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英语语法状语从句


状语从句用来充当句中状语的主谓结构称为状语从句; 它主要用于修饰句子中的谓语动词,从各个方面来修饰、 说明谓语动词发生时的各种情况。在英文里,状语从句 的位置较活:可以放在主句之前再用逗点与主句隔开; 也可以放在主句之后。 由于它是从各个方面来修饰、说明谓语动词发生时的 各种情况,所以常见的状语从句有九种之多。各种不同 的状语从句所使用的关系词也各不相同。

1) 时间状语从句 常用的关连词有:when(当……时候), whenever (在任何时候), while(当……时候), as(正当 ……时), every / each time(每次), before(在 ……以前), after(在……以后), since(自…… 以来), till / until(直到……), as soon as(一 ……就), the moment(一……就), the minute(一……就), hardly … when(刚……就……), no sooner … than(刚……就……),等

例如: I’ll tell you about it when we meet . 我们见面时,我会告诉你有关情况的。 As he was carrying out the experiment , he found something abnormal . 正当他在做试验时,他发现情况有些不常。 Please eat it while it is hot . 请趁热吃。 It has been more than two years since we parted last time . 自我们上次分手至今已有两年多了。

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要点提示: 1)在含有时间状语从句或条件状语从句的主从复合句 中,如果主句的谓语动词是一般将来时,那么从句的谓 语动词就只能用一般现在时来表示将来时;如果主句的 谓语动词是过去将来时,那么从句的谓语动词就只能用 一般过去时来表示过去将来时。 Tom will tell him the truth when he comes back . 他回来时,汤姆会告诉他事实真相的。 He will not play football if it rains tomorrow . 明天要是下雨,他就不踢足球了。 Tom would tell him the truth when he came back .

2)They were ready to go out when the telephone rang . (这个句子表示主句谓语动作rang发生的突然性 。按常规应该是:When they were ready to go out , the telephone rang .) 就在他们准备出去的时候,电话铃响了。 3)注意till / until在表达方式和意义上的特殊性: until是till的强调形式,但是它们表达的意义是相 同的,都表示“直到某时”。不过,当主句是否 定句时,它引出的意思是“直到(某时)(某动 作)才(发生)” ,这时候常会出现“not until …”的结构,如果将 “not until …”的结构放在句 首,那么主句要写成倒装句。例如:

He didn’t go to sleep until 12 last night . 他昨晚直到十二点钟才睡觉。 They didn’t realize their fault till we pointed it out to them . 直到我们向他们指出了他们的错误,他们才意识到。 Not until we pointed out their fault to them did they realize it . 直到我们向他们指出了他们的错误,他们才意识到。 但是,当主句是肯定句时,它引出的意思是“直到(某时 某动作停止了)” 。例如: The students made much noise till the teacher came into the classroom . 直到老师走进教室学生们才停止了大声喧哗。另外, until 可以放在句首而till则不行。

2)地点状语从句 ? 常 用 的 关 连 词 有 : where ( 在 …… 地 方 ) , wherever(无论在什么地方),等。例如: ? The university graduates are determined to go wherever they are needed most . ? 那些大学毕业生们决心去最需要他们的地方。 They are planting trees where there is plenty of water and sunlight 他们在阳光雨水充分的地方植树。 Where there is will , there is a way . 有志者事竟成。

3)条件状语从句 常用的关连词有:if(如果,假如), unless(除非,要不 ……就不), as long as(只要), so long as(只要) provided (that) (只要),suppose / supposing(假设), on condition (that)(如果),等。例如: I may not come to see you recently unless I can complete the project ahead of time .

