. 即使 生了病,他俩去办公室。 ? (2)由as if或as though引导的状语从句表示比较或 方式时。从句谓语形式为动词的过去式(be用were)或 “had十过去分词”。如: He treated me as if I were a stranger. 他那样对待我,好像我是陌 ? 生人似的。She talked about the film as if she had really seen it. 她谈论那部影片,就好像她确实看过一 样。 ? 注:如果表示的事情可能会发生,那么方式状语从句 中的谓语动词可用陈述语气。

? (3)在in order that或so that引导的目的 状语从句中,谓语动词多用 “could或 might(有时也用should)+ 动词原形”。 如: Mr green spoke slowly so that his students could (might) hear clearly. 格林先生说得很慢,好让学生听清楚。 ? 4.虚拟语气在定语从句中的用法:在"It is time (that) …"句型中,定语从句的 谓语动词常用虚拟语气表示将来,动词形 式一般用过去式,意思是"该干某事的时候 了"。如: It?s (high) time we did our homework. 我们该做作业了。

(1)用but for, without等介词短语表达条件。例如: But for you, we couldn’t have carried out the plan. 要不是你的话我们(当时)无法实行那项计划。 (2)It’s time that …+ 动词过去式 should+动词原形 “该做……的时候了” It is time we got up . 该是起床的时间了. It is (high) time we should get up. 该是我起床的时间了. (3)would rather (that)…动词过去式(与现在或将来相反)/had done(“宁愿……(而不)……”(与过去事实相反)

例如: I would rather he stayed at home now. 我宁愿他现在在家里. he stayed at home tomorrow. 我宁愿他明天在家里. he had stayed at home yesterday. 我宁愿他昨天在家里 ( 4 ) wish=if only+从句(从句谓语动词有三种形式) ①would (could, might) +动词原形(与过去事实相反) ②动词过去式(与现在事实相反) ③had+过去分词或用could have+ 过去分词(与过去事 实相反)

例如: I wish (ed) I could (would, might) go to the moon in a spaceship one day. 我希望有一天我能乘坐宇宙飞船登上月球. I wish (=If only) he visited us now. 要是他现在能来看望我. I wish (If only) he had visited us last night. =I wish (If only) he could have visited us last night. 要是他昨晚能来看望我们就好了. (5) as if (thought) (方式)“好像,仿佛” + ①动词过去式(与现在事实相反) ②过去进行式(与现在正在进行相反) ③had+done(与过去事实相反) ④could/might/would+动词原形(与将来事实相反)

例如: It looks as if/though ①someone were running. 好象有人在跑步. ②she hadn’t done that. 她好象没有做那样的事 ③she were two years younger today. 她今天看起来好象年轻了两岁. ④she would live another 100 years. 她好象还能活100岁. (6)有时候,条件从句表示的动作和主句表示的动 作发生的时间是不一致的(如一个是过去发生的, 一个是现在发生的),这这时动词的形式要根据表 示的时间来调整。

例如: If I had followed the doctor’s advice, I would be better now. 如果我听了医生的建议,我现在可能就好多了. If you had worked hard then, you would be in the university now. 如果那时你努力一些,你现在就上大学了. If the doctor had come sooner last night, the patient would be alive now. 如果医生昨晚能早来一会儿,病人现在可能就活下 来了. (7)even if/though 引导让步状语从句,从句中用 may/might+动词原形,may或might可省略,表示与 现在情况相反;从句用过去时,表示与过去情况相 反;类似的词还有:though/as though/so long as/no matter wh-/

whatever/whenever/whoever等。 However dangerous it might be, he would have a try. 无论多危险,他都要试一试。 Even though I had been very busy then, I would have helped you. 即使我当时很忙,我还是会帮助你的。 (8)表示祝愿或诅咒的祈使句 May you succeed! 祝你成功! God bless you! 愿上帝保佑你! (9)过去分词短语表示条件 Given more time, we could have done it better. 倘若给我们会把它做得更好。 (10)通过上下文表示条件 Such mistaken could have been avoided. 这种错误本来是可以避免的。

? 5、虚拟语气在简单句中的用法 ? (1)情态动词的过去式用于现在时态时,表示说 话人的谦虚、客气、有礼貌,或委婉的语气, 常见于日常会话中。如: It would be better for you not to stay up too late. 你最好别太晚睡 觉。 ? (2)在一些习惯表达中。如: I would rather not tell you. 我宁愿不告诉你。 ? (3)用“may + 动词原形”表示"祝愿"、"但 愿”,此时may须置于句首(多用于正式文体 中)。 ? 如:May you be happy!祝你快乐!May good

高三英语学生学习课件

1.—Excuse me, but I want to use your computer to type a report. —You _____ have my computer if you don’t take care of it. A. shan’t B. might not C. needn’t D. shouldn’t 2. —Excuse me. Is this the right way to the Summer Palace? —Sorry, I am not sure. But it _____ be. A. might B. will C. must D. can 3. —I’ll tell Mary about her new job tomorrow. —You ____ her last week. A. ought to tell B. would have told C. must tell D. should have told

高三英语学生学习课件

4. —I heard they went skiing in the mountains last winter. —It _____ true because there was little snow there. A. may not be B. won’t be C. couldn’t be D. mustn’t be 5. He hesitated for a moment before kicking the ball, otherwise he _____ a goal. A. had scored B. scored C. would scored D. would have scored 6. —Write to me when you get home. —_________. A. I must B. I should C. I will D. I can

高三英语学生学习课件

7. —I hear you’ve got a set of valuable Australian coins. —_____ I have a look? Yes, certainly. A. Do B. May C. Shall D. Should 8. What would have happened _____, as far as the river bank? A. Bob had walked farther B. if Bob should walk farther C. had Bob walked farther D. if Bob walked farther 9. Sorry, I’m late. I _____ have turned off the alarm clock and gone back to sleep again. A. might B. should C. can D. will

高三英语学生学习课件

10. _____ be sent to work there? A. Who do you suggest B. Who do you suggest that should C. Do you suggest who should D. Do you suggest whom should 11. With better equipment, we _____ the job even sooner. A. would finish B. might finish C. could have finished D. had finished 12. _____ the fog, we should have reached our school. A. Because of B. In spite of C. In case of D. But for

高三英语学生学习课件

13. The young man insisted that he _____ nothing wrong and _____ free. A. did; set B. had done; should be set C. do; be set D. had done; must be set 14. They must have here the day before yesterday, _____? A. mustn’t they B. weren’t they C. haven’t they D. had they 15. —Do you still remember the day when we went to the Great Wall? —I can’t remember it well, but _____ sometime last autumn? A. might it be B. could it have been C. could it be D. must it have been

高三英语学生学习课件

16. If you _____ wait a moment, I’ll go and find our manager. A. can B. should C. will D. must 17. If only I _____ my motorbike! A. haven’t lost B. didn’t lose C. would not have lost D. hadn’t lost 18. I promised to get there before 5 o’clock, but now the rain is pouring down. They _____ for me impatiently. A. may wait B. ought to wait C. could wait D. must be waiting

高三英语学生学习课件

19. With his help, I _____ the experiment well. A. had done B. would do C. did D. have done 20. You _____ write down your translation. You _____ do it orally. A. shouldn’t; can B. need; may not C. can’t; need D. needn’t; may 21. _____ he were trying to teach them all he knew. A. It seemed that B. They had hoped C. It seemed as if D. They thought

高三英语学生学习课件

22. I don’t think that I shall fail. But if I _____, I would try again. A. should fail B. would fail C. fail D. have failed 23. Do you know the order that you ____ watch? A. would have kept B. could have kept C. had kept C. should keep 24. There used to be a station in the west of the city, ______? A. didn’t there B. used there C. usedn’t to there D. did there

25. I’d rather that you _____ right away. A. leave B. left C. should leave D. will leave 26. All parents _____ know what to do when their children have had an accident. A. can B. may C. should D. are able to 27. Without the Communist Party of China, _____ New China. A. there were not B. there would be no C. there will be D. there hadn’t been

28. In those days, the old woman _____ sit at the gate for hours, waiting for her son to return from the front. A. will B. should C. were going to D. would 29. —He should have come to the thorough cleaning. —_____, I think. A. He needn’t B. He needn’t have to C. He needn’t have D. He didn’t need to 30. —I wonder why I’m so tired tonight. —Well, it is time that you _____. A. went to sleep B. go to sleep C. went to bed D. go to bed

参考答案: 1-5 AADCD 11-15 CDBBB 21-25 CADAD

6-10 CBCAA 16-20 CDDBD 26-30 CBDDC

? 为了使讲话和行文简洁,句中某些成分有时可省 略。省略可分以下几种情况: ? (一)简单句中的省略 ? 1、省略主语:祈使句中主语通常省略。其它省略 主语多限于少数现成的说法。 ? (I) Thank you for your help.(括号内为省略的 词语,下同) ? (I) see you tomorrow. (It) Doesn?t matter. ? 2、省略主谓语或主谓语的一部分。 ? (There is) No smoking. (Is there) Anything wrong? Why (do you) not say hello to him?

