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虚拟语气表格归纳


状语从句中的虚拟语气
虚拟语气在 if 引导的条 件句中的用法三点: 表示于现在事实相反的 虚拟条件句 表示与过去事实相反的 拟条件句 表示与将来事实相反的 虚拟条件句 从句(条件) If+主语+动词的过去式 (be 用 were) If+ 主语 +had+ 动词的过 去分 词 If+ 主语 +should ( were to ) + 动词原型/动词的过去式 主句(目的

) 主 语 +would(should might)+动词原型 could

主 语 +would ( should could might)+have+动词的过去分词 主 语 +would ( could should might)+动词原型

混合条件句——主从句 时间不一致的情况下的 虚拟语气

有时条件从句中的动作与主句中的动作,发生的时间不一致, 这是动作的形式应根据它所表示的时间加以调整。

含蓄条件句

有时虚拟条件句并没用 if 从句表示出来,而是用介词短语 (otherwise,or,without,but for)上下文或其他方式来表示。 1. 条件暗含在短语中; 2. 条件暗含在上下文中; 3. 虚拟式变为习惯说法,很难找出其暗含的条件。 在 if 引导的表示虚拟的条件状语从句中,有时可以把虚拟条件 中的连词 if 省去,而将 had,should,were 等助动词提到主语 之前。 例:原句:If she were younger,she,would do it. 去 if:Were she younger,she,would do it. 1.表示与现在事实相反或对现在情况有怀疑,谓语动词用过去 式。

条件从句中省略 if 采用 倒装语序的情况

虚 拟 语 气 在 as if/as though 引导的方式状语 从句中

2.表示与过去事实相反,谓语动词用过去完成时。

3.表示与将来事实相反

注意:1.在 as if/as though 句中,如果有可能成为事实,用陈述 语气。例:He looks as if he going to be ill. 2.as though 或 as if 引导的状语从句,从句主语和主句主 语相同时,从句中可省略主语和部分谓语。

虚拟语气用在 lest,for fear that,so that 及 in order that 引导的目的状 语从句中表示“以防, 以免”等意思 由 “ providing ( that ) /provided ( that ) /on condition that/suppose ( that ) /supposing (that) ”引导的条件从 句 “In case”引导的从句 中即可用陈述句,也可 以用虚拟语气

谓语动词多用 should/could/might+动词原型构成

根据情况,1.可以用虚拟语气。 例:suppose/supposing that it rained,we shouldn’t go out. 2.也可以用陈述语气。 例:They are willing to surrender provided they are given free pardon.. (should)+动词原型 例:1.The game will be put off in case it (should) snow. 2.The game will be put off in case it snows.

名词性从句中的虚拟语气
一:宾语从句中的虚 拟语气 1.在动词 wish/holp 后 的宾语从句中的虚拟 语气 对现在情况的虚拟:从句谓语动词用过去式或过去进行式。

对过去情况的虚拟: 从句谓语动词用过去完成时, 或 would, could, might+现在完成时。

对将来情况的虚拟:从句谓语“would/should/could/might+动词原 形” 。

在表示建议,命令, 要求,忠告,等动词 的后面的宾语从句中 的虚拟语气

均以“should+动词原型”表示这种语气, “should”常被省略。

常用的此类动词有: 表示“提议,劝告,建议”的:propose,suggest,recommend,advise. 表示“要求”的:ask,desire, request,demand,require,beg 表示“同意,坚持”的:insist 表示“决定,命令”的:decide,order 注意: suggest,insist 不表示建议或坚持要某人做某事时, 即它们用 于其本意暗示,表明,坚持认为时,宾语从句用陈述语气。

在 expect , believe , think,suspect 等动词 的否定或疑问形式后 的宾语从句中的虚拟 语气

经常用“should+动词原型(或完成形式) ,表示惊奇,怀疑,不 满等情绪。

Would rather , had rather,后的宾语从句 中的虚拟语气

谓语动词用过去式表示与现在或将来相反,用过去完成式表示与 过去事实相反。表示“宁愿做什么”或“对过去做的事的懊悔” 。 注意:1.若某人愿自己做某事,would rather 后用动词原型 2.would rather…..than……中用动词原型