除非我能提前完成那个项目,否则我最近不会来看你了。 或者:除非我能提前完成那个项目,我最近才会来看你 了。

We can surely attain our goal as long as we are united as one . 只要我们团结成一个人,我们肯定能实现我们的目标。 What shall we do if we can not get the necessary data? 如果我们弄不到必要的数据,我们怎么办? They promised to let us have a meeting in their office on condition (that) we could keep it clean . 如果我们能保持清洁,他们答应让我们在他们的办公室里 开会。 要点提示: 1.在表示条件的状语从句中,既可以用直陈语气做“真实 条件句”,也可以用虚拟语气做“非真实条件句”。至 于把句子做成哪一种条件句,要依照“有关语法规则” 和“表达意思的需要”而定。(例句省略)

2. 用unless 引导条件状语从句时,要注意这个连词自身在
意义上是否定的:unless = if … not … 。因此,我们在 逻辑上要注意:英文句子的用法和中文句子的译文。特 别是当主句是否定句时,逻辑上的意思就成了“否定之 否定而表示肯定”的情况了。例如: I will not go to their party unless I am invited . (这个句子的实际意义等于:I will not go to their party if I am not invited .这就是说,“我不去参加聚会”的条件 是“我没有受到邀请”。“不去”与“没有受到邀请” 就构成了“否定之否定而表示肯定”的情况了.)假如他 们不邀请我,我不会去参加他们的聚会。

He will finish the work in time unless something unexpected happens .=He will finish the work in time if

something unexpected does not happen .
假如没有什么意外的事情发生,他会按时完成他的工作的。
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3. suppose / supposing这两个词所表达的意义和句法功 能是一样的。它们与其他的引导状语从句的从属连词一 样,引导一个含状语从句的主从复合句。而它们的特别 之处在于:有时由它们所引出的条件状语从句常与主句 分开而独立成句,但其意义和作用还是条件状语从句。 这种情况多数出现在科技文章及某些论文里。例如:

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Suppose no more rain fell into the Atlantic Ocean and no more water was brought to it by rivers .It would take the ocean about 4 ,000 years to dry up .

假如不再有雨水注入大西洋,不再有河水流入大 西洋的话;大约需要四千年的时间大西洋才会枯 竭。 Suppose your statement is right . How are you going to prove it ?假定为你的观点是正确的,你打算如 何证明这一点呢? Suppose this poor girl is yours . We’d like to know how much you know about her . 假设这个可怜的女孩就是你的;我们想了解你知 道多少关于她的情况。

4) 原因状语从句 常用的关连词有:because因为, as由于, for 由于, since既然,由于, now that 既然,由于, not that … but that 不是因为……而是因为……,等。 例如: He can’t deliver his lectures today because he has got a bad
cold .他今天不能去讲课了,因为他患了重感冒。 I may not be able to attend your wedding party not because I’m not willing to but because I’ve been caught by something recently .我或 许无法参加你的婚礼了,不是我不想去而是近来有些事情缠着我 无法脱身。 I won’t dwelt too much time on this matter as it is known to everybody . 由于大家都知道这件事,我就不在这件事上多花时间了。 Since you are busy enough we won’t trouble you any more .既然你们忙

要点提示: 1)关于because , as 和 for 这三个词都是表示原因的连词,其中以because的语气为最 强, 它表示导致某事情发生的“直接原因”;而as和for 则表示某些“间接的理由”。另外,as引导的原因状语 从句可以放在句首,而for则不行。例如: Because it is raining heavily, we have to change our plan to go outing.现在下着这么大的雨,我们不得不改变去郊游的 计划。 As the weather was fine, we decided to climb up the mountain. 由于天气晴朗,我们决定去登山。 She is loved by all for she is kind and pretty . 由于她长得漂亮、人又好而深受大家喜欢。

2)关于since和now that 这两个词在表示原因的时候是近义词,都有表示“既然 ”的意思。但其不同之处在于: ? now that只能以“新发生的情况”作为某事发生的原因 ;而在表示“既然”意思的时候就没有这种限制。例 如: ? Now that the rain is going to stop, we’d better get ready for the afternoon’s match .
(此句中,Now that引出的从句显然是表示“新出现的情况”, 在句子中作“主句动作发生的原因。也就是说,只有在这种情 况下才可以用Now that引导从句,是表示“既然”的意思。) 既然雨要停了,我们最好为下午的比赛作好准备。

Since you’re so interested in English, why not have a try in the English Speech Contest ? ? 既然你对英语这么有兴趣,为什么不试一试参加英语