? 3、省略作宾语的不定式短语,只保留to。 ? ---- Are you going there? ---- I?d like to (go there). ? He did not give me the chance, though he had promised to (give me the chance). ? 注意:如果该宾语是be动词或完成时态,则须在to之后加上be 或have。 ? e.g. ---- Are you an engineer? ---- No, but I want to be. ? ---- He hasn?t finished the task yet. ? ---- Well, he ought to have. ? 4、省略表语。 ? e.g. ---- Are you thirsty? ---- Yes, I am (thirsty). ? 5、同时省略几个成分。 ? e.g. Let?s meet at the same place as (we met) yesterday. ? ---- Have you finished your work? ? ---- (I have) Not (finished my work) yet.

? (二)并列句中的省略 ? 两个并列分句中,后一个分句常省 略与前一分句中相同的部分。 ? e.g. My father is a doctor and my mother (is) a nurse. ? I study at college and my sister (studies) at high school.

? ? ? ? ?

? ? ?

(三)主从复合句中的省略 1、主句中有一些成分被省略。 (I?m) Sorry to hear that you are ill. (It is a) Pity that he missed such a good chance. 2、省略了一个从句或从句的一部分,用so或 not(切不可用it或that)代替。 ---- Is he coming back tonight?---- I think so. ---- Is he feeling better today?---- I?m afraid not. 这种用法常见的有:How so? Why so? Is that so? I hope so. He said so 及I suppose not. I believed not. I hope not等。(但I don?t think so比I think not更常用)。

? (四)其它省略
? 1、连词that的省略: ? ①、宾语从句中常省略连词that,但也有不能省略的情况(参看 “名词性从句”等有关部分)。 ? ②、在定语从句中,that在从句中作宾语时可省略。 ? ③、引导主语从句、同位语从句等的连词that一般不可省略。在 表语从句中偶尔可省略。 ? 2、不定式符号to的省略 ? ①、并列的不定式可省去后面的to。 ? e.g. I told him to sit down and wait for a moment. ? ②、某些使役动词(如let, make, have)及感官动词(如see, watch, notice, hear, feel, look at和listen to等)后面作宾语补 足的不定式一定要省去to,但在被动语态中须把to复原。 ? e.g. ---- I saw the boy fall from the tree. ? ---- The boy was seen to fall from the tree. ? ③、介词but前若有动词do,后面的不定式不带to。 ? e.g. The boy did nothing but play.

? 3、在某些状语从句中,从句的主语与主 句主语一致时,可省去“主语 + be”部 分。(参看“状语从句”有关部分) ? 4、连词if在部分虚拟条件句中可省略, 但后面的语序有变化(参见“倒装句”有 关部分) ? 5、主句与从句各有一些成分省略。 The sooner (you do it), the better (it will be).

? 一)句子种类两种分类法 ? 1、按句子的用途可分四种: ? 1)陈述句(肯定、否定):He is six years old; She didn?t hear of you before. ? 2)疑问句(一般、特殊、选择、反意):Do they like skating? How old is he? Is he six or seven years old? Mary can swim, can?t she? ? 3)祈使句:Be careful, boys; Don?t talk in class ? 4)感叹句:How clever the boy is!

? 2、按句子的结构可分三种: ? 1)简单句:只有一个主语(或并列主语)和一个谓语 (或并列谓语)。 ? e.g. He often reads English in the morning. ? Tom and Mike are American boys. ? She likes drawing and often draws pictures for the wall newspapers. ? 2) 并列句:由并列连词(and, but, or等)或分号(;) 把两个或两个以上的简单句连在一起构成。 ? e.g. You help him and he helps you. ? The future is bright; the road is tortuous. 前途是光 明的,道路是曲折的。 ? 3)复合句:含有一个或一个以上从句的句子。复合句 包含:名词性从句(主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和 同位语从句)、定语从句和状语从句等。 ? e.g. The foreign visitors took a lot of pictures when they were at the Great Wall.

? ? ? ?

(二)简单句的五种基本句型 1、主语+系动词+表语:e.g. He is a student. 2、主语+不及物动词:e.g. We work. 3、主语+及物动词+宾语:e.g. Henry bought a dictionary. ? 4、主语+及物动词+双宾语(间接宾语+直接宾 语):e.g. My father bought me a car. ? 5、主语+及物动词+复合宾语(宾语+宾补): e.g. Tom made the baby laugh. ? 注:其他各种句子都可由这一种基本句型扩展、 变化或省略而构成。

句子成分

(一)句子成分的定义:构成句子的各个部分叫做句子成分。句子 成分有主要成分和次要成分;主要成分有主语和谓语;次要成分 有表语、宾语、定语、状语、补足语和同位语。 (二)主语:主语是一个句子所叙述的主体,一般位于句首。但在 there be结构、疑问句(当主语不疑问词时)和倒装句中,主语 位于谓语、助动词或情态动词后面。主语可由名词、代词、数词、 不定式、动名词、名词化的形容词和主语从句等表示。例如: ? During the 1990s, American country music has become more and more popular.(名词) ? We often speak English in class.(代词) ? One-third of the students in this class are girls.(数词) ? To swim in the river is a great pleasure.(不定式) ? Smoking does harm to the health.(动名词) ? The rich should help the poor.(名词化的形容词) ? When we are going to have an English test has not been decided.(主语从句) ? It is necessary to master a foreign language.(it作形式主语, 真正的主语为后面的不定式)

? (三)谓语:谓语说明主语所做的动作或具有的特征和状态。动词在句中作 谓语,一般放在主语之后。谓语的构成如下: ? 1、简单谓语:由一个动词或动词短语构成。如:He practices running every morning. ? 2、复合谓语:(1)由情态动词或其他助动词加动词原形构成。如:You may keep the book for two weeks. He has caught a bad cold. (2)由 系动词加表语构成。如:We are students. ? (四)表语:表语用以说明主语的身份、特征和状态,它一般位于系动词 (如be, become, get, look, grow, turn, seem等)之后。表语一般由名词、 代词、形容词、分词、数词、不定式、动名词、介词短语、副词及表语从句 表示。例如: ? Our teacher of English is an American.(名词) ? Is it yours?(代词) ? The weather has turned cold.(形容词) ? The speech is exciting.(分词) ? Three times seven is twenty one?(数词) ? His job is to teach English.(不定式) ? His hobby(爱好)is playing football.(动名词) ? The machine must be out of order.(介词短语) ? Time is up. The class is over.(副词) ? The truth is that he has never been abroad.(表语从句)

? (五)宾语:宾语表示动作的对象或承爱者,一般位于及 物动词和介词后面。例如: ? They went to see an exhibition(展览)yesterday. (名词) ? The heavy rain prevented me form coming to school on time.(代词) ? How many dictionaries do you have? I have five. (数词) ? They helped the old with their housework yesterday.(名词化形容词) ? He pretended not to see me.(不定式短语) ? I enjoy listening to popular music.(动名词短语) ? I think(that)he is fit for his office.(宾语从句) ? 宾语种类:(1)双宾语(间接宾语+直接宾语),例 如:Lend me your dictionary, please.(2)复合宾语 (宾语+宾补),例如:They elected him their monitor.

? (六)宾语补足语:英语中有些及物动词,除有一个直接 宾语以外,还要有一个宾语补语,才能使句子的意义完整。 带有宾语补足语的一般句型为:某些及物动词(如make 等+宾语+宾补)。宾补可由名词、形容词、副词、不定 式、分词、介词短语和从句充当。例如: ? His father named him Dongming.(名词) ? They painted their boat white.(形容词) ? Let the fresh air in.(副词) ? You mustn?t force him to lend his money to you.(不 定式短语) ? We saw her entering the room.(现在分词) ? We found everything in the lab in good order.(介词 短语) ? We will soon make our city what your city is now. (从句)

? (七)定语:修饰名词或代词的词、短语或从句 称为定语。定语可由以下等成分表示: ? Guilin is a beautiful city.(形容词) ? China is a developing country; America is a developed country.(分词) ? There are thirty women teachers is our school.(名词) ? His rapid progress in English made us surprised.(代词) ? Our monitor is always the first to enter the classroom.(不定式短语) ? The teaching plan for next term has been worked out.(动名词) ? He is reading an article about how to learn English.(介词短语)

? (八)状语:修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子,说 明动作或状态特征的句子成分,叫做状语。可由以下形 式表示: ? Light travels most quickly.(副词及副词性词组) ? He has lived in the city for ten years.(介词短语) ? He is proud to have passed the national college entrance examination.(不定式短语) ? He is in the room making a model plane.(分词 短语) ? Wait a minute.(名词) ? Once you begin, you must continue.(状语从句) ?

? 状语种类如下: ? How about meeting again at six?(时间状语) ? Last night she didn?t go to the dance party because of the rain.(原因状语) ? I shall go there if it doesn’t rain.(条件状语) ? Mr Smith lives on the third floor.(地点状语) ? She put the eggs into the basket with great care. (方式状语) ? She came in with a dictionary in her hand.(伴随 状语) ? In order to catch up with the others, I must work harder.(目的状语) ? He was so tired that he fell asleep immediately. (结果状语) She works very hard though she is old.(让步状语) ? I am taller than he is.(比较状语)

? (三)并列句的分类 ? 1、表示连接两个同等概念,常用and, not only…but also…, neither…nor…, then等连接。e.g. The teacher?s name is Smith, and the student?s name is John. ? 2、表示选择,常用的连词有or, either…or…, otherwise等。e.g. Hurry up, or you?ll miss the train. ? 3、表示转折,常用的连词有but, still, however, yet, while, when等。e.g. He was a little man with thick glasses, but he had a strange way of making his classes lively and interesting. ? 4、表示因果关系,常用的连词有so, for, therefore等。e.g. August is the time of the year for rive harvest, so every day I work from dawn until dark.

