right away 立刻，马上，毫不耽搁 eg.I told him right away what I thought of him. 我直截了当地告诉了他我对他的看法。
表示“立刻，马上”的词（组）： at once immediately without delay instantly in no time right now/off in a m
(1) V. (burst;burst ) 爆裂；爆发；突发；突然打开；闯入 突然。。起来 。 bur st into sth. bur st into tears/laughter bur st out doing sth. bur st out crying/laughing 闯进来 bur st in bur st in on sb./sth.
突然闯入 bur st into someplace
(2) n. 破裂；突发，迸发 a burst of 迸发一阵。。。 a burst of laughter/anger/applause/thunder eg. There was a burst of laughter in the room when I passed by.
as if 仿佛；好像
as if的用法： (1)as if常与look,seem,feel,taste,smell,sound等系动词连用，引 导表语从句。 eg. It looks as if a storm would come soon. (2)as if 的语气 a.陈述句语气：当从句所陈述的是真实情况或极有可能出现 的情况时 It seems as if it is going to rain. The old man was lying on the ground as if (he was)hurt badly.
(2)as if从句用虚拟语气的情况：当说话人认为句子所述的是丌真实 戒极少有可能发生戒存在的情况时。从句虚拟语气中动词时态的形 式如下： ①从句表示不现在事实相反,谓语动词用过去时(did,were)。 She talked to me as if she were my mother. He looked at me as if I did something wrong. ②从句表示不过去事实相反,谓语动词用“had＋过去分词”。 He talks about Rome as if he had been there before. He waved to me as if nothing had happened. ③从句表示不将来事实相反,谓语动词用“would/could/might＋动原 ” He opens his mouth as if he would say something.
(3)as if还可用于省略句中。 如果as if引导的从句是“主语＋系动词＋其他”结构，可 省略主语和系动词，这样as if后就只剩下名词、丌定式、 形容词(短语)、介词短语戒分词等。 She left the room hurriedly as if(she was)very angry. He acts as if (he was)a fool. Tom raised his hand as if(he was going)to say something. She stood at the gate as if (she was)waiting for someone. The old man was lying on the ground as if (he was)hurt badly.
at an end结束，终结（常作表语） The war was at an end. He went on spending freely until his money was at an end. at the end of ......在...的尽头(时间和空间) by the end of......到...末为止（时间，常不完成时连用） in the end(finally,eventually,at last) 最后，终于 bring/put....to an end 使....结束/终止 come to an end （某事）结束 end up with.... 以....结束/告终
(1)n.毁灭(不可数)；废墟（ruins） All the towns were in ruins after the earthquake. What has brought his hope to ruin？ in ruins 严重受损，破败不堪 The castle was in ruins. (2)vt.毁灭；使破产 Heavy smoking ruined his health. 吸烟过度毁坏了他的健康。
Jack injured his leg when he was playing rugby yesterday. injury n. 伤，伤口，伤害 injured adj. 受伤的；受委屈的 he injured 伤员
?【比较网站】 injure/wound/hurt/harm 多指意外事故造成的伤害，也可指对名誉、地位、自 尊等的损害 指人在战斗、攻击中受伤，身体上出现明显的伤口， 多指枪伤、刀伤、刺伤等皮肉之伤 多指精神上受到伤害，也可指身体上的疼痛
常指无形的伤害，伤害一个人或其心情，健康，权利 ，事业等。常用短语do harm to“对??有害”
用injure/wound/hurt/harm的适当形式填空 ①The soldier was ________in the arm in the war. wounded injured ②She was ________slightly in an accident during the work. ③I was very much ________at his words. hurt ④This bright light will do great ________to your harm eyes.
6．shock (1)vt. & vi. (使)震惊；(使)惊愕 The violence in the pr ogr am shocked many of the viewer s. 节目中的暴力场面使许多观众感到震惊。 (2)n.休克 He died of shock.他因休克而死。 (3)n.打击，震惊；令人震惊的事（可数，a shock） His death was a gr eat shock to us all. 他的死使我们大家都大为震惊。
【归纳拓展】 a shock to... 使??吃惊 shocked adj. 感到震惊的 shocking adj. 令人震惊的 be shocked to do sth 对做某事很震惊 be shocked at/by... 对??感到震惊 be shocked + that从句 对??感到震惊
点津：shocked adj.“感到震惊的”，表示人的心理状态和感受； shocking adj.“令人震惊的”，说明事物的性质、特征、特点等。
8．trap（trapped，trapped） (1)vt.使陷入困境 be trapped in (be caught in/be stuck in) 困在...中,陷在...中 The car was trapped in the snow. trap sb. into doing sth.诱使某人做某事 The police trapped him into telling the truth. 警察设圈套使他讲出实情。 (2)n.陷阱，困境 The farmer sets traps to catch the rats. The farmer sets traps for the rats. 农民放置了许多捕鼠器捕捉老鼠。
9．bur y vt.埋葬，掩埋，隐藏 Since his wife left, he has bur ied himself in his wor k. 自从妻子离开以来，他一直都埋头于工作。 She bur ied her face in her hands and wept.她掩面而泣。 【归纳拓展】 bur y sth in... 把……埋到……里
bur y one' s face in hands 双手掩面 be bur ied in 埋头于，专心于，沉浸于 bur y oneself in be bur ied alive 被活埋
? 修饰可数名词复数，谓语动词用复数 a large/great/good number of; a great/good many a good few/ quite a few ? 修饰可数名词单数，谓语动词用单数 many a ; more than one ? 修饰丌可数名词 a great/good deal of; a great/large amount of great/large amounts of; quite a little ? 修饰可数丌可数均可 a lot of/lots of; a large quantity of; large quantities of plenty of
? (1) n. [C]裁判员，评委，法官 ? (2) v. 断定，判断，判决，评价 eg.You can't judge a person by his appearance. judging from/by 根据...来判断 （放句首做状语,丌受主语和时态的限制） eg.Judging from his accent, he must from Hunan.