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5) 让步状语从句 常用的关连词有:though(虽然), although(虽然), as(尽管,虽然), even if (即使), even though(即使 ) , however ( 不 管 怎 样 ) , whatever ( 无 论 什 么 ) , whoever(无论谁), no matter when ( how , what , who , where , which ) [ 无论何时(怎样,什么,谁,何地,哪 个)] , whether … or (不管……),等。例如: Air exists everywhere although we can’t see it.尽管我们看 不见空气,但它却无处不存在。 No matter where you go on the earth, you will feel the gravity.无论你走到地球的什么地方,你都会感觉到地引 力

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We’ll start our meeting on time whether he comes or not. 无论他来不来,我们将准时开会。 Even if we are approaching the end of the experiment, we still have no time to lose. 即使我们即将完成试验,我们依然要分秒必争。 要点提示: 1)在中文里,我们有“虽然……但是”的表达方式 ;英文里though, although都表示“虽然”,but表示“ 但是”;这种情况特别容易误导我们在英文句子里犯 错误:因为though, although与but不能连用。在英文句 子,though, although引导主从复合句,表示“虽然 ……但是”; but引导并列句也表示“虽然……但是” 。例如:

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Although he is old, he is still energetic . (主从复合句,R)尽管他上了年纪却还是依然精力充沛 He is old but (he is) still energetic . (并列句,R)尽管他上了年纪却还是依然精力充沛 Although he is old, but he is still energetic .(W) 2)当as作“尽管,虽然”的意思讲引导让步状语从句时,从句 往往放在主句的前面,而且用作让步的部分总是提前到句首。例 如: Old as he is, he is still energetic. 尽管他上了年纪却还是依然精力充沛。 (表语作为让步的内容,因此提前了。) Try as he might, he couldn’t solve the problem . 尽管他很努力但还是无法解决这个问题。 (谓语提前了.) Much as you suspected him , you couldn’t provide powerful evidence .虽然你 非常怀疑他,但是你却无法提供有力的证据。

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6) 方式状语从句 常用的关连词有:as(如同,按照), as if(似乎,仿佛 ), as though(似乎,仿佛),等。例如: He speaks English almost as a native speaker does . 他的英文几乎说得如讲英语母语的人一样。 He speaks English as if he were a native speaker . 他讲英文的样子似乎象说英语母语的人。 She looked unwell as though she got a bad cold .她看上去 身体不适好像患有重感冒。

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In this reading-room you can read anything as everyone does here .在这间阅览室里,你可以象这儿的每个人一 样想看什么就看什么。 要点提示: as if 或as though引导的方式状语从句中,如果表示真 实情况应该用直陈语气;如果表 示非真实情况则应该用虚拟语气。关于这一点也取决 于说话人的态度、看法。例如: It gets darker and darker in the sky as if it’s going to rain . (表示真实情况,是直陈语气) 天越来越暗了似乎要下雨了。 She speaks as if she knew everything in the world . (表示 非真实情况,是虚拟语气)她说话的样子仿佛似她懂得 天下事。

7) 目的状语从句 ? 常用的关连词有:so that (以便,为了), in order that(为了), lest(以免,以防), in case( 以免,以防), for fear(以免,以防),等。例 如:
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We should do our most in order that we may be able to over fulfill the task .为了超额完成任务,我们应该全力以赴。 You’d better leave your phone number, so that I can call you before I come next time .你最好将电话号码留给我,以便我下次来之前可 以先给你打个电话。 Batteries must be kept in dry places for fear that electricity leak away . 电池应该放在干燥的地方,以免漏电。

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要点提示: 在目的状语从句中,我们可以将这些引导目的状语从句 的连词so that , in order that,lest , in case , for fear分作为 两大部分:表示肯定意思——so that , in order that是“ 为了使……发生”;以及表示否定意思——lest , in case , for fear是“为了使……不发生,(以免,以防)”。 另外,在表示否定意思的目的状语从句中,谓语动词往 往用“should + 动词原形”或“动词原形”两种虚拟句 式。例如: He took his umbrella with him lest it rain . 他带了雨伞,以防下雨。 I’ll keep a seat for you in case you should change your mind . 我给你留个座,没准你会改变主意。