一、一般现在时的用法
1) 经常性或习惯性的动作,常与表示频度的时间状 语连用。 时间状语: every…, sometimes, at…, on Sunday I leave home for school at 7 every morning. He cycles to work every day. 2) 客观真理,客观存在,科学事实。 The earth moves around the sun. Shanghai lies in the east of China. Water boils at 100 centigrade degrees.

3) 表示格言或警句中。

Pride goes before a fall. 骄者必败。 注意:此用法如果出现在宾语从句中,即使主句是过去时,从句谓 语也要用一般现在时。例如: Columbus proved that the earth is round. 4) 现在时刻的状态、能力、性格、个性。 I don't want so much. Ann Wang writes good English but does not speak well. 比较:Now I put the sugar in the cup. I am doing my homework now. 第一句用一般现在时,用于操作演示或指导说明的示范性动作, 表 示言 行 的 瞬 间 动 作 。再如: Now watch me, I switch on the current and stand back. 第二句中的now是进行时的标志,表示正在 进行的动作的客观状况。

知识扩展:一般现在时表将来
1)下列动词:come, go, arrive, leave, start, begin, return的一般现 在时表将来。这主要用来表示在时间上已确定或安排好的事情。 The train leaves at six tomorrow morning. When does the bus star? It stars in ten minutes. 2)倒装句,表示动作正在进行,如: Here comes the bus. = The bus is coming. There goes the bell. = The bell is ringing. 3)在时间或条件句中。 When Bill comes (不是will come), ask him to wait for me. I'll write to you as soon as I arrive there. 4)在动词hope, take care that, make sure that等后。 I hope they have a nice time next week. Make sure that the windows are closed before you leave the room.

二、一般过去时的用法
1)在确定的过去时间里所发生的动作或存在的状态。 时间状语有:yesterday, last week, an hour ago, the other day, in 1982等。 Where did you go just now? I saw Tom in the street yesterday. I bought this TV set in Beijing last year. 2)表示在过去一段时间内,经常性或习惯性的动作。

When I was a child, I often played football in the street.
He always went to work by bus. He used to act like that.

3)用过去时表示现在,表示语气委婉礼貌。
(1)动词want, hope, wonder, think, intend 等。例如: Did you want anything else? I wanted to ask you about that. Did you want to speak to me now? I wondered if you could help me. (2)情态动词 could, would,例如: Could you lend me your bike?

4)用在条件句中表示与现在或将来事实不符的虚拟语气。
If I were a bird, I would fly to Beijing. If he were here now, we could turn to him for help.

注意比较下列句型:

◎ It is time for sb. to do sth “到……时间了;该……了”,例如: It is time for you to go to bed. 你该睡觉了。 ◎ It is time sb. did sth. “时间已迟了;早该……了”,例如: It is time you went to bed. 你早该睡觉了。 ◎ would (had) rather sb. did sth. 表示“宁愿某人做某事”,例如: I'd rather you came tomorrow. 一般过去时表示的动作或状态都已成为过去,现已不复存在。 Christine was an invalid all her life. (含义:她已不在人间。) Christine has been an invalid all her life. (含义:她现在还活着) Mrs. Darby lived in Kentucky for seven years. (含义:达比太太已 不再住在肯塔基州。) Mrs. Darby has lived in Kentucky for seven years. ( 含义:现在还住 在肯塔基州,有可能指刚离去)

三、一般将来时
1) shall用于第一人称,常被will 所代替。 will 在陈述句中用于各人称,在征求意见时常用于第二人称。 Which paragraph shall I read first? Will you be at home at seven this evening? 2) be going to +不定式,表示将来。 a. 主语的意图,即将做某事或打算做某事。 What are you going to do tomorrow? b. 计划,安排要发生的事。 The play is going to be produced next month. c. 有迹象要发生的事 Look at the dark clouds; there is going to be a storm. 3) be +不定式表将来,按计划或正式安排将发生的事。 We are to discuss the report next Saturday.

4) be about to +不定式,意为马上做某事。 He is about to leave for Beijing. 注意:be about to 不能与tomorrow, next week 等表示明确将来时的 时间状语连用。 ☆be going to / will的用法之比较: 用于条件句时,be going to表将来,will表意愿。例如: If you are going to make a journey, you'd better get ready for it as soon as possible. Now if you will take off your clothes, we will fit the new clothes on you in front of the mirror. ☆be to和be going to 的用法之比较: be to 表示客观安排或受人指示而做某事。而be going to 则表示主 观的打算或计划。例如: I am to play football tomorrow afternoon. (客观安排) I'm going to play football tomorrow afternoon. (主观安排)

四、现在进行时

1. 表示现在( 指说话人说话时) 正在发生的事情。例如: We are waiting for you. 2. 习惯进行:表示长期的或重复性的动作,说话时动作未必正在 进行。例如: Mr. Green is writing another novel. (说话时并未在写,只处于写作的状态。) She is learning piano under Mr. Smith. 3. 表示渐变的动词有:get, grow, become, turn, run, go, begin等。 The leaves are turning red. It's getting warmer and warmer. 4. 与always, constantly, forever 等词连用,表示反复发生的动作 或持续存在的状态,往往带有说话人的主观色彩。 You are always changing your mind.

知识扩展:不用进行时的动词
1) 事实状态的动词。如: have, belong, possess, cost, owe, exist, include, contain, matter, weigh, measure, continue I have two brothers. This house belongs to my sister. 2) 心理状态的动词。如:know, realize, think see, believe, suppose, imagine, agree, recognize, remember, want, need, forget, prefer, mean, understand, love, hate I need your help. He loves her very much. 3) 瞬间动词。如: accept, receive, complete, finish, give, allow, decide, refuse. I accept your advice. 4) 系动词。如:seem, remain, lie, see, hear, smell, feel, taste, get, become, turn You seem a little tired.

五、过去进行时
1)概念:表示过去某时正在进行的状态或动作。 2)过去进行时的主要用法是描述一件事发生的背景;一个长动作 发生的时候,另一个短动作发生。

3) 常用的时间状语有:this morning, the whole morning, all day
yesterday, from nine to ten last evening, when, while 例句:

My brother fell while he was riding his bicycle and hurt himself.
It was raining when they left the station. When I got to the top of the mountain, the sun was shining.

典型例题
1) Mary ___ a dress when she cut her finger.
A. made B. is making C. was making D. makes 答案C. 割伤手指是已发生的事情,应用过去时。同时, when表时

间的同时性,"玛丽在做衣服时"提供事情发生的背景,因此用过去
进行时。 2) As she ___ the newspaper, Granny ___ asleep. A. read; was falling C. was reading; was falling B. was reading; fell D. read; fell

答案B.句中的as = when, while,意为"当……之时"。描述一件事发 生的背景时,用过去进行;一个长动作发生的时候,另一个短动作 发生。句意为 "在她看报纸时,奶奶睡着了。"句中的 fell (fall的过 去时),是系动词,后跟形容词,如:fall sick。

1. — Look! How wonderful my car is! Oh, Jack. What are you thinking about? Don’t you like it? — I’m sorry I ______ any remark about it in time. I certainly think it’s smart. A. wasn’t making B. don’t make C. won’t make D. didn’t make 2. To find the street where I lived in my childhood is no easy task because the city ______ so rapidly all these years. A. is changing B. has changed C. will have changed D. will change 3. He ______ quite well, but he hasn’t had time to swim since this summer. A. will swim B. have swum C. swam D. swims 4. Jimmy said that he would come to pick me up, but he ____by now. A. hasn’t turned up B. doesn’t turn up C. won’t turn up D. hadn’t turned up

5. I’m terribly sorry for being late, but I _____ the wrong bus.

A. catch B. had caught C. caught D. catching 7. The truth, sir, is that the old man _______ across the road when my car hit him. A. was to walk B. had been walking C. walked D. was walking 8. I really don’t think Rose will be upset, but I will go and see her in case she _____. A. is B. does C. will be D. has been 9. The computers made by our company sell best, but several years ago no one could have imagined the role in the markets that they _________. A. were playing B. were to play C. had played D. played

10. — Kate is in hospital.

— Oh, really? I _______. ________ visit her.
A. didn’t know; I’ll go and C. don’t know; I’m going to B. don’t know; I’ll go and D. didn’t know; I’m going to

11. — Where _______ the guidebook? I can’t see it anywhere.
— I _______ it right here, but now it’s gone. A. did you put; have put B. had you put; have put C. have you put; put D. were you putting; put 14. — Do you live in this city? — No, we ______ it for holidays. A. just visit B. just visited C. are just visiting D. have visited 15. — How is the old man now? — Sorry, he ______ though they did all they could to save him. A. was dead B. had died C. has been dead D. died

16.The lake will be further polluted unless some measures ______.
A. will be taken B. are taken C. were taken D. had been taken 17. I’m afraid it will be two months ______.

