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牛津英语8B Unit 1 Past and present重点难点


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Unit 1 Past and present 重点难点 一、重点词组学习 1.get married 结婚 2. in fact 事实上 3. open space 开阔的空间 4. play with sb. 和某人一起玩 5. feel lonely 感到寂寞 6. from time to time 间或;偶尔 7. go on ho

liday 去度假 8. in service 在使用中 9. not? any more 不在 10. water pollution 水污染 11. in the past 过去 12. dump the waste into the river 把废物倾倒在河里 13. on one’s own 独自 14. used to do sth. 过去常常做某事 15. take action to reduce the pollution 采取措施减少污染 16. know sb./sth. very well 非常了解某人/某物 17. in the north of the town 在镇的北部 18. buy sb. sth. =buy sth. for sb. 为某人买某物 19. market stalls 市场摊位 20. take me to school 送我上学 21. turn into a central park 变成中心公园 22. pollute the river 污染河流 23. a steel plant 钢铁厂 24. see the exhibitions 看展览 25. own a ship 拥有一艘轮船 26. lend sb. sth. = lend sth. to sb. 把某物借给某人 二.重点词汇及句子解析 1. in fact 说“事实” ▲[原文再现] In fact, you have seen it in the sitting room. 事实上,你已经在客厅见过它(轮船模型)了。 ▲[要点解析] in fact 是固定短语,意思是“实际上,事实上”,相当于 actually。它在句中常用作插入 语。如: In fact, she is not a hard-working student. 实际上她并不是一个勤奋的学生。 I said it was Tuesday, but in fact it was Monday. 我说那天是星期二,但实际上是星期一。 2. 多“变”的 turn

中国英语教师网

▲[原文再现] Now, the government has turned the place into a park ... 现在,政府已经把这个地方变成了一个公园?? ▲[要点解析] turn (...) into 意为“(把??)变成”,相当于 change (...) into。如: Our home town has turned into a garden city since then. 从那时起,我们的家乡就变成了一座花园城市。 The water changes into steam. 水变成了蒸汽。 另外,turn A into B 表示“把 A 变成 B”。如: Frost turns water into ice. 严寒可将水变成冰。 He told us that he could turn the stone into gold. 他告诉我们说他能把石头变成金子。 ▲[友情链接] 1. turn 还可以表示“转向??; 往??拐”。 相关短语有 turn left / right“向左/右拐” 和 turn around“转身”。如: He turned around to look at me. 他转过身来看着我。 She told me to turn left at the second crossing. 她告诉我在第二个路口左拐。 2. 与 turn 有关的几组常用短语: turn on 打开 turn off 关掉;脱下 turn up 调高;开大(音量、煤气等) turn down 调低;关小(音量、煤气、灯火等) turn over 把??翻过来 来看几个例句吧: It’s dark. Turn on the light, please. 天黑了,把灯打开吧。 The baby is sleeping. Will you turn down TV? 孩子在睡觉呢,你能把电视机音量关小一点吗? He turned the paper over and found something. 他把纸翻过来,发现了点什么。 3. turn 也可用作名词,表示“(轮到) 机会;轮流”,常用于“It’s one’s turn to do sth.(轮到某人做某事)”结构中;它也可用于“take turns to do sth.”或“do sth. by turns”结构中,表示“轮流做某事”。如: It’s my father’s turn to wash dishes today. 今天轮到爸爸洗碗了。 We take turns to clean the blackboard. (=We clean the blackboard by turns.) 我们轮流擦黑板。 3. “从某种意义上说”in some ways