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8) 结果状语从句 常用的关连词有:that(结果,以至),so that (结果 ,以至),so … that(如此……以至) , such … that (如此……以至),等。例如:
. The mountain is so high that she can’t climb it up to the top .那座山 太高了,她无法登上山顶。 It is such a lovely day that everybody feels happy and gay天气这么好 ,人人都感到高兴、快乐。. He overworked too much that he fell ill in bed .他太过分劳累以至生 病而卧床。

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要点提示: so … that 和such … that都是引导结果状语从句的从属连 词,它们都表示“如此……以至”的意思,但其要求的 句型结构不一样:so + 形容词或副词+ that ;such + 名 词+ that 。 例如:He ran so fast that his brother couldn’t catch up with him . 他跑得太快了,他弟弟赶不上他。He is such a naughty boy that he becomes unwelcome in his neighborhood . 他是那么个调皮的孩子,以至在邻里中不受欢迎。 She looks so lovely that everybody can’t help taking a look at her when passing her by .

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她生得太可爱了,从她身边经过的人都忍不住要看她一 眼。

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9) 比较状语从句
常用的关连词有:than(比……), as … as(如……一 样……) , “the +比较级… , the +比较级…”(越……越 ……),等。例如:
Her mother is not as tall as she (is) .她妈妈没有她高. He is taller than his brother .他比他弟弟个高一些。 The more they discover about the brain, the more questions they can’t answer in that area . 他们越多地发现有关人脑的情况,他们就有 越多的问题无法回答。 Computers are playing a more and more important role in our modern society . 计算机在当今社会里起着越来越大的作用。

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要点提示: than和as … as中的第二个as 都是连词,后面若是人称代 词,应该用主格形式。例如: Her mother is not as tall as she (is) . 她妈妈没有她个高。(R) Her mother is not as tall as her. (W) I don’t think that he is taller than I .我并不认为他比我个高 。(R) I don’t think that he is taller than me . (W)

1. The little boy ate a big meal ___ he said he wasn’t hungry. A. if B. though C. because D. as 2. The boy doesn't speak _______ his sister, but his written work is very good. ( A. as well as B. so good as C. more better than D. more worse than 3. If you ____carefully, you ___the report well. A. will listen; will be understood B. will listen; understand C. listen; will understand D. listen; understand

4. The poor man ate a big breakfast______he said he wasn't hungry. A. since B. because C. though D. for 5. -It's time to do your homework, Jack. -Yes, Mum. I'll turn off the TV as soon as the programme___ A. ends B. end C. will be ended D. will end 6. Catherine _____the letter before her mother came into her bedroom A. has written B. was written C. had written D. is writing

7. —Do you know Betty very well? —Yes, she and I _____ friends since we met in Guangzhou last summer. A. have made B. have become C. have been D. have turned 8. Mr Green always tells his daughter a story before she ______ to sleep. A. will go B. went C. is going D. goes 9.— ____ has this food store been in business? —Since 2001 .. A. How long B. How often C. How old D. How soon

C 10. I thought her nice and honest ___ I met her. A. first time B. for the first time C. the first time D. by the first time 11. ___ everybody knows about it, I C don’t want to talk any more. A. For B. Even C. Since D. However

D 12. He ___ to the lab than he set out to do the experiment. A. has no sooner got B. no sooner got C. will no sooner get D. had no sooner got A 13. She found her calculator ___ she lost it. A. where B. when C. in which D. that 14. These wild flowers are so special I would do ____ I can to save them. A A. whatever B. that C. which D. whichever 15. I shall stay in the hotel all day ___ there A is news of the missing child. A. in case B. no matter C. in any case D. nevertheless

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clear.

we will start is not
主语从句

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Black won’t believe that her son has becom a 宾语从句 thief. ? 3. My idea is that we should do it right now. 表语从句 ? 4.I had no idea that you were her friend. 同位语从句