A. when I come back
C. before I come back something he ______ in the office. A. had worked, had left

B. when I’ll come back
D. before I’ll come back

18.The workers _____ busily when the boss came to look for B. were working ; had left

C. working ; had left
A. is told B. reads

D. had worked; left
C. tells D. is read

21.The notice ______ “No smoking”.

六、现在完成时
1.现在完成时的构成:助动词have (has) + 动词的过去分词 注:has 用于第三人称单数,have 用于其他所有人称。 2.现在完成时的用法: (1)现在完成时表示过去发生或已经完成的某一动作对现在造成 的影响或结果。通常与表示包括现在在内的时间副词 just,already, before, yet, never, ever等状语连用。例如: ① I have never heard of that before. ② Have you ever ridden a horse? ③ She has already finished the work. ④ Have you milked the cow yet? Yes, I have done that already. ⑤ I’ve just lost my science book.

有时没有时间状语;多是一般疑问句。

(2)现在完成时表示过去已经开始,持续到现在,也许还会持续下
去的动作或状态。可以和表示从过去某一时刻延续到现在(包括现 在在内)的一段时间的状语连用。 如: for 和 since ,以及 so far, now, today, this week(month, year) 等。 ① I haven’t seen her these days. ② She has learnt English for 3 years. ③ They have lived here since 1990.

④ What has happened to the USA in the last 350 years?
注意:表示短暂时间动作的词,如come, go, die, marry, buy等的完 成时不能与for, since等表示一段时间的短语连用。

(3)现在完成时还可以用在时间和条件状语从句中 ,表示将来某时

完成的动作,例如:
I’ll go to your home when I have finished my homework. If it has stopped snowing in the morning, we’ll go to the park. (4) have been (to)和have gone (to)的区别: ★have / has been (to) 表示“曾经去过”某地,说话时此人很可能 不在那里,已经回来。侧重指经历。 ★have / has gone (to) 表示某人“已经去了”某地,说话时此人在 那里,或可能在路上,反正不在这里。

试比较:
He has been to Beijing. 他曾去过北京。 (人已回来,可能在这儿)

He has gone to Beijing. 他已经去了北京。
(人已走,不在这儿)。

一般过去时与现在完成时之比较
1)过去时表示过去某时发生的动作或单纯叙述过去的事情,强 强调的是影响。 2)过去时常与具体的时间状语连用,而现在完成时通常与模糊 的时间状语连用,或无时间状语。 ◎ 一般过去时的时间状语有:yesterday, last week,…ago, in1980, in October, just now, 具体的时间状语。 before, already, recently,lately等。 ◎ 现在完成时的时间状语有:for, since, so far, ever, never, just, yet,

调动作;现在完成时为过去发生的,强调过去的事情对现在的影响,

◎ 共同的时间状语有:this morning, tonight, this April, now, once,

till / until, up to now, in past years, always, 等不确定的时间状语。

请大家认真分析比较下列各例句:
I saw this film yesterday. (强调看的动作发生过了。) I have seen this film. (强调对现在的影响,电影的内容已经知道了。) She has returned from Paris. (她已从巴黎回来了。) She returned yesterday. (她是昨天回来了。) He has been in the League for three years. (在团内的状态可延续) He joined the League three years ago. ( 三年前入团,joined为短暂行为。) 注意:句子中如有过去时的时间副词(如 yesterday, last week, in 1960)时,不能使用现在完成时,要用过去时。例如: (错)Tom has written a letter to his parents last night. (对)Tom wrote a letter to his parents last night.

延续动词与瞬间动词
1) 用于完成时的区别: 延续动词表示经验、经历; 瞬间动词表示行为的结果,不能 与表示段的时间状语连用。 He has completed the work. 他已完成了那项工作。 (表结果) I've known him since then. 我从那时起就认识他了。(表经历) 2) 用于till / until 从句的差异: 延续动词用于肯定句,表示“做……直到……” ;瞬间动词用 于否定句,表示“到……,才……”。 He didn't come back until ten o'clock. 他到10 点才回来。 He slept until ten o'clock. 他一直睡到10点。

典型例题:
1. You don't need to describe her. I ___ her several times. A. had met B. have met C. met D. meet

答案B ;首先本题后句强调对现在的影响,我知道她的模样,你不 用描述。再次,several times告知为反复发生的动作,因此用现在

完成时。
2. --- I'm sorry to keep you waiting. --- Oh, not at all. I ___ here only a few minutes. A. have been B. had been C. was D. will be

答案A ; 等待的动作由过去开始,持续到现在,应用现在完成时。

七、过去完成时的用法
1、概念:表示过去的过去。 -----------|----------------|--------------------|----> 那时以前 那时 现在 其结构是:had + 过去分词

2、过去完成时的用法: ( 1 )过去完成时表示过去某一时刻或者某一动作之前完成的动 作或状态;句中常用by, before, until, when等词引导的时间状语。 By the end of last year we had built five new houses. I had learnt 5000 words before I entered the university. ( 2 )过去完成时的动词还可以表示过去某一时刻之前发生的动 作或者状态持续到过去某个时间或者持续下去。 Before he slept, he had worked for 12 hours.

(3)在told, said, knew, heard, thought等动词后的宾语从句。 She said (that) she had never been to Paris. ( 4 )在过去不同时间发生的两个动作中,发生在先,用过去完 成时;发生在后,用一般过去时。 When the police arrived, the thieves had run away. (5)表示意向的动词,如hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose等,用过去完成时表示"原本…,未能…" We had hoped that you would come, but you didn't. (6)过去完成时的时间状语before, by, until , when, after, once, as soon as。 He said that he had learned some English before. By the time he was twelve, Edison had began to make a living by himself. Tom was disappointed that most of the guests had left when he arrived at the party.

用一般过去时代替完成时
1) 两个动作如按顺序发生,又不强调先后,或用 then , and , but 等连词时,多用一般过去时。 When she saw the mouse,she screamed. My aunt gave me a hat and I lost it. 2) 两个动作相继发生,可用一般过去时;如第一个动作需要若干时 间完成,用过去完成时。 When I heard the news, I was very excited. 3) 叙述历史事实,可不用过去完成时,而只用一般过去时。

Our teacher told us that Columbus discovered America in 1492.

时间
过去
那时所预见的情况

现在

八、过去将来时
一、基本概念:
它是一个相对的时态,即立足于过去某时,从过去的某一时间看即 将发生的事情就要用这一时态。 1) He said his mother would buy a bike for him 2) My brother told me he wouldn’t believe Jack any

过去将来时表示从过去的某一时间看将要发生的动作或存在的状态。

more.
3) Would it be all right if he knew his illness?

二、基本形式:
would/should+动词原形 (其中 would 用于各种人称, should 常用于第一人称)。 例如: They were sure they would win the final victory. 他们坚信会赢得最后胜利。 He didn't expect that we should(would)all be there. 他没想到我们都在那里。 上述两个例句中的宾语从句谓语 would win 和 should(would) be 分别与其主句谓语 were sure 和 didn't expect 相对应。

三、过去将来时的一些其它表达形式:
1.was/were+going to+动词原形 He said he was going to try. 他说他准备试试。 2.was/were+to+动词原形 They said the railway was to be opened to traffic on May Day. 他们说这条铁路将在五一节通车。 3.was/were about+动词原形 We were about to go out when it began to rain. 我们正要出去天(突然)下起雨来。 4.过去进行时(一般多为动作概念较强的动词,如 go,come, leave,start, open,begin 等)也可用于表示将来。 I didn't know when they were coming again. 我不知道他们什么时候再来。

四、用法注意点:

1.在时间和条件状语从句中,常用一般过去时来表示过去将来时。 例如: He said he would come to see you when he had time. 他说他有时间就来看望你。 2.“would+动词原形”可表示过去习惯性的动作。此时,不管 什么人称,都可用would。 When he was a child he would get up early. 他年幼时,总是很早起床。

考例精练:
1.We were all surprised when he made it clear that he ____ office soon.(MET93) A.leaves B.would leave C.left D.had left 2.— Alice, why didn't you come yesterday? — I ____ ,but I had an unexpected visitor.(NMET97) A.had B.would C.was going to D.did

1. The old man _____ two days after he had been sent to hospital. A. died B. would die C. had died D. has died 2. Old McDonald gave up smoking for a while, but soon ______ to his old ways. A. returned B. returns C. was returning D. had returned 3. I _____ my son _____ a doctor, but he wasn’t good enough at science. A. hoped; would become B. had hoped; would become C. had hoped; will become D. hope; will become 4. I _____ to take a good holiday this year, but I wasn’t able to get away. A. hope B. have hoped C. had hoped D. hoped 5. Helen _____ her key in the office so she had to wait until her husband _____ home. A. has left; comes B. left; had come C. had left; came D. had left; would come

九、将来进行时
(1)将来进行时概念: 表示将来某时进行的状态或动作,或按预测将来会发生的事情。 She'll be coming soon. I'll be meeting him sometime in the future. (2) 将来进行时的用法: a) 表示在将来某一时刻或某段时间正在进行的动作。如: This time tomorrow I shall be flying to Guangzhou. 明天这个时候我将在飞往广州的途中。 What will you be doing at eight tomorrow morning? 明天上午八点钟你将做什么? I hope you won't be feeling too tired. 我希望你不要太累。 We'll be watching television all evening. 我们整个晚上都将看电视。

b) 表示将来被客观情况所决定的动作或者按照安排将要发生的动作。 如: We'll be having tea after dinner as usual. 像通常一样,我们晚饭后将要喝茶。 The leaves will be falling soon. 树叶很快就会脱落。 We shall be having a meeting tomorrow morning. 我们明天要开一个会。 I?ll be taking my holidays soon. 我不久即将度假。 注意:将来进行时不用于表示"意志",不能说 I'll be having a talk with her. (3)将来进行时常用的时间状语: soon, tomorrow, this evening , on Sunday, by this time , tomorrow, in two days, tomorrow evening等。 By this time tomorrow, I'll be lying on the beach.