中国英语教师网

▲[原文再现] Well, in some ways it is. 在某种意义上说是这样的(人们的生活比以前好)。 ▲[要点解析] in some ways 表示“从某种意义/程度上说”。如: In some ways, the Mid-autumn Festival is a traditional holiday. 从某种意义上说,中秋节是个传统的节日。 In some ways, he did help me a lot. 从某种意义上说,他的确帮了我不少忙。 ▲[友情链接] 与 way 有关的搭配有: 1. in many ways / in this way 表示“以某种方式”。如: You can learn English in this way. 你可以用这种方式学习英语。 2. on one’s way to 表示“在某人去??的路上”,要注意 one’s 要与主语保持一致, 并且目的地是副词(如 home,here,there 等)时,要省去 to。如: On his way home, Bill saw a pigeon and found its wing was injured. 在回家的路上,比尔看到一只鸽子并发现它的翅膀受伤了。 3. by the way 表示“顺便说/问一句”。如: By the way, have you seen Susan these days? 顺便问一句,你近几天见到苏珊了吗? 4. all the way 表示“全程;一直”。如: Jack climbed all the way to the top of the mountain. 杰克一直爬到山顶。 4. on my own“全靠我自己” ▲[原文再现] Now, I come to school by bus on my own and my mother has more free time in the morning. 现在,我自己乘公交车上学,而我妈妈早上则有了更多的时间。 ▲[要点解析] on my own 的原形是 on one’s own,意思是“独立地”,相当于 by oneself。它是副词词 组,在句中作表语或状语,其中 one’s 随主语的不同而使用不同的形容词性物主代词。如: I’m (all) on my own today. 今天只有我一个人。 Everyone must finish the work on his own. 每个人必须独立完成工作。 5. [原文再现] We lived together till 1965 when I got married. 我们一直住在一起直 到 1965 年我结婚。 1. married 表示"已结婚的",get married 属于习惯搭配,常用来表示"结婚"这一行为。be married 多用来表示"已结婚"这一状态。如: They got married when they were young.他们很年轻时就结婚了。 Are you married 你结婚了吗? 2. 表示"和某人结婚"、"嫁给某人"时,可用 marry sb. / get married to sb. / be married

中国英语教师网

to sb.来表示。如: She (got) married to a teacher. = She married a teacher. 她嫁给了一位教师。 Will you marry me?你愿意和我结婚吗? Jerry was married to Helen.杰瑞和海伦结了婚。

6. [原文再现] The factory used to dump its waste into the river.过去那家工厂经常 把垃圾排放到那条河里。 1. used to 后接动词原形,通常译为"过去常常、以前常常"。它表示的是过去存在的某种状 态或经常性、习惯性发生的动作或行为,但现在已不再存在或发生。如: Mr Ma used to be a History teacher. 马先生从前当过历史老师。 I used to swim in this river when I was young. 我小时候常在这条河里游泳。 I used to be a waiter, but now I’m a taxi driver.过去我是个招待员,现在是出租车 司机。2. waste 表示"废物、垃圾",是不可数名词。如: Their job was to take the waste from the factory away in trucks. 他们的职责是用 卡车把废物从工厂运走。 These companies planned to dump the waste water into Ottawa River. 这些公司计划 把这些污水倒入渥太华河。 [链接] waste 还可以表示"浪费",既可以作动词,也可以作名词。如: It’s a waste of money and time. 这是金钱和时间上的双重浪费。 Don’t waste time easily .不要轻易地浪费时间。

7. [原文再现] Later, the government realized it was a very serious problem and took action to reduce the pollution. 后来,政府意识到这个问题很严重,就采取了措施来减少 污染。 1. realize 为及物动词,表示"认识到、意识到、了解到"。如: At last, the boy realized he was wrong. 最后,小男孩认识到了他错了。 His family realized the great importance of study, so they sent him to school. 他 们家意识到了学习的重要性,所以他们送他去上学。 2. serious 表示"严重的、严肃的",副词为 seriously。如: Noise pollution now is a serious environment problem. 现在噪音污染是个严重的环境 问题。 He gave me a serious look.他严肃地看了我一眼。 The coach driver was seriously hurt. 长途车司机受伤严重。 3. reduce 表示"减少、降低"。如: The shops have reduced the prices, so it’s a good time to buy many things. 商品 已经降价,所以这是大采购的好时机。 Millions of soldiers have reduced to hundreds. 百万大军只余下几百人。

8. [原文再现] ... and I feel a bit lonely from time to time. ??而且我不时地感 到有一点孤独。 1. a bit 在此为副词词组,意为"有一点",常用来修饰形容词(原级或比较级)或动词,相当于