主语从句 连词:that, whether who, what, which, whoever, whatever when, where, how, why. It 的用法 It’ possible/important/necessary/clear… that… …很可能/重要的是…/必要的是…/很清楚… It’ said/ reported… that..据说/据报道… It’s been announced/declared that..已经通知/宣布… It seems/appears/happens.. that…显然、明显、碰巧.. It’s no wonder that…并不奇怪/无疑…

表语从句 作用:对主语进行解释说明。 连词:that, whether,what, who, why等等 as if as though也可以用来连接。
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同位语从句

跟在某些名词后面,对该名词作进一步解释说明。

常用名词有belief, fact, idea, hope, news, doubt, result, thought, information, opinion等等。 Suggestion, suggest order demand wish等 常用连词:that when where why 和how等等。

e.g. 消息传来,拿破仑要来视察他的军队。
Word came that Napoleon would come and inspect his grand army. 问题是他是如何做这件事的。 It’s the question how he did it.

宾语从句:

连词:that, whether,if who, what, which, whoever, whatever when, where, how, why.
e.g. I wonder who you are.

I find it necessary that we should do the homework.
特殊宾语从句:

1. I’m interested in what you are saying.
2. I’m afraid (that) I have to go now.

3. Provided that you had done it, what harm can you see in it?

语序问题

1.The photographs will show you ____ . A. what does our village look like B. what our village looks like C. how does our village look like D. how our village looks like

?2.You

can hardly imagine ______when he heard the news . ?A. how he was excited ?B. how was he excited ?C. how excited he was ?D. he was how excited

3.He asked____for a violin. A. did I pay how much B. I paid how much C. how much did I pay D. how much I paid

用关系词填空
who 1.All of us wonder ____ cleaned the classroom.

2.The fact that he didn’t keep his promise made me ____ very angry. 3. That he is right is certain. ____
that 4.The truth is _____ he has come back. what 5.He asked _____ was the matter.

6.I don’t know whether or not the professor will give us _____
a lecture.
How 7. _____ they went there that evening is not clear What 8. _____ should be done has been done.

单项填空
1.The question is ____the film is worth seeing. C A. if B. what C. whether D. how
2.One of the men held the view _____ the book said was right. A A .that what B. what that C .that D .whether 3.They received orders _____ the work be done at once. D A .which B. when C. / D .that

4.Dr.Black comes from either Oxford or Cambridge , I can’t remember ______ C A. where B. there C. which D. that
5.Energy is _____ make things work. A A. what B. everything C. something D. anything 6.The reason ____ I have to go is ____ my mother is ill in bed. C A .why; why B. why; because C. why ; that D. that; because

7.He doesn’t think the question of _____ they are men or A women is important. A. whether B if C. which D. why

B 8.He often think _____ he can do more for his country.

A. what

B. how C. that

D. which

C 9.It was ordered that all the soldiers _____ to the front.

A. should send C. should be sent

B. must be sent D. must go

1. ______ made the school proud was ___ more than 90% of the students had been admitted to key universities.
? What; because B. What; that C. That; what D. That; because

2

___ she couldn’t understand was ____ fewer and fewer students showed interests in her lessons.
B. That; what

A.What; why

C. What; because D. Why; that 3. Along with the letter was his promise ____ he would visit me this coming Christmas. A.Which B. that C. what D. whether

4. There’s a feeling in me ____ we’ll never

know what a UFO is
A.That B. which C. of which D. what

5. _____ fashion differs from country to

country may reflect the cultural differences from one aspect.

A.What

B. That

C. This D. Which

6The news ____ Lincoln was murdered filled the American people’s hearts with deep sorrow. A. which B. when C. that D. how 7 ____ he said at the meeting astonished everyone present.

A. What

B. That C. The fact D. The matter

8 I don’t trust his promise ___ he will buy me a new car. A. which B. what C. when D. that

9 She received the message ___ he would come by plane.
A. that B. which C. what D. when

10 She received the message ___ you sent her the other day.
A. that B. which C. what D. when

11 ___ is no possibility ___ Bob can win the first prize in the match.

A. There, that
C. There, whether

B. It, that
D. It, which


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