十、将来完成时
将来完成时用来表示在将来某一时间以前已经完成的动作或一 直持续的动作。经常与 before+ 将来时间或 by+ 将来时间连用,也 可与before或by the time引导的现在时的从句连用。 例如: By the end of this week, I shall have finished the book. 到本周末,我将读完这本书。 By this time tomorrow they will have repaired the machine. 明天这时候,他们将修好这台机器。 The children will have gone to sleep by the time we get home. 到我们回家时,孩子们将已睡了。 When you come tonight at eight o'clock,I shall have written my paper. 你今晚八点钟来时,我将会写完文章了。 By next year our teacher will have taught English for twenty years. 到明年我们的老师将已教二十年英语了。

注意:

将来完成时表示在将来某一时间以前已经完成或一直持续的动 作或状态。使用这种时态时,多会涉及两个动作或状态,一个在前, 一个在后;叙述前面的动作或状态,动词要用将来完成时;叙述后 面的动作或状态,动词要用一般现在时。 We will have completed the work before you come. We will have played ball when you come. (或 when you come, we will have played ball.) He says that he will have graduated from a university before you return home.
By the end of this month, we surely ____ a satisfactory solution to the problem. A. have found B. will be found C. will have found D. are finding The conference ____ a full week by the time it ends. A. must have lasted B. will have lasted C. would last D. has lasted

十一、现在完成进行时的用法

1)表示动作从过去某一时间开始一直延续到现在。现在这个动作可 能已经终止,也可能仍然在进行着。如: I have been waiting for you for two hours. 我等了你两个小时。(动作不再延续下去) It has been raining for three hours. 雨已经下了三个小时了。(动作可能延续) “How long have you been learning English?” “I have been learning English for two years.” 你英语学多久了? ---- 我学了两年了。(动作可能延续) “Why are you so dirty?” “I've been playing football.” 你身上怎么这样脏? ---- 我刚才踢足球了。(动作不再延续下去) 2)有些不能用现在进行时态的动词,如be,have like,love,know, see,hear等,同样也不能用现在完成进行时,而只能用现在完成时。 如: She has been ill for a long time. 她已经病了好久了。 I have not seen you for ages. 我好久没有见到你了。

怎样区别现在完成时和现在完成进行时
现在完成进行时是一兼有现在完成时和现在进行时二者 基本特点的时态。由于它有现在完成时的特点,所以它可以表 示某一动作对现在产生的结果或影响。由于它有现在进行时的 特点,所以它也可以表示某一动作的延续性、临时性、重复性、 生动性乃至感情色彩。 现在就现在完成进行时的这些特点和现在完成时作一简 单的比较:

(1)现在完成进行时和现在完成时皆可表示动作对现在产生的 结果,但前者所表示的结果是直接的,而后者所表示的则是最后 的结果。如:

We have been cleaning the classroom.(a)
We have cleaned the classroom.(b) (a)句可译为“我们打扫教室来着。”其直接结果可能是:我

们身上都是灰。(b)句可以译为“我们把教室打扫过了。”其
结果是:现在教室很清洁,可以用了。又,( a)句表示教室刚 刚打扫过,(b)句则可能表示教室是昨天打扫的。

Be careful! John has been painting the door.(a)
John has painted the door.(b) (a)句表示约翰刚刚把门油漆过,现在油漆还未干,所以你要 小心。(b)句则无此含义,油漆可能已干了。

(2)现在完成进行时有时有延续性,现在完成时往往没有。如: They have been widening the road.(a) They have widened the road.(b) (a)句的意思是他们在加宽马路,但尚未完工。(b)句的意思则 是已完工了。 有时现在完成时有延续性(如一些属于持续体的动词),但无临 时性质。如: Mr. Smith has been living in London since 1978.(a) Mr. Smith has lived in London since 1979.(b) (a)句有“史密斯先生在伦敦久居”的含义,(b)句则没有。

(3)但现在完成进行时并不总是具有临时的性质,如: My mother has been teaching English for twenty years.(a) My mother has taught English for twenty years.(b) (a)句在此并无临时性质,但较口语化。(b)句则较为正式。又, (a)句表示动作现在仍在继续.并将延续下去,(b)句的动作是 否延续下去,须由上下文决定,但在一般情况下都是延续下去的。

(4)现在完成进行时往往表示动作在重复,现在完成时则常常不 带重复性。如: Have you been meeting her lately?(a) Have you met her lately?(b) (a)句有“经常相会”之意,(b)句则没有。(b)句如与often, every day等时间状语连用,当然也表示动作在重复。 (5)现在完成进行时比较生动,有时含有明显的感情色彩,而现 在完成时往往只说明一个事实,一种影响或结果,平铺直叙,没有 什么感情色彩可言。如: What have you been doing?(a) What have you done?(b) (a)句表示惊异。(b)句只是一个问题。 I have been wanting to meet you for long.(a) I have long wanted to meet you.(b) (a)句比(b)句更亲切,更有礼貌。 Recently Mary has been doing her work regularly.(a) Recently Mary has done her work regularly.(b) (a)句显然是在表扬玛丽。(b)只说明一个事实。

下面还有一例,颇为有趣:

Who's been eating my apples?(a)
Who's eaten my apples?(b) (a)句有强烈的感情色彩,表示愤怒不满,(b)句只是希望回答

的一个问题。又,( a)句兼有进行时态,所以有“苹果未被全部
吃光”的意思,(b)句是完成时态,说明“苹果一个不剩了”。

1.He stepped into the office, _____ down and began to fill in the

forms.
A. sitting B. to sit C. sat D. having it 2.She said she would telephone but we _____from her so far.

A.haven’t heard B.didn’t hear
A.has begun A.will finish A.will rain B.had begun B.finish B.rains

C.hadn’t heard D.won’t hear
C.had been on C.am finishing C.is raining C.growing D.was D.finished D.rained D.grew

3.When I got to the cinema, the film____for ten minutes. 4.I’ll go with you as soon as I____my homework. 5.If it_____tomorrow,I won’t go to the cinema. 6.She is going to be a nurse when she_____up. A.is going to grow B.grows

7.“这本书我已经买了三个月了。”,下列哪一句不对? A.I have had this book for three months. B.I have bought this book for three months. C.I bought this book three months ago. D.It is three months since I bought this book. 8.— Come in, Peter, I want to show you something. — Oh, how nice of you! I _____ you _____ to bring me a gift. A.never think; are going B.never thought; were going C.didn’t think; were going D.had’t thought; were going 9.When I was at college I _____ three foreign languages,but I _____ all except for a few words of each. A.spoke;had forgotten B.spoke;have forgotten C.had spoken;had forgotten D.had spoken;have forgotten 10.The police found that the house _____ and a lot of things ____. A.has broken into; has been stolen B.had broken into; had been stolen C.has been broken into; stolen D.had been broken into; stolen

11.The volleyball match will be put off if it____. A. will rain B. rains C. rained D. is raining 12.Mary _____ a dress when she cut her finger. A. made B. is making C. was making D. makes 13.The students _____ busily when Miss Brown went to get a book she _____ in the office. A. had written; left B. were writing; has left C. had written; had left D. were writing; had left 14. — Have you moved into the new house? — No yet, the rooms _____, A. are being painted B. are painting C. are painted D. are being painting 15. — We haven’t heard from Jane for a long time. — What do you suppose ____ to her? A. was happening B. to happen C. has happened D. having happened

16. — Do you know our town at all? — No, this is the first time I _____ here. A. was B. have been C. came D. am coming 17. — We could have walked to the station.It was so near. — Yes, A taxi _____ at all necessary. A. wasn’t B. hadn’t been C. wouldn’t be D. won’t be 18.If city noises _____ from increasing, people _____ shout to be heard even at the dinner table 20 years from now. A. are not kept; will have to B. are not kept; have to C. do not keep; will have to D. do not keep; have to 19.Tom _____ into the house when no one _____. A. slipped; was looking B. had slipped; looked C. slipped; had looked D. was slippping; looked 20.The last time I _____ Jane she ____ cotton in the fields. A. had seen; was picking B. saw; picking C. had seen; picked D. saw; was picking

? 被动语态的构成形式 ? 1. 被动语态的基本时态变化 ? 被动语态通常为十种时态的被动形式, 被动 语态由be+过去分词构成,be随时态的变化而变 化。以do为例,各种时态的被动语态形式为: ? 1) am/is/are +done (过去分词) 一般现在时 ? 例Visitors are requested not to touch the exhibits. ? 2) has /have been done 现在完成时 ? 例All the preparations for the task have been completed, and we're ready to start. ? 3) am/is /are being done 现在进行时 ? 例A new cinema is being built here.