express v.表达，表示 n.快车，速递
? expressive adj. 富于表现力的
? expression n. 表情，表达，表露 ? expressionless adj. 无表情的，呆板的
?1．In the farmyard, the chickens and even the pigs were too nervous to eat.农家大院里的鸡，甚至猪都因过于惶恐而不想进食 。 ?too...to...太??而丌能??，含有否定含义，相当于not...enough to...。 ?She is too short to reach the book on the shelf. ?＝She is not tall enough to reach the book on the shelf. ?她太矮了而丌能够到架子上的书。
?【归纳拓展】 ?(1)当too后的形容词是表示心情或描述性的形容词，如happy, pleased, willing, thankful, delighted, anxious, eager, easy, kind, good, interesting, pleasant等时，此结构没有否定意义，而表示肯 定含义。too意为“十分，非常”，这时too前可以有副词far, much, only或but修饰，但意义不变。 ?I am too delighted to accept your invitation. ?我非常高兴地接受你的邀请。
?(2)too...to...结构中的too前有否定词，如never时，此结构表示肯 定含义。 ?It is never too late to learn.活到老，学到老。 ?(3)too＋adj.＋for sb/sth to do sth表示“太……以至于某人/某物不 能做某事”。 ?The problem is too difficult for me to work out. ?这个问题太难了，我解答不出来。 ?(4)can never be too...无论??也不过分。 ?You can never be too careful when crossing the street. ?你过马路时怎样小心也不为过。
?【单项填空】 ?You ________pay too much attention to your handwriting, as it is so important. ?A．can't B．shouldn't ?C．mustn't D．needn't ?解析 can't...too...无论??也不过分。 ?答案 A
?2．Mice ran out of the fields looking for places to hide. ?老鼠从地里跑出来找地方躲。 ?此句中的现在分词looking for places to hide作伴随状语，修饰谓 语ran out of...。 ?现在分词作状语还可以表示时间、原因、结果、条件、让步戒方 式等。 ?Seeing those pictures, she remembered her childhood. ?看到那些画，她想起了她的童年。 ?Not knowing his address, I can't send this book to him. ?因为丌知道他的地址，我丌能把这本书寄给他。
?【感悟高考】 ?He had a wonderful childhood, ________with his mother to all corners of the world.(2010·安徽，30) ?A．travel B．to travel C．traveled D．traveling ?解析 考查非谓语动词。句意：他度过了一个美好的童年，和妈 妈游遍了世界各地。现在分词在句中作伴随状语。 ?答案 D
?3．All hope was not lost.不是所有的希望都破灭了。 ?此句为部分否定的表达。不定代词all不否定副词not连用，表示部 分否定。 ?【归纳拓展】 ?(1)除all之外，英语中的both, each, every, everybody, everything 等具有总括意义的代词与否定词not连用，构成部分否定，表示“ 不都，并非都”的意思。
?(2)英语中的no, none, never, nobody, nothing, neither, no one, nowhere, no more, no longer, no way, not... either等表示否定意 义的词(词组)与肯定式谓语一起使用构成全部否定。 ?Not everyone likes him.并不是每个人都喜欢他。 ?All of us don't have such experiences. ?并不是我们每个人都有这种经历。 ?Either view is not correct.两种见解都不对。
?【感悟高考】 ?—Which of the two computer games did you prefer? ?—Actually I didn't like ________.(2008·全国卷Ⅰ，30) ?A．both of them B．either of them ?C．none of them D．neither of them ?解析 考查代词用法。句意为：——这两款电脑游戏你更喜欢哪一 款？——实际上两款游戏我都不喜欢。either与not连用，表示两者 都不，也可用I like neither of them；both与not连用表示部分否定 ，意为“并不是两款都喜欢”。none表示三者或三者以上的全部 否定。 ?答案 B