主语从句中的虚拟语气
“ It is(was)+ 形 容 词 (或过去分词) +that….”结构中的虚 拟语气 表达形式为 should+动词原形或省略 should

常用的形容词: natural, appropriate, advisable, necessary, important, urgent,probable,possible,desirable,strange。

注意:在上述所列形容词后面用 that 引出的宾语从句中,谓语动 词也要用虚拟语气。 例:I don’t think it advisable that Tom be assigned to the job since he has no experience.(汤姆缺乏经验,指派他做这项工作我认为是不 恰当的) 在“ It is (was)+ 名词 +that…..” 结构句中的 虚拟语气 表示建议,命令,请求,道歉,怀疑,惊奇等。

这类名词有:advice,decision,desire,demand,idea,order,pity, proposal , recommendation , suggestion , surprise , wish , wonder 等。

表语从句或同位语从句中的虚拟语气

某些表示建议, 请求, 表达形式为 should+动词原型或直接用动词原型。 命令等主观意向的名 词做主语时,其后的 表语从句或同位语从 句需用虚拟语气 这 类 名 词 常 见 的 有 : demand , desire , requirement , advice , recommendation,suggestion,order,necessity,proposal,plan, idea。

在 It is (about/high) time+that 定语从句中的虚拟语气
表示 “该做……..的时 候了” 其动词形式用一般过去时或 should+动词原型

注意:在 this is the first time/ second time that….句型中,从句中谓 语动词用陈述语气完成时态。

If only 引起的感叹句中的虚拟语气
If only 引出感叹句, 意 思 是 “ 要 是 ….. 多 好” , 表示说话人的一 种愿望。 例:If only he didn’t drive so fast!(现在) If only the rain would stop.(将来) Look at the terrible situation I am in !if only I had followed your advice(过去)

高中英语虚拟语气习题精选 1. If I had had enough time, I___ my work. A. would finish B. must have finished C. would have finished D. had finished 2.Ten minutes earlier, they ___ the plane. A. will catch B. would catch C. would have caught D. will have caught 3. Mr Green requires that the students ___ a composition every other week. A. write B. written C. would write D. will write 4.Had he studied hard, he___ the exam. A. would pass B. could pass C. had passed D. would have passed 5.I wish I ___ what is happening there in his room. A. know B. known C. knew D. should know

6.It is important that you ___ sports every day. A. have B. would have C. must have D. will have 7.If there were no water in the world, everything ___. A. will die B. would die C. would have died D. would have been dead 8. ___ what was going to happen, I would never have left her alone. A. Had I known B. If I know C. If I knew D. If had I known 9.He ordered that the work ___ right away. A. should finish B. finished C. would be finished D. be finished 10.—Shall we go to the movie tonight? —No, I'd rather ___ at home with our baby. You'd better not leave it to the babysitter at night. A. you stayed B. you stay C. stayed D. stay 11. ___ in your position, I would help him. A. Was I B. Were I C. If I am D. If I had been 12.I ___, but I was stopped by the heavy rain. A. mean to come B. meant to come C. had meant to come D. meant coming 13.Mrs Black insists___ in that old hotel. A. not to stay B. not staying C. staying not D. that she not stay 14.If you had spoken clearly, you would___. A. understand it B. have understood C. be understood D. have been understood 15. If you ___ that late movie last night, you wouldn't be so sleepy. A. haven't watched B. hadn't watched C. didn't watch D. wouldn't have watched 二、用括号中所给动词的适当形式填空 1.If you (arrive) ten minutes earlier, you could have seen them off. 2.It's time that we (go) to the railway station. 3.If they (not help) us ,our experiment would have failed. 4.You're five minutes late.I suggested that you (come )earlier tomorrow. 5.Mather often tells us that it is necessary that we (drink) a glass of water after w e get up. 6.She insisted that she (send) to work in the faraway small town. 7._________I not (forget) his telephone number, I would have rung him. 8. He is busy now. If he (be) free, he (go) with you. 9. The manager was in his office then. If he (be) here, everything (settle) in a minute. 10.Noisy as it was, he went on reading as if nothing (happen).


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