? 4) was/were done 一般过去时 ? 例I was given ten minutes to decide whether I should reject the offer. ? 5) had been done 过去完成时 ? 例 By the end of last year, another new gymnasium had been completed in Beijing. ? 6) was/were being done 过去进行时 ? 例A meeting was being held when I was there. ? 7) shall/will be done 一般将来时

? 例Hundreds of jobs will be lost if the factory closes. ? 8) should/would be done 过去将来时 ? 例The news would be sent to the soldier's mother as soon as it arrived. ? 9)shall/will have been done 将来完成时(少用) ? 例The project will have been completed before July. ? 10) should/would have been done 过去将来完成 时(少用) ? 例He told me that his new clothes would have been made very soon.

? 2. 被动语态的特殊结构形式 ? 1)带情态动词的被动结构。其形式为:情态动 词+be+过去分词。 ? 例The baby should be taken good care of by the baby-sitter. ? 2) 有些动词可以有两个宾语,在用于被动结构 时,可以把主动结构中的一个宾语变为主语, 另一宾语仍然保留在谓语后面。通常变为主语 的是间接宾语。 ? 例His mother gave him a present for his birthday. 可改为 He was given a present by his mother for his birthday.

? 3) 当“动词+宾语+宾语补足语”结构变为被动 语态时,将宾语变为被动结构中的主语,其余 不动。 ? 例Someone caught the boy smoking a cigarette. 可改为The boy was caught smoking a cigarette. ? 4)在使役动词have, make, get以及感官动词 see, watch, notice, hear, feel, observe等后 面不定式作宾语补语时,在主动结构中不定式 to要省略,但变为被动结构时,要加to。 ? 例Someone saw a stranger walk into the building. 可改为A stranger was seen to walk into the building.

? 5) 有些相当于及物动词的动词词组, 如“动词+介词”,“动词+副词” 等,也可以用于被动结构,但要把它 们看作一个整体,不能分开。其中的 介词或副词也不能省略。 ? 例The meeting is to be put off till Friday.

? 二、 如何使用被动语态

?

? ? ? ?

学习被动语态时,不仅要知道被动语态的 各种语法结构,还要知道在哪些情况中使用被 动语态。 1. 讲话者不知道动作的执行者或不必说 出动作的执行者 (这时可省 by 短语)。 例 My bike was stolen last night. 2. 借助被动的动作突出动作的执行者。 例 I was given ten minutes to decide whether I should accept the offer.

3. 为了更好地安排句子。 ? 例The well-known person got on the bus and was immediately recognized by people. (一个主语就够了)
?

? 三、 It is said that+从句及其他类似句型 ? 一些表示“据说”或“相信”的动词如 believe, consider, expect, report, say, suppose, think等可以用于句型“It+be+过去 分词+that从句”或“主语+be+过去分词+to do sth.”。有: ? It is said that… 据说,It is reported that… 据报道,It is believed that…大家相信,It is hoped that…大家希望,It is well known that…众所周知,It is thought that…大家认为, It is suggested that…据建议。 ? 例It is said that the boy has passed the national exam. (=The boy is said to have passed the national exam. )

高考英语中主动表被动现象

一. 主动形式表被动的含义: 1、 Need, want, require(要求,需要), deserve (应 得,值得), be worth (值得),not bear (经不住) 后面 接doing主动表被动。 The book is worth reading. 这本书值得一读。

The old building requires repairing. 这座古建筑需要 修了。 These young seedlings will require/need looking after (=need to be looked after) carefully.? 这些幼苗将需要小心的照管。 Your hair wants/needs cutting (needs to be cut).? 你的头发该剪了。?

2、不定式作定语,放在被修饰词后面,与前面被修饰 的名词或代词有动宾关系,又在句子中与另一名词或 代词有主谓关系,不定式要用主动表被动含义。 I have much work to do. 我有许多要做的事情。 (与work有动宾关系,与I有主谓关系) Tom is looking for a room to live in. Tom在找一间住的房间。 (与room有动宾关系,与Tom 有主谓关系)

He has a family to support.? 他要维持一个家庭。 (与family有动宾关系,与he有主谓关系)

? 3.在too? to?结构中,不定 式前面可加逻辑主语,所以应 用主动形式表示被动意义。 ?例This book is too expensive (for me) to buy.

4、不定式修饰作表语和宾语补足语的形容词时,结构: 主语+系动词+形容词 + 不定式; 动词+宾语+形容词+不 定式。如果形容词是表示难易、利弊等含义,如 difficult, easy, comfortable, convenient, hard, cheap, expensive等,不定式用主动表被动。 The question is difficult to answer. 这个问题很难回答。 The work is easy to do. 这项工作很好做。 I found the car comfortable to ride in. 我觉得这种车很好坐。 That makes poetry difficult to write. 那就使得诗很难写。

5、在be to do sth结构中, 这种结构中的不定式通常应 用主动表被动。下列动词用不定式的主动形式表示被 动意义:?
Who is to blame for starting the fire?? 这场火灾应由谁负责?? You are to blame for the accident. 你应为这事受动责备。 The house is to let. 此房出租。? A lot remains to do. 还剩下许多事情要做。?

6、系动词没有被动形式,但有些系动词常 表示被动意义。常见的有taste(吃起来), sound (听起来), prove(证明是), feel(摸上去 感到), look(看起来),smell(闻起来)等,例如: ? Your reason sounds reasonable.? 你的理由听起来很合理。? Good medicine tastes bitter to the mouth.? 良药苦口。?

? 7. 表示“发生、进行”的不及物动词

和短语,如:happen, last, take place, break out, come out, come about, come true, run out, give out, turn out等以主动形式表示被 动意义。 ? 例 How do the newspapers come out? 这些报纸是如何引出来的呢?

8、一些与can’t (不能) 或won’t (不会) 连 用的动词。常用的有: lock (锁住), shut (关 上) , open (打开), act (上演), write (写), cut (砍,切),wear (穿,戴)等,用作不及物 动词时,用主动表被动。 例如:? The door won’t open. 这门打不开。? It can't move. 它不能动。?

9、英语中有很多动词如sell (销售) , wash (洗), clean (打扫), burn (燃烧), cook (煮) break, catch,drive,lock,open,read,write,等与 副词如well (好), easily (容易地), perfectly (十分 地)等连用 ,描会事物的特性,用主动表被动,结构 是主语+动词+加副词。 主语通常是物。 This kind of cloth washes well The book sells well.?这种书很畅销。? These clothes wash easily.?这些衣服很易洗。 The pen writes well. 这笔很好写。

? 10、在“there be”句型中作主语的定语如 果现在分词时,所用的现在分词要用主动 表被动意义。 ? There is nothing doing these day. 这些天没事干。 ? I see there?s a good idea planning. ? 我知道又在打好主意。

? 介词in, on, under等+名词构成介词短语表被动意义 ? 表示方位的介词与含动作意义的名词合用,含被动之义, 其意义相当于该名词相应动词的被动形式,名词前一般 不用冠词。 ? 1. “under +名词”结构,表示“某事在进行中”。常 见的有:under control(受控制), under treatment (在治疗中), under repair(在修理中), under discussion(在讨论中), under construction(在施 工中)。 ? 例The building is under construction( is being constructed). ? 2.“beyond+名词”结构,“出乎……胜过……、范 围、限度”。常见的有:beyond belief (令人难以置 信), beyond one?s reach(鞭长莫及),beyond one?s control(无法控制),beyond our hope. 我 们的成功始料不及。例The rumor is beyond belief (=can?t be believed).

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3.“above+名词”结构, 表示“(品质、行为、能力等) 超过……、高于……”。 例His honest character is above all praise.=His honest character cannot be praised enough. 4.“for+名词”结构,表示 “适于……、 为着……”。 如:for sale(出售), for rent(出租)等。 例That house is for sale. (= That house is to be sold). 5.“in+名词”结构 ,表示“在……过程中或范围内” 常见的有:in print(在印刷中),in sight(在视野范 围内),等。 例The book is not yet in print.(=is not yet printed)

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6.“on+名词”结构, 表示“在从事…… 中”。常 见的有:on sale(出售),on show(展出), on trial (受审)。 例Today some treasures are on show in the museum (= are being showed). 7.“out of+名词”结构 ; 表示 “ 超出…… 之外“, 常见的有:out of control (控制不了),out of sight (超出视线之外),out of one?s reach(够不着), out of fashion(不流行)等。 例 The plane was out of control (can?t be controlled). 8.“within+名词”结构,“在……内、不超过……”。 例He took two days off within the teacher's permission.