中国英语教师网

a little。如: We walked a bit fast.我们走得有点快。 She is feeling a bit /a little better than yesterday.她感觉比昨天好一点儿了。 [链接] 1) a little 和 a bit 也都可以用作名词短语。如: I know a little / a bit about Mary.我对玛丽了解一点儿。 2) 两者都可以修饰不可数名词,这时 a little 可以直接接名词;而 a bit 后面需要加 of。 如: Don’t hurry! We still have a little / a bit of time.别急!我们还有一点儿时间。 2. lonely 是形容词,常用作表语,表示"(情感)孤独的、寂寞的";而 alone 表示"(行为)独 自、单独",可用作副词或形容词。如: He lives alone.他一个人住。 Mr Smith felt lonely without friends.史密斯先生因没有朋友而感到孤独。 I’m lonely because I’m alone.我因为独自一人而寂寞。 3. from time to time 表示"不时地;偶尔",相当于 at times 或 sometimes。如: They visit the home page from time to time.他们不时地访问这个网页。 三.重点语法学习 现在完成时 1.结构 现在完成时是由 助动词 have(has)+过去分词构成 其否定句在 have/has 后加 not. 一般疑问句把 have/has 提到主语前. 动词的过去分词: 规则变化(和过去时一样) 不规则变化(见书 P121) (1)表过去发生的某一动作对现在造成的影响或结果,例如 I have just cleaned my clothes. 我刚洗过衣服。 (“洗衣服”是发生在过去的动作,对现在造成的结果是“衣服干净了”) I have just had my breakfast. (对现在的影响:不饿) 通常与表示包括现在在内的时间副词 just(刚刚), already(已经), before, yet(一 般疑问:已经;否定句:还) never, ever 等状语连用 ① I have never heard of that before. ② Have you ever ridden a horse? ③ She has already finished the work. ④ I’ve just finished my homework. ⑤ He has not come yet. (2)表示过去已经开始,持续到现在的动作或状态,也可以表示实质可能继续下去的动作 或状态。通常和 for, since 引导的时间状语连用.以及 so far(至今), by now(直到现 在), these days, in the last ten years 等连用。 ?for + 一段时间; ...since + 过去时间点/ 过去时动词; I haven’t seen her these days. She has learnt English for 3 years/since 3 years ago.

中国英语教师网

They have lived here since 1990. What has happened to the USA in the last 350 years? 注意点一: 现在完成时与一般过去时的用法比较 现在完成时表示过去的动作一直延续到现在甚至会继续下去或表示过去的动作对现在造成 的影响;一般过去时表示动作发生的时间在过去。现在完成时属于现在时态范围,因此,不 能和表示过去的时间状语连用。 如:yesterday, last night, two weeks ago 等 比较: 1。The plane has arrived. 飞机已经来了。 (说明现在的情况:飞机 在这儿) 1。The plane arrived a quarter ago. 飞机是一刻中以前来的。 (强调动作发生的时间在过去) 2。I have taught here for fifteen years. 我在这儿已经教了十五年。 (表示十五年前的动作一直延续到现在,还可能会继续。 ) 2。I taught here for a year. 我过去在这儿教过一年。 (表示“我“现在已经不在这儿任教了) 注意点二: 非延续性动词与现在完成时 非延续性动词就是指动作在瞬间结束,不能持续或延续的动词,又叫瞬间动词或点动词。 比如:leave, arrive, come, go, start, begin, finish, end, join, die, buy, borrow, move, fall asleep, get to know, go out, go away, get up 等. 非延续性动词可以用完成时,但不可以与表示一段时间的状语连用(如 for 3 days, since 1996); 延续性动词就是指动作可以持续进行的动词, 比如:be on, be away, keep, have, live ,learn, study, read, write? 延续性动词可以与表示一段时间的时间状语连用 (for two years, since 1996?) 常见的 “瞬间”动词→“延续性”动词 → “ be +adj. ” 状态短语 瞬间动词与延续性动词的转换 go — be (in) leave — be away borrow — keep buy — have die — be dead get to know — know begin/start — be on finish/end — be over go out — be out get up — be up open — be open catch a cold-have a cold close — be closed come/arrive – be here marry/get married (to)— be married (to) fall asleep/ill — be asleep/ill join the Party — be in the Party/be a member of begin to work/study — work/study 例: 他入党五年了。

中国英语教师网

He joined the Party five years ago . ——He has been in the Party for five years. ——He has been a Party member for five years. ——It is five years since he joined the Party. 电影开始五分钟了。 The film began five minutes ago. ——The film has been on for five minutes. ——It is five minutes since the film began. 注意点三:have been in, have been to 与 have gone to 的用法 1、have (has) been in 表示“在某地(多长时间)”,现在仍在那里。常与表示一段时间 的状语连用。例如: Mr. Brown has been in Shanghai for three days. 布朗来上海已经有三天了。 They have been in Canada for five years. 他们到加拿大有五年了。 2、 have( has) been to 表示“曾经去过某地”, 现在已经不在那里了。 可与 just, ever, never 等连用,例如: I have just been to the post office. 我刚才去邮局了。 Mary has never been to the Great Wall. 玛丽从未去过长城。 Have you ever been to Hangzhou before? 你以前曾经去过杭州吗? have (has) been to 后面可接次数,表示去过某地几次。例如: They have been to that village several times. 他们去过那个村庄好几次了。 3、have (has) gone to 意为“到某地去了”,表示到了某地或正在去某地的途中。总之, 说话时该人不在现场,例如: ----Where is Tom? ----He has gone to the bookshop. 他到书店去了。 Jack Johnson has gone to London. 杰克.约翰逊到伦敦去了。


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