注意:主动语态表被动强调的是主语 的特征,而被动语态则强调外界作用造 成的影响。 ? 试比较:The door won't lock. (指 门本身有毛病) ? The door won't be locked. (指不 会有人来锁门, 指“门没有锁”是人的 原因)
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? 被动语态与系表结构的区别 ? 当“be+过去分词”作被动语态时表示主语承受的动作; 作系表结构时表示主语的特点或所处的状态时,be后 面的过去分词是表语,相当于形容词。其区分办法如下: ? 1.如果强调动作或句中有介词by引导出动作的执行者, 该句一般为被动语态,否则为系表结构。 ? 例The glass is broken. (系表结构) ? The glass was broken by the boy. (被动语态) ? 2.如果句中有地点、频率或时间状语时,一般为被动 语态。 ? 例The door is locked. (系表结构) ? The door has already/just been locked.(被动语态)

Exercises: choose the best choice.

1. There are many good films played by ChengLong that are worth _____. C A. to be seen B. being seen C. seeing D. to see
2. The food _____ A easily and sells _____. A. cooks ; well B. is cooking; good C. is cooked; well D. cooked; good B 3. The windows of the building can?t _____., A. be closed B. close C. be closing D. closed

二、主动形式表被动含义:

一)、不及物动词的过去分词只表完成不表被动,因此 在be + p.p. 的句型中看似被动实际是主动。 例如: be gone The days are gone when China was both poor and backward. 二)、很多时候过去分词都变成了形容词, 因此也是看 似被动实际表主动, 尤其是后边加介词更为多见。 例如: be interested (in…) 类似的动词有:be surprised, be excited, be pleased, be satisfied, be disappointed, be shocked, be moved, be amazed, be frightened, be delighted, be ashamed 等。

三)、某些特殊动词:

1. be seated

= sit down, take one?s seat 就座

Please be seated, ladies and gentlemen. 女士们、 先生们, 请就座. The woman seated by the window is his mother. = The woman sitting by the window is his mother. 这样的动词本来就是及物动词,而且后面可跟反身代词 做宾语.

She seated herself on the sofa.

2. be prepared (for…) = prepare (for…); be ready (for…) )(为…)准备好 She was prepared for anything to happen. 她已 准备好应付一切.

Well-prepared for the exam, all the students took it confidently.
3. be worried (about … ) = worry (about…) 对… 担心 She was worried about her missing son.

= She worried herself about her missing son.

4. be dressed (in…) = wear… 穿着…
She is dressed in red today. Hurry up and get dressed! 快点穿上衣服! 5. be concerned (about/ with… ) = care about…/ be relevant to…/ be about… 关心…; 与…有关联

We are all concerned about his health.
We're all concerned for her safety.

This book is concerned with the adolescent crime.

5. be supposed (to…) = should 应该
Am I supposed to clean all the rooms or just this one? = Should I clean all the rooms or just this one? 6. be devoted to =be loving or loyal 热爱的; 忠实的 She is devoted to her children. 她深爱她的孩子.

Her life was devoted to caring for the sick and needy. 她一生都致力于关心照顾贫病交迫的人。

7. be addicted (to…) = be strongly interested (in…) 对…上瘾 He was addicted to smoking. 8. be used (to…) 习惯于…

After three weeks she had got used to the extreme heat. 9. be accustomed (to…) =be used (to…) 习惯(于….)
I soon got accustomed to his strange ways. 我不久就习惯了他那些奇怪的做法.

Fill in the blanks with the proper form of the given verbs: 1.________( Dressed dress) in white, he looks like a doctor. 2. After _______ staying (stay) here for 1 year, he ________________ is accustomed (accustom) to the hot weather. 3. You _____________ are supposed (suppose) to arrive here before 8 o?clock. 4. You can pass the exam as long as you are well-prepared (prepare, well) for it. ________________ were seated (seat), the 5. After all the people ____________ chairman announced the start of the meeting.

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一、情态动词的特点: 1.没有人称和数的变化。 2. 有些情态动词有过去式的变化: e.g. will → would , can → could , may→ might , dare → dared ? 二、情态动词的否定式: ? 情态动词+ not +动词原形can not: can't , must not: mustn't , need not : needn't

三、情态动词的用法及相互区别, 是考试的内容之一。 1. can , be able to be able to 表示经过努力后, 能够 做到; be able to 有多种形式的变化。 can 1). 表示体力或脑力方面的能力; 2). 表示允许、可能性。 could 是can的过去式, 表示过去有能力及过去存在的可 能性 ; 用于疑问句表示委婉地提出问题。 1) The fire spread through the hotel very quickly but everyone ____ get out. (NMET 97 ) A. had to B. would C. could D. was able to 2) -Will you stay for lunch? -Sorry, __. My brother is coming to see me. (NMET99) A. I mustn't B. I can't C. I needn't D. I won't

2.may 表示询问或说明一件事可不可做; 表示某事有可能发生。might是may的 过去式; 用在疑问中比may委婉、客气。 1) -May I take this book out of the reading-room? -No, you mustn't. ( Yes, you may.) 2) -Might I make a suggestion? Yes, you may.

3. must

1). 表示必须要做的事: 必须 2) 表示很有把握的推断: 一定, 准是。have (has)to : have (has)got to 必须, 不得不。过 去式: had to 3) -Must I get to the station before three o'clock? -Yes, you must. ( No, you needn't. ) 4) I'm afraid you will have to wait a while. 5) She must be in the classroom now. 6) Mary ____ be in Paris, I saw her in town only a few minutes ago. (NMET 94) A. mustn't B. shouldn't C. can't D. may not

(1)must表示“必要”“必须”时,附加部分用 mustn’t…?或者说needn’t…? (2)must用于否定形式mustn’t时,附加问句部分用 may或must。 (3)must表示“推测”意义时,要根据具体情况而 确定。例如: He must know the secret, doesn’t he? 他一定知道这个秘密,不是吗? He must be a teacher, isn’t he? 他一定是个老师,不是吗? You must have seen him off yesterday, didn’t you? 你昨天一定是看见他离开了,不是吗? You must have studied English before, haven’t you? 你以前一定是学过英语,不是吗?

must表示说话人的主观看法,而 have to表示客观的需要; mustn’t表示为“决不能”“禁 止”“一定不要”,而don’t have to表示“不必要”。(英国英语中 常用needn’t)

4. shall 1) 在疑问句中, 用于第一、三人称表示说话人征求对方的意见或 向对方请求。 2) 用于二、三人称,表示说话人给对方的 命令、警告、允诺等概 念。 1) - Shall I place an order with you now? -No, you needn?t. -Shall he turn down the radio a bit? Yes, please. (No, please don't.) 2) You shall have the English book as soon as I finish it. 3) Everything that he owns shall be taken away from him. 4) Your brother seldom comes to see you, ____? A. does he B. doesn't he C. will he D. isn't he 5) It's a fine day. Let's go fishing, ____? A. won't we B. will we C. don't we D. shall we

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5. should 应该 ; 应当 1) You should listen to the doctor's advice. 2) You should study the article carefully. 6. will, would 1) 在疑问句中用于第二人称,表示说话人向对方提出请求或询问。 用would语气更加婉转。 2) will 表示现在的习惯性动作或状态; would 表示过去的习惯性 动作或状态。 3) will 用于各种人称, 表示 意志、意愿、决心、允诺; would 表 示过去时间的 意志、意愿、......。 (1) Don't smoke in the meeting room, ___ you? A. do you B. will you C. can you D. could you -Will you come with me? -Yes, I will. (I am sorry , I can't.) (2) -Would you tell us something about yourself? -Yes, I will. (3) - It's my birthday tomorrow. Don't forget to come to my party. - _____ . A. I don't B. I won't C. I can't D. I haven't

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7. ought to 应该; 应当 1) You oughtn't to smoke too much. 2) She ____ for what she has done. A. ought to praise B. ought be praised C. ought to have praised D. ought to be praised 8. dare 1. dare to come 2. dare come 1) He dare not tell the truth. 2) He doesn't dare to come out at night. 3) I don't know whether he ____ try. A. dare B. needs C. wants D. is allowed

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9. need 1). 作为情态动词:必须 2). 作为实义动词: 需要 A.主语是人 need( to do something ; to be done by somebody) B. 主语是事物 need ( doing; to be done) 1) -Do they need to take any books with them? -No, they don't need to. 2) -Need we buy any new equipment? -No, we needn't. 3) This farm tool needs repairing. This farm tool needs to be repaired. 4) -Shall I tell John about it ? - No, you ___ . I've told him already. A. needn't B. wouldn't C. mustn't D. shouldn't 5) It's a fine day. You ____ take a raincoat with you. A. can't B. mustn't C. needn't D. may not

dare和need作情态动词时不用于肯 定句;作实义动词时不受限制。 used to 表示“过去常干……”,但现 在不干了,常与like, be等状态动词 连用。 would (do)表示“过去常干……”, 但不强调现在如何,并带有赞扬、 厌恶等感情色彩。

(1) Need I…? Yes, you must. No, you needn’t. (2) Must I…? Yes, you must. No, you needn’t. (3) May I…? Yes, you may. (=Yes, certainly/of course.) No, you may not. (=No, you can’t/mustn’t.)

(4) Shall I..? Yes, please. No, thanks. No, you needn’t. (委婉) No, you can’t. (反对) No, you mustn’t. (禁止) (5) Might I…? Yes, you can. No, you can’t.

(1)must have done (语气肯定)“过去一定……” 表示对过去情况极大把握的推测。 I didn’t hear the telephone, I must have been asleep. 我没有听到电话铃声,我一定是睡着了。 (2) should/ought to have done “本来应该……”“按理该……”表示责备,惋惜。 The plant is dead, I should have given it more water. 植物死掉了,我本应该给它浇更多的水的。 (3) may/might have done (语气不肯定) “过去可能……”表推测。

He might have given you more help, even though he was very busy. 他本应可以给你更多帮助,即使他非常忙。 (4) can’t/couldn’t have done (语气肯定) (否定句和疑问句)“过去不可能……” 对过去发生的事的不肯定或怀疑。 He can’t have studied English be fore. 他以前没有学过英语。 (5) could have done 本来能做却未做,表责备。 might have done 本来可以做却未做,表责备。

He could have walked to the station, it was so far. 我们本应走着去火车站,这么近。 (6) needn’t have done 已做了某事,但没有必要。 shouldn’t have done oughtn’t to have done 本来不该做却做了, 表责备,惋惜。 I needn’t have bought the book. 我没有必要买这本书。 Tom ought not to have told me your secret. 汤姆本不该把你的秘密告诉我。

“情态动词+be doing”表推测,“应当正在……可能正 在……”。 They must be waiting for you. 他们一定在等你。 (1)间或此结构可表示“即得,将要”这类意思。 I must be leaving now. 我得立刻离开了。 (2)间或表示老是在做某事。 Why must you always be finding fault with that girl? 你为什么总是和这姑娘过不去?

“情态动词+have been doing”表推测有“应当一 直在……”等含义。 例: They can’t have been working for that long last night. 昨晚他们不可能工作那么久。 Your mother must have been looking for you. 你妈妈一定一直在找你。

形容词 副词

考纲要求
1.掌握形容词、副词的句法功能。 2.掌握形容词、副词在句中的位置。 3.掌握多个形容词的排列顺序。 4.掌握形容词、副词的比较等级。 5.掌握形容词、副词近义词辨析。

形容词和副词的比较等级 1.原级句型

2.比较级句型
3.最高级句型

4.比较级表达最高级意义的句型
5.使用比较级、最高级的注意事项 6.形容词和副词比较等级前面使用冠词的 情况

1.原级句型: 表示双方在程度、性质、特征等某方面相等时, as+原级+as 用______________________ 结构. 表示双方不相等时, not so/as+原级+as 用_______________________ 结构. 表示一方是另一方的若干倍时, 倍数+as+原级+as 用__________________________ 结构 (1) as+形容词+a/an+单数名词+ as (2) as much +不可数名词+as (3) as many +复数名词+as

真题再现 1.John plays football________, if not better than, David. (1994全国) A. as well B. as well as C. so well D. so well as 2.He speaks English well indeed, but of course not ______a native speaker. (2004上海) A. as fluent as B. more fluent than C. so fluently as D. much fluently than 3.Our neighbour has ______ ours. (2003北京) A. as a big house as B. as big a house as C. the same big house as D. a house the same big as

4.With the help of the German experts, the factory produced ______ cars in 1993 as the year before. (1994上海) A. as twice many B. as many as twice C. as twice as many D. twice as many 5.It is reported that the United States uses _____ energy as the whole of Europe. (2004 广西) A. as twice B. twice much C. twice much as D. twice as much

2.比较级句型: 比较级+than 结构. 1.)双方比较,表示一方超过另一方时,用_____________ less+原级+than 结构. 2.)表示一方不及另一方时,用__________________ 3.)表示一方随另一方的程度而变化时, the+比较级,the+比较级 用________________________________ 结构. 4.)不与其他事物相比,表示本身程度的改变时, 比较级+and+比较级 用_________________________ 结构. no+ 比较级+than 结构. 5.)表示两者“都不”时,用 ________________
6.)表示两者中 “较/更……的那一个” 时, the+比较级+of the two… 结构. 用__________________________

真题再现 1. It?s believed that ______you work, _____result you?ll get. (1993上海) A. the harder; the better B. the more hard; the more better C. the harder; a better D. more hard; more better 2. Which is ______country, Canada or Australia? (1992全国) A. a large B. larger C. a larger D. the larger 3.Which do you think tastes________, the chicken or the fish? (1986全国) A. well B. good C. better D. best

4.Of the two shirts, I'd like to choose______ one. (1994上海) A. the less expensive B. the most expensive C. less expensive D. most expensive 5.Although Linda tried hard in the exam, she did ______ than her brother. (2000上海春) A. more badly B. much better C. much badly D. much worse

3.最高级句型: 1.) 三者或三者以上相比,表示最高程度时,用 the+ 最高级+(of/in)结构.这种句式一般常有表示比 _______________ 较范围的介词短语. the least+原级 2.) 表示 “最不” 时, 用 ___________________

真题再现 1.He made the ________mistakes in the dictation exercise. (1985全国) A. less B. least C. fewer D. fewest 2.The salesman showed her several bags and she chose ______one as she didn?t want to spend too much money on it. (1991上海) A. the less expensive B. less expensive C. the least expensive D. least expensive 牛刀小试(见学案)

4.比较级表达最高级意义的句型
(同一范围)

(1)比较级+than + any other+单数名词 all the others any of the others
(不同范围)

anyone (anybody ,anything)else

(2)比较级+than + any +单数名词 all the + 复数名词 any of the + 复数名词

anyone (anybody, anything)

真题再现 1. ---Are you satisfied with her answer? ---Not at all. It couldn?t have been ______. (1997上海) A. worse B. so bad C. better D. the worst 2. ---Shall I give you a ride as you live so far away? ---Thank you._____. A. It couldn?t be better B. Of course you can C. If you like D. It?s up to you 3. How beautifully she sings! I have never heard ________.(1996全国) A. the better voice B. a good voice C. the best voice D. a better voice

5. 使用比较级、最高级的注意事项 注意1.比较级前可用修饰语even, a lot, a bit, a little, still, much, far, yet, by far.千万 不能用very, more, so, fairly, quite.

单句改错 1.It?s more ______ warmer today.

much

2. This problem is a lot of / more difficult than that one. 3. He says that skiing is much exciting than ——— more skating. 4. As a result, people in the modern world generally live much more / longer than people in the past.

真题再现 1.You?re standing too near the camera. Can you move_______?(2000上海) A. a bit far C. a bit of farther B. a little farther D. a little far

2. ---How did you find your visit to the museum? ---I thoroughly enjoyed it . It was _______than I expected.(1991全国)

A. far more interesting B. even much interesting
C. so more interesting D. a lot much interesting

注意2.隐含式比较级 1.I don?t think this film is by far the most boring. I have seen______ . (2006江西) A. better B. worse C. the best D. the worst 2.―Is your headache getting _____? ―No, it?s worse. (2005全国卷III) A. better B. bad C. less D. well 3.If there were no examinations, we should have ________at school. (1994全国) A. the happiest time B. a more happier time C. much happiest time D. a much happier time
牛刀小试(见学案)

注意3. 比较对象要一致
单句改错:

1.Her voice is as sweet as∧a bird. that of 2.My hometown is more beautiful than you. _____ yours
真题再现

There at the door stood a girl about the same height as ____. A. I B. me C. my D. mine

注意4.避免自我比较
1. Everyone knows that Canada is larger than ____country in Asia. A B 2. China is larger than ______ country in Asia. A. any C. other B. any other D. another

6.形容词和副词等级前面使用冠词的情况 ⑴形容词最高级前有时加不定冠词,或不加冠词, 不表比较,表示“非常”。 a most 与 the most ⑵表示“一个更……的人或物” a +比较级 ⑶表示两者中“更……的那一个”时,the + 比较级 ⑷“a+比较级+名词”用在否定句中往往表示最高 级含义.



The +比较级,the +比较级

writing
陈振,我们班一位非常帅的男生,与我们相 处的很融洽。他喜欢唱歌,但更因为打篮球而为我 们所熟知。他擅长英语,令我们惊讶的是,他说英 语和外国人一样流利。然而,他对数学不太感兴趣。 我们希望他更加努力地学习。毕竟,越努力,结果 就越好! 我坚信,你们一定会有一个更加美好的未来。

ChenZhen ,a most handsome boy in our class ,gets on well with others .He is fond of singing ,but he is better-known for playing basketball .He is good at English .To our surprise ,he can speak English as fluently as foreigners.However, he is not interested in maths.We hope he can work harder.After all, the harder you work,the better result you will get.Ibelieve, you will have a better/brighter future.

命题导向

? 1.形容词、副词比较等级的考查依然会是高考考 查重点。但对此点的考查具有“淡化结构,注重 深层语义”的特点。近年来趋向于考查隐含式比 较级。 ? 2.形容词、副词近义词辨析的考查将是高考考查 热点。强调在语境中,选择恰当形容词或副词。 包括形容词、副词惯用法和固定搭配。 ? 3.名词前形容词排列顺序、副词的位置、enough 的位置、形容词作状语也是高考考查常考